Corporate America today is falling apart because of lack of ethical values and standards. And this serious absence of morality in business has resulted in complete collapse of some major corporations in the United States and has also give birth to acute public mistrust. The government has thus implemented new accounting regulations to bring an end to corporate corruption in the country. I strongly support these regulations because I firmly believe that absence of laws in connection with accounting practices was largely responsible for current crisis in corporate America. President Bush has also promised to impose long prison terms for corrupt executives along with careful scrutiny of all accounting practices currently being followed by large corporations. These regulations will certainly go a long way in introducing positive changes in business practices. But it would be naive to assume that these changes will appear within a short period of time. Corporations…… [Read More]
Virtual Training in Corporate America
The Geography of Virtual Training
The Virtual Training Campus
Quality/Effectiveness of Virtual Training
Computers have revolutionized almost every aspect of the modern world. Communication is now expected to be instant and global, and with this, comes the expectations of the modern employee and organization. The Internet, for instance, offers a way to reach out globally to communicate, share data, develop concepts, and train. The idea of virtual training, for instance, allows training to occur on almost any subject regardless of the location of the trainer or learner. It can be adapted to fit almost any environment, and provides both a huge cost-savings to the organization, as well as a way to both ensure viability and similarity in content and relevance and insertion of new information.
Our study consists of two basic approaches to the question of virtual training, honed for clarity to…… [Read More]
Walt Disney Case Studies
Why has Chiquita not been successful in changing industry norms?
There are numerous reasons why Chiquita has not attained success in changing industry norms. Firstly, it has not received enough recognition for doing so. Its efforts to combat childhood obesity, unfair labor practices, and negative environmental impacts have failed to yield any sort of significant reward. Were it publicly lauded and regarded as a company that prioritizes corporate social responsiblity, it might be able to influence other companies in its industry to adopt these same practices. However, its corporate social responsibility actions are simply not publicized enough to make any sort of impact on its competitors. The other capital reason why this company has failed to alter social norms is because its competitors have not adopted its measures. In fact, avoiding them enables Chiquita's competitors to lower costs and increase productivity, without receiving any sort of…… [Read More]
"hen Congress returned in 1934 to complete the federal disclosure tapestry, it created express private causes of action for misleading reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as part of the newly enacted continuous disclosure requirements, (3) provided private recoveries for market manipulation, (4) and authorized suits on behalf of reporting companies for short-swing profits garnered by certain insiders (Cox, Thomas, and Kiku, 2003)."
The creation of the SEC as a government body for oversight arose out a recognition by the courts that private action was not enough to protect investors and consumers from the materially misleading representations of corporate America (Cox, Thomas, and Kiku, 2003). Since its creation, however, the numerous laws and regulations that have come to frame the world of corporate governance have exceeded the limits of manageable governance. By the time the SEC has identified a problem, pursued investigation of the corporate representations of…… [Read More]
It should not be treated as a separate exercise undertaken to meet regulatory requirements." (ICA, 29) Here is expressed a philosophical impetus that drives the focus of this research, that such compliance which will generally concern matters such as corporate accounting, the practice of internal oversight and the practice of financial transaction must be considered inextricable from other aspects of practical, procedural and legal operation in terms of its relevance and necessity.
The practice of corporate governance may perhaps best be understand from the perspective that deregulation has largely defined the processes and direction of the global economy across the two decades following the Cold ar and its inevitable opening of economic channels. This is because in practice, corporate governance is a concept which has suffered much neglect. To the point, the statistics availed by organizations such as the orld Bank and the International Monetary Fund illustrate that…… [Read More]
Like many of the great charismatic military leaders of the past such as Alexander the Great (Bristol 204) or General George S. Patton (Rosenback & Taylor 223; Rost 72), Gibson and Blackwell report that Kelleher is not afraid to get down in the trenches with his "troops" and endure the same types of challenges that his employees typically encounter on their jobs. Kelleher is also well-known for his insistence on allowing his employees to identify appropriate solutions to the problems with which they are most familiar, just as George Patton was fond of saying, "Never tell people how to do things, tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity" (Valle 1999:245). In addition, both Alexander the Great and General Patton were famous for leading their troops into battle and for being willing to suffer the same types of deprivations and make the same personal sacrifices…… [Read More]
America- Democracy or Plutocracy?
The United States of America is often hailed as the first and greatest modern democracy in the world. Most Americans believe that the United States is the example the rest of the world should emulate, and that it offers its citizens the power to make decisions through its free and fair elections. Yet at the same time, others say that the United States of America has ceased to be a democracy and instead become a plutocracy. A plutocracy is a state that is ruled by the wealthiest people, rather than by free and fair elections in which all citizens have an equal voice. Recent political developments have caused fear from those who believe the United States is moving toward plutocracy, but at the same time, other equally important developments have shown that it remains, at least for the time being, a democracy.
Although the United States…… [Read More]
According to prior research studies, plagiarism is not just appearing in the academic environment. Now, plagiarism is being seen in corporate America as a way to "adjust" information that might otherwise seem unfavorable to stakeholders, higher-ups, or others who will be provided information regarding something to do with the company. Financial issues are often a part of the plagiarism issue, but there are other concerns that are not related to the company's finances. No matter what concerns a corporation has, it should be honest about those concerns and not attempt to cover them up with dishonesty of any kind. There are other dishonest practices other than plagiarism that are used in corporations today, but plagiarism is one of the more common problems that is discovered. It appears to be acceptable until it is discovered, and it is important that the researcher examines just how much plagiarism is permeating…… [Read More]
Market Forces on Corporate Values
In corporate settings, corporate values are today being affected by market forces relating to diversity and changes in demographics in America.
Employers have begun to recognize the need to address the new face of the workplace and the new diversity caused by the shift in demographics.
They have made strides to diversify the workplace and make the new demographics of their business place work just as well, if not better, than before. Part of the reason they have done so is because if they do not do so, it would affect their bottom line.
One of example of the new complexity of the workforce is that today's workers are much more diverse in age than in years past.
Workers in a company not only span the range from late teens to post-retirement age, but in many cases, executives at the same level in the company…… [Read More]
Managed care and utilization review (U) play an integral part in patient care and reimbursement (Mahmoud, E and ice, G, 1998). Scott echoes it experts Brian P. Bloomfield, od Coombs, David Knights, and Dale Littler (2000), who say:
IT system enjoys what one might call a special relationship with esource Management. Its role as depicted in the review is one centred on the improvements and furtherance of a 'balanced' dialogue between doctors and managers. A corollary of this is that it must be neutral politically speaking (see Bloomfield 1995). Thus the review authorizes the introduction of the new it system by subordinating it to the cause of dialogue between doctors and managers. The review represents the information requirements of hospital doctors and management and thereby portrays the it system as fulfilling a preexisting need. The narrative structure here is founded on the discovery of a state of readiness on the…… [Read More]
Corporate Social Action of McDonald's and the Problem of Obesity
Corporate Social Responsibility
This paper proposes a corporate social action to McDonald's to address the issue of obesity among general consumers which is caused by high-calorie and spicy fast foods. The paper starts by highlight some research studies which explain how fast foods cause obesity among children and adults, and proceeds by discussing why McDonald's should take an initiative to remove this criticism by the local and international community. The paper also highlights the strategies to implement this action plan, the intended outcomes and affected stakeholders, the constituent parts of the plan, and unintended consequences or weaknesses of this initiative by the company.
The Social Problem:
Obesity is one of the major issues in health care. It gives rise to various heart diseases, diabetes, and other health related consequences (orld Heart Federation). A number of research studies have been conducted…… [Read More]
America's Cuban Conundrum
The Helms-Burton Act and the Cuban-American Trade Relations
The United States and Cuba have had increased amounts of hostility toward each other present in their relations ever since the Cuban revolution. Not only did Cuba nationalize property held by U.S. interests during the revolution, but also Cuba became an ally to Russia during the Cold ar; which was critical to the Soviet strategy since Cuba is in close proximity to the U.S. Both actions consequently undermined the stated values of the American free-market system in regards to America's corporate holdings in the country. This tension has furthermore been manifested by blatantly vocal opposition on both sides of the dispute. In this paper such ongoing tension will be illustrated by one of the most timely and extreme examples of hostility in foreign relations as well as propose an avenue for future trade arrangements.
Cuban Pretexts for Military Action…… [Read More]
Corporate Mergers and the Public Good
The United States of America, during the last years of the Nineteenth Century, witnessed a rash of corporate mergers. The Industrial Revolution had taken firm hold, and the nation was changing rapidly. Millions of Americans who had once been independent farmers or tradesmen now found themselves in the position of what some termed "wage slaves." At the mercy of their corporate employers, they worked long hours at low pay, and often under appalling conditions. The reasons for the merger mania of this period are many and complex, as are its effects upon the population as a whole. In breaking down the traditional vocational environment, the gigantic new conglomerates also transformed the entire social landscape. ork was no longer a family business shared by all generations. Communities no longer clung together for mutual protection and aid. Suddenly, the citizen of this new world was out…… [Read More]
As some queries about corporate governance were there ever since 1932 - the period of erle and Means, the expression of the concept of Corporate Governance was not found in English vocabulary until 25 years ago. However, in the previous two decades, matters relating to corporate governance have gained importance in academic literature as well as in public policy deliberations. Corporate governance came to be acknowledged as being synonymous with takeovers, financial restructuring, and activities of institutional investor's during this part of the era. Corporate Governance is now at a turning point. Several budding and up-coming economies that are on the path of development have identified by now that excellent corporate governance is vital for sustainable economic development. Furthermore, a lot are on the lookout for a novel or appropriate standard for making it relevant for their particular internal situation. (erle and Means, 1932)
The last ten years…… [Read More]
Additionally, it has been observed that whenever companies implement strategies of CS, they do this not out of individual choice and desire, but as a result of imposed legislations. "All of these decisions are made under the mandatory legal rules embodied in employment and labor law, workplace safety law, environmental law, consumer protection law, and pension law. Such rules, because they often apply to all businesses, are not susceptible to easy evasion through choice of form. As a result, those charged with governing a corporation find their decision tree considerably trimmed and their discretion decidedly diminished by mandatory legal rules enacted in the name of protecting stakeholders" (Winkler, 2005). In other words, the modern day evolutions of corporate social responsibility "caution against a rush to declare the ultimate triumph of shareholder primacy" (Winkler, 2005).
As a direct result of this changing legislation, more companies have commenced corporate social responsibility programs.…… [Read More]
Both proposals were consequently amended and eventually accepted by the SEC.
The audit committee makes sure that the books aren't being cooked and that shareholders are properly informed of the financial status of the firm. Characteristically, the audit committee advocates the CPA firm that will audit the company's books, appraises the activities of the company's independent accountants and internal auditors, and reviews the company's internal control systems and its accounting and financial reporting requirements and practices. The compensation committee usually does the following: (1) recommends the selection of the CEO, (2) reviews and approves the appointment of officers who report directly to the CEO, (3) reviews and approves the compensation of the CEO and the managers reporting to the CEO, and (4) administers the stock compensation and other incentive plans. The suggested committee establishes experience for potential directors (Lunnie, 2007; pg. 90). It also puts collectively a list of candidates…… [Read More]
A human rights organization would vehemently disagree with the self-interested shareholder supporters of sweatshops and state that merely because workers are desperate and are willing to accept lower wages is no reason for Nike to take advantage of such desperation. Nike keeps wages low, rather than driving them up in the context of the local economy. For only a few pennies more, Nike could pay the workers a much fairer wage, and if American consumers were only willing to pay a bit more, the overall economic health of the developing world might be improved. Also, by using the developed world as a source of cheap labor, no local industry and entrepreneurship is stimulated -- local industries cannot compete against Nike, and Nike essentially uses the developing nation as a colonial outpost, rather than makes a contribution to the nation's economic progress by building its infrastructure like a local company might…… [Read More]
In summary, we recommend that the IESBA reconsiders the proposals in the Exposure Draft and provides more guidance on safeguards applicable to sole practitioners and small accounting firms to ensure that the benefits of the changes outweigh the costs to SMEs. Under a principle-based approach, there should be safeguards and practical relief for all practitioners rather than rules-based outright prohibitions. The rewrite of this Independence component of the Code is substantially rules-based rather than principles-based. In this regard, we also encourage the IESBA to prioritize the redrafting of the entire Code using a similar drafting convention to that used by the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board in its Clarity project" (IESBA Exposure Draft of Sections 290 and 291 of the Code of Ethics on Independence - Proposed Additional equirements in relation to Internal Audit Services, elative Size of Fees and Contingent Fees 2007).
There will also be an all-time…… [Read More]
Corporate Strategies: Why are they so Important?
What is your biggest Professional Accomplishment?
Organizational Design and Culture
The 80s and Deregulation
The Election of Barack Obama
US rise as a world super power
Dominoes use the strategy by depending on the population and household. They believe that the population and household income are what needs to help when it comes to figuring out if people are willing to pay the pizza price and how much is the request for pizza. They think that this method is important because the population is what helps figuring out the demand for pizza as a consequence of the law of the demand, the bigger population the greater the demand. The household income will help likewise for the reason that the more disposable income the more individuals will purchase a common good. However, Pizza is…… [Read More]
Such problems are not overcome easily, but in time and with sustained efforts. To better understand my standpoint of defending the bailouts, consider what would have happened had the TAP never been implemented. All of the companies would have commenced bankruptcy procedures and the millions of workers they were employing would have been fired. At a first level, the state would have had to offer those former employees social aid. Then, the national purchasing power would have decreased even more, to impact the national demand and the national production. Also, the country's competitive position within the global market would have decreased dramatically. Overall then, while the bailouts may not have been fairly and efficiently allocated and while they did not revive the economy immediately, they did prevent it from taking an even more damaging turn.
Haugen, D., 2010, Bailout Money Should Not Be Used to Pay Executive Bonuses, Detroit:…… [Read More]
Henry W. Chesbrough uses this exact notion of "permeable boundary," when he gives his definition of open innovation: "In the open innovation model a company commercialises both its own ideas as well as innovations from other firms and seeks ways to bring its in house ideas to market by deploying pathways outside its current business. Note that the boundary between the company and its surrounding environment is porous, enabling innovations to move more easily between the two." (MIT Sloan Management Review: The era of open innovation, Henry W. Chesbrough) Having this in mind Procter and Gamble created their "Connect and Develop" innovation model.
In order for "Connect and Develop" to become what Procter and Gamble envisioned the company realized it was of the outmost important not to use time and valuable resources on ideas that may be interesting at first but later on prove to have no concrete, specific application.…… [Read More]
Unfortunately many aspects of modern American society threaten individual liberties. For example, the disparity between the rich and the poor in American society impacts the level of freedom enjoyed by certain segments of the population. The "freedom" to pay workers a pittance in order to increase profits in a large corporation is therefore not really a "freedom" at all. Therefore, it is up to the government and to the people who support it to ensure that the rights and freedoms of all persons are preserved. Similarly, when religious institutions hope to influence public policy, they inadvertently infringe on the rights and freedoms of the American people. Even if well-meaning, religious institutions cannot bind people in a free society to do what they do or believe what they believe. Morals are a reflection of common sense and education, not of specific religious values. Therefore, the government cannot bend its legislation to…… [Read More]
America has never been a nation to create solutions to problems that have yet to occur. The prevailing wisdom was that terrorism and the need for a unified intelligence gathering community geared specifically to detect and protect against terrorism was uneccessary because terrorism simply wasn't an American problem. This reasoning however has been proven to have been extremely naive. In the wake of 9/11, our nation has come to the very real understanding that bureaucratic infighting, territorial law and intelligence agencies, and a total complacence on the part of the U.S. citizenry left us wide open for attacks. All of the security measures now in place or being considered (all of which in some part are in place in virtually every other western nation) could have been in place long ago and could have prevented 9/11. But, as our government does not spend money on possibilities but rather in responses,…… [Read More]
Mothers -- Transitioning from elfare to Corporate America
elfare in the United States is both a complex and controversial subject. The issue focuses on several aspects of public policy: economics, cultural diversity, actualization, incentives, education/training, taxation and even the actual role of the government. e first begin this study with an overview of the idea of a state welfare system, its origins, development, purpose, and particularly view the manner in which the welfare system has changed since the Great Depression. It is then important to understand the implications of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) and the change in attitude and policy regarding welfare, and the newer focus on finding ways to train, retrain, or educate those on welfare so they can find gainful employment -- particularly those who move into the corporate world. Challenges, interventions, and potential outcomes are examined, among which looking at the juxtaposition between the fiscal…… [Read More]
Rahm Emmanuel, the son of an Israeli immigrant, fits the elite 'profile' less well but was highly prominent in the Clinton Administration, thus reflecting a 'hold over' of power rather than a radical break with the previous Republican administration. Emmanuel also has an MA from Northwestern University. Obama senior advisor David Axelrod was a prominent member of the Chicago media and has a degree from the University of Chicago. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner is a career civil servant. Geithner is also the former President of the Fed of New York State, where the financial industry of the nation is based (Pijanowski 2010).
hile members of the current Democratic-lead cabinet may have more public policy and legal expertise than corporate experience, overall Domhoff's thesis seems to receive at least some support, given their biographies. Additionally, while recent Latina Supreme Court appointee Sonya Sotomayor might seem to be a deviation from an…… [Read More]
Stakeholder Approach to Corporate Responsibility
This essay examines the question of whether adopting a stakeholder approach is a sufficient means of assuring that corporations meet their moral responsibilities due society. The essay includes a survey of the literature on the subject.
Any discussion of the effectiveness of stakeholder theory must address who and what are considered stakeholders. R. Edward Freeman (1984) defines stakeholders as "any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization's objectives." Clarkson (1994) provides a narrower definition, based on the stakeholder's status as voluntary or involuntary risk-bearer: "Voluntary stakeholders bear some form of risk as a result of having invested some form of capital, human or financial, something of value, in a firm. Involuntary stakeholders are placed at risk as a result of a form's activities. But without the element of risk there is no stake." Clearly this position has…… [Read More]
Many people think only of weapons when they think of military supplies, but these individuals have all of the same basic needs as everyone else, and these needs must be met or these soldiers will not be able to defend the country to the highest degree possible (Taylor, 2004). Anticipatory logistics, therefore, helps not only the soldiers that get what they need when they need it, but also makes the whole country less vulnerable.
Because supply chain management, in its modified form, works so well for the military, it is only logical that the anticipatory logistics, in a modified form, would work well for the corporate world. The similarities between the anticipatory logistics and the supply chain management are already very strong, and therefore they can both be adjusted to suit the needs of the opposite groups. ith some small changes to focus on profit instead of mission completion, anticipatory…… [Read More]
Public elations (Corporate social responsibility)
The term 'Corporate Social esponsibility' refers to the social responsibility that a Company must honor towards the public, especially those people who have direct contact with and are therefore directly affected by the policies and actions of the company. The feeling that the social responsibility of multi-national companies are not of such standards that would satisfy the general public has lead to widespread protests and demonstrations against these companies at almost every free-trade meeting at the regional and national as well as the multi-national levels. The protests are also generally against worldwide globalization. Almost all major multinational companies are found lacking in their responsibilities towards the public. It is not at all sufficient for a company to satisfy its shareholders and investors and employees and the community in which they function from; in fact, these companies are expected to be aware of and take an…… [Read More]
However, because of the costliness of this requirement, many believe it is especially unfair to small businesses who are already struggling to be competitive in an increasingly hypercompetitive, globalized economy.
As such, small, public companies have been given a temporary reprieve from some of Section 404's strict and costly requirements. In addition, there have been new guidelines set forth for auditors, with a hopes of reducing the cost of compliance of the Section, for all companies (Basilio, 2007; Grumet, 2007).
Bradford and Brazel (2007) note that these costs due indeed seem to be decreasing. In research they quote from AM, organizations spent $4.5 million on compliance with the Act, in 2004. This was reduced to $3.8 million in 2005, and further decreased to $2.9 million in 2006.
However, despite these decreasing total costs of compliance, the Act is still a costly requirement for public companies. Bradford and Brazel (2007) further…… [Read More]
Ethical esponsibility of Corporate America
Many organizations strive to increase their profit margins by doing everything possible (including unethical practices) to increase their revenues. Nevertheless, the past three decades have seen some organizations embracing CS (Corporate Social responsibility). This idea has become significantly important to almost every organization that seeks to increase revenues. Corporate social responsibility is also referred to as community responsibility, stewardship, corporate sustainability, corporate responsibility, accountability and corporate ethics among others. In essence, CS enable organizations to bring in people and the environment into their decisions, strategies and plans (Anyango Ooko, 2014).
In this paper, the use of the term corporate social responsibility will mean a set of actions by enterprises that are geared towards meeting the legal, ethical, economic, and discretional responsibilities that the stakeholders expect them to fulfill. They should undertake the economic obligations of producing profits, and meeting the consumption requirements of the people;…… [Read More]
SAS Number 99 and the Corporate Audit
This report attempts to explain how the new SAS No.99 will change the way accounting firms will be required to conduct corporate audits. News about the collapse of Enron continues to dominate the American media circuits and in the wake of the now infamous Enron accounting scandal, accounting firms will be required to pay more attention then ever. Since the recent American Institute of Certified Public Accounts issue of SAS 99, the approach of auditors in the United States will for ever more be greatly enhanced. ith SAS 99 for example, external auditors will be required to discuss and gather facts with internal auditors. As of SAS 99, corporate America will now be required to monitor and share the findings of internal auditors who may be privy to critical fraud-related data residing with their clients. SAS 99 will therefore provide new opportunities for…… [Read More]
Basically, she is confronting the issue of role ambiguity. Is it really her job to monitor corporate ethics and compliance or should she simply wait until her manager hangs himself through his own carelessness? This introduces another stressor that she faces, that is, one of career development. Turning her boss in jeopardizes her upward mobility.
Ambiguity and threat to her career are big factors. The interpersonal relationships she has developed after the department down-sizing have become that much stronger and she feels that she may be putting her group members in jeopardy as well as herself. They have become so close partly because of the job conditions where they have had to operate independently of their mostly absent manager.
In summary, what makes this case so pertinent is that it really happened in the recent past. The ethical issues are genuine and are faced on a daily basis by…… [Read More]
outsourcing from an employee and corporate perspective in an attempt to gain insight into the pros and cons of the outsourcing issue. The researcher proposes that outsourcing is morally and ethically an objectionable practice, that results in little benefit to the company and much harm to the employees it affects. A formal review of the literature available with regard to outsourcing is analyzed, and the case against outsourcing is made. The researcher shows how outsourcing impacts workers in a negative manner, goes against the moral and ethical standards inherent in business and proves that outsourcing will ultimately result in dissatisfaction for corporations in the long-term.
From a moral and ethical standpoint, outsourcing is wrong and has negative consequences on both employees and the productivity and efficiency of corporations in the long-term. From a practical standpoint, corporations that rush to outsource job functions realize few returns on their investment and…… [Read More]
Corporate Social esponsibility
The purpose of this case study is close synopsis of the Enron case and its impact on consumers and corporate business practices alike. Prior to its collapse Enron had been named one of America's top 10 admired corporations, and its boards "was acclaimed one of the U.S.' best five" (eed, 2004). Throughout the 1990s the company experienced tremendous growth and profits exceeding $180 billion, employing more than 30,000 people worldwide (eed, 2004).
Enron collapsed however and went bankrupt, a process that "outraged and impacted stakeholders tremendously and resulted in numerous congressional investigations" (eed, 2004). The "implosion" of the company "wreaked havoc on accounting like no other case in American history; the collapse of the system called into question the adequacy of U.S. disclosure practices and the integrity of independent audit processes" (Thomas, 2002).
Overview of the Case
In October of 2001 Enron executives announced they were taking…… [Read More]
This is too simple a solution. An analysis of the corporate strategies shows that the flaw in the lack of any ethics in the formulation of these strategies is greater the culprit and the corporate executives that were responsible for the development of these flawed strategies, lacking in ethics were more to blame than a few leaders in the organization. (Leadership: Facing Moral and Ethical Dilemmas)
In conclusion a corporate executive may choose to employ ethical and moral values at the time of formulating corporate strategies, but should he choose to ignore the immense good that morals and ethics bring to a corporate strategy he does at not just his peril but puts at risk the whole organization with the chances of it collapsing like Enron very high.
Ethics Must Come From the Top. Jacksonville Business Journal. August 27, 2004. etrieved from http://www.foley.com/publications/pub_detail.aspx?pubid=2226Accessed on March 3,
Implementing Ethics Strategies…… [Read More]
America has been blamed for its implementation of imperialistic strategies, which made it the major decider in the global economy and the primary generator of the changes in the work characteristics. The activists and other protestors argued that the American model of forced democracy, which extended beyond the boundaries of the state, hurt the freedom of the countries with which the U.S. was interacting, but also that of the American workers, who were often prevented from forming unions that would protect their rights (Friedberg and owley, 2000).
Democracy allowed the U.S. employers to take the actions they considered suitable for the achievement of their profitability goals; this often activated in the detriment of the employees' interest. But despite this however, democracy also allowed the dissatisfied workers to voice their concerns and, through freedom of speech, they were able to join forces and demand the resolution of their stringent issues. The…… [Read More]
Business Level and Corporate Level Strategies
Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies
General Motors business level and corporate level strategies
General Motors (GM) is a company based in the United States with its headquarters in Detroit, Michigan. GM is a publicly traded company that is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. GM designs, manufactures, distributes, and markets vehicle parts and vehicles (Laudon & Laudon, 2011). The company also sells financial services. GM acquired the title for the world's largest automaker in 2011. It managed to do this by achieving the highest number of unit sales in vehicles since its establishment. For 77 consecutive years, GM was able to lead the global automobile unit sales from 1931 to 2007. However, GM lost this position to Toyota with GM coming second. Toyota still dominates the market. The preference and needs of the customers are the focus of a company's core competencies. In a…… [Read More]
The corporate level strategy of General Mills is the horizontal growth strategy. Imperatively, horizontal growth is accomplished by expanding its business operations into other geographic expanses or by expanding the range of products as well as services being offered in the prevailing market. In this regard, General Mills has expanded its business operations not just in the United States but also internationally and increasing its wide range of products retailed in its stores. The generic Porter strategy followed by General Mills is the differentiation focus strategy. This is in the sense that the company strives to accomplish differentiation in its target segment (Porter, 1985). This is largely owing to the fact that the company deals with different products within its segment including cereals, frozen vegetable, fruit, dry dinners, frozen pizza as well as pizza snacks, and an extensive range of organic products (Forbes, 2018). The strategic choices of…… [Read More]
Regional Strategy on Somalia
Endstate: Describe the desired U.S. endstate for Somalia.
The Comprehensive Regional Strategy for Somalia was developed within the context of America's policy for Horn of Africa countries as well as Arabian Peninsula countries. The report was also developed on the premise that Somalis have a tremendous opportunity to redevelop their country after over a dozen years. The redevelopment initiatives are also focused on restoration of representative and effective central governance institutions. This opportunity emerges after the several years of internal conflicts and fight in Somalia, which hindered national development and affected the ability of the country to establish effective central governance institutions. America's policy towards Somalia based on its strategy for engagement is geared towards taking advantage of this opportunity through working with Somalis to promote national development and central national governance.
Consequently, the desired United States endstate for Somalia is to remove the threat of…… [Read More]
Moffett, M.H., Stonehill A.I., & Eitemen, D.K. (2012).
Fundamentals of multinational finance (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
In completing these assignments the university requires that you follow APA guidelines and include (in-text citations) in preparing all works, citations, and references.
Each essay question response should be numbered, answered separately, and be at least 200 words (each question) in length but should be submitted as one file.
Some information has been added to responses. Please ONLY add to these responses and format correctly.
In your own words, contrast international financial management with domestic finance.
International financial management and domestic finance share many commonalities. Each deals with interest rates and making the best financial use of assets. However, in international financial management the primary difference is that there is also interest rate risk and risks associated with exchanges. When currencies float, the rate can be subject to volatile movements. For example,…… [Read More]
CS and Green Marketing
Green Marketing and Corporate Social esponsibility
This essay examines green marketing and corporate social responsibility practices. In particular, the paper examines the practice of greenwashing, and discusses companies' willingness to exploit green marketing for competitive advantage. The essay also reviews the legitimate use of green marketing as a means of promoting responsible environmental stewardship.
Green marketing involves the promotion of products that are marketed as being environmentally safe or beneficial. The practice had its beginnings in Europe in the early 1980s when certain products were found to be harmful to the earth's atmosphere. As a result, new types of products were created, called green products, which were less damaging to the environment. The green product movement grew quickly in the United States and has continued growing steadily ever since (Green Marketing, 2011).
Also known as sustainable marketing, environmental marketing, and ecological marketing, green marketing consists of…… [Read More]
Health policy issues are now becoming more contentious throughout the world. The advent of the internet has created a much needed awareness of human rights and liberties. No longer are countries able to fully sheath society from information. A critical component of this information relates directly to health care and the overall well-being of societies constituents. Policy issues relating to health are now becoming paramount to voters and decisions makers. The Affordable Care Act is one of many illustrations that detail the desire for universal healthcare for all. In addition, many countries are mandating a standard health care system for all of their citizens irrespective of socio-economic status. Although costly, it appears that many constituents are willing to pay for the ability to extend healthcare to all. Outside the universal healthcare within individual countries, many are now looking to address worldwide health epidemics. Aspects such as food shortages, proper treatment…… [Read More]
Combating Digital Crime & Digital Terrorism
"Describe the overall impact (e.g. economic, social, etc.) of utilizing technologies in combating digital crime and digital terrorism"
It has become very obvious over the past few years that the United States' technologies that are supposed to combat cyber attacks on corporate, personal, and government computers are enormously ineffective. Some would say that is an understatement. This paper discusses ways to combat cyber crime and cyber terrorism. There is good reason why this subject needs addressing not just in college research papers but by the agencies that are supposed to protect Americans and the U.S. government and its employees (including the Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Secret Service, the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, among others).
hy better digital crime prevention is imperative
In fact one of the most devastating digital attacks on U.S. government computers occurred earlier in June, as hackers linked…… [Read More]
While every American wants to believe that America is the greatest country, the reality is that in order to be the greatest, a country has to work hard at it. That means having the best systems, and constantly working to improve the country in all aspects. There are some things that America does better than any other country, to be sure. But using many objective measures, it is clear that there are ways in which America stands to improve its performance. Indeed, looking at this issues is a critical component of keeping America on top. A country that buys into the rhetoric that it is the greatest will start to believe its own hype. That country will start to think that it will always be the greatest, just by showing up. But nations all over the world are working hard to make themselves better, and as a result many…… [Read More]
opportunity to make America a better nation.
I left my home country of Indonesia when I was 23 years old. I didn't leave because I wanted to; I left because I had to.
See, as a Catholic growing up in a Muslim dominated country I was exposed to discrimination and religious persecution. Threats of violence against my family and I were not uncommon.
I say this knowing that not all Muslims are bad people. In fact, growing up some of my best friends were people of Islamic faith. However, when religious extremism begins to dominate a society and inform the cultural milieu, it's bad for everyone who lives there, but it's often particularly hard on women. This is what happened in my hometown. Things got ugly, really ugly.
So my parents saved up every dime and nickel they had and bought me a one-way ticket to America. The hope…… [Read More]
Corporation Changed from Early 19th to 21st Century?
Corporate Change Over Two Centuries
Corporations today manifest a singularity of focus on earnings that enables them to slice unencumbered through consideration for outcomes that do not directly impact profit margins. In the book, The Corporation, Joel Bakan asserts that:
"The corporation's legally defined mandate is to pursue, relentlessly and without exception, its own self -- interest, regardless of the harmful consequences it might cause to others" (Bakan, 2005, p. 9)
Bakan argues that the institutional imperatives of corporations, coupled with their seemingly boundless capacity to become more powerful fosters a pathological orientation to doing business that poses grave economic, political, and social danger. Bakan's theory will serve as the primary touchstone in this exploration of the influence of corporate power on politics and the economy.
The first section of this paper centers on a discussion about the ways in which the…… [Read More]
America still welcomes terrorists, criminals, & other foreign menaces
The September 11 attacks have changed the ways Americans view the security and violence situation within their territory. Dramatic changes have been made in connection with security in the ports (land, sea and air); immigration laws; buying residency and citizenship, as well as visas. However, many experts assert that the security situation has worsened from where it had been before 9/11. Instead of reducing bureaucratic procedures and the loopholes associated with it and increasing the efficiency of the present workforce through accountability and checks and balances, the government has done exactly the opposite. This research paper is primarily focused on terrorism, and how we continue to allow it to happen to us. How the September 11 terrorists exploited U.S. immigration laws. How government officials sell residency & citizenship papers. How people from other countries are rushed through airport without proper screening…… [Read More]
Collapse of the Big Three
America was once the leader and pioneer in the auto industry, a title that the country had for decades and a title that was so dear to America's heart that it was unfathomable to think that title might ever be lost. It's commonly misconstrued that America invented the automobile, when in reality that honor goes to German Karl Benz in 1885 (ozema, 2010). "Americans did, however, industrialize the love of the automobile. America loves big, fast cars, and for many decades American car companies shared the biggest slice of the auto industry pie" (ozema, 2010). America made having a car and the business of making cars firmly entrenched in American culture. This was a fact which kept the economy stimulated and which provided a consistent level of financial stability for the nation and the civilians within it. However the decade of the eighties marked the…… [Read More]
For example, Shu-Acquaye (2007) cites the basic differences in the legal systems in various parts of the world as contributing to the different approaches to corporate governance. Likewise, Shu-Acquaye cites these differences and adds, "The American corporate governance system adheres to the idea of shareholder primacy. Because the United Kingdom, Austria, and Canada share a legal system based on English common law and equity principles, they are similar to the United States -- shareholder primacy is the predominant norm in each of these countries."
By sharp contrast, other countries such as Japan and Germany are characterized by stronger protection for their employees, creditors, and other nonshareholder stakeholders in general, representing examples of a stakeholder-orientated system. In their book, the Control of Corporate Europe, Barca and Becht point out that, "Germany has always had a prominent place in the international corporate governance debate. The country is among the largest and richest…… [Read More]
Progressivism began as a social movement and evolved into a political movement, according to materials published by George Washington University (www.gwu.edu). Early in the social movement progressives were concerned about poverty, racism, greed and "class warfare," and they believed that those problems could be best addressed through education, a safer environment, and a workplace that was fair and safe (www.gwu.edu). Who were those considered to be progressives? The George Washington University narrative explains that they live "mostly in the cities," they had graduated from colleges and universities, and their beliefs included the belief that "…government could be a tool for change" -- and among the most vocal and visible social reformers / progressives were Jane Addams and journalists Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbel (www.gwu.edu).
Progressive journalists wrote investigative pieces that exposed "the evils of corporate greed" and they presented a balanced view of immigration and ethnicities, all the time "…urging…… [Read More]
Prior to their narrative on Townsend, King Solomon is described as a powerful man with grace and humility in his heart. God is said to have appeared to King Solomon in a dream, and asked him what he (Solomon) wanted to be given.
Now Solomon could well have asked for some glittering gifts and for more power. But he didn't; he asked for "wisdom," the authors explain. "I am only a little child and do not know how to carry out my duties. So give your servant a discerning heart...for who is able to govern this great people of yours?" Solomon is reported to have said. Impressed by Solomon's humility, God gave Solomon "...everything else he might have wished for" like honor, wealth, a long life, and yes, the "wise and discerning heart he has asked for."
Back to Townsend, who was also praised for willingly, openly admitting the mistakes…… [Read More]
hypothetical firm -- Pharmacare -- and address the issues of corporate responsibility and ethics.
Background Information on Case
New Jersey-based company, Pharmacare (We CARE about YOUR health®) counts among the leading pharmaceutical firms across the globe. It is reputed for being an ethical, well-managed and caring corporation that manufactures superior-quality products aimed at saving the lives of millions and enhancing the QOL (quality of life) of millions of other people. Its offering constitutes discounted and free medicines to people with low income. Furthermore, the company has a charity sponsoring scholarships and health education programs. Pharmacare's Chief Executive is a Phrma (Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America) board member (Background Information). A short while ago, the organization commenced a novel program "We CARE about YOUR world®" in which it vows to adopt green practices such as recycling and packaging changes to demonstrate its responsibility to safeguard the environment. This step has…… [Read More]
Business Society and Corporate Values
There has indeed been a great deal of discussion regarding CEO compensation, which is rightly viewed as being completely out of line. The core problem and cause of inflated CEO salaries cannot be attributed to a single reason, but is rather the result of a range of inter-connected factors. What is definitive is the fact that these salaries have inflated over time; this is in part due to the fact that greed is a progressive, boundless factor. "According to the Economic Policy Institute, in the late 1970s, total compensation of chief executives in large American corporations was 35 times that of the average American worker. In 2007, it was 275 times that" (Borger, 2007). These facts alone demonstrate that there is good reason to be in a state of alarm. The reasons for such severely inflated and remarkably unjust salaries are a result of the…… [Read More]
America was not founded as a Democracy or as a Monarchy, for the educated and landed founding fathers felt assured that neither would provide the nation with rights for all and privilege for the few. America was founded as a Republic, and one might add as an ogliarchic republic at that. Those with the right gender, race, and wealth were represented through their while others were represented through the votes of their betters. Today, nearly-universal sufferage (age and past misbehavior are both barriers) assures that these factors do not determine whether a person can vote -- but an argument can still be made that the majority of the political process is determined by wealth. "The creators of America's constitution and government were among the wealthy aristocrats of their day. When they created their new government, the founders excluded democracy to the extent politically possible at the time. ..The great…… [Read More]
Corporate communications involves not just the message, but the idea that communications are managed, and are connected to corporate objectives (Cornelissen, 2004). Therefore, when communication possibilities were limited, corporate options were limited, and one did not see communications management perspectives that advocated the type of intimate connection between communications and corporate strategy that one sees in a modern context (Cornelissen, 2004). What this makes clear is that CC is not simply, or even primarily, about communications; it is an overall corporate strategy that helps define how a corporation interacts with the world.
The emphasis on communication is very different from how corporations were traditionally, historically structured. Traditionally, strategic planning occurred at the top of the corporate structure, management was considered a mid-level activity, and operational control was the function of first-level management, and this corporate strategy was used in most workplaces (Oliver, 1997). However, as institutional hierarchies were challenged and…… [Read More]
" (Kotler and Lee 2005, p.3). Since this study was published, the contributions have steadily increased making CS an integral part of every major company today.
A report by Price Water Cooper House in 2010 shows that the CS initiatives and reporting has increased despite the sagging economy and this points to a positive change in the mindset of the management of companies. "PWC explains that such reports have become critical to a company's credibility, transparency and endurance." (Business & the Environment 2010, p.5). The reduced role of the Government in business circles is only going to further increase this trend because companies feel they have an obligation to the society at large and they want to make this country a better place for living. All this is done out of their own interest and initiative rather than any force by any external institution. Also, many companies understand the significance…… [Read More]
The company showed a global reach early, adding numerous language versions around the world. In 2000, the company reached 18 million search queries per day and officially became the world's largest search engine ("Google, Inc." paras. 11-14).
The company now sought to address its need for income by introducing a keyword-targeted advertising program for another source of revenue. The company partnered with Yahoo! And with other partners, such as China's leading portal NetEast and NEC's BIGLOBE in Japan. Google introduced Adords, a self-service advertising program that could be activated with a credit card. By December of 2000, Google received more than 60 million searches per day and reached the 100-million search mark per day in 2001 ("Google, Inc." paras. 15-16).
Google as a Public Company
Google would offer an IPO of stock beginning in 2004. McShane and Von Glinow cite Google as a successful company, especially in terms of navigating…… [Read More]
This kind of competition can prove to be more effective than governmental regulations since firms are reluctant to follow government mandates.
Secondary research has been used as the main tool. Important journal articles, case studies and analyses have been included to understand the concept of CS and its use in gain competitive advantage.
ANALYSIS and DISCUSSION
Social responsibility is closely connected with concern for financial growth. According to this belief, firms seek to maximize their profits by investing in a healthy environment and other public good projects. The firms that have successfully attained the prestigious image of being socially responsible follow this ideology. These firms choose to be more socially conscious not because of any real intention of creating a healthier society but because their actions seem to influence buyer behavior in a positive manner. Companies are thus rapidly developing serious CS policies with exclusive departments dealing with this.…… [Read More]
Marketing Products in America
Marketing in America
Marketing Ethics and Legalities
Marketing ethics is a field addressing the standards and ideals defining acceptable conduct in the market (Murphy et al., 2005). Typically this will occur within the context of an organization (Murphy et al., 2005) although it also applies to the activities of the organization in the marketplace whether that is domestic or an international marketplace. Usually ethical issues and unethical issues are easily distinguished, with unethical activities arising from the pressure to measure up to performance objectives (Murphy et al., 2005) or pressure instituted by leaders within an organization to meet certain organizational goals or standards.
Marketing is not simply a matter or product development and promotion; rather it includes a balance of legal and ethical considerations to create a balanced corporate setting for an effective marketing strategy. Ethical considerations typically impact the culture of an organization and customer…… [Read More]
(BSA's Policies On Homosexuality)
The Boy Scout of America's policy on homosexuality has been revised multiple times with the most recent revision taking place in 2012.
Because of their position against homosexuality, the Boy Scouts of America have been subject to four separate lawsuits: Curran v. Mount Diablo Council of Boy Scouts of America, 952 P.2d 218 (1998), Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, 530 U.S.640 (2000), Chicago Area Council of Boy Scouts of America v. City of Chicago Commission on Human Relations, 748 N.E. 2d 759 (2001), and Boy Scouts of America v. District of Columbia Commission on Human Rights, 809 A.2d 1192 (2002). In each of these cases, homosexual men who were stripped of their leadership positions within the Boy Scouts sued the organization for discrimination and claimed that their civil rights had been violated. However, in each of these cases, it was determined that the "Boy Scouts…… [Read More]