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Two of them are recommended agents of STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection) or HIV transmission prevention: dental dams and condoms
Centchroman is a "Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, or SERM. It causes ovulation to occur asynchronously with the formation of the uterine lining, preventing implantation of a zygote. It has been widely available as a birth control method in India since the early 90s, marketed under the trade names Centron® and Saheli®. It is not legally available anywhere outside of India, and it is not in the process of becoming available in the United States" (Birth control, Wikipedia, 2006) intrauterine methods- women that are looking for a birth control method that they can use and forget it may want to consider the IUD. This intrauterine device is a simple form of birth control that has very few side effects and can be used for 10 years. The use is popular with women…
Potts, Malcolm and Campbell, Martha, (2002),History of Contraception, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 6, Chp. 8
Birth control, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
Langley, L.L. (1973), Contraception, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg
Contraception, ith Statistical Analysis
Contraception is the name for those medical strategies employed to prevent a woman from becoming pregnant after sexual intercourse. It can be broken down according to the strategy employed: these strategies are loosely called Barrier methods, Intrauterine devices, Hormonal methods, Surgical methods (also known more commonly as "sterilization") and finally Behavioral methods. I will give a quick survey of what these different strategies entail, noting the most common or popular methods within each category, as enumerated in Trussell's (1998) statistical survey of contraception. I will then discuss these individual methods in a little more detail, noting not merely the medical "safety" (measured in terms of risks or contraindications, and also measured according to the statistical analysis by Trussell which I have reproduced at the end of this work as Figure 1.)
Barrier methods are the simplest mechanical means of preventing a sperm cell from fertilizing an…
American Psychological Association (February 23, 2005). "Based on the research, comprehensive sex education is more effective at stopping the spread of HIV infection, says APA committee." Press release.
DiCenso A, Guyatt G, Willan A, Griffith L (2002). "Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomised controlled trials." BMJ 324 (7351): 1426.
Ecochard, R.; Pinguet, F.; Ecochard, I.; De Gouvello, R.; Guy, M.; and Huy, F. (1998) "Analysis of natural family planning failures. In 7007 cycles of use," Fertilite Contraception Sexualite 26(4):291-6.
Hilgers T.W. And Stanford J.B. (1998) "Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology for avoiding pregnancy. Use effectiveness," Journal of Reproductive Medicine 43(6):495-50.
The morality of their behavior does not depend on mere sincere intention and motives only. They need to consider external criteria, which involve the person and his acts, which must include mutual self-giving. Human procreation must remain within the context of true love. This would be possible only within the confines of married chastity with sincerity of heart. Periodic continence or non-performance of the sexual act can regulate conception the natural way. It is based on self-observation and the use of infertile periods. These conform to the objective criteria of morality and allowed by the Church for married Christian couples. They respect the bodies of the spouses, encourage warmth and tenderness for each other and enhance authentic freedom. In contrast, every act in anticipation of the conjugal act or of its accomplishment, which is the development of its natural consequences, whether as an end or as a means, to making…
Bruce, Iaian S. AIDS and Condoms: the Issue Splitting the Roman Catholic Church. The Sunday Herald: Newsquest Media Group, May 7, 2006
Feuerherd, Joe. Roman Catholic Church's Position on Contraception. National Catholic Reporter, November 21, 2003
Mueller, Steven P., ed. Called to Believe, Teach and Confess. English Standard Version. Crossway Bible, 2001
Reference and Education. Bishops Move to Tighten Adherence to Church Teaching Against Contraception and Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Unions. Christian Century: The Christian Century Foundation, November 23, 2003
contraception in accordance with your needs is associate with physical and mental well-being throughout the lifespan.
Although the argument can be made that people are never truly ready to have children, it is clear that timing is everything for humans when it comes to reproduction. Unplanned teen pregnancies create a vicious cycle of welfare motherhood that is difficult to break unless contraception is used to prevent these pregnancies in the first place. Using contraceptives responsibly can clearly contribute to the mental well-being of single young people who enjoy sex but do not want the lifelong responsibility of children yet. It is reasonable to suggest that a single young mother with three or four screaming babies and infants will not enjoy the same level of mental and physical well-being at their peers with no children, and the demands associated with raising these children to adulthood never really go away entirely but…
Contraception Education for Child-bearing Women Who Speak Primarily Chinese or Cantonese and receive GYN Services at a private OB/GYN Outpatient Clinic
Introduction to the Practice Problem
Contraception use varies between people. Often time there is a link between education and proper contraception use. At the private OB/GYN Outpatient Clinic, women are receiving verbal education on contraception use as there exists no language or culture barrier due to the homogenous nature of the staff and patients. Patients may require additional materials to understand proper contraception use.
Some contend verbal education of contraception use may not be enough regarding contraception counseling. EBP standardized contraception counseling allows for the use of cue cards and the option of giving a booklet or pamphlet for patients to take home. This is a great means of providing verbal and visual education that will provide further reinforcement of information learned.
Description of Current Practice
References Generated for Medical Citation Styles by EndNote, Mendeley, RefWorks and Zotero. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 43(1), 57-66. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2016.09.001
Lee, S., Lee, S., Liao, Y., & Wang, A. (2015). Effects of Audio-Visual Aids on Foreign Language Test Anxiety, Reading and Listening Comprehension, and Retention in EFL Learners. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 120(2), 576-590. doi:10.2466/24.pms.120v14x2
Sheriar, N., Joshi, R., Mukherjee, B., Pal, B., Birla, A., & Ray, S. K. (2014). Impact of structured counseling on the selection of hormonal contraceptive methods: results of a multi-centric, observational study in India. J Obstet Gynaecol India, 64(4), 241-50.
Proper contraception usage is one of the most important factors towards improving patient outcomes in the obstetrics and gynecology setting. The search of evidence in existing literature has demonstrated that contraception use differs among patient populations while there is a strong link between education and proper contraception use (Gosavi et al., 2016). The existing evidence has also shown that healthcare providers in the obstetrics and gynecology setting utilize various teaching tools to provide education to patients on contraception use. The teaching tools range from verbal education to visual education like cue cards and pamphlets for patients to take home and further reinforce information communicated in the clinic (Lee, 2014). However, there is need for additional materials and strategies for patients to understand proper contraception use. In essence, while the use of various teaching tools helps in enhancing patients’ knowledge, proper contraception usage requires the use of better strategies. Such strategies…
Albarracin, D., Johnson, B.T., Fishbein, M. & Muellerleile, P.A. (2001, January). Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior as Models of Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 127(1), 142-161.
Alessandri, G., Zuffiano, A. & Perinelli, E. (2017, March 2). Evaluating Intervention Programs with a Pretest-Posttest Design: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 223. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5332425/
Campol Haynes, M., Saleh, M., Ryan, N., Winkel, A., & Ades, V. (2015). Contraceptive knowledge assessment: Validity and reliability of a novel contraceptive research tool. Contraception, 92(4), 413.
Dimitrov, D.M. & Rumrill, P.D. (2003). Pretest-posttest Designs and Measurement of Change. Work, 20, 159-165.
Gosavi, A., Ma, Y., Wong, H., & Singh, K. (2016). Knowledge and factors determining choice of contraception among Singaporean women. Singapore Medical Journal, 57(11), 610-615.
Prolonged use of oral contraception before a planned pregnancy is associated with a decreased risk of delayed conception.
Alexandra Farrow, M.G.R. Hull, K. Northstone, H. Taylor, W.C.L. Ford, and Jean Golding.
Publication Date: 2002
To determine whether or not prolonged use of oral contraceptives is associated with a greater difficulty in becoming pregnant or a delayed conception upon making the decision to become pregnant.
The sample consisted of 8497 planned pregnancies, or couples who were expecting the birth of a child. Participants were recruited over a 21-month period. The sample was drawn from an area in south-west England.
The study employed a prospective design in which participants completed questionnaires at 18 weeks of gestation. Questionnaires included details about parity, paternity, co-habitation, oral contraceptive use, smoking and alcohol status, educational achievement, height, weight and the amount of time it took for the couples to conceive.
The results of the study…
Technology and politics analytic reflection: MDG
What is the MDG that can be met through technological development, innovation or implementation?
One of the millennium development goals of the UN is to improve maternal health. This goal does not simply encompass reducing childhood mortality rates but also means increasing access to contraception and other aspects of women's health such as sanitary napkins, women-specific healthcare and even education, given that increased levels of education have been linked to lower birthrates and the improved status of women ("Goal 5," 2015; Martin & Juarez 1995).
What is the technological artifact and how does it meet the MDG you identified?
One technological artifact which could have a major impact upon women's lives is that of the condom. Condoms can both act as an effective forms of birth control when used correctly and are also extremely helpful in fighting STDs. A new company, L. Condoms, has…
Family planning. (2013). UN Fact sheet. Retrieved from:
Gammon, K. (2014). A new condom to keep the developing world having safe sex. Fast Company. Retrieved from:
National Vital Statistics Reports 54(2). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Hamilton, B.E., Martin, J.., Ventura, S.J., Sutton, P.D., and Menacker F. Births: Preliminary Data for 2004. National Vital Statistics Reports, 54(8). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Ages 40 and older
SOURCES: ( http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/xls/POP7b.xls ) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System. Ventura, S.J. And Bachrach, C.A. (2000). Nonmarital childbearing in the United States, 1940-99. National Vital Statistics Reports, 48(16). Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Ventura, S.J., Menacker, F., and Park, M.M. (2002). Births: Final data for 2000. National Vital Statistics Reports, 50(5). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Ventura, S.J., Menaker, F., Park, M.M., and Sutton, P.D. (2002). Births: Final data for 2001. National Vital Statistics Reports, 51(2). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Sutton, P.D., Ventura, S.J., Menacker, F., and Munson, M.L. (2003). Births: Final data for 2002. National Vital Statistics Reports, 52(10). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Sutton, P.D., Ventura, S.J., Menacker, F., and Munson, M.L. (2005). Births: Final Data for 2003. National Vital Statistics Reports 54(2). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Hamilton, B.E., Martin, J.A., Ventura, S.J., Sutton, P.D., and Menacker F. Births: Preliminary Data for 2004. National Vital Statistics Reports, 54(8). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
5 mg of levonorgestrel each. The first dose is taken within 72 hours followed by the second dose 12 hours later. This method was first developed by Yuzpe and Lancee in 1977 and hence the name.
The most common problems associated with these pills are minor side effects such as nausea and vomiting reported in 50% and 20% of women respectively.  the long-term effects are unknown since not much data is available however it is believed that consistent long-term use may cause both arterial disease (myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident)  and venous disease (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). 
Emergency contraception pills are more widely available in developed countries compared to developing countries where access to these pills is still limited. Not all of these pills are yet licensed in the United States as well but the FDA approved the six common brands since they were found…
1] Van Look PFA, von Hertzen H. Induced abortion: a global perspective. in: Baird DT, Grimes DA, Van Look PFA, eds. Modern methods of inducing abortion. Oxford, England: Blackwell Science, 1995:1-24.
2] Trussell J, Stewart F. The effectiveness of postcoital contraception. Fam Plann Perspect 1992;24:262-264
3] "Interim Meeting (Access to Emergency Contraception)." ama-assn.org: December 2000. Accessed September 26, 2006.
4] Steiner M, Piedrahita C, Joanis C, Glover L, Spruyt a. Condom breakage and slippage rates among study participants in eight countries. Int Fam Plann Perspect 1994;20:55-8.
Ancient Egyptian Gynecology
In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.
Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.
The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the…
Antelme, Ruth...(et al.). Sacred Sexuality in Ancient Egypt: The Erotic Secrets of the Forbidden Papyrus. Inner Traditions 1997.
Women In History. Encyclopedia Britannica 2001. http://www.britannica.com/women/articles/contraception.html
Tour Egypt Website 1996. http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4.htm
Lesko, Barbara. The Remarkable Women of Ancient Egypt. Scribe 1987.
How can we expect our children to learn how to think critically if we do not teach them about sex?
Cheers to The Dallas News for pointing out the woeful inconsistencies and shortcomings in Texan state education. The majority of Texas school districts "either teach an abstinence-only health curriculum or avoid talking about sex altogether" and the result? Texas has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy in the nation. When evidence proves that our methods are not working, it is time to change them. Some teens are blessed with parents who make up for their state's lack of sex education programs. Unfortunately, many Texan teens remain ignorant at the behest of irresponsible parents. If withholding medical treatment for minors is against the law, then so too should withholding access to information about safe sex.
Finally, I would like to add that young people have a right to information:…
Review and critique of a current article relating to women's biology
How Emergency Contraception Works to Prevent Pregnancy
Emergency contraceptives are drugs used to prevent pregnancy after women indulges in unprotected sex. There is a slight difference between birth control methods and use of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy. It is significant for women and men to learn and choose the appropriate method that guarantees their well-being. Use of contraceptives prevent fertilization of the ovum, while as birth control pills prevents pregnancy, and includes use of contraceptives such as, IUDs, sterilization, and abortion. This article reviews the health effects of various emergency contraceptives on female reproductive functions. The author argues that limited knowledge about Emergency contraceptive contributes to its overuse or its underuse and enhanced knowledge could trigger development of new ways, maximize use of current methods and increase acceptability of emergency contraceptives (Berger, 2012).
Review of the…
Ries, N.M. & Tigerstrom, B. (2010). Roadblocks to laws for healthy eating and activity,"
Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 182, no. 7, pp. 687 -- 692
Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.
There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…
This, he felt was the most effective and Christian strategy to resist evil. Also, the Pope's equal desire to embody the Christian virtue of dignity meant that he was not blind to capitalism's abuses, pointing out that severe imbalances in wealth exacerbate tensions amongst peoples in an often non-Christian fashion -- not always a popular principle to take in the est. Pope John Paul II devoted enormous spiritual and physical energy to his visits to the developing world. But he refused to support all popular causes, such as liberation theology or charitable organizations that made use of birth control and abortion. He called the idea of a priest-politician anathema to the Christian vision. During one visit to Latin America he condemned the so-called "popular church" created by left-wing priests as "a deviation." (alker, 20050 He did not support female priests, nor divorce or contraception, even though this might have increased…
Roxburgh, Angus. "The Pope's Role in Communism's End." 2 Apr 2005. BBC World News in-Depth. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/3007787.stm
Walker, Andrew "Pope's Support for the World's Poor. 2 Apr 2005. BBC World News in-Depth. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/3008091.stm
Weigel, George. (April 2001) "Pope John Paul II and the Dynamics of History." Watch on the West: A Newsletter of FPRI's Center for the Study of America and the West. The 2000 Templeton Lecture on Religion and World Affairs. Volume 1: Number 6. http://www.fpri.org/ww/0106.200004.weigel.popehistory.html
That decision though is generally influenced by which methods are socially acceptable within an individual's community, and which methods are most completely understood. It is important, then, for educators and physicians to not only inform women that the pill exists, but they must also explain how it works and why it should be used.
Emergency contraception in pill form is a dose of estrogen and/or progestin, generally taken in two doses twelve hours apart following intercourse. Currently the IUD method of emergency contraception has been largely replaced by pill regimens either a combination of estrogen and progestin or progestin only (Grimes, & aymond 2002). Depending on the timing of administration the mode of action of these oral regimens differs. Taken before ovulation, emergency contraceptives prevent ovulation. There is also a possibility that the hormones affect the mucus of the cervix effectively trapping semen, or possibly even affecting the mode of…
1. Burton, R., & Savage, W. (1990). Knowledge and use of postcoital contraception: A survey among health professionals in Tower Hamlets. British Journal of General Practice, 326- 330.
2. Glasier, A. (1997). Emergency postcoital contraception. New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 1058- 1064.
3. Glasier, A., airhurst, K., Wyke, S., Ziebland, s., Seaman, P, Walker, J., & Lakha, F. (2004). Advanced provision of emergency contraception does not reduce abortion rates. Contraception, 69, 361-366.
4. Grimes, D., & Raymond, E. (2002). Emergency Contraception. Annals of Internal Medicine, 180- 189.
ASIAN-AmericanS & SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUES OF POVETY, ACCESS TO QUALITY HEALTHCAE SEVICES, FAMILY PLANNING AND CONTACEPTION PACTICES
The objective of this study is to examine the socioeconomic issues of poverty, access to quality health care services, family planning and contraception devices among Asian-Americans.
Today's health care environment in the United States is a setting with a great diversity of patients of many race, ethnic and cultural groups and today's practitioners must be knowledgeable about providing health care services that are effective and that assist their patients.
Family Planning Disparities
The work of Dehlendorf, odriguez, Levy, Borrero and Stinauer (2010) reports in regards to family planning disparities, "Prominent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy, abortion, and unintended births exist in the United States. These disparities can contribute to the cycle of disadvantage experienced by specific demographic groups when women are unable to control their fertility as desired. In this…
Farrid H), Siddique SM, Bachmann G, Janevic T, Pichika A. (2013). Practice of and attitudes towards family planning among South Asian-American immigrants. Contraception. 2013 Oct;88(4):518-22. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2013.03.011.Epub 2013 Apr 1.
Mitchell JO Sr. (1974). Minority attitudes toward contraception. J Reprod Med. 1974 Dec;13(6):212-5.
Rodriguez MI1, Edelman A, Wallace N, Jensen JT. (2012) Denying postpartum sterilization to women with Emergency Medicaid does not reduce hospital charges. Contraception. 2008 Sep;78(3):232-6. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2008.04.006. Epub 2008 Jun 12.
Womens Health Issues. 2014 May-Jun;24(3):e281-9. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2014.02.003. Epub 2014 Apr 13.
Women who see their physician two times a year for refills would see an individual cost savings of $85 per year for a total cost savings of $307 million for the population. In addition, approximately 2.1 million women would eliminate their annual gynecological visits altogether for an individual cost savings of $85 per year and a total cost savings of $178.54 million (Louis Harris and Associates 1993). Overall, the savings to women who either stop seeing their physician annually or reduce their visits to once a year would equal about $695.3 million.
Assuming the average wage rate is $12/hour and the average amount of time spent at the doctor's office is 11/2 hours (including travel time), women who currently see their physician four times a year for Oral Contraception refills would save 4.5 hours per year or$54 for a total opportunity cost savings of $44.4 million for the population. Five…
Holly Mead, IWPR/GWU Research Fellow. Making Birth Control More Accessible to Women. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Over-the-Counter Oral Conceptive. Feb, 2001. IWPR Publications.
Kate Saunders. New Mobile Clinics to carry out birth control policy in Tibet. July, 2003. Life News
China Forces Abortion, Sterilization on Tibetans Lhasa. Aug, 2000. CW News in collaboration with LSN.
Health Abortion 'part of birth control'. January, 1999. Health Latest BBC Health News.
The so-called "moral majority" does not like the idea of a woman "getting away" with "irresponsible sex."
However, not all failures of birth control are due to irresponsibility. A woman whose partner's condom broke during sex should have a second chance (a "Plan B" as the issue has come to be called) to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. Even if the sex is irresponsible and unprotected, young teenagers, for example -- would it really be better to let the girl become pregnant, later to become an abortion statistic or an unwilling, immature, unprepared mother? The opposition hates the idea that a woman can escape the consequences of recreational sex. They have a punitive attitude toward sex and especially they are against sex for fun. Medical, nursing, and family planning organizations are all in favor of emergency contraception (Ferriman, 1996). Why should the moralistic ideas of a few be forced on the…
CBS News (2004). FDA rejects OTC morning-after pill. Retrieved 7/30/06: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/06/15/health/main623159.shtml .
Ferriman, A. (1996). The day after sex. New Statesman (London, England), 127 (4388), 5 June, 28-29.
Gardiner, H. (2004). U.S. rules morning-after pill can't be sold over the counter.
New York Times, May 7: Retrieved 8/2/06: http://query.nytimes.com/gest/fullpage.html?sec=health&res+9C00E5DE173CF934A35756
Baer, 2002, p. xx)
Medical issues surrounding OCs:
Medical complications associated with the utilization of oral contraceptives are varied but in general stem from both known and unknown complexities associated with the ingredients that make up OCs, as all hormones are steroids and in many cases have multi-variant biochemical effects, some known and some unknown. The complexities of steroids, of which all hormones are, demonstrate the need for a great deal of further research with regards to their use. Some more common side effects of oral contraceptives, though they can vary slightly according to brand and dosage of active ingredients are:
nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, bloating, weight change and water retention. Water retention may cause swelling of fingers or ankles. Other side effects of oral contraceptives may include nervousness, depression, dizziness, change in appetite, loss of scalp hair, rash, vaginal infections, migraine headaches, missed menstrual periods and bleeding between periods.…
Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bancroft, J. (1999). Sexual Science in the 21st Century: Where Are We Going? A Personal Note. The Journal of Sex Research, 36(3), 226.
Clerics' Objections Erode U.N. Condom Stance. (2002, June 21). The Washington Times, p. A15.
Formichelli, L. (2001, January). The Male Pill. Psychology Today, 34, 16.
Abortion trends varied widely by state as well. "Teenage abortion rates were highest in New York (41 per 1,000), New Jersey, Nevada, Delaware and Connecticut. By contrast, teenagers in South Dakota (6 per 1,000), Utah, Kentucky, Nebraska and North
Dakota all had abortion rates of eight or fewer per 1,000 women aged 15 -- 19. More than half of teenage pregnancies ended in abortion in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut" (Guttmacher, 2010). It is important to keep in mind that teenage abortion rates may reflect multiple issues. First, they may reflect that teenager's own personal beliefs and desire to raise a baby. However, they may also reflect prevailing societal norms in that geographic area, which can make it difficult, and even practically impossible, for pregnant teenagers to obtain abortions.
Portrayal in popular culture
Perhaps one of the most alarming things about teen pregnancy is that it is receiving more…
Cape Fear Teen Health Council. (2006). Why is teen pregnancy a problem? Retrieved April 2,
2012 from http://www.capefearteen.org/cfthc.php?section=statistics&record_id=1
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Prepregnancy contraceptive use among teens with unintended pregnancies resulting in live births- Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS), 2004-2008. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 61(2), 25-29.
Drayton, V., Montgomery, S., Modeste, N., Frye-Anderson, B. (2002-2003). The health belief model as a predictor of repeat pregnancies among Jamaican teenage mothers. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 21(1), 67-81.
Sexually Active Teenagers:
The Use of Theory to Protect America's Youth
In 2003, sixty two percent of American high school seniors admitted to being sexually active. The use of condoms in the high school population has increased over the last decade; however, not all teenagers are using any form of contraception (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005). In order to protect against unwanted pregnancies and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and infections, the public health department must influence the use of condoms to sexually active teenagers. To best assist with this task, Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen's Theories of easoned Action and Planned Behavior will be a most valuable resource in forming a thoroughly strong campaign.
In the mid- to late 1970s, Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen proposed the Theory of easoned Action, which began as solely a study of attitude. It later developed into including behavior as…
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bozionelos, G. & Bennet, P. (1999). The theory of planned behavior as predictor of exercise:
The moderating influence of beliefs and personality variables. Retrieved May 21, 2011
The recommendation for the safest, most practical contraceptive device today's woman should consider would be the IUD. The choice between the ParaGard and the Mirena product should be up to the woman and her physician, once a good bit of research is conducted by the woman, and questions are asked of her doctor. If a device can be implanted and be effective for up to 10 years, and not have any serious - or even minor - side effects, that device would be well worth trying. In the event that it becomes unpleasant for any reason, the woman's doctor can easily remove it at any time.
Brody, Jane. "Jane Brody: New Devices and Effective Options in Contraception." The New
York Times (October 24, 2006). Retrieved 8 Nov. 2006 at http://www.nytimes.com.
Doheny, Kathleen. "The Birth-Control Choice of Female Docs." Shape 25.7 (March 2006)
86. Retrieved 9 Nov. 2006…
Brody, Jane. "Jane Brody: New Devices and Effective Options in Contraception." The New
York Times (October 24, 2006). Retrieved 8 Nov. 2006 at http://www.nytimes.com .
Doheny, Kathleen. "The Birth-Control Choice of Female Docs." Shape 25.7 (March 2006)
86. Retrieved 9 Nov. 2006 from Thompson Gale, Document #A143060257.
Two Swedish filmmakers, Ingmar Bergman and Vilgot Sjoman produced a series of sexually explicit films that challenged the conservative international standards in regard to depicting sex onscreen (Andersson). In these films, the characters spoke openly about sexual matters but, more significantly, open nudity was displayed which violated the decency standards then in existence in nearly every country in the world. These films caused an outpouring of debate regarding not only the role of sex and nudity in the movie industry it also sparked open debate about sex in general. As a direct result of these films, the popular notion developed that Swedish society had a liberal attitude about sexual matters while, in actuality, at the time Sweden was experiencing a period of relative conservatism. Nevertheless, the door had been opened and within the next twenty years the movement that had begun in Sweden had spread to the rest of Europe…
Allen, David. Make Love, Not War: The Sexual Revolution: An Unfettered History. New York: Little, Brown & Company, 2000.
Christensen, Harold T. "Changing Sex Norms in America and Scandinavia." Journal of Marriage and Family (1970): 616-627.
Crano, William d. Attitudes and Attitude Change. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.
Smith, Tom W. "The Sexual Revolution?" Public Opinion Quarterly (1990): 415-435.
In conclusion, atkins draws an important link between teen childbearing and poverty, which takes this discussion past morals and values and moves it into socioeconomic territory. Half of all mothers currently on welfare assistance "were teenagers when they had their first child," atkins writes. Also, a) less than a third of teen mothers "ever finish high school"; b) the children born to teenage mothers "are twice as likely to raise their children in poverty"; c) the children of teen mothers "...are more likely to do poorly in school, more likely to drop out of school, and less likely to attend college"; and d) girls whose mothers were teenagers at the time of their birth are "...22% more likely to become mothers as teens themselves," thus completing the cycle and perpetuating the problem into future generations.
An article by Jennifer a. Hurley ("Promoting the Use of Birth Control Reduces Teen Pregnancy")…
Bakalar, Nicholas. "Adolescence: Abstinence-Only Programs Not found to Prevent HIV." The New York Times 14 August 2007: Retrieved Dec. 3, 2007, at http://www.nytimes.com .
Garrett, Robert T. "Texas teens lead nation in birth rate." The Dallas Morning News 5 November 2007: Retrieved Dec. 2, 2007, at http://www.dallasnews.com .
Green, Tanya L. "Parents Have the Right to Know when their Children Receive Family
Planning Services at School." Opposing Viewpoints: Students' rights. Greenhaven Press,
The history of Planned Parenthood is voluminous and extensive. It has been filled with controversy, legal spats and struggles for acceptance and funding from the United States government. Even nowadays, the organization is threatened with budget changes or cuts from the federal government and many people have turned to violence against Planned Parenthood and similar groups over the years due to opposition to abortion or other birth control options that Planned Parenthood is known for providing or at least advocating for. What follows in this report is a history of Planned Parenthood as well as some of the pivotal events and outcomes that have occurred over the years. While Planned Parenthood is an organization with a lot of detractors, they also have a huge amount of support from some very loyal and entrenched groups around the country.
While the major decision that exists regarding abortion occurred with…
Abortion and the Media: Domestic and Global Perspectives
If anything can be agreed upon, it’s that abortion is a complex issue, one that triggers a wealth of opinions, feelings and beliefs. The way in which abortion is presented in the media is something that is also exceedingly complex, and which can both impact society and be a reflection of the beliefs of a particular society. Even in this modern era, abortion is still an issue that has the power to divide people and to cause tense debates. This paper will examine abortion in the media from a more global perspective, and will attempt to pinpoint the factors that trigger and influence both women and men alike.
The research article, “Women’s opinions on the legalisation of abortion in Chile 2009 –2013” by Palermo and colleagues (2015) shows an unsurprising finding about people’s viewpoints on abortion—and with those viewpoints, their beliefs on…
Religious communities in schools encourage various programs with the intention of having teenagers ready to go through diverse social difficulties. However, they constantly tend to go over the topic of contraception, as religion does not support it.
Even after seeing the effect that unwanted births have on teenagers, religious communities are not supportive towards birth control. Irresponsible adults condemn birth control, claiming that the government should finance proper education, instead of investing into something that they believe is not a true necessity.
Even with the fact that religious communities do not support birth control programs, Americans generally appear to be encouraging teenagers to use contraception. A large percentage from the general public believes that birth control should be covered by health insurances. Also, they believe that sex education should involve issues concerning contraception through abstinence. There are a number of educational institutions supporting the concept of teaching teenagers that they…
1. Barth Richard P., Painter John S., Sangalang Bernadette B. "First-Birth Outcomes and Timing of Second Births: A Statewide Case Management Program for Adolescent Mothers." Health and Social Work, Vol. 31, 2006.
2. Sawhill, Isabel V. "What Can Be Done to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Out-of-Wedlock Births?." Retrieved November 28, 2009, from the Brookings Web site: http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2001/10childrenfamilies_sawhill.aspx
3. Schwartz, Michael. "Sex as Apple Pie." National Review, Vol. 40, June 10, 1988.
4. Wetzstein, Cheryl. "Poll Finds Majority Back Birth Control; Access Sought without 'Delay'." The Washington Times, June 8, 2007.
There are a number of solutions that are medically available for infertility. Fertility treatments for men and women can include chemical solutions, solutions to boost fertility as well as surgical procedures. However, these work on a personal level and do not address the wider and larger issues in society. The most effective and long-term solution to the problem of declining fertility rates is understanding and knowledge, coupled with governmental and institutional application of this knowledge. In other words, this could involve simple precautionary aspects such as the understanding and avoidance of certain chemical substance and toxins in the workplace that can increase the possibility of infertility.
Social and cultural stresses are major factors that impact on fertility rate and research into these factors is needed if the general problem is to be addressed adequately. Governmental and social policies that improve the possibility for increased fertility rates have in…
Velculescu D. et al. (2004) Fertility Declines and Youth Dependency: Implications for the Global Economy. Retrieved October 25, 2008, at http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2004/09globaleconomics_bryant.aspx
Natality is defined as: "The birthrate, which is the ratio of total live births to total population in a particular area over a specified period of time; expressed as childbirths per 1000 people (or population) per year, ( http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Natality )
Fertility in the 20th century
Abortion and the Right to Privacy
It is a summary of the most important elements of your paper. All numbers in the abstract, except those beginning a sentence, should be typed as digits rather than words. To count the number of words in this paragraph, select the paragraph, and on the Tools menu click ord Count.
United States' law is descended from English common law. As it stands, the historical idea of a life beginning at "quickening" has been replaced by the idea of fetal "viability." Despite a brief historical hiatus, women maintain the right to an abortion, before life begins. Despite Georgia's best efforts, fetuses are not people, legally or otherwise. Naturally, states regulate abortions and even proscribe them, under specified circumstances. However, the historical right to privacy in the home includes the right to choose whether to procreate. The right to privacy is protected in the substantive due…
Boyd v. United States, 116 U.S. 616, 116 U.S. 630 (The Supreme Court December 11, 1886).
Bullough, V. (Ed.). (2001). Encyclopedia of Birth Control. Santa Barbara, CA, U.S.: ABC-CLIO.
Coke, E. (2001). The Third Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England: Concerning High Treason, and Other Pleas of the Crown and Criminal Causes. Clark, N.J.: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
Garrow, D. (1998). Liberty and Sexuality: The Right to Privacy and the Making of Roe v. Wade (2nd Edition ed.). Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
Religion and Birth Control at the Supreme Court" by The Editorial Board (2016) of The New York Times is written from a leftist perspective, which is immediately evident in the first line of the article, which states that the Senate Republicans are inflicting "harm" on the nation "by refusing to consider filling the Supreme Court vacancy" which Obama wants to fill with his nomination. The piece is an anti-religion op-ed that condemns those who object to policies that impinge on their religious principles and integrity because their doing so "places burdens on others" (Editorial Board, 2016). In other words, it is okay to burden the consciences of religious objectors, but it is not okay to burden others, i.e., liberals who believe that everyone should have the right to choose as they want except for those who disagree with them on what is right and wrong, moral and immoral, ethical and…
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .
("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1970s-1980s").
President Regan's successor, President George H.. Bush, continued to adhere to the Mexico City Policy. In 1993, it was rescinded by President Clinton. President George . Bush reinstated the policy in 2001 by establishing conditions in the grants awarded to USAID. In addition, President George . Bush extended the policy to apply to any "voluntary population planning" assistance provided by the Department of State. (Obama).
Progress in family planning policy was made in other areas. The federal government recognized that special attention in providing family planning counseling should be paid to countries where overpopulation threatened biodiversity or endangered species. ("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1990s-2009").
In addition, the federal government, especially USAID, worked to use family planning policy to promote the awareness of HIV disease and to promote health practices that would restrict the spread of such diseases. In 2003, USAID established new guidelines…
Clinton Hillary. Foreign Policy Address at the Council on Foreign Relations, May 5, 2009. U.S. Department of State. Web. May 24, 2010.
Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).
Jones K.A. "New Complexities and Approaches to Global Health Diplomacy: View from the U.S. Department of State." PLoS Med 7(5). Web. May 24, 2010
Obama, Barack. "Memorandum to the Secretary of State: Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning," January 23, 2009. Web. May 24, 2010.
In March of 1921, with the help of her husband Humphrey Roe, she opened the first birth control clinic in England (riant, 1962). It was located in North London and remained open until 1977 (Rose, 1992). The only reason that it was closed down then was because reproductive health care in England was nationalized. One thing that helped Stopes, however, was that she had many political connections with upper-class individuals and she was able to create and enforce a number of very strict rules regarding her clinic so that she did not experience the kinds of problems that were seen in clinics of the same type in other countries such as the United States (riant, 1962). One of the main rules of Stopes' clinic was that she would not offer birth control to anyone who could not prove that she had already born at least one child. Not everyone liked…
Briant, Keith. Marie Stopes: A Biography. London: Hogarth, 1962.
Hall, Ruth. Passionate Crusader: The Life of Marie Stopes. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.
Maude, Aylmer. The Authorized Life of Marie C. Stopes. London: Williams & Norgate, 1924.
Rose, June. Marie Stopes and the Sexual Revolution. London: Faber and Faber, 1992.
Being forced out of one's job due to firing or constructive firing is also possible.
Moral Agent Fulfillment
Being able to be a proper moral agent would include the knowledge of when to take a stand and when to recognize that the person making the choice that a moral agent disagrees with is their wrong choice to make and perhaps it is right for them. Presuming that one knows all the relevant facts for a choice being made can border on arrogance. For example, an abortion may be sought due to a mother-to-be not wanting to bear a rapist's baby or her life might be in danger if the pregnancy goes to term. The key is to know that even when it seems like "black and white," it often is not. However, there are times where "gray areas" should be looked into. The pain medication abuse example listed earlier is…
Girion, L., & Glover, S. (2013, March 23). Pain doctor's office raided in prescription drug abuse probe - Los Angeles Times. Featured Articles From The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from http://articles.latimes.com/2013/mar/23/local/la-me-ln-pain-doctors-office-raided-in-prescription-drug-abuse-probe-20130323
Howell, T. (2013, August 7). Religious university balks at 'accommodation,' re-files suit over Obamacare's contraception mandate - Washington Times. Washington Times - Politics, Breaking News, U.S. And World News. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/aug/7/religious-university-balks-accommodation-re-files-/
Stempel, J. (2013, July 26). U.S. court rejects firm's challenge to Obamacare contraception mandate| Reuters. Business & Financial News, Breaking U.S. & International News | Reuters.com. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/07/26/us-usa-healthcare-conestoga-idUSBRE96P0ZO20130726
Compared to only a few decades ago, American society has become more open and accepting of teenage pregnancy. Pregnant teens are no longer hidden away with relatives. More importantly, many school and community groups have adopted honest and aggressive strategies to address the growing incidences of teenage pregnancy.
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of four different styles of programs in preventing pregnancy in teenage girls. These programs include sex education in schools, one-on-one conversations between patient and health care worker in a clinical setting, service learning programs and finally, youth development programs. Emphasis is given on the effectiveness of these programs in preventing pregnancy in teenage African-American girls.
The first part of this paper is an overview of teen pregnancy statistics, both throughout the United States and with African-American teenagers in particular. The next part of the paper then identifies the factors behind the rising rates of pregnancy…
Boekeloo, B.O., Schamus, L.A., Simmens, S.J., Cheng, T.L., O'Connor, K., & D'Angelo, L.J. 1999. "A STD/HIV prevention trial among adolescents in managed care." Pediatrics, 103, 107-115.
Harding, David. 2003. "Counterfactual Models of Neighborhood Effects: The Effect of Neighborhood Poverty on Dropping Out and Teenage Pregnancy." American Journal of Sociology. November.
Moore, Mignon R. And Lundsay P. Chase-Lansdale. 2001. "Sexual Intercourse and Pregnancy Among African-American Girls in High-Poverty Neighborhoods: The Role of Family and Perceived Community Environment." Journal of Marriage & the Family. November.
Napier, Kristine. 1999. "Abstinence-Only Programs Reduce Teen Pregnancy." Education. Tamara L. Roleff, Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…
Aptekar, L. (1990). "How Ethnic Differences Within a Culture Influence Child
Rearing: The Case of Colombian Street Children." Journal of Comparative
Family Studies 21(1):67 -- 79.
Balakrishnan, R. (1976). "Determinants of Female Age at Marriage in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 7(2):167 -- 173.
Teenage pregnancy issues should be undertaken by putting into practice programs that will help prevent teenagers from becoming pregnant. Health care providers need to devise intervention programs that allow family, school and society in general to provide the necessary information to teenagers through sexual education. The family portion should involve parental education and information on sexual health issues. Schools need to be more focused on offering courses about gender issues and more training for teachers regarding sexual education. Schools and families need to work together in order to prevent teenage pregnancies. The aim of these programs should be to reduce the number of teenage pregnancies among girls by increasing their knowledge of sexual health issues. This can be done by offering teenagers information in a convenient, friendly, and familiar environment so that they are well informed of the choices that they have (Sarantaki and Koutelekos, 2007).
East, Patricia L., Reyes, Barbara T., and Horn, Emily J. "Association Between Adolescent
Pregnancy and a Family History of Teenage Births." Consumer Health Complete. 39.2
Langille, Donald B. "Teenage pregnancy: Trends, contributing factors and the physician's role."
Prejudice and ethical/leadership issues with healthcare are nothing new but the fight to keep those standards and ethics on an even keel and prevent racism, bigotry and predudice of any sort including based on class, money, political ideology, nationalism, and so forth should be stomped out and eviscerated whenever it can be. People are people and should treated with dignity and respect regardless of their race, gender, beliefs and so forth. Even convicted murderers and rapists should not be treated disdain due to their actions because doing otherwise lowers the ethics and standards of the healthcare community that can and should still apply at all times.
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., ay, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences…
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., Ray, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences on ability to afford prescription medications.
Founder of the American birth control movement, Margaret Sanger is one of the most influential, and respected, women in American history. Her crusade for birth control and family planning, at a time when she faced strong social, political, and religious opposition, created change and controversy within American society. In addition to ensuring universal availability of birth control and family planning education, her projects and research have led to the creation of organizations such as the National Organization for Women (NOW) and Planned Parenthood.
orn Margaret Louise Higgins, on September 14, 1879 in Corning, New York, Margaret Sanger was the sixth of her parents' eleven children. Although her mother, Anne Purcell Higgins, died from tuberculosis at the age of fifty, Margaret's belief that the frequent pregnancies lay at the root of her premature death was to exert an enormous influence on her life and her work. Aided by her…
Coigney, Virginia. Margaret Sanger. New York: Doubleday, 1969.
Katz, Esther, et. al., The Papers of Margaret Sanger. 1999. Available [Online]: http://adh.sc.edu[25 September 2002].
Steinem, Gloria. Margaret Sanger. 2001. Available [Online]: http://www.time.com/time/time100/leaders/profile/sanger.html [25 September 2002].
Esther Katz, et. al., The Papers of Margaret Sanger, (1999). Available [Online]: http://adh.sc.edu[25 September 2002].
Teenage pregnancy is described as being pregnant or being a mother below 20 years of age in most of the conducted researches. Only two researches considered had an age limit of 20 years, while another one had a limit of 21 years (Noll, Shenk, & Putnam, 2009).
The rate of teenage child birth differs by a 10 factor in case of first world nations. Netherlands on one hand has a negligible rate of 12 infants per 1,000 teenagers each year while Russia on the other hand has a rate of 100 infants per 1000 teenagers. During the 1990's United States of America spiked with teenage pregnancies which was the same in 1980's as well. Japan and European nations have controlled pregnancy rates (40 infants per 1,000). England peaks the European bloc with teenage pregnancy. One research in 2000 concluded that annually in England, around 90,000 child births…
Amoran, O. (2012). A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria. Amoran International Journal for Equity in Health, 2-7.
Dickins, T., Johns, S., & Chipman, A. (2012). Teenage Pregnancy In The United Kingdom: A Behavioral Ecological Perspective. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 344-359.
Fonseca, L., Araujo, H., & Santos, S. (2012). Sexualities, teenage pregnancy and educational life histories in Portugal: experiencing sexual citizenship? Gender and Education, 647-664.
Hoggart, L. (2012). I'm Pregnant...what am I going to do? An examination of value judgments and moral frameworks in teenage pregnancy decision making. Health, Risk and Society, 533-549.
Epidemiology - Person, Place and Time
Epidemiology -- Person, Place, Time
Identify the specific goal you have chosen, describe it in detail, and discuss why you chose to focus on this goal and how it related to population health, both locally and globally.
The specific goal I have chosen is improvement of maternal health. I chose to focus on this goal because reproductive health is an issue for most women whether they live in developed or developing countries -- and because reproductive health is an issue over which the medical and healthcare communities can have relatively high degrees of influence. eproductive health is inextricably related to income at levels of a household, a community, and a nation. The figures representing women who died during pregnancy or childbirth are high (roughly 289,000 globally in 2013), but they are down by about 45% from 1990 levels ("MDG 5," 2014). This is a…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (n.d). Principles of epidemiology in public health practice (3rd ed.). Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Coeytaux, F., Bingham, D., & Langer, A. (2010). Reducing Maternal Mortality: A Global Imperative. Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. Retrieved from http://www.arhp.org/publications-and-resources/contraception-journal/february-2011
MDG 5: Improve maternal health. (2014).
Trends in Maternal Mortality 1990-2008 . Estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank. (September 2010). Retrieved from http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/2010/trends_matmortality90-08.pdf
GESP factors basis social business opportunities country Malaysia. I attached paper requirements. Thanks.
Social Business esearch
Malaysia is located in Southeastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam. It has a tropical climate with annual monsoons. The country's natural resources are tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas and bauxite.
The most important environmental issues Malaysia is facing are represented by air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions, water pollution from raw sewage, deforestation, smoke from Indonesian forest fires.
The economic and financial crisis has affected Malaysia as much as it has affected other countries in the world. The crisis' effects were more severe on the poor (The World Bank, 2000). This situation can be observed by analyzing education participation rates, unemployment, and infant mortality.…
1. Malaysia (2014). CIA, The World Factbook. Retrieved February 7, 2015 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/my.html.
2. Malaysia: Social and Structural Review Update (2000). The World Bank. Retrieved February 7, 2015 from
The Surgeon General remains a respected figure, but the job is ill-defined, budgetless, and subject to the whims of political appointees at the Department of Health and Human Services and the hite House.
The Surgeon General is widely considered to be the doctor for the nation and an ombudsman for the public's health. But in reality, modern holders of the office are tightly constrained by the increasingly politicized environment of ashington. It is difficult to imagine a modern Congress creating the office of Surgeon General. Politics wouldn't allow it to happen. Fortunately, and to our nation's great benefit, the position and the tradition already exist. But the job needs help (Mullan 2007).
According to Mullan, legislation is needed to do three things: provide an independent budget for the currently mendicant position; mandate an annual Surgeon General's Report on the state of the nation's health; and, essential to all else, insulate…
Bouffard, Jo Ivey and Philip R. Lee. "Health Policy Making: The Role of the Federal
Government." In Danis, Clancy and Churchill (eds.) Ethical Dimensions of Health Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Mullan, Fitzhugh. "Plight of the Surgeon General." Science 318 (2007): 169.
Profiles in Science. "The Reports of the Surgeon General." National Library of Medicine.
According to Tamara Kreinin, president of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the U.S., "Manipulating facts about condoms is using a scare tactic to try and get kids not to be sexually active" (Morse, 2002).
One of the consequences of a lack of full and complete information to youth actually causes self-imposed ignorance of their own safety. If adolescents do not get the proper education on protecting themselves from STDs, it is unlikely they will get much beyond playground rumor. In several reviews conducted by the U.S. Surgeon General and by the Committee of HIV Prevention, abstinence only programs have little to no effect on the sexual behavior of adolescents ("Abstinence"). Further, denying young people full and accurate information about sex, contraception, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases puts them at needless health risks. The reality is that teens will talk about sex, will experiment, and will likely have…
Boston:Economy. (2009, March). Retrieved December 2010, from City-Data.com: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/the-Northeast/Boston-Economy.html
Health and Social Disparities. (2010, March). Retrieved December 2010, from Boston University: http://sph.bu.edu/Maternal-a-Child-Health/department-of-community-health-sciences/menu-id-617096.html
Linking Teen Pregnancy Prevention to Other Critical Social Issues. (2010, March). Retrieved November 2010, from the Namtional Campaign: http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/why-it-matters/pdf/introduction.pdf
Medical Research in Boston. (2010, February). Retrieved December 2010, from Boston University: http://www.bumc.bu.edu/
Varied Perspectives on Non-Surgical Sterilization Methods:
There have been varied perspectives on the use of non-surgical sterilization of the dog since these products do not entirely solve the problem of the overpopulation of dogs and cats. Additionally, the varied perspectives and arguments on the use of these methods have also been due to the fact that some people don't care since they want to breed their animals. Given that there is no secure and effective non-surgical sterilization method of the dog that has been identified and announced, the varied perspectives have continued to increase. However, there have been various approaches to identify non-surgical products though none of the products have shown tremendous results to be widely adopted and implemented (Bowen, 2006).
One of the major perspectives has been against the non-surgical sterilization of the dog since the methods that have been explored have not only been ineffective but have also…
Bowen, R. (2006, April 25). Nonsurgical Sterilization of Dogs and Cats. Retrieved Colorado
State University website: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/petpop/nonsurg.html
Singer, J. (2010, January 13). Non-Surgical Pet Population Control: A Godsend or Nightmare.
Retrieved November 16, 2010, from http://www.petside.com/petsideblog/2010/01/non-surgical-pet-population-co.php
Qualitative data using individual stories are very important because they give insight into the challenges faced by certain groups such as pregnant teenage mothers. A more comprehensive approach to reducing adolescent pregnancy is needed. Many risk factors including a mother's own history, the absentee father, and misuse of birth control contribute to teenage pregnancies. These can override the benefits of school activity participation and performance in preventing teenage pregnancy. Therefore, programs designed to prevent pregnancy need to address many factors.
Allen E, onell C, Strange V, Copas, a, Stephenson, J., Johnson, a.M. & Oakley, a. (2007, January). Does the UK government's teenage pregnancy strategy deal with the correct risk factors? Findings from a secondary analysis of data from a randomised trial of sex education and their implications for policy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61 (1): 20 -- 7.
Clandinin, J., & Connelly, M. (1990). Stories of…
Allen E, Bonell C, Strange V, Copas, a, Stephenson, J., Johnson, a.M. & Oakley, a. (2007, January). Does the UK government's teenage pregnancy strategy deal with the correct risk factors? Findings from a secondary analysis of data from a randomised trial of sex education and their implications for policy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61 (1): 20 -- 7.
Clandinin, J., & Connelly, M. (1990). Stories of experience and narrative inquiry: Educational Researcher, 19(5): 2-14.
Chase, S. (2005). Narrative inquiry: Multiple, lenses, approaches, voices. In Codjoe, H. (2007). The importance of home environment and parental encouragement in the academic achievement of African Canadian youth. Canadian Journal of Education, 30(1): 137-156.
Creswell, J. (2003). Research design. London: Sage Publications, Inc.
In the case of breast augmentation, the parent must guide the minor to the right decision -- and that is usually not to have the surgery unless it is necessary for the teen's overall health. It is up to the adult to think responsibly. There are dangers to any surgery and infections are not among the least of them. Perhaps low self-esteem is a reason for counseling by a professional, but not necessarily reason to alter one's body artificially.
The ethical responsibilities of the parent in a discussion with their underage teen regarding whether or not to have her breast augmented, are even greater and more impacting than the legal issues.
The 1800 girls under the age of 18 who had their breasts augmented last year alone are under the ethical (and rational) reasoning of the parent. These are the parents who are taking out financing to do the surgery…
Agence France-Presse Newswire Service. Germany to Ban Cosmetic Surgery for Children. Paris, 23 April 2008.
Annas, George. The rights of patients: The basic ACLU guide to patient rights. New York City: Humana Press, 1992.
Clough, Craig. "Doc Urges Caution on Teen Breast Implants." 4 April 2008. lifewhile.com. 3 August 2009 .
Duenwald, Mary. "How Young is Too Young to Have a Nose Job and Breast Implants." New York Times 28 September 2004: F5.
ithin the profession itself, there are many ethical debates, pertaining to medications, such as prescribing psychotropic drugs like antidepressants to adolescents, the correct times to use palliative care at the end of a patient's life, the ethics of emergency contraception and giving 'the morning after pill' and contraception to adolescents without parental consent. For pharmacists engaged in research, the appropriate use of animals in research and whom to include or exclude in clinical trials may be another issue of personal concern (Applelbe 2008). In all cases, to dispense medication means one must dispense good judgment, not simply pills and potions.
Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making. (2008). Foreword by Gordon E. Appelbe. First edition.…
Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making. (2008). Foreword by Gordon E. Appelbe. First edition.
London: Pharma Press.
Further Consideration of the Issues:
Actually, Singer's use of the term absolute affluence is not perfectly analogous (because the corresponding analog to the conditions of absolute poverty are those of extravagant wealth not working class wealth), but the idea itself is still valid just the same. The point is simply that once human society in part of the world reached the point where even most of those considered "poor" receive adequate nutrition, shelter, and the most basic emergency medical care (etc.), a moral duty arises whereby helping the less fortunate should be more important than self-centered concerns about increasing one's wealth relative to others in the manner that different levels of affluence are defined in wealthier nations.
It is important that Singer acknowledges the difference between ideals that people should uphold and ideals that people must uphold, because it is likely impossible to establish a logical justification for compelled charity,…
In 1976, three years after Roe v. ade, the Court ruled that a married woman did not have to have her husband's permission to get an abortion, if she wanted one (Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth).
Do the policies of the executive branch of government - the hite House - go past just merely being "pro-life" - and into the realm of sexism? That is a good question because military women serving overseas, under the Bush administration, cannot receive safe hospital abortions, even if they pay with their own personal funds, according to NO. hy? To make the point that this administration opposes abortions, Bush restored a Reagan-era policy, and now military wives and women in the service must "travel long distances" to have abortions. They must also get the permission of their commanding officer, which is almost always a man.
Abortion Law Homepage. (2006). Overview.…
Abortion Law Homepage. (2006). Overview. Retrieved 19 Feb. 2008 at http://members.aol.com/abtrbng/
Medical News Today. (2006). Antiabortion Activists Refocusing Strategies After Election
Results; Washington Post Says Democratic-Controlled Congress Might Force Bush to Reconsider. (Nov. 14, 2006). Retrieved 20 Nov. 2008 at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com .
National Organization for Women. (2007). Reproductive Rights Historical Highlights. Retrieved 19 Feb. 2008 at http://www.now.org/issues/abortion/roe30/timeline.html .
Moreover, an 'abstinence-only' education program is sometimes perceived by teenagers as providing one-sided and medically inaccurate information. (Studies by Kirby, 1997 and Huberman, quoted in "educing Teenage Pregnancy" 2006) shift in attitudes towards teenage sexuality must occur in the U.S. To facilitate the development of appropriate policies and programs to reduce teenage pregnancy. Presently, sexual activity, rather than the pregnancies that can result from it, is seen as the problem requiring intervention. Teaching young people that premarital sex is a moral failure does not prevent pregnancy -- studies show that those with fearful and negative attitudes about sexuality are less likely to use contraception when they have sex than those who believe they have a right to decide to have sex (eiss, 1990).
It is, therefore, important to have a more comprehensive program of sexual education for teenagers that gives due recognition to the fact that sexual expression is a…
American Opinion on Teen Pregnancy and Related Issues 2003." (2004). Science Says: A Project of the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved on May 18, 2007 at http://www.teenpregnancy.org/works/pdf/American_Opinion.pdf
Kirby, D. (2001). "Emerging answers: research findings on programs to reduce unwanted teenage pregnancy." National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved on May 18, 2007 at http://www.teenpregnancy.org/resources/data/pdf/emeranswsum.pdf
Reducing Teenage Pregnancy." (2006). Planned Parenthood. Retrieved on May 18, 2007 at http://www.plannedparenthood.org/news-articles-press/politics-policy-issues/teen-pregnancy-sex-education/teenage-pregnancy-6240.htm
Reiss, Ira L. (1990). An End to the Shame: Shaping Our Next Sexual Revolution. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.
Many women took up the cause of temperance. omen like Jane Adams, worked to expose political corruption and economic exploitation and established philanthropic programs for the poor.
By 1900 over one-third of the wage-earning women in this country were employed as domestics or waitresses." As business grew, the privileged class grew. Domestics were in demand and were expected to do every kind of household chore in addition to cooking, serving, laundry, sewing, and anything else required by her mistress.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in 1865 joined in their work to equalize the rights of men and women. They declared that women had a natural right to happiness, and the opportunities and advantages, and denied that women were made simply for men and that her best interests must be "sacrificed to his will" (Kerber, pg. 225).
In 1923, a feminist conference in Seneca Falls, New York developed a…
Modern Feminism and American Society, 1965 to the Present, Publisher, city, date?
Kerber, Linda K. And Jane Sherron DeHart Women's America, Refocusing the Past, Oxford University Press, New York: 1995.
These were being make, passiveness or unassertiveness, and a father who avoids conflict with a teenage child. Parental guidance on safer sexual practices, skillful assertion, negotiation and resolution of conflicts all help improve dating communication between teenagers. ut parents' strategies in solving everyday conflicts and issues with teenage children may be the true basis for the safe-sex negotiations in their dating. Parents who actively engage in open disagreement with their teenage children may induce confidence in their children to assert themselves and communicate their preference with a sexual partner regarding the use of condoms. These strategies are likely to develop from safe-sex communication with parents (Feingold).
Parental Processes and Style
The Kaiser Family Foundation surveys suggested that teenagers whose parents monitor their children's whereabouts and particular behaviors tend to have only one sexual partner or avoid unprotected sex (Howell, 2001). A combination of high-level communication and parental monitoring works well…
Aspen (2009). Sexual promiscuity in adolescents. Fact Sheets. Aspen Education Group.
Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://www.aspeneducation.com/factsheetpromiscuity.html
Feingold, A. (2006). Parents can help reduce sexual risk-taking. PsychCentral:
PsychCentral.com. Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/parents-can-help-teens-reduce-sexual-risk-taking
Teen Plastic Surgery: A Controversial Medical Practice
According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in 2007, more than 87,000 teenagers had cosmetic surgery; and that number has grown exponentially since. Although aesthetic cosmetic surgery is popular amongst United States teens, physicians and plastic surgeons worry that such invasive surgery on teens' still growing bodies can be dangerous. Other developed countries, including Germany and Australia, are considering banning all but medically necessary plastic surgery for anyone under the age of 18. However, the question remains, if such a measure were taken like that in the United States for minors stem the tide of teenagers going under the knife? This paper will address the controversy associated with teenagers and aesthetic cosmetic surgery in the United States, and the business of plastic surgery for teens, from a legal, ethical, and social responsibility standpoint.
In a country, and dare say…
Ali, K., & Lam, T. (2008). Teens under the knife: Is plastic surgery too dangerous for teens? Current Events, 108(1), 7-14.
American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (2003). National totals for cosmetic procedures. Cosmetic Surgery National Data Bank.
www.surgery.org/download/2003-stats.pdf:10. Accessed 25 July, 2011.
Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
While thee may be ational and ethical objections to killing a nealy fully developed fetus, thee ae none that petain logically to teminating a pegnancy that is only hous old, much less fo peventing a pegnancy that has not even occued. Religious beliefs and values may be pefect justifications fo such decisions on a pesonal level; howeve, they cannot eve be allowed to impose those values on othes who may not shae those paticula eligious beliefs.
The United States was founded lagely on the concept of eligious feedom by those who ejected the notion that the govenment should be able to dictate pesonal eligious beliefs. The agument that eligious feedom is meant only in the naowest sense as petains to the actual assignment of eligion by the state is weak. If eligious feedom meant only that the state could not equie a specific eligion, that would still allow the state…
references to any "God" because that violates the religious freedom of atheists. Similarly, there is no reason that atheists should not be able to purchase alcohol on Sunday just because that happens to be the religious Sabbath of Christians any more than Christians should have to be limited in their freedoms on Saturdays just because other religious faiths happen to celebrate their Sabbath on Saturday. Religious freedom should protect the right to practice any religion and to practice no religion and it should never allow any religious beliefs to be imposed in any way on others.
Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.
Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.
Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…
Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html
Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm
Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html
Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
" (Paul v. Davis)
The majority went on to argue that it is almost impossible to guess at any logical stopping place to the afore-prescribed theory of reasoning. Davis' interpretation of the law as set out in his briefs would seem almost necessarily to manifest itself in every legally cognizable injury which may have been inflicted by a state official - of any sort, not just a police officer -- acting under "color of law" establishing a violation of the Fifth Amendment as extended to the 50 states by the aforementioned Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
According to the majority, "We think it would come as a great surprise to those who drafted and shepherded the adoption of that Amendment to learn that it worked such a result, and a study of our decisions convinces us they do not support the construction urged by respondent."
Section 4: The Result
Paul v. Davis 424 U.S. 693 (1976).
Magna Carta, 1214 AD.
Palko v. Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319, 325 (1937).
Exploration - Populations
Population pyramids symbolize graphically the age/gender arrangement of a population. Basically is shows how many men and women of a given age or age group are present in the population. They are detailed kinds of histograms, in which the male population is displayed on the left side of the graph, and the female population on the right; the youngest are the base of the pyramid, and the oldest are at its top. The very oldest are generally absent from the representation of the pyramid because it is unfeasible to depict this open-ended interval that includes a few of the oldest-old. Percentages are figured using both sexes combined or the total population as the denominator. A lot can be read from population pyramids as they can trace the history of a populace, as well as project its prospect. In particular, one can deduce the likelihood of population…
Malcom, C. (2012). Types of Population Pyramids. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/list_6370548_types-population-pyramids.html
Population Pyramids. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://healthandrights.ccnmtl.columbia.edu/demography/population_pyramids.html
Population Pyramids 2. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.martinsclass.com/aphug/population-pyramids-2/
S., would begin training the finest female minds at their top universities, too. "The Space ace" of the 1960s was mainly between the U.S. And the former U.S.S.. As women become more educated and gain rare opportunities to profoundly change and expand their perspectives, such as the view of Earth from space, more women will become aware and organized regarding the ways they are institutionally subordinated and restricted, fundamentally with respect to their bodies and the law. With enough support and the right combination/condition of circumstances, women organized, fought, and won for legal protection regarding contraception and prophylactics.
In some cases/countries, there are societies that are able to see past or through gender bias and gender prejudice in order to do what is best for that country, including choosing the best leadership, which eventually included women.
Though the events of the timeline happen around the world and at different times,…
Encyclopedia Brittanica. (2013). Timeline: Through the Centuries. Brittanica, Web, Available from: http://www.britannica.com/women/timeline?tocId=9404138 . 2013 May 23.
National Archives. (2013). Women. National Archives, Web, Available from: http://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/womens-history.html . 2013 May 23.