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Norman Conquest on England the
Words: 2065 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10501753
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Among the practices of the Anglo-Saxon in England before the conquest include, the introduction of their religious beliefs into the country. England became a Christianity practicing nation, as most of the Anglo-Saxons were Catholic Christians. Additionally, their political landscape had the organization of a divided nation, which devolved power to the states, then later the unified state. Therefore, due to this dynamic organization of the states in England, England was the most organized of all states in estern Europe. The country had divisions into shires, which are equivalent of counties and hundreds also called wapentakes (arren et al., p 78). Under these divisions, taxation assessment continued progressively, from hundreds to the shires, then the central kingdom. Tax collection was a duty of the local appointed agents of the kingdom, who after assessing the people, levied them. The tax was in the form of coins, with fresh coins minted three times…

Works cited

Warren Hollister, Robert Stacey, and Robin Chapman Stacey, the Making of England to 1399.

8th edition, Houghton Mifflin, 2000. ISBN 0618001018.

Lacey Baldwin Smith, This Realm of England, 1399-1688. 8th edition. Houghton Mifflin,

2000. ISBN 0618001026.

Leopold in American Earth Leopold Aldo Refers
Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60928077
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In "American Earth," Leopold Aldo refers to the "epidemic of ditch digging and land booming" that represents the "conqueror role" that humanity has played for most of its existence (269). The conqueror role presumes that the human species is entitled to use the earth in any way possible to achieve human ends. It is a mentality that leads to wanton destruction and misuse of land. Natural resources are depleted. Aldo also claims that the "conqueror role" precludes human beings from envisioning the aesthetic or practical functions of wilderness. etlands and marshes are particularly vulnerable, for as Aldo points out, even some environmentalists do not recognize their core value in the ecosystem. I agree fully with Leopold's assessment. For one, I appreciate the author's affection for marshland birds and other flora and fauna. Second, I have also witnessed the fact that the earth is filled with "dustbowls" and "rivers washing…

Works Cited

Aldo, Leopold. American Earth. Retrieved online: 

EPA (2013). "Organic Farming." Retrieved online: 

Suddath, Claire. "The Problem with Factory Farms." Time. Retrieved online:,8599,1983981,00.html 

USDA (2013). Overview. Retrieved online:

Postcolonial Theory on Imperialism JM Coetzee and Edward Said
Words: 1908 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23155856
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Postcolonial Theory on Imperialism

The Strains of Living in a Postcolonial orld

In the wake of Colonialism and Imperialism, much of the world still finds itself in pieces -- unable to remember life before being conquered. hat has resulted is great turmoil in many areas of the world caused by a confusion of cultural identity and a complete lack of national identity. Yet, this move to revive individual cultures has also set off a sharp debate within the field of postcolonial theory; these cultures become protective blankets which then keep nations separated in their own twisted visions. Conquerors such as the United States and Great Britain continue on this bravado of the superior nations who still power over their former colonies. This then results in estern literature romanticizing the East as to reaffirm those chauvinistic beliefs. Thus, the conquered people face a crucial internal dilemma -- adoption into what the…

Works Cited

Bahri, Deepika. "Introduction to Postcolonial Studies." Department of English. Emory College. 1996. Retrieved 9 Dec 2008 at .

McLeod, John. "Postcolonial Fictions of Adoption." Critical Survey. 18(2). 2006. 45-63.

McCormack, Brian. "Postcolonialism in an Age of Globalization: Opening International

Relations Theory to Identities in Movement." Alternatives: Global, Local, Political. 27(1). 2002. 99-136.

Trade from the End of the Axial Age to 1500 C E
Words: 1437 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89606004
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Trade and imperialism brought all the societies of the Near East into contact with one another during the Axial Age so that networks were established and goods and services flowed from society to the other. These networks also facilitated the dispersal of ideas, both religious and philosophical. By the end of the Axial Age, the foundations of Western thought had been laid by the classical philosophers in Greece: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle—and their ideas rooted in the observance of Transcendentals, or ideals, that individuals pursued through the cultivation of good or virtuous habits in their daily lives, spread to the next dominant empire in the West—the Roman Empire. This paper will discuss the transmission of technology, ideas (religious and philosophical), consumer goods, and germs from the end of the Axial Age to 1500 CE. It will also examine the treatment of indigenous people by expanding empires and conquerors as…

De Las Casas Based on
Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 22603074
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3. Who are the various groups of indigenous people? What are some of their customs? How did they receive the Spaniards? What marks of 'civilization' does de las Casas note?

The author refers to the indigenous peoples as Indians, and also as Cacics. De las Casas respects the great diversity among the indigenous people he encounters, even if his impressions seem ethnocentric. For example, the author claims that the indigenous people of Hispaniola are innocent and childlike, and trust the Spanish overlords. He also notes they do not like to work very hard. At times, de las Casas describes the religious idols and practices of the peoples, and also games like juggling.

4. List various specific things that de las Casas uses as examples of Spanish barbarity.

The entire tome is devoted to examples of Spanish barbarity. De las Casas does not hold back when he refers to the brutality…


De las Casas, B. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indes. Retrieved online:

The Face of Between the Native American Pueblo Tribe and Conquering Spaniards
Words: 4031 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81131792
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Native Americans- evisiting the Struggles of 1680

What were the causes of the Pueblo revolt of 1680?

In the year 1680, Native Americans known as the Pueblo revolted against their Spanish conquerors in the American South West (Calloway, 2003). The Spaniards had dominated their lives, their souls and their lands for over eighty years. The Spanish colonists conquered and maintained their rule with terror and intimidation from the beginning when their troops under the command of Juan de Onate invaded the region in 1598 (Countryman 2013). When the natives in Acoma resisted, Oriate commanded that for all men over the age of 15 one leg should be chopped and the rest of the population should be enslaved, setting the tone for what was to be a brutal rule for the next 8 decades. The Pueblo people then rose as one community united by their resolve to unshackle the chains of…


Bolton, H.E, ed. Spanish Exploration of the Southwest, 1542-1706. New York: C. Scribner's Sons; New YorkC. Scribner's Sons, 1916.

Bowden, H. W. "Spanish Missions, Cultural Conflict and the Pueblo Revolt of 1680." Church History, 1975: 217-28.

Brugge, David M. "Pueblo Factionalism and External Relations." Ethnohistory, 1969.

Calloway, Colin. One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark . University of Nebraska Press, 2003.

Bartolom De Las Casas Human Rights Activist
Words: 4008 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99474498
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Bartoleme De Las Casas

An Analysis of the Activism of Bartoleme De Las Casas

Often characterized by modern historians as the "Defender and the apostle to the Indians," Bartolome de Las Casas is known for exposing and condemning as well as exaggerating and misrepresenting the violent practices of Spanish colonizers of the New orld against Native Americans. Marked by emotional polemic and often embellished statistics, Las Casas' voluminous works brought him both support and opposition in his own time. hile being harshly criticized as a threat to Spanish rule in America, De Las Casas was also continually financially supported by the Crown and offered high offices by the Church (Benzoni 48). Though more than four hundred years have passed since his death, the works of this controversial Dominican friar continue to elicit strong reactions from both detractors and defenders -- from both those who condemn him and those who praise…

Works Cited

Adorno, Rolena. "Discourses on Colonialism: Bernal Diaz, Las Casas, and the Twentieth-Century Reader." MLN, vol. 103, no. 2 (Mar., 1988), pp. 239-258. Print.

Alker, Hayward. "The Humanistic Moment in International Studies: Reflections on Machiavelli and Las Casas." International Studies Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 4 (Dec., 1992), pp. 347-371. Print.

Bandelier, Adolph Francis. "Bartoleme de las Casas." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol.

3. NY: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. Print.

Aztec Conquest the Conquest of
Words: 3115 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 69280228
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This new identity provided them with both the symbolic and material means to distinguish themselves from the masses." (Rounds, 74)

This strategy would prove ingenious. The result was such a greater fluidity of trade and transport of goods that though a class system did persist, the connectivity would improve the opportunity for personal acquisition in all classes. Of course, this would not alter the essential nature of society which, in the details pertaining to its sophistication, is shown to have had a clearly structured and enforced inheritance system. To the point, archaeologically consulted "wills reveal a functioning, coherent inheritance system in which the sex of the testator was probably the single most relevant factor in understanding how rights to property were divided." (Kellogg, 314) In a clear ownership and material-based society, the relevance of economic realities under the rule of the Aztec Empire would be significant. To be sure, the…

Works Cited:

Barlow, R.H. 1945. Some Remarks on the Terms 'Aztec Empire'. The Americas, 1(3), 345-349.

Brumfiel, E.M. 1983. Aztec State Making: Ecology, Structure, and the Origin of the State. American Anthropologist, 85(2), 261-284.

Elzey, W. 1991. A Hill on a Land Surrounded by Water: An Aztec Story of Origin and Destiny, History of Religions 31(2), 105-149.

Isaac, B.L. 1983. Aztec Warfare: Goals and Battlefield Comportment. Ethnology, 22(2), 121-131.

Hernan Cortez With the Discovery
Words: 1995 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 53788126
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Soon after, an Aztec general murders several Spaniards from Cortez's band and prove that Cortez and his companions are frauds. Cortez takes Montezuma prisoner and compels him in surrendering the entire empire. The Aztec people choose to disobey their master and than kill Montezuma after he attempts to calm the spirits of the rebellion.

Hearing the news of Cortez's success in Mexico, Velasquez sends an army to arrest the deserter, but most of the men sent to capture Cortez join him after a clash between Cortez's forces and Velasquez's men.

Following several days of skirmish, Cortez enters the capital of the Aztecs once again, with the cost of thousands of lives of native people. After two years of attacks from the Spaniards and their allies, on the 13th of August, 1521, the Aztec king of Guatemoc surrenders his country before Hernan Cortez.

For the following seven years, Cortez remained in…

Works Cited

Marc Ferro, Colonization: A Global History [book online] (London: Routledge, 1997, accessed 11 November 2008), 114; available from Questia,;Internet .

Schmal, John P. 2004. The RISE of the AZTEC EMPIRE. Houston Institute for Culture. Available from Internet, , accesed 10 November, 2008.

William H. Prescott, History of the Conquest of Mexico, ed. Kirk, John Foster, Revised ed. [book online] (Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott, 1891, accessed 11 November 2008), 4; available from Questia,;Internet .

Cortes, Hernan: Introduction." Literary Criticism (1400-1800). Ed. Jennifer Allison Brostrom. Vol. 31. 1, 1996. 2006.  / cortes-hernan, accessed 10, November, 2008

Indian-American Technology Stasis It Is
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53132194
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he introduction of various kinds of technology for the railroad, cattle ranching and mining of gold and silver, and ecological disturbance resulting from agrarianism were among the major factors in the near-extinction of the buffalo. Permanent railroad tracks, the depletion of trees for railroad ties and bridges and the decrease in wild animal population marked the lasting foreign presence in the Native West. Recent estimates revealed that there were 15-60 million buffaloes before the Europeans settled in 1500s. he animal population was severely depleted by the construction of the transcontinental railroad to the Western homeland of Plain Indian tribes. he buffalo was said to have reach near-extinction by the end of the 1870s when it numbered less than 1,000. Rapid American expansion in less than 50 years was behind it and other dismal results to the Continent (Fixico).

IV. Cost: But more and more evidence has been coming up, which…

The Aztecs had a well-structured and highly codified government, led by a very powerful emperor (Birklid 2010). He strictly required taxes from those he conquered. Then distributed land to his people, especially the warriors. The Aztecs became the largest empire in Mexico by 1473 through conquest of neighboring tribes. The capital, Tehnochtitlan, was described as a beautiful city, consisting of pyramids, long floating roads, aqueducts, brisk marketplaces and about a hundred thousand residents (Birklid).

The Aztecs used a 365-day calendar, similar to the one used by the Mayans (Birklid 2010). They used symbols to write and create sentences. Their most important god was white-faced Quetzacuatl, the god of intelligence and creation (Birklid).

They engaged in regional politics and entered into alliances with neighboring tribes, who were also expanding (Birklid 2010). These allies were the Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco, northwest of Tenochtitlan. They had skilled warriors and skilled diplomats. In 1428, they

Alexander the Great There Is
Words: 7146 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79048295
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Instead, while under false arrest and retreating from the Macedonians, Darius was killed by one of his subjects.

ecause the battle at Gaugamela marked the turning point in the battle between the Macedonians and the Achaemenids, it is clear that if Darius was to have been able to defeat Alexander and his troops, he would have needed to do so before the battle at Gaugamela. Therefore, it is important to look at the opportunities that Darius had to attack Alexander and his troops prior to that battle. Looking at those opportunities, it becomes clear that Darius' best chance to defeat Alexander's army would have been to attack Alexander before he had the chance to gain the support of the Greek city-states. To do that in the most successful manner, Darius would have needed to attack the armies of Parmenion and Attalus. This would have permitted Darius to defeat Alexander before…


Darius III," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2005. New York: Columbia University Press. Online. Available from , Accessed June 5, 2006.

The Columbia Encyclopedia is an encyclopedia published by Columbia University and is among the most complete encyclopedias ever produced.

Darius III," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2006. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Online.

Available from Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service

Who Are the Early British People
Words: 1446 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35168663
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The Celts

Celtic history and influence in Britain spanned several centuries: between the 7th and 1st centuries BCE. The Celts originated in Central and Western Europe and they eventually migrated to the British Isles. The Celts would have a huge impact on early British linguistic and cultural development. They would later be considered adversaries of the omans, who successfully dominated and nearly obliterated Celtic culture on the islands. After the downfall of the oman Empire and waning oman rule in Great Britain, Celtic culture enjoyed a small resurgence. However, Druidic religion and culture would be overshadowed by Christianity.

However, the lingering effects of Celtic culture remained strong throughout British history. Celtic influence on British culture focuses on language, weapons, culture, religion, and art. Language and cultural identity are inextricable from Celtic influence, and many Celtic languages are still spoken throughout the British Isles today including Welsh, Manx, and both…


"The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle on Alfred the Great."

Chapter Outlines

Midrash of Alexander the Great
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27579496
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Midrash of Alexander

In the early 330's B.C., Alexander the Great conquered the territory of Judea, the home of the Jews. The Midrash of Alexander describes the interaction between the great conqueror and the Jewish people while simultaneously acting as a learning tool. Alexander's journey through the Holy Land is filled with events that can be used to teach moral lessons: among the topics include such things as honoring God, respecting wisdom, and the meaning of justice.

God must be the focus of a person's life, and this includes great conquerors such as Alexander the Great. hen Alexander first entered Judea the Jews refused to join with him because of their previous pledge to Darius. For their refusal to join his campaign Alexander marched on Jerusalem with the intention of punishing the Jews, however the appearance of a welcoming Jewish population and the high priest Jedua altered his plan. hen…

Works Cited

"Alexander the Great." Jewish Encyclopedia. Jewish Web. 15 Nov.


"I Kings." King James Bible. Web. 15 Nov. 2013.

Chimu Indians the Fifteenth-Century Spanish Travelers Who
Words: 2836 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59889176
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Chimu Indians

The fifteenth-century Spanish travelers who embarked on voyages of discovery and conquest in the Americas expected to encounter primitive savage races. Instead, they found advanced civilizations with intricately designed cities, complex social hierarchies and accurate methods of calculating calendars. But despite this evidence, the Spaniards used the differences between the two sets of cultural beliefs and practices as proof of the inferiority of the Andean civilizations. Because of this backwardness, the Spanish believed that colonization was needed to bring "civilization" to the new world. Susan Ramirez described this Eurocentrism as a "disregard of others' cultures and identities" (Ramirez, 10-11).

This paper applies Ramirez's critique of Eurocentrism by looking at the civilization of the Chimu, a powerful coastal kingdom in Northern Peru. By looking at the Chimu religion and social structure - as evidenced in their ceramic art and in their architecture - this paper posits that the Chimu…

Works Cited

Kubler, George. The Art and Architecture of Ancient America: The Mexican, Maya and Andean Peoples. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.

Leicht, Hermann. Pre-Inca Art and Culture. New York: Orion Press, 1960.

Mason, J. Alden. The Ancient Civilizations of Peru. New York: Penguin Books, 1979.

McIlvee, Rose. "A catacomb of palace/tombs defined ancient Peruvian leaders." (December 4, 1998). Indiana University Homepage. Retrieved November 25, 2002 at

Norman Conquest of England the Consequences
Words: 1614 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6341636
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Norman Conquest of England: The Consequences

The Norman Conquest was a crucial event in the history of England. It was the occurrence of this event that led to further developments in the English Monarchy, as well as with regard to the government. It also influenced the English society and the language ultimately giving England a new perspective. There were numerous events that ultimately lead to the conquest of England. It all started off when, King Knute the mighty reined over England and Duke illiam the Bastard was the Duke of Normandy. England and Normandy had good relations before the conquest occurred, as Aethelred the Unready, was married to a Norman princess, and had fled the country seeking protection in Normandy. His son Edward was born and brought up in France and later his son returned to England to conquer the English throne in 1042. Edward was also known as the…

Works Cited

Van Houts, Elisabeth. The Norman conquest of Anglo-Saxon England, History Today, Oct 1996 v46 n10, p: 9

Baugh, Albert C. & Cable, Thomas. A History of the English Language, 3rd. ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Appleton, 1978, p: 35-36

Van Houts, Elisabeth. The Norman Conquest through European Eyes, The English Historical Review, Sep 1995 v110 n438, p: 832

Ward A.W; Waller A.R; Trent W.P; Erskine J; Sherman S.P and Doren C, Van. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia In Eighteen Volumes, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons; Cambridge, England: University Press, 1907-21, p: 15-17

Theories About the Disappearance of the Mayans
Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54879585
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Mayan civilization mainly built urban centers with the purpose to extend their spirituality. Most of these centers were perceived as means of experiencing a better connection to their gods and as thus being a tool for worship. This makes it difficult for many to understand how the Mayans disappeared, considering that most communities were actually rural and that urban areas were not as populated as villages. However, part of the answer lies with conquerors coming into Mayan cities and disrupting balance there. As a consequence, many communities could not preserve their cultural values as religious concepts had been removed from their lives. These respective groups came to be assimilated while their traditions were forgotten.

The main reason for the disappearance of the Mayan civilization is a cultural clash -- probably one of the most significant in all of history. The European conquerors brought with them a series of concepts that…


Demarest, A. "Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization." (Cambridge University Press, 9 Dec 2004)

"The Fall of the Maya: 'They Did it to Themselves'," Retrieved July 23, 2015, from

Angola as Many of the
Words: 2586 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68138518
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The colonial time however was shaped by international events as well. The Cold War played a crucial role in the development of the Angolan state. Despite the fact that Angola is not a big country in terms of size and population, the battle for influence was related particularly to the strategy of the Cold War and that of the strategic zones in the world.

There are several issues to be taken into account when addressing the perspectives of the society as opposed to that of the government in reference to the future of Angola. The first one is the constant and ongoing civil disruptions over the diamond trade.

The UN sanctions imposed on UNITA, the ones responsible for most of the illegal trade diamond had no consistent effect because the trade embargo was not respected, as the Canadian Ambassador mentioned on one occasion

. In this sense, the social constraints…


African Activist Archive,  (accessed November 23, 2010)

Allafrica.comCampaigning Journalist Scrutinizes Angola's Elites  (accessed November 23, 2010) Angola: UN Relief Official Presses for Probe Into Reported Abuse of Deportees. 201 0  (accessed November 23, 2010)

Brasio, Antonio. Monumenta Missionaria Africana Lisbon: Agencia Geral do Ultramar, 1952

European Expansion to America Being
Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99503767
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Unlike the French, most English and Spanish conquerors believed that it was abnormal for one to worship in any other way that was not Christian. The French managed to live along side of the Huron tribes, making it possible for Huron tradition to exist in the present. In contrast, the Spanish and the English imposed their cultural values on the people they conquered, to the point where they were assimilated and were left with no cultural identity other than the one that was forced on them (Sayre 131).

The aftermath of European expansion in America is still felt today, through the fact that most of the continent speaks English, French, and Spanish, in accordance with the three major nations that conquered territories on the continent. The fact that the Native American population presently living in America is very small in comparison to people of other races is largely owed to…

Works cited:

1. Sayre, Gordon M. Les Sauvages Americains: Representations of Native Americans in French and English Colonial Literature (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997).

Investiture Struggle and Give Its
Words: 1812 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33900392
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Catholics played a main role in some of the first overseas explorations performed by estern European states. ith the purpose of inducing religious thinking into the people they conquered, Europeans brought priests with them. Most conquerors were not satisfied with imposing their religion on others, as they harshly condemned other religions they came across and subjected people worshiping other gods to great suffering.

Unlike the French, most English and Spanish conquerors believed that it was abnormal for one to worship in any other way that was not Christian. The French managed to live along side of the Huron tribes, making it possible for Huron tradition to exist in the present. In contrast, the Spanish and the English imposed their cultural values on the people they conquered, to the point where they were assimilated and were left with no cultural identity other than the one that was forced on them.


Works cited:

1. Dodgshon, Robert, The Age of the Clans: The Highlands from Somerled to the Clearances (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002)

2. Fisher, Linford D. "A Reformation Reader," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44.3 (2001)

3. Morris, Colin, The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991)

4. Parry, J.H. The Establishment of the European Hegemony, 1415-1715: Trade and Exploration in the Age of the Renaissance, 1st ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1961)

Traditional Se Asian Bamboo Flutes
Words: 28549 Length: 95 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 64807002
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Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.

In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.

A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…

works cited:

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Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)

Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received

Gray highlight means writer found this source

Nheengatu A Not-So Dead Language
Words: 2055 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 70925585
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There has, in fact, been a great deal of resistance noted in the use of Portuguese as the sole official language throughout much of Brazil; the huge prevalence of indigenous languages still spoken in many regions of the country is one testament to that fact. In addition, there has been a strong reactionary element against perceived outside influences in the linguistic development of the country. Nheemgatu lies right at the crossroads of these issues, and so has occupied a special place in the public consciousness and in the scholarship regarding language development in Brazil specifically, and with colonization generally (Massini-Cagliari 2004). Examinations of the controversy of Nheengatu as it has played out socially and politically in Brazil reveals that the fervor is just as strong in the desire to hold onto the language as a native remnant as it is to abandon the language as a relic of colonization (Massini-Cagliari…

Works Cited

Dienst, Stefan. "Portuguese Influence n Kulina." In Aspects of Language Contact: New Theoretical, Methodological and Empirical Findings with Special Focus on Romancisation Processes. Edited by Stolz, Thomas; Bakker, Dik; Salas Palomo, Rosa. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 2008.

Massini-Cagliari, Gladis. "Language policy in Brazil: monolingualism and linguistic prejudice." Language Policy 3(1), March 204, pp. 3-23.

Rohter, Larry. "Language Born of Colonialism Thrives Again in Amazon." New York Times. August 28, 2005. ProQuest. October 15, 2009.

What is a dead language? (2009).Wise Geek. October 15, 2009.

Figures of Legend in History
Words: 3464 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 90699573
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Conventional literature would
come to see Cleopatra as an exploitive whore, responsible for the downfall
of virtuous men like the Ptolemies, Julius Caesar and, inevitably, Marc
Antony as well. So is this reported by historical accounts such as that by
Cassius Dio who reflected that "Indeed she so enchanted and enthralled not
only Antony but all others who counted for anything with him that she came
to entertain the hope that she would rule the Romans as well, and whenever
she took an oath, the most potent phrase she used were the words, 'So
surely as I shall one day give judgement [sic] on the Capitol.'" (Cassius
Dio, 39) The argument given here in defining her persona would be the
clear understanding of her imperialist intent, so to say that it had been
always an ambition for this ruler to extend the Egyptian influence to new
heights. The Roman perspective…

Works Cited:

Ashmawy, A.K. (1995). Cleopatra: The Last Pharoah, B.C. 69-30. History
of Alexandria. Online at <>

Burstein, S.M. (2004). The Reign of Cleopatra. Greenwood Publishing

Greek & Persia the Causes
Words: 1469 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51476357
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Except for Miletus, which was sacked as an initiator of the revolt, the other cities were treated rather reasonably, going as far as recommendations for the settled Persians to respect local religious traditions (Herodotus VI 42-45).

This does not necessarily need to be seen only as a reasonable conquering policy, but also as a diplomatic and political approach: once Darius asked for the submissions of mainland Greek cities, many of them accepted, based on the previous behavior of the conquerors in Ionic cities. Athens and Sparta obviously remained aside, but this was also because they were also assuming a regional power status and would not find it calculable to surrender without a fight.

Reasonably enough, though, the Persian invasion could also be seen as a direct consequence in the involvement of the Athenians in the revolt of the Ionic cities and in their attempt to preserve a democracy here and…

Southwest Native Americans Long Before
Words: 1305 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12473728
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Their neutrality across time has granted them with a long-lasting and strong community.

hat is intriguing about the Zuni people is that their language does not resemble any other language of the neighboring Pueblos. Moreover, they are the only people in the world to speak the Zuni language. (Minnesota State University Mankato)

The Pueblo society has usually been ruled in a theocratic manner, with the head of the tribe also being the priest of the tribe. The Zuni community has also been extremely religious and has kept most of its religious traditions to this day. In the Zuni religion, everything in the world is united under one spirit and gods are still present in the lakes of Arizona and New Mexico. (Minnesota State University Mankato)

During a Zuni religious festival the tribe chiefs and the shamans pray together to the gods. Their prayer is intended to praise the gods, which…

Works Cited

Levine, Frances. 1999. Our Prayers Are in This Place. University of New Mexico Press.

2008. The Aztec. American Indian History, Spirituality, & Culture. January 23, 2009)

Hopi. Minnesota State University Mankato. January 23, 2009)

Zuni. Minnesota State University Mankato. January 23, 2009)

Postclassical Period the Norman Invasion
Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 24661503
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Thus, the story of both the battle and the crafting of the tapestry is of historical and personal interest.


Because this movie will emphasize illiam's invasion, it is important that the movie be filmed in England. Both the region where the infamous battle of Hastings was fought, in addition to London, will be major locations in the film. The film will focus on the Norman's impact on English life and culture, in addition to warfare. This can be best emphasized by introductory and final shots at estminster Abbey, where Edward the Confessor was buried and illiam the Conqueror was crowned (Invasion of England n/d).


The two primary characters will be Harold Godwinson, the English heir to the thrown, and illiam, Duke of Normandy, the invader. Generous flashbacks will also include scenes from the life of Edward the Confessor. The groups that need to be represented are the English,…

Works Cited

Ibis Communications, "Invasion of England," Eye Witness to History.Com, , Accessed 27 November 2008.

Medieval-Life.Net, "Medieval Clothing," Medieval-Life.Net, http://www.medieval-, Accessed 27 November 2008.

Phillips, George. 1909. "St. Edward the Confessor," the Catholic Encyclopedia, . Accessed 27 November 2008.

The Middle Ages Web Site, Bayeux Tapestry." The Middle Ages Web Site, , Accessed 27 November

Alexander the Great by Paul
Words: 1664 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67094621
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82). While much of his theories are conjecture, it is quite clear from his Appendix, ibliography, and Notes that he has conducted extensive research into Alexander and his life, and bases his theories on this exhaustive research. His theories may be conjecture, but it is clear he bases them on much historical fact, and so, they are easier to believe.

I feel that the author has included enough new information in the book to make it a worthwhile read, even for those who have read other books about Alexander. In addition, it includes so much other history of the time that it would be useful for anyone doing research into this particular historical epoch. Alexander's life is still legendary today, and I think people will get a bigger picture of Alexander the man and what motivated him by reading this book. It was dry and scholarly at times, but it…

Bibliography, and Notes that he has conducted extensive research into Alexander and his life, and bases his theories on this exhaustive research. His theories may be conjecture, but it is clear he bases them on much historical fact, and so, they are easier to believe.

I feel that the author has included enough new information in the book to make it a worthwhile read, even for those who have read other books about Alexander. In addition, it includes so much other history of the time that it would be useful for anyone doing research into this particular historical epoch. Alexander's life is still legendary today, and I think people will get a bigger picture of Alexander the man and what motivated him by reading this book. It was dry and scholarly at times, but it had enough good information that it was still worthwhile to read. It was not always easy to read, and it was not the kind of book you could race through to the conclusion. It took some concentration to reach the end, but when I did reach it I felt it had been overall a good reading experience.

In conclusion, yes, I would recommend this book to my friends if they were interested in Alexander's life or military history. I felt some of the book was difficult to wade through, and that it would not hold every reader's interest. However, anyone who is interested in Alexander or that period in history would probably enjoy this book. I would not recommend it if this period did not interest you, or you did not enjoy history topics. The book was heavy enough that it would simply be boring if a person were not interested at all in Alexander or his time. I would not call this book light reading, and I certainly would not keep it on my bedside table, but I would certainly keep it on my bookshelf if I were a serious student of Alexander and this period in history.


Cartledge, P. Alexander the Great: The hunt for a new past. New York: The Overlook Press, 2004.

Mesoamerica the History of Mexico
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Atahuallpa was the ruler when the conquistadors arrived. The Spanish were under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro. There were a total of 168 Europeans in this group, and they challenged an empire of 6 million people. The Indians were puzzled by the importance Europeans placed on gold, but avarice was only one of the compulsions pressing the Spanish onward. The Inca empire was still relatively new in the early sixteenth century, and at the time of the arrival of the Europeans, it was undergoing a severe internal crisis, a civil war between two rival heirs for the chieftainship. This dissension facilitated the Spanish conquest. Pizarro negotiated with two factions at once and played them against one another. He captured Atahuallpa and ransomed him. The Spanish collected Atahuallpa's treasure, but they then refused to free him as promised. Instead, they tried him, charged him with usurpation, idolatry, polygamy, and other crimes,…

Works Cited

Coe, Michael D. And Rex Koontz. Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1994.

Coe, Michael D. The Maya. London: Thames and Hudson, 4th ed., 1987.

Davies, Nigel. Human Sacrifice. New York: William Morrow, 1981.

Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Incas. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970.

Cultural and Construction History of
Words: 8066 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21023993
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Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…


1. Cultural Environment

Atrisgerinko, V.A. Origins of the Romanesque. London: Lund, 2005. Print.

Benson, R.E. Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982. Print.

Benson, Robert L. et al. (eds). Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Medieval Academy of America, 1991.

Forgotten Refuges the Conflict Between
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he Jews were initially could not build houses higher than a Muslim. hey could not build new houses of worship and required permission to refurbish old houses. Even when they received the permission the synagogue could not be higher than the nearest mosque. his category of inferiority had political and economic consequences. he result of these actions was the reduction of the opportunities of Jews to attain wealth and power within those communities.

he 1945 riots in Lebanon were merely a window into the types of persecution Jews experienced across the Middle East and North Africa. While the focus was on the Holocaust (1933-1945) which involved European Jews the plight of Middle Eastern and African Jews was largely ignored. he state sponsored violence and destruction of Jews took place across much of the Middle East. Middle Eastern and North African countries were systematically depopulated of Jews. In Egypt in 1944…

The 1945 riots in Lebanon were merely a window into the types of persecution Jews experienced across the Middle East and North Africa. While the focus was on the Holocaust (1933-1945) which involved European Jews the plight of Middle Eastern and African Jews was largely ignored. The state sponsored violence and destruction of Jews took place across much of the Middle East. Middle Eastern and North African countries were systematically depopulated of Jews. In Egypt in 1944 there were 80,000 Jews by 2004 there were 40. In Algeria there were 140,000 by 2004 only 80. In Yemen 55,000 by 2004 there were 100. In Morocco where the largest populations were in 1945 there were 265,000 Jews by 2004 only 5000.

The most challenging consideration is that when 1947 the United Nations produced 101 resolutions dealing with refugees. There was no mention of these Jewish people, they were largely forgotten and seemingly not worthy of mention. For many Jews this is almost an unforgivable incident and it continues to fuel the animosity between the Jews and the Arab world.

Considering the way forward for both Jews and Arabs requires that both groups recognize that there are similarities between the challenges they faced. Additionally, there are common histories which should serve to unite rather than polarize the communities. The forgotten Jews however deserve attention if only because they serve to remind us of the indomitable spirit of an honorable people.

Alexander the Great King of
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Alexander had taken Roxana, a Bactrian princess as one of his many wives, however, his Macedonian officers rebelled at his attempt to force them to intermarry with the Persians and "resisted his Eastern ways and his vision of an empire governed by tolerance," and although there was a mutiny, it was unsuccessful (Alexander Pp).

In 323, while planning a sea voyage around Arabia, Alexander caught a fever and died at the age of thirty-three (Alexander Pp). His generals then began quarreling about the division of rule, and his only son, Alexander Aegus, born to Roxana after Alexander's death, was "destined for a short and pitiful life" (Alexander Pp).

hether Alexander had designs for a world empire is debatable, however, what is true and factual is that he accomplished greater conquests than anyone before him, he simply did not have time to mold the governments of the all the lands he…

Works Cited

Alexander the Great."

The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. 4/22/2004; Pp.

Alexander the Great." pp.

Cartledge, Paul. "Alexander the Great: hunting for a new past?"

Globalization Is Generally Understood to Be the
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globalization is generally understood to be the expansion of businesses and corporations to foreign markets either to expand their consumer base or to utilize a cheap workforce. However, the history of globalization really dates back to colonial and even ancient time periods; when strategic and monetary aims were first being seen from an intercontinental perspective and were usually achieved to increase the power and wealth of the state. Originally, as with conquerors like Alexander of Macedonia, expansion of a more global empire was advantageous for the purpose of simply increasing the land, population, and influence of a single ruling party; riches were plundered and dissenters subjugated. Overall, in ancient times, huge empires were merely expansions of the state. This began to change at the beginning of the colonial period as it was seen as more worthwhile to not formally indoctrinate conquered lands and peoples into the ruling nation. This began…

Works Cited:

1. Brown, D. Clayton. Globalization and America since 1945. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc., 2003.

2. Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1999.

3. Legrain, Philippe. Open World: the Truth about Globalization. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2002.

Mongol Origins of Muscovite Political
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It is not under doubt that the style of Muscovite government as full scale bureaucracy comes directly from the style of division and local governing which was so common to the Mongol empire. Some of the practices which were used heavily in the Muscovite governments of the mid thirteenth century are so like obscure Mongol practices as to be indistinguishable. There is, however, no explanation for this borrowing and no easy explanation why as no sociopolitical texts from the era exist.

In Ostrowski's paper, it is noted that toward the end of the basquaq system of government, many of the Muscovite grand princes made frequent trips to the center of the Mongol empire, staying there in residence for extended periods of time. These visits are chronicled and in fact the Grand Prince Semen traveled to Sarai at least five times during his reign. As was previously noted, many of the…

Traditional Cultures Before Widespread Westernization
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Nevertheless, the remnants of Anglo-Saxon gods can be still heard in the English days of the wee: Tiw, god of war, gave way to Tuesday, Woden, the god of storms, wisdom, and the dead, became Wednesday, and Frige, love-goddess, took berth of Friday. The language of the Saxons is known as Old English and was, before the Germans, based on the runic alphabet. Written literacy was introduced in full with the Christianity brought from the Mediterranean, and was fostered by the Norman ruling class, which oversaw the agricultural, sylvan lives of the early trading Saxons.

Prehistory should be first mentioned since it not only locates the starting point of the historical development of our continent in the Central European cradle or our people," agreed anthropologists in the early half the last century.

The early cultures that populated the nascent Western World were all unique; proximity, difficulty, and a mastery of…

Howie, Elizabeth. "Early Insular Illuminated Manuscripts: Merging of Oral and Literate Cultures." Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. p. 34.

Mead, William R. "The Viking Achievement: A Survey fo the Society and Culutre of Early Medieval Scandinavia." Geographical Review. Vol. 61, No. 4. (Oct. 1971). P. 621.

New Rules for Historical Instruction in Germany." American Anthropologist. Vol. 36, No. 1. (Jan - Mar, 1934.) p. 139.

Psychology & Islam Arabic and
Words: 783 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64519262
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"In Islam...precedent is all. The principles of the Prophet- as divined from the Koran and the approved traditions- are for all time. They can be extended to cover all disciplines." (Naipaul). The Prophet was Arabic, so it follows that those approved traditions are going to be Arabic and that Islam, whether practiced in an Arabic nation or elsewhere, is going to be Arabic at its core. Furthermore, the Prophet indicated his belief that, as generations passed, Muslims would become less devote because of a dilution of faith. (Naipaul). Therefore, it makes sense that anything that could lead to further dilution of faith would be prohibited. In fact, there are several ideas in Islam which have been distorted by culture, which the devout might not be able to recognize as distortions if they were reading an interpreter's translation of the Koran. For example, the Koran's instructions about the burqua condemn male…

Works Cited

Naipaul, V.S. Among the Believers: An Islamic Journey. New York: Vintage Books, 1981.

Wikipedia. "Bible." Wikipedia. 2005. Wiki Media. 1 Nov. 2005 .

Nec Pluribus Impar Not Unequal to Many
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NEC PLURIUS IMPAR (not unequal to many things)

History is written for historians to understand. If Schleiman's Troy had 16 layers to it before finding virgin ground, so is history a layered version written by the State Historian for the Ruler. To be recorded as Official History. ut, like the 20,000 people that may live in a crowd, history, such wise, has 20,000 versions. For each life is sacred. And each existence original.

The historical context of the ten given sources span from Africa to the Americas to China. In the 15th Century, this was right at the end of Umayyid rule, circa 1492 with the fall of Granada in Spain and the Mongol invasion in 1362 in Persia. In between in Europe, was the beginning of the Renaissance (1560). It was the end of the Dark Middle ages of the Occident and the beginning of the Dark Ages of…


Campbell, Sir Robert. Louis XIV. London: Longmans, 1993.

Daniell, Charles Thornton Forester and F.H. Blackburne. The Life and Letters of Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. London: C. Kegan Paul and Company, 1881.

Mettan, Roger R. Government and Society in Louis' XIV's France. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1977.

Spence, Jonathan D. Emperor of China. New York: Alfred A. Knopff, 1974.

French Russian War
Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 51724863
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Russian Soldier


French/Russian War

As in every decisive point of war, so I have come about once more to add to the glory of the French Empire. The Grande Armee is ready for battle, and we are to cross Neman shortly on the morrow. Poland must not fall to the Russians, and if needs be, we shall show the Russian emperor our true force; the force of the French army in her magnificent glory.

No other empire could have hoped to grow as largely as France, not Alexander the Great, not even Caesar's Roman Empire. No, it shall be a glorified and united Europe, and I shall see my reforms through. No ancient imperial order should stand in the way of revolution. Certainly Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette fared the worst for their mistreatment of the Jacobins during the Reign of Terror. And if I have to fight…

Alexander's Execution of His Trusted General Parmenion
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Alexander's execution of his trusted general Parmenion and his son Philotas, and how it affected the remainder of Alexander's life, and his reign.


Alexander the Great was born sometime around July 20th, in 356 .C., the son of Philip II of Macedon and Olympias, in Pella. As a child, the great philosopher and scientist, Aristotle, tutored him. His father was murdered in 336 .C., and Alexander took the throne at the young age of twenty. He was one of the greatest conquerors in history, taking over Greece, Persia, Egypt, and part of India before he died. "He was not yet twenty-six. In six years he had won greater victories than any hero in Greek history had won in a lifetime, and he had done it, at several turning-points, in the teeth of all advice from his generals and Companions" (urn 175).

He considered himself a relative of…


Burn, A.R. Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Empire. New York: Macmillan Co., 1948.

Editors. "Alexander the Great." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2000.

Untereker, Jed, Kossuth, James, and Kelsey, Bill. "The Great Homepage of Alexander." Williams College. 1996.

Broken Spears The Aztec Account of the
Words: 2657 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44674332
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Broken Spears: he Aztec Account of the Conquest of America, edited by Miguel Leon-Portilla (Beacon Press, 1992).

Broken Spears tells the Aztec peoples' account of the Spanish conquest of Mexico.

hroughout history, the conquest has been told from the viewpoint of the conquistadors -- the Spanish victors. Broken Spears was the first book to tell the story of the conquest from the Aztecs' perspective.

It was originally published in Spanish (in 1959), and was only published in English in the year 1962.

he book begins a few years before the conquest by telling of the Aztecs' perceived omens of the conquest, and the remainder of the book gives a chronological account of the conquest.

he primary impetus of the book is not historical data gathering but, rather, is of the storytelling and human emotion behind the Spanish conquest.


Hernando Cortes' army arrived in Mexico in the early 16th century…

The Myth of La Malinche: From the Chronicles to Modern Mexican

Theater," thesis submitted to the Faculty of Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Rosario Perez-Lagunes (2001), located online at .

The Conquest of Mexico," by Peter Rashkin, located at .

Hernando Cortez the Story of Hernando Cortez
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Hernando Cortez

The story of Hernando Cortez, who conquered the extraordinary Aztec peoples, is a story of many facets. Cortez is called the "Conqueror of Mexico." In some sense his story is indeed the story of a remarkable soldier and commander, one who conquered a new world against all odds. In another sense, his story is the story of Europe and its very mixed feelings about the Americas.

The Europeans struggled with their ambivalence about the new world of the Americas. Fantasies about Mesoamerican peoples were often invented -- they were viewed as heathen tribes, and history has told the story of the Aztec peoples with great bias at times, unwilling to embrace them as a complex society. "It was not easy or comfortable for Europeans to fit the incredible news of entirely unknown lands, peoples, empires, souls, gold, into their intellectual horizon. America became, for centuries, a 'strange new…


Soustelle, Jacques. Daily Life of the Aztecs, on the Eve of the Spanish Conquest

Stanford University Press, 1970

Leon-Portilla, Miguel; Davis, Jack Emory. Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Nahuatl Mind (Civilization of the American Indian Series, Vol 67. University of Oklahoma Press, 1990

Carrasco, David. City of Sacrifice: Violence From the Aztec Empire to the Modern Americas Beacon Press, 2000.

Alexander the Great Western Civilization Has Wide
Words: 1068 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59934789
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Alexander the Great

Western civilization has wide range of historical aspects and it encompasses civilization of ancient Rome, ancient Greece and a Judaic civilization. A civilization is said to exist from Stone Age until today, ranging from China to Egypt, Mesoamerica and Africa.

Alexandros III (356-323 B.C.), Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, was one of the greatest military geniuses in history. e conquered and governed civilizations of that time, ruled by his great desire to conquer the world and thus laid the foundation of universal world monarchy.

Arrian describes Alexander, as a great leader, always leading his army in enthusiastic way. e was first leader and conqueror who reached Greece, Egypt and Asia. e always led best military formation of the time, the Macedonian Phalanx, which was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. Alexander created ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered populations,…

He was considered an excellent king, general, and conqueror. His innovative empire assisted and improved the way of life in his kingdom in many ways. Victorious conquest of vast area of land stretched Greek traditions and language far and wide and immensely affected western civilization.

Apart from the given source, following site was consulted:

Popovic, J.J. Alexander the Great Macedon. Accessed from World Wide Web:

Military Strategies Employed by Alexander the Great
Words: 1866 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82746280
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military strategies employed by Alexander the Great and how he was able to skillfully use his political and military skills in conquering most of Europe and Asia in his time.

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon reigned as the king of Macedonia from 356-323 B.C. He was born to King Philip and his third wife, Olympias in July 356 BC in Pella, Macedonia. He is remembered as one of the greatest military genius in history. During his lifetime, he conquered much of world, since his main ambition was to conquer the world and create world monarchy.

Alexander, was the strong, handsome commander leading his army using the best military strategies of his time. His army was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. He was the first great conqueror to invade Greece, Egypt, and India. He was popular for creating ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered…


Arrian. Campaigns of Alexander, The (~90-172 A.D.)

J.F.C. Fuller. Generalship of Alexander the Great (1958)

J. Keegan. Mask of Command, The (1987)

Lisa Jardine, Worldly Gods: A New History of the Renaissance (London: Macmillan, 1996) pp. 67-68

Facts About Ecuador
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Ecuador is a South American nation on the northwest Pacific coast of the continent. It is bordered by Colombia and Peru, and its territorial waters in the Pacific include the famous Galapagos islands. Historically the region has been defined by two major empires: the Inca and the Spanish. The Inca empire was based in Cuzco, located the south of Ecuador in present-day Peru, and eventually by the fifteenth century the Inca would conquer much of present-day Ecuador, which was at the time inhabited by a confederation of smaller indigenous tribes, who fought annexation by the Inca. The native peoples were thus assimilated into the Inca empire, and adopted the language of the Inca, known as Quechua. At the time of the Spanish conquest, the Inca presence in Ecuador was fairly recent, but it of course led to the introduction of the language of the colonists. As Hurtado describes it the…

Works Cited

Czarnecki, Lukasz; Balleza, Erik; and Saenz, Maya. Poverty and Inequality in Ecuador, Brazil and Mexico after the 2008 Global Crisis. New York: Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, 2014. Print.

Hurtado, Osvaldo. Portrait of a Nation: Culture and Progress in Ecuador. Trans. Barbara Sipe. Lanham, MD: Madison Books, 2010. Print.

Sawyer, Susan. Crude Chronicles: Indigenous Politics, Multinational Oil, and Neoliberalism in Ecuador. Raleigh: Duke University Press, 2004. Print.

Conquest of the Inca Empire
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Francisco Pizarro: The Conqueror of the Inca Empire

The Inca Empire was a vast tract of territories that stretched up and down the western seaboard of South America. It was connected by roads through the Andes Mountains to the capital of Cuzco in Peru. Pizarro and his men made friends with natives in these territories who were tired of the civil war between the ruling brothers of the Inca Empire. ith their help and the help of the in-fighting of the Incas (as well as his own cunning and trickery) Pizzaro was able to gain control of the Emperor, capture him and execute him and his top general. In this manner Pizarro gained control of the capital of the Empire. But control of the vast fortune made his friend Almagro jealous and Almagro attempted to seize the fortune by laying siege to Cuzco after an exploration southward ended in…

Works Cited

Hemming, J. The Conquest of the Incas. NY: Harcourt Brace, 1970. Print.

Leon, P. The Discovery and Conquest of Peru. Durham: Duke University, 1998. Print.

Prescott, William H. The History of the Conquest of Peru. NY: Dover Publications,

2005. Print.

New World Empires Aztec Empire
Words: 1744 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73663994
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Aztec Empire

The Aztecs, who referred to themselves as Mexica, were a powerful tribe of people speaking the Nahuatl language. They founded one of the biggest empires in Central America which is believed to have lasted from the 1300s to the 1500s. One of the most renowned cities of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan; this city was located in the middle of a lake where the present-day capital of Mexico, Mexico City, now stands (Johnson, 2015).

The Aztec empire was begun in the Valley of Mexico. When the Aztecs came upon the valley, they found that other tribes were already there. These tribes had occupied the best land for agriculture in the region. The Aztecs moved on to the swampy and less attractive lands on the shores of Lake Texcoco. Despite not having much to begin with, the Aztec were not bothered. The Aztecs were not only a very ingenious…


ATWOOD, R. (2014). Under Mexico City. Archaeology, 67(4), 26.

Berdan, F.F. (1988). "Principals of Regional and Long-Distance Trade in the Aztec Empire," in J. Kathryn Josserand and Karen Dakin (Editors), Smoke and Mist: Mesoamerican Studies in Memory of Thelma D. Sullivan, part ii, pp. 639-656, British Archaeological Reports, International Series vol. 42, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.

Deal, T.E. And Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Duran, D. (1967). Historia de Las lndias de Nueva Espana, 2 vols (ed A.M. Garibay K.). Mexico City: Pornia.

Culture Behind Americans at War
Words: 5158 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82646531
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American Way of War

The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…


Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.

Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,


Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.

What Does Ligeia Represent for the Reader
Words: 1448 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42158073
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Ligeia and the Theme of Reincarnation

That the narrator of "Ligeia" is one who is frequently called "unreliable" by critics is nothing new (Sweet, Blythe), as he is an admitted opium addict, often susceptible to hallucinations in which he would imagine the lost Ligeia. Like the maddened narrator of "The Raven" sorrowing for his "lost Lenore," the unreliable narrator of "Ligeia" tempts the reader to doubt the transformation of Rowena into the narrator's lost love by reason of his habit of indulgence in the opium drug. Indeed, the night of his vigil is not without his cup of mind-altering elixir; therefore, the literal minded critic would suggest that it cannot be stated with any certainty whether the Ligeia whom he sees in Rowena is real, hallucinatory, or a result of reincarnation. There is, however, plenty of evidence to suggest that a close reading of the text gives enough clues for…

Works Cited

Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick. NY: Barnes Nobles, 2008. Print.

Poe, Edgar Allen. "Ligeia." Web. 5 Feb 2016.

Poe, Edgar Allen. "The Raven." Bartleby. Web. 5 Feb 2016.

Sweet, Charlie; Blythe, Hal. "Teaching the Unreliable Narrator in Ligeia." Eureka

Comparing Beowulf to Anglo Saxon
Words: 1098 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22600136
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embedded values within the eowulf and Anglo-Saxon communities through their fundamental belief systems. In particular, it seeks to uncover the underlying similarities as also the divergence apparent in the cultures by addressing the implication of embracing the Christian religion to the Anglo-Saxon successors who followed the traditional belief in Norse gods by the Germanic ethnic group and the culture of a heroic fighter that are still living under extremely risky circumstances. This paper uses the epic 'eowulf' to highlight the correspondence between the two cultures.

The writer of this poem was unenlightened, Anglo-Saxon and of the Christian faith. He used the character of eowulf to talk about the factors regarding culture and Christ, which still affect us. The writer strives to bring out the similarities between Christ and eowulf through concerted effort: From eowulf's simple "baptism," his assumed demise at a time the poet called "ninth hour," followed by his…


Bobr, J. (n.d.). A Comparison Between the World of Beowulf and Modern America. Retrieved from 

Hawkins, P. (2016). How do you compare and contrast Beowulf and Grendel from the "Beowulf" epic? Retrieved from Quora:

Williams, D. T. (2007). Review of "Beowulf." Retrieved from Modern Reformation:

Islam developing trade routes in Africa and Asia
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Spread of Islam in Africa and Asia Along Trade Routes

The Islam religion spread in Asia and Africa mainly due to trade of such goods as spices, gold, as also due to slaves. The advantages of proximity with the greatly profitable and powerful traders of the Islam religion triggered the conversions of merchants and rulers' into Muslims. Islam spread slowly; it took centuries, but in most places where the conversion took place, people still hold on to the religion (Debrouse). This paper explores the reasons of spread of Islam religion along Asian and African trade routes, particularly centering on the success of Islam in Middle Asia.
Early Trade Connections

Since the era of Muhammad, it has been believed that trade is closely related to the religion as well as its development. Inmecca, the people of the Qurayshtribe were leaders in business. They extended their connections and influence to Syria and…

Ruddiman Plows Annotation of W F
Words: 4273 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67526396
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He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.

Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.

Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…

Machiavelli's The Prince According the
Words: 1395 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66898049
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According to Machiavelli, there are several different characteristics that must be exhibited to include: balanced generosity, compassion, honesty and the ability to listen to only select advisors. When looking at the first characteristic, balanced generosity, this means that a leader can not be too generous with the citizens. Otherwise, they will expect this generosity at all times, the moment that the leadership must increase taxes and have other financial burdens on the citizens, is when they will turn on them. This can affect the stability of the state, where the revenues generated from taxes are used to provide various services to the citizens. During times of crisis, the government may not have the funds necessary to fight wars or other situations that can come out of nowhere. While doing the opposite, being to frugal, will result in resentment from the citizens. This is because of the lack of services that…


Machiavelli, N. The Prince. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Print.

Society as if it Were
Words: 4861 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78890187
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New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).

Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).

After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…

REFERENCES (1999). Retrieved March 27, 2010, from SPQR Online:

Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East. (2001). Retrieved March 28, 2010, from 

The European Voyages of Exploration. (2001). Retrieved April 5, 2010, from the Applied History Research Group: 

Mummies and Mummification. (2003). Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Digital Egypt:

Dismissal of Objectivity and Truly
Words: 792 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32494691
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The authentic morals behind what are genuinely considered justice, also symbolized by the Tao, are shifting. Man consumes himself here by selfishly yet blindly carrying on as a conqueror mindlessly on a mission as opposed to a team-player. Men are falling away from the standard of justice, the Tao, to a new class of man, one that has claimed everything and will conquer himself.

Man has found ways to defy gravity, generate specific life, and try to conquer death; this is what leads man to strive toward conquering nature, and trying to conquer nature is what makes man conquer himself. Lewis explains this, accordingly, as man deceiving himself. With these scientific advances over nature becomes a "power exercised by some men over other men with nature as their instrument." This is leading to man's domination of some men over other men. These attitudes result in a loss of values and…

Civil War Battle Winning the
Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39251585
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He was put in a difficult position, since "Lincoln and the Republicans could not tolerate for long the presence of the most famous Rebel army on Northern Soil" (Gallagher 127). Meade himself "arrived upon the battle-field at one in the morning, pale, tired-looking, hollow-eyed, and worn out from want of sleep, anxiety, and the weight of responsibility" (Rhodes 672). He proceeded to lead with a commitment that matched that of his older, more experienced adversary.

ith significantly less troops at the outset of the battle, the North turned the tide of the war in their favor. They achieved this with patient and careful decision-making. Meade, to his credit, "decided to await attack, and if he had studied closely the character and history of his energetic adversary, he might have been almost certain it would come" (Rhodes 672). As in many other instances in life, the choice of when to be…

Works Cited

Gallagher, Gary W. Three Days at Gettysburg: Essays on Confederate and Union Leadership.

Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 1999.

Rhodes, James Ford. "The Battle of Gettysburg." The American Historical Review 4.4 (1899):

Property Chapter 1 Deals With
Words: 2730 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54099729
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The delivery of the deed and the warranties of title are all notions being presented in this chapter.

Chapter 11 discusses notions related to the title assurance, starting with the basic information pertaining to the recording system. The chapters introduces the basic, common law rule, which is that a grantee who was prior in time prevailed over one subsequent in time. The chapter continues by defining the several types of recording acts ("race" statutes, "notice" statutes, "race-notice" statues) and to the process of recordation, as well, as the effects of recordation and the requirements for this process.

The second part of this chapter refers to title registration. This is a process that is separate from the recording system and is currently used only in a couple of states. This type of approach does bring several potential issues, mainly claims of defects in conclusiveness. This is argued both with the defect…

Management History of Management of
Words: 2610 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 39689124
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This differentiation refers to the management and administration of the agricultural resources of the kingdom. This in turn involved an organized network of royal foundations. (Wilkinson 116) the second area of administrative concern was the processing of government revenue and "…its redistribution to the various state operations…" (Wilkinson 116) Wilkinson in his book also deals extensively with managements issues in relation to the Egyptian treasury. (Wilkinson 125)

In understanding the background to management in ancient Egypt one has to continually take into account the wide range of concerns and activities that required ordered control and administration. As Erman states in his work Life in Ancient Egypt (1894), "The enormous properties belonging to the temples required of course complicated machinery for their administration & #8230;certain members of the priestly college were deputed to manage the affairs of the treasury, the commissariat and the correspondence…" (Erman 303)

Taking into account the above…

Postwar Japan Women Education and
Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 20743234
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And it cannot be denied that there is evidence to support that concern in many respects. But for women, it would help to open certain pathways to personal advancement. According to Mackie, "the women's liberation movement developed out of a critique of modern Japanese capitalism, a dissatisfaction with the sexism of the New Left, and the need of women in Japan to theorise their place in East Asia." (p. 4)

Among the forces that would significantly aid in their ability to establish any such identity would be the new set of doors opened by the shift in Japan's educational principles. The goals of modernization and capitalist advancement -- which would ultimately call for more opportunities for women to make contributions -- would demand an emphasis on education in the evolving state of Japan. So would this be demonstrated by the policies on this front which passed into law concurrent with…

Works Cited:

Mackie, V. (2003). Feminism in Modern Japan: Citizenship, Embodiment and Sexuality.

Wikipedia. (2010). Fundamental Law of Education. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.

Howard Zinn 1922-2010 Was One
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80532324
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A new "revisionist" movement, sometimes epitomized by historians like Howard Zinn, seeks to correct these historical errors and treat the Amerindian cultures in a more balanced, less Eurocentric, fashion (See, for example: Troura; Restall).

The crux of this piece, Zinn's Chapter 1 of a People's History of the United States, focuses on the great civilizations which populated Meso and South America long before the Spanish arrived. The Toltec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca were the predominant cultures who had reigned in the area at least 3500 BCE, with most of the advanced and classical periods of their civilizations from 200-1200, and experiencing a decline from 1200 to the Spanish Conquest. While our understanding of the nature of the Amerindian classical civilizations is skewed due to so much material being destroyed by the Spanish, we do know that for several hundred years before Cortes landed there had been a great deal of…

Move Frida and the Mexican Culture in Which She Lived
Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23429942
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Move Frida and the Mexican Culture in hich She Lived

Julie Taymor's "Frida" is (in addition to a biography of the Mexican painter Frida Kahlo) a motion picture offering insight in Mexican culture and of the Central American society in general. The movie depicts the life of Frida Kahlo and how it was influenced by the fact that she was Mexican. The action in the script is contributed by characteristic Latin music in creating a perfect image of Mexico. Frida's tumultuous life along with the eclectic cinematic formulas succeeds in making the movie a hallmark of Mexican culture.

The movie displays Mexico in the first half of the twentieth century in an accurate manner. From the very first scene, when the camera pans on a typical Mexican garden, the public is without doubt expected to relate to a Mexican way of life. The animals and the vegetation are all characteristic…

Works cited:

1. Nevins, Joseph Operation Gatekeeper: The Rise of the "Illegal Alien" and the Making of the U.S.-Mexico Boundary (New York: Routledge, 2002).

2. Frida. Dir. Julie Taymor. Miramax Films, 2002.

3. "FRIDA KAHLO: PUBLIC IMAGE, PRIVATE LIFE A SELECTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND LETTERS at NMWA July 6, 2007 -- October 14, 2007." Retrieved June 30, 2010, from the National Museum of Women in Arts Web site:

Spanish Atrocities in the New
Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39158815
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The Spanish oyal Crown officially declared that the only salvation possible for the native populations was to accept their opportunity to adopt Christianity. In fact under a concept known as equerimiento, the Spaniards were required to give the native people a "fair" opportunity to do just that before they disposed of them as savages instead of respecting them as human beings created in God's image. As Eurocentric a concept as equerimiento was, even that edict was routinely ignored by Columbus's men (Schwartz, 2000; Stannard, 1993). They enslaved men, rapes women, and murdered children virtually at will. They imposed "quotas" of minimum amounts of gold ore to be collected daily and imposed penalties of mutilation and death, often depending on whether or not their victims survived after having limbs hacked off as a message to their companions and their communities that the Spaniards were deadly serious about expecting them to find…


Schwartz, S.B. (2000). Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of Conquest

of Mexico. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Stannard, D. (1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. New York:

Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Little