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Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies
Every business in the modern world has to formulate and implement the best and most suitable strategy on how to conduct its operation. The choice of a business or corporate strategy significantly determines the success or failure of a business venture both in the short-run and in the long run. A suitable business or corporate strategy provides competitive advantage to a corporation, as well as the ability to effectively coordinate and arrange various activities. Many corporate strategies that an organization can choose exist, but the choice is highly influenced by its suitability and nature of the business. According to research, a business or corporate strategy may refer to a set of plans that clearly stipulates the direction an organization will pursue, and the steps it will take to achieve its goals.
Business level strategies usually represent the plans and methods a business organization uses to conduct…
Kozami, A. (2002). Business Policy and Strategic Management 2nd Edition. New Delhi: Tata Mc
Ireland, D. R, Loskisson, E.R & Hitt, A.M. (2006). Understanding Business Strategy: Concepts
and Cases. Printed in the United States of America: Thomson Publishers.
Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies
I username continue write . He / a writing style similar I pleased impressed body work I ordered. This assignment due [email protected]:59pm company I choose assignment: TIME WANE COMPANY instructions assignment.
Analysis of the business-level strategies for Time Warner Company
Business level strategy is the low level strategy applied to a division within an organization or corporation Beard & Dess, 1981.
These strategies are mostly decided by managers in the middle level responsible for the specific division. Business level strategies are focused satisfying the customer preferences and needs for the organization to make profits. Business level strategies give actions that should be taken in order to provide value to the customers, and help the organization to have a competitive advantage over its competitors. These strategies exploit core competencies in individual products. Business level strategy deals with an organization's position within the industry as compared to its…
Beard, D.W., & Dess, G.G. (1981). Corporate-Level Strategy, Business-Level Strategy, and Firm Performance. The Academy of Management Journal, 24(4), 663-688. doi: 10.2307/256169
Parent power. (1994). [Article]. Economist, 333(7883), 90-90.
Williams, J.R. (1992). How Sustainable is Your Competitive Advantage? California Management Review, 34(3), 29-51. doi: 10.2307/41167422
Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies: Nestle
Business and Corporate level Strategies Nestle
Nestle is one of the world's largest manufacturers of foods, beverages, and health care products. Incorporated in 1866 by Henry Nestle in Switzerland, it is currently present in more than 130 countries of the world. Nestle manufacturers all types of foods and beverage products that meet the 24-hour needs of the general consumers from all age groups. It has more than 500 production units and a large network of business associates around the globe. It is recognized as the top quality brand in the consumer packaged foods industry. With its wide array of products, Nestle is able to target a large customer base from all geographical, social, and demographical segments (Nestle, 2013).
Business-Level Strategies of Nestle
The three core business level strategies of Nestle include: Cost leadership, differentiation, and focus strategy. These strategies are now discussed below in…
Blythe, J., & Megicks, P. (2010). Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall
Ellwood, I. (2002). The essential brand book: over 100 techniques to increase brand value. 2nd Edition. London: Kogan Page
Gitman, L.J. & McDaniel, C.D. (2009). The Future of Business: the Essentials, 4th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning
Hill, C.W., & Jones, G.R. (2012). Strategic Management Theory, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning
Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies: The Coca-Cola Company
Business level and corporate level strategies
This paper analyzes the business-level and corporate-level strategies of the Coca-Cola Company in order to identify the most important strategies which have contributed to its success in the past and can help it in competing effectively in the long run. An analysis of its competitive environment has also been done in a view to assess and compare the strategies which other industry rivals are using to compete in the slow and fast cycle environments.
The Coca-Cola Company
The Coca-Cola Company is the world's largest manufacturer and distributor of beverage products. It is an American multinational corporation engaged in the manufacturing, promotion, and distribution of a wide range of beverages; including soft drinks, fruit juices and sodas, sparkling energy and sports drinks, mineral water, soy-based beverages, coffees, yogurt drinks, and tea. The Coca-Cola Company has more than 3,500…
Hill, C.W., & Jones, G.R. (2010). Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach, 9th Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2013). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization - Concepts, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning
Sharp, B.M., Bergh, D.D., & Li, M. (2013). "Measuring and Testing Industry Effects in Strategic Management Research: An Update, Assessment, and Demonstration," Organizational Research Methods January, 16 (1): 43-66.
The Coca-Cola Company, (2013). Our Company. Retrieved on May 8th, 2013, from
Business Level Corporate Level Strategies
Business-Level Corporate-Level Strategies
Analyze the business-level strategies
Analyze the corporate-level strategies
Analyze the competitive environment
Difference in slow-cycle and fast-cycle markets
The corporate strategy of a business is based on the vision and mission of the entity. It also lays a foundation stone for business and functional strategies. The industry sector specific to the business is also influential factor in developing strategies for a specific corporation. Diversification in related and unrelated product lines as well as expansion through geographic presence enables the organization to capitalize on profits. The sections below highlight the Kellogg's corporate and business strategy. It also investigates the industry competitors of the business and their strategy. The fast and slow cycle markets are also discussed with respect to their relatedness in strategy.
Kellogg's is one of the famous brands in food processing industry. The business has not only created new line…
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2012). Strategic Management Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization. USA: CengageBrain.
Kellogg's (n.d.). Our best days are yours. Retrieved from http://www.kelloggs.com/en_US/our-history.html
Lussier, R.N. (2011). Management fundamentals: Concepts, applications, skill development. USA: CengageBrain.
Business- And Corporate-Level Strategies
Samsung Business-Level and Corporate Level Strategies
Business organizations employ business-level and corporate-level strategies to compete in the marketplace. Business-level strategies are strategies aimed at creating value for the customer and achieving competitive advantage in the marketplace. Corporate-level strategies on the other hand are strategies that affect the organization as a whole -- they inform the overall strategic direction of the firm (Hill & Jones, 2012). This paper analyzes Samsung Electronics' (Samsung) business-level and corporate-level strategies. Following a brief background of the company, the paper describes the business-level and corporate-level strategies the company uses, and which strategies are most important for the long-term success of the company. The paper also compares Samsung to its major competitor (Apple Inc.) and considers the implications of business strategy in slow-cycle and fast-cycle markets.
Samsung Electronics is a division of the Korean global business conglomerate Samsung Group. The conglomerate…
Beard, D., & Dess, G. (1981). Corporate-level, business-level strategy, and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 24(4), 663-688.
Hill, C., & Jones, G. (2012). Essentials of strategic management. 3rd edition. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Samsung. (2016). Consolidated financial statements of Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. and subsidiaries. Retrieved from http://www.samsung.com/global/ir/financial - info/audited-financial-statements/
The corporate level strategy of General Mills is the horizontal growth strategy. Imperatively, horizontal growth is accomplished by expanding its business operations into other geographic expanses or by expanding the range of products as well as services being offered in the prevailing market. In this regard, General Mills has expanded its business operations not just in the United States but also internationally and increasing its wide range of products retailed in its stores. The generic Porter strategy followed by General Mills is the differentiation focus strategy. This is in the sense that the company strives to accomplish differentiation in its target segment (Porter, 1985). This is largely owing to the fact that the company deals with different products within its segment including cereals, frozen vegetable, fruit, dry dinners, frozen pizza as well as pizza snacks, and an extensive range of organic products (Forbes, 2018). The strategic choices of…
Business Level and Corporate Level Strategies
Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies
General Motors business level and corporate level strategies
General Motors (GM) is a company based in the United States with its headquarters in Detroit, Michigan. GM is a publicly traded company that is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. GM designs, manufactures, distributes, and markets vehicle parts and vehicles (Laudon & Laudon, 2011). The company also sells financial services. GM acquired the title for the world's largest automaker in 2011. It managed to do this by achieving the highest number of unit sales in vehicles since its establishment. For 77 consecutive years, GM was able to lead the global automobile unit sales from 1931 to 2007. However, GM lost this position to Toyota with GM coming second. Toyota still dominates the market. The preference and needs of the customers are the focus of a company's core competencies. In a…
Aguinis, H., Joo, H., & Gottfredson, R.K. (2012). Performance management universals: Think globally and act locally. Business Horizons, 55(4), 385-392.
Freyssenet, M. (2011). The start of a second automobile revolution: corporate strategies and public policies. Economia e Politica Industriale.
Laudon, K.C., & Laudon, J.P. (2011). Essentials of management information systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Shimokawa, K. (2010). Japan and the global automotive industry. UPH, Shaftesbury Road: Cambridge University Press.
No strategy is absolute, of course: al-Mart carries some organic produce, in response to consumer demand, but to find a wider variety of healthy cereals made with organic grains or gluten-free breads, rather than the cheapest price of Cheerios or whole grain Coco-Puffs, a consumer must go to the pricier hole Foods that caters to his or her unique needs rather than al-Mart.
Balancing the need for differentiation and low cost can be a challenge, but Target has been able to achieve this delicate balance. Target is a low-cost department store that stocks a wide variety of products, but it also contains a number of higher-end makeup and clothing lines only found at the department chain. It offers a unique, brightly-colored and cheerful brand image with some cache of luxury, and even wealthier consumers who might blanch and entering al-Mart will happily patronize Target. Middle and lower income individuals can…
Harley, Guy. (2004). "Corporate-Level Strategy." Week 5. Retrieved 30 Aug 2008 at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:Em8-x5mRLkwJ:www.harley.net.au/TechOrgCh/TechOrgCh_Lecture_5.ppt+firm+corporate-level+strategy&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=8&gl=us&client=firefox-a
Corporate-level strategy centers its focus on determining a company's core business amid the existence of other businesses. This core business ultimately determines the company's corporate image, influencing its marketing and advertising plans and programs. An example of a company that adopts the corporate-level strategy is PepsiCo, which is primarily known as a beverage business company for its product Pepsi Cola, its core business despite the existence of its other businesses in the food and beverage industry, known also to manufacture products from brands such as Frito-Lay, Gatorade, Tropicana, and Quaker Foods.
Steven Reinemund, CEO of PepsiCo, Nobuyuki Idei, CEO of Sony Corporation, and Leonard Riggio, Chairman of the Board and CEO of Barnes & Noble, Inc. are three business leaders who are able to maintain their firm/company's leadership in the beverage, electronics, and trade books business, respectively. Their ability to identify the needs of their customers and determining their target…
Others feel Five Forces is too cumbersome in its need for data and heavy-duty analysis and does not fit today's rapidly changing, dynamic market.
So where do we go with this thought that some of today's tools may not suffice as the market moves faster and companies need these dynamic, flexible analytical tools to update their strategies?
Where Is the Field of Strategy?
Disruptive Innovation? Four actions framework? Factor conditions? Demand conditions? Preemptive strategies? Five Forces? Ten Schools? Are any of these concepts/theories new and innovative? Do they pave the path toward the future of corporate and competitive strategizing? The answer is probably yes...and no.
It is difficult to find a brand new strategizing tool or model or school that is not just a rehashed version of our current standard, and quite effective, methods to analyze strategies. One innovative strategy to arise out of an existing concept is "lue Ocean."…
Corporate Level Strategy. (2003, January). Retrieved 11-07, 2008, from BNet Business
Day, G., & Reibstein, D. (1997). Wharton on dynamic competitive strategy. Hoboken,
N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
The operations in terms of elements like supply chain, outsourcing and location of operations are clearly based/focused on areas wherein they have built up their strengths over a considerable period of time. The company began as Kaufman & Broad in 1957. (KB Home Customers Find FTC Penalties Inadequate) However over the last five years, the Earnings per share of the company had grown by 22.29%, it has had dividend growths at the rate of 26.41%. Thus it is considered as a company with have a built in speculative element of streak. This is also being shown by the price of the share which is $75.91, whereas the book value is only $24.66. (KB Home (NYSE: KBH): (www.forbes.com) After all, one should understand that the real estate prices do not shoot up and high prices may exist due to some speculative influences which are trying to take over the company and…
Global corporations are often difficult to control because they operate in various countries throughout the world. As such actions that may be illegal in some countries are perfectly legal in others. Furthermore law enforcement officials and governments do not have the power to enforce laws that are outside of their jurisdictions. These issues call into question the effectiveness mechanisms that exist to control global corporate conduct. The purpose of this discussion is to Assess the effectiveness of various mechanisms that exist to control global corporate conduct and recommend a mechanism that I believe is the most effective.
Survey of Mechanisms and their Advantages/Disadvantages
Private regulations employ civil regulations to compel transnational corporations to operate according to a certain set of standards. According to the "defining feature of civil regulation is that its legitimacy, governance and implementation is not rooted in public authority. Operating beside or around…
Fritsch, S.(2008) The UN Global Compact and the Global Governance
of Corporate Social Responsibility: ComplexMultilateralism for a More Human Globalisation? Global Society, Vol. 22, No. 1, pg. 2-26
Haufler, V. 2003 "Globalization and Industry Self-Regulation," in Governance in A Global Economy: Political Authority in Transition, Miles Kahler and David Lake, eds. Princeton University Press, 2003, p. 226
Haufler, V. 2002 The Public Role for the Private Sector, and The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance Rodney Hall and Thomas Biersteker, eds. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
In these cases, others working in those fields are the only ones who have the ability to conduct quality check to verify instances of possible fraud. Qualified doctors can analyze the work of other doctors to attest their medical malpractice. An honest lawyer who deals with related issues can understand how a fellow lawyer could have used deceitful methods to cheat a client off his money. Proficient lecturers can set good examples for students to bring out the incompetency of others. In the managerial level, well qualified professionals are the only ones who are smart enough to figure out the plots hatched by higher executives in order to use the shareholder money for personal needs. Scams in the political sector can only be challenged by opposing political parties or powerful entities like the court. The media is highly potent in this regard as they present malpractices in front…
Description of Corporate Governance [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 August 2010]
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 August 2010]
Blundell M., Explain what is meant by the principal agent problem [online] Available at:
< tutor2u.net/blog/files/Principal_Agent_Problem.pdf > [Accessed 11 August 2010]
For IBM, it took Louis Gerstner getting angry about unfulfilled opportunities for new businesses to create the EBO structure. For Nokia, the similarities with IBM are at a very high structural level, yet Nokia relies on a completely different set of processes for fostering innovation and corporate entrepreneurship. The rapidly changing world of laptop computers needed a corporate nonconformist to accomplish what carefully defined processes in Toshiba could not. In the case of Trilogy the need for creating a steady stream of significant new innovation forced the creation of a proving ground where PhDs in software and mathematics could quickly define entirely new product and business concepts.
Abetti, P (2004) - Informal corporate entrepreneurship: implications from the failure of the Concorde alloy foundry and the success of the Toshiba laptop;. J. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2004, pp. 529-545
Arthur D. Little (2002) - Developments in…
Abetti, P (2004) - Informal corporate entrepreneurship: implications from the failure of the Concorde alloy foundry and the success of the Toshiba laptop;. J. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2004, pp. 529-545
Arthur D. Little (2002) - Developments in the area of Corporate Venturing based on a global Arthur D. Little Study. December, 2002. Page 11 quoted with the Nokia graphic. Accessed from the Internet on March 30, 2007: http://www.adlittle.com/insights/studies/pdf/corporate_venturing_study_report.pdf
Garvin, D.A., & Levesque, L.C. (2006). Meeting the Challenge of Corporate Entrepreneurship Harvard Business Review, Business School Publishing. Pages 102-112.
Nunes, S. (2004). IBM research: Ultimate source for new business. Research Technology Management, 47(2), pages 20-23.
Corporate Operations Management
Corporate strategy provides long-range guidance for the whole organization. It is often expressed as a statement of its mission that defines key stakeholders and describes the overall strategy to meet objectives. Business strategy is concerned with products and services offered in the market defined at the corporate level. It defines the competitive advantage of the products and services. Functional strategy, termed operational, is where business functions make long-range plans that support the competitive advantage and incorporate corporate goals (Greasley).
The performance objectives allow the organization to measure performance in achieving strategic goals. Quality is measured by the cost of quality, speed measures time delay between customer request and receipt of product, dependability measures the consistency of promised delivery, flexibility measures ability to quickly change what it does, and cost measures profits and competitor deterrence.
3. 4. Product or service needs to flexibility to quickly meet changing customer…
Greasley, A. (n.d.). Chapter 2. In A. Greasley, Operations Management, 2nd Ed.
Moore, S. (2014). The Disadvantages of Focused Manufacturing. Retrieved from Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/disadvantages-focused-manufacturing-35836.html
Most critical is the ability to capitalize on core competencies while also alleviating any cultural conflicts inherent in pursuing any diversification strategy (Doving, Gooderham, 2008). Related diversifications are related to core competencies can be seen in many industry value chains, especially in the financial services industry (Milberg, 2008). As related diversifications reduce the cultural, system and process risk of a merger or acquisition, they have been proven empirically to be more successful in certain industries, especially financial services (Doving, Gooderham, 2008).
Erik Doving, aul N. Gooderham. (2008). Dynamic capabilities as antecedents of the scope of related diversification: the case of small firm accountancy practices. Strategic Management Journal, 29(8), 841. Retrieved August 6, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1499091871).
atrick Marren (2007). High-functioning business strategy. The Journal of Business Strategy, 28(6), 37-39. Retrieved August 7, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1369331501).
William Milberg (2008). Shifting sources…
Patrick Marren (2007). High-functioning business strategy. The Journal of Business Strategy, 28(6), 37-39. Retrieved August 7, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1369331501).
William Milberg (2008). Shifting sources and uses of profits: sustaining U.S. financialization with global value chains. Economy and Society, 37(3), 420. Retrieved August 8, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1507056611).
Ann Mooney (2007). Core Competence, Distinctive Competence, and Competitive Advantage: What Is the Difference? Journal of Education for Business, 83(2), 110-115. Retrieved August 8, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1410903891).
Merger Acquisition International Strategies
Merger, Acquisition, International Strategies
Merger, Acquisition, International Strategies
For the corporation that has acquired another company, merged with another company, or been acquired by another company, evaluate the strategy that led to the merger or acquisition to determine whether or not this merger or acquisition was a wise choice. Justify your opinion.
With around 12,000 employees, Yahoo is a multinational corporation that offers internet-based services. The company offers search engine, web portal, dictionary, email, advertising, groups, answers, video sharing and many more. The company has long series of acquisitions including Social news business Snip-it, blogging site Tumblr, Maktoob etc. one such acquisition was the purchase of Flickr. Flickr is a site for hosting images and videos. Hosting photos was a problem when Flickr was born. Not every site would let upload photos for free. People from anywhere in the world can easy access, make…
Biggs, John, (2012), "Kurrenci Is Money For The Web… With A Twist," Retrieved from:
Hinan, M., (2012), "How Yahoo Killed Flickr and Lost the Internet," Retrieved from:
However, this does not represent true innovation, and is unlikely to have a profound impact on the firm's competitors. Dippin Dots, in order to succeed, must develop ways of utilizing its core product (the dots) or the core technology of liquid nitrogen freezing, to drive innovation.
One major attempt at doing this is the Dots & Cream, a product that mixes the dots with conventional ice cream. This product solves a key issue with respect to distribution in that it allows Dippin Dots to begin distribution in grocery stores. This product utilizes the core product, but that product remains visible and within a fairly normal context for the industry. However, this innovation also detracts from the uniqueness of the dots and reduces the degree of differentiation that Dippin Dots has. In addition, such a product could conceivably be matched by competitors, as a result of poor patent protections. There is…
Patent protection is crucial to Dippin Dots' ongoing success. The company's product uniqueness is the one competitive advantage is has. At its heart, the technology used to produce the dots is fairly simple and easily replicable. Mistakes at the outset of the company's existence led to a situation where it was unable to defend its products in court against imitators. As the result of this, any ice cream maker new or established could compete directly with Dippin Dots. This represents a major threat to the company, and highlights the need for further innovation in order to maintain market position.
The evidence therefore points to Dippin' Dots as being largely unsuccessful at developing innovative new products beyond its core dots; and the company is largely unsuccessful at fending off new entrants, having failed to defend its patent in the court of law. These two elements would indicate that Dippin' Dots is at this point a relatively unsuccessful company. It has succeeded in growing at a fair strong rate to this point, a sign of success, but may face difficulty sustaining that growth in the future. Without the patent, any larger competitor can undercut Dippin' Dots on product or price, putting tremendous pressure on Dots to cut prices or develop innovations. The company's long-term success depends on being able to defend the uniqueness of its product against imitators, or on staying small enough to avoid attracting larger competition to the use of frozen ice cream dots.
The company has also failed to leverage key opportunities and address other key challenges. It was unable to get into McDonald's, despite a high profile partnership and a mutual target market. The company faced issues with respect to transportation -- the same issue that has kept it out of grocery stores. In addition, it was unable to reach a price point that customers would accept in an everyday context. The company has also failed to transfer its popularity with kids to adults, meaning that it must continually win new customers. This implies a difficult future for Dippin' Dots, should it fail to address these critical issues and develop new innovative products. The company's decline in the number of franchise outlets in 2006 is potentially a sign of these troubles, especially in light of slowing growth over the past several years. Growth was 8.4% in 2001, for example, but slid to 3.3% in 2004, followed by 2.7% in 2005 before declining sharply by 29.4% in 2006. These figures signal that the company needs to address its multiple issues in order to restore growth and success going forward.
Business and Corporate
business strategy analysis of kraft foods
Analysis of Business Level Strategy
Kraft Foods Inc. is the second largest food company in the world and makes annual revenues in excess of $54 billion (Kraft Foods Annual eport, 2012). It operates in a highly competitive consumer foods industry where high volume sales are essential for competitive success. Tapping into new markets and growing one's brand portfolio are also important for growth and success.
Kraft Foods Inc. pursues a number of business-level strategies to support its corporate level strategies. The business level strategies are determined by answering the question How do we compete? (Ireland, Hoskisson & Hitt, 2008). Kraft Foods Inc. has selected product differentiation and brand development as its primary business level strategy. Product differentiation involves creating and conveying to the consumer a unique feature of the product portfolio that distinguishes the company from the competition and…
Furrer, O. (2011). Corporate level strategy: Theory and applications. (p. 2). Routledge
Ireland, R.D., Hoskisson, R.E., & Hitt, M.A. (2009). Understanding business strategy: Concepts and cases. (p. 88). Cengage Learning
McKern, B. (2003). Managing the global network corporation. (p. 125). Routledge
O'Grady, T.P., & Malloch, K. (2010). Innovation Leadership. (p. 371). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Lululemon Firm Activities
elevance of Strategies in Firm Activities.
Strategic Firm Activities at Lululemon
Strategic Firm Activities at Lululemon
In establishing and concretizing business operations in a market, it is vital to lay down the necessary strategies to determine the level of diversification of the products produced, their affordability and availability to customers. Some of these strategies worked upon are the corporate level, international, strategic alliance and cooperative strategies. The establishment of Lululemon Company has been at the limelight in addressing these strategies in compliance to its industrial trends and in addressing its comparative and capability gaps. The company has enjoyed exponential revenue rates and vantages towards its market. Considerable micro and macro environments have contributed to the progress of the company.
Corporate level strategy is responsible for defining the market unto which a business stands. It is a business-level strategy that overlooks the functionality of a company.…
Droege, S.B. (2007). Strategy levels. Encyclopedia of Business. Vol 2.
Lamb, C.W. (2011). Marketing. New York: Cengage Learning.
Segal-Horn, S and Faulkner. (2000). The Dynamics of International Strategy. New York: Cengage Learning.
Yoshino, M.Y. (1996). Strategic Alliances: An entrepreneurial approach to globalization. Chicago: Harvard Business Press.
Merger, Acquisition, And International Strategies
Ford Corporation: The Volvo takeover
It's imperative for the automotive companies to attain benefits of scale whilst developing latest products which is costing exceedingly high in the present business environment. Compared to the 90's the chances of attaining benefits of scale while saving costs has altered quite a bit. Model volumes have declined which creates difficulties for companies to attain economies of scale, while saving costs. Hence, as a last resort, companies merge with each other, acquire and form alliances with each other to save rising costs while developing new technology and products (Lundback, 2002).
Ford Motor Company
The Ford Motor Company is the second leading profitable automaker in the world. Ford has recently acquired the Swedish-based Volvo for $6.45 billion. Fords profits last year were a bit more than that with $6.57 billion. It's yet another quick acquisition among many others. Ford at present…
AECOM. (2014, July 13). Retrieved October 13, 2014, from http://www.aecom.com/News/Press+Releases/_carousel/AECOM+to+acquire+URS+Corporation+for+U.S.$56.31+per+share+in+cash+and+stock
AECOM Capital. (n.d.). Retrieved October 13, 2014, from http://www.aecom.com/About/AECOM+Capital
Asongu, J. (2007). Innovation as an Argument for Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business and Public Policy.
Fairholm, M. (2009). Leadership and Organizational Strategy. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, 2-15.
Merger, Acquisition, And International Strategies
From a humble beginning in 1998 of responding to about 10,000 queries by offering search engine services, Google, Inc. has grown to a gigantic multinational corporation providing immense and widely used, actually over 30, services with a search engine capacity that responds to more than 200 million queries daily.
Using a combination of personal logging information and other information gathered from its spectrum of services and Google cookies, it is capable of building large dossiers of pertinent information of its individual users. In this essay I wish to examine Google's three most popular and innovative services namely: Ad Sense, Gmail and Google Search in order to show how the huge amount of data gathered from these three services are used to create incredibly big profiles of all its individual users. I will not, however, underestimate the important role its other services like Google…
Bhatia, A., Deep, G., & Sachdeva, A. (2012). Strategic analysis of search engine giant: A case study of googleinc. International Journal of Computing and Business Research. Retrieved from http://www.researchmanuscripts.com/isociety2012/55.pdf
Delichatsios, S.A., & Sonuyi, T. (2005). Get to know Google, because they know you. Retrieved from http://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/classes/6.805/student-papers/fall05-papers/google.pdf
Dess, L.E.(2012). Corporate level strategy. Retrieved from International Strategic Management: http://brianhenderschiedtbsad428.blogspot.ca/2012/03/walmart-corporate-level-strategy.html
Digication.(2014). Google's corporate level strategy. Retrieved from https://stonybrook.digication.com/calvins_google/Corporate_level_strategy
organization follows when using a deliberate strategy. How does this process differ when an organization implements an emergent strategy?
The process that an organization follows when using a deliberate strategy is to choose and implement a plan with specific goals for its future. In the interest of achieving these deliberative goals, the organization's senior managers must be given distinct responsibilities. Usually, most companies implement a deliberative plan by assigning most senior managers with two specific responsibilities, with one short-term and one long-term goal in mine. An emergent strategy is one where a pattern of action develops in the organization in the absence of mission and goals or despite mission and goals.
For example, an organization might be hit with an unexpected event that affects is market position, such as the rising cost of fuel and increased input costs. This requires an immediate, emergent strategy to cope with the problem and…
(Quick MBA, 2004)
Q4. Choose any 3 leaders and discuss the actions that they took or their personal characteristic that you think influenced firm's strategy.
Sam alton's desire to offer the best prices, all the time at his al-Mart, rather than high-low pricing like K-mart's Edward Lampert that requires printing costly circulars and newspaper ads to advertise special deals, indicate alton's revolutionary de-emphasizing of marketing specific products as inexpensive in contrast to Lampert's stress on making consumers think they got a special deal as an incentive. (Haber, "It's a Lean Operation," 2003)
However, within the K-Mart empire, ironically, Martha Stewart has deployed an effective branding strategy of her aspy image of good living, combined with quality products, that have resulted in continued product loyalty, despite her financial woes.
Q5. Discuss corporerate governance.
Reach, competitive contact, managing businesses and business advantages, management practices and activities are all under the realm of…
Consumer Psychologist (2004) "DISTRIBUTION: Firm, Brand, and Product Line Objectives." Retrieved on September 13, 2004 at http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/distribution.htm
Haber, Gary. (May 7, 2003) "Kmart hopes pricing, brand names work: It's a lean operation leaving bankruptcy." Detroit Free Press. Retrieved on September 12, 2004. http://www.freep.com/money/business/kbox7_20030507.htm
Pavilion, Corwin. (April 12, 2004) "Wal-Mart: Template for 21st Century Capitalism?" Retrieved on September 13, 2004 http://www.ihc.ucsb.edu/walmart/
Retail Forward. (2004) "Distribution Channels Strategy." Retail Forward Website. Retrieved on September 13, 2004 at http://www.retailforward.com/freecontent/distributionchannels.asp
In this sense, large companies operating in different sectors would fit this description. An example in this sense would be Vivendi, the French company who went from being a simple water company to having businesses in cinema and movies, the music sector, etc.
4. Michael Milken was an ambitious financial tycoon who was CEO at one of the best investment banks on Wall Street, Drexler. His ambition drove him into deals with junk bonds and inside trading affairs, which led to a $200 million fine and 22 months in jail due to fraud on 1989.
Jake Welch, CEO at General Electrics, revolutionized management by introducing a series of innovatory ideas at his company. Among them, the best known is the Six Sigma methodology, which was subsequently successfully implemented by Motorola as well.
ill Gates was indeed a man with vision, having the chance to foresee the success that the information…
1. Strategy Notes. On the Internet at http://www.tutor2u.net/business/strategy/what_is_strategy.htm
2. Entrepreneurial Leadership. On the Internet at http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/leadership_entrepreneurial.html
Strategy Notes. On the Internet at
Yet for functional strategies to be truly functional and serve the larger purposes of the organization all strategies must be complementary, otherwise different departments may compete with one another and even subvert one another's objectives. If a marketing department views its functions as more important than the technological development of the products it is promoting, its internal strategy may undermine rather than support the larger organization. A lack of perceived and real interdependence between functional strategies can result in ineffective use of resources.
However, it is true that not all functionally strategies will be equally seamless, in all firms. In the case of some firms, there is a great deal of cross-communication between different departments, and functional areas are only broadly defined. In other firms, functional areas are closely segmented, and thus there will be less communication and possibly a more unique philosophy or approach for each internal strategy. An…
XYZ Company is looking for several measures to promote its growth and profitability in a manner that aligns with its respective organizational goals. This process requires development of strategies for the company that helps in determining the direction it undertakes in its respective industry and market. The ability of this company to achieve its desired goals is dependent and affected by its capability to develop effective operational strategies. Without suitable and effective strategies, it will be relatively difficult for the company to achieve its goals. In essence, XYZ Company cannot achieve desired success and profitability without creating and implementing suitable strategies. The development of effective strategies for this company requires examining its various operational components including marketing, operations, laws, ethics, leadership, globalization, economics, and information systems.
Organizational strategy is defined as the sum of the activities or initiatives a company or business seeks to undertake in order to…
"Business-Level Strategy." (n.d.). Lecture 4. Retrieved from University at Albany -- State University of New York website: http://www.albany.edu/faculty/es8949/bmgt481/lecture4.html
"Corporate Strategy." (n.d.). Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness. Retrieved from Harvard Business School website: http://www.isc.hbs.edu/strategy/pages/corporate-strategy.aspx
Gutterman, A.S. (2011, November 7). Functional-Level Strategy. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://alangutterman.typepad.com/files/mdc_11.07.2011.pdf
Johnson, S. (n.d.). What is the Meaning of Organizational Strategy? Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/meaning-organizational-strategy-59427.html
Mergers, Acquisitions, and International Strategies
A well crafted strategy is crucial for business success in the both the local and the international market. Firms achieve this success by using business-level strategies or corporate-level strategies, or both. Business level strategies (such as cost leadership and differentiation) influence a firm's competitive advantage in its products and markets, while corporate-level strategies (such as mergers and acquisitions) affect the firm as a whole (Hill & Jones, 2012). Firms operating in the global market must also choose effective international business-level strategies and international corporate-level strategies. This paper compares an international company, Samsung, with a history of mergers and/or acquisitions, and a US-based company, Hibbert Sports, Inc., which is based solely in the US and does not have a history of any mergers or acquisitions. The paper specifically evaluates Samsung's acquisition strategy as well as its international business-level strategies and international corporate-level strategies. Also, the paper…
Frainshmidt, S., Smith, A., & Judge, W. (2016). National competitiveness and Porter's diamond model: the role of MNE penetration and governance quality. Global Strategy Journal, 6(2), 81-104.
Hibbett Sports Inc. (2017). Investor relations. Retrieved from http://phx.corporate- ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=78137&p=irol-irhome
Hill, C., & Jones, G. (2012). Essentials of strategic management. 3rd edition. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Johnson, G., Scholes, K., & Whittington, R. (2010). Exploring corporate strategy. London: Prentice Hall.
Values and Strategy
The strategic management process serves an integral role in creating competitive advantage in the marketplace. It stipulates the steps an organization takes to create value for its key stakeholders. With reference to WEX Inc., a payment processing firm, this paper discusses how the strategic management process creates value for the organization. The paper also evaluates the organization's mission and vision statements as well as motivation, innovation, and people strategy, and highlights the role of ethics and corporate social responsibility (CS) in strategic planning.
Strategic Management Process
WEX Inc. was founded in 1983 as a payment processing company. With its headquarters in South Portland, Maine, the firm has operations in the U.S., Canada, South America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Its services fall in two segments: Fleet (payment processing solutions for vehicle fleet industries); and MasterCard (payment processing solutions for corporate transactions).
The strategic management process at WEX…
Hill, C., & Jones, G. (2012). Essentials of strategic management. 3rd ed. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Stil Sim Strategic Formulation
Stilslim Strategic Formulation
Strategy formulation is defined as the practice of developing an organizational strategy, which is a comprehensive plan, intended to take the organization from its present position to the position that it wants to achieve. It is imperative to point out that a well-designed strategy will aid an organization to attain its optimal level of effectiveness in realizing its goals and objectives and at the same time permitting it to monitor its environment to become accustomed to the strategy as needed (Ulwick, 1999). This research paper is purposed to undertake a strategic formulation of Stilsim and will arrive at a recommended strategy taking into account the internal and external analysis of the organization and also the generic and grand strategies. More so, the BCG growth-share matrix will be employed as a context for making comparisons of strategic options.
There are several strategic…
Armitage, H. M., & Scholey, C. (2006). Using Strategy Maps to Drive Performance. CMA Canada.
Brooks, C. (2015). What Is a Decision Matrix? Business News Daily. Retrieved 25 November, 2015 from: http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/6146-decision-matrix.html
Eldring, J. (2009). Porter's (1980) Generic Strategies, Performance and Risk. Hamburg: Diplomica.
Hill, C., Jones, G., Schilling, M. (2013). Strategic Management: Theory: An Integrated Approach. Stamford: Cengage Learning.
Mission and Vision Statements and the Company's Strategic Direction
esearch the challenges the organization is facing consider the objectives the organization has established for revitalization;
Evaluate the mission and vision statements to determine whether these statements align with the objectives of the organization (this requires research to identify new objectives);
Mission Statement & Vision Characteristics
Comparison Article & Mission Statement
Mission Statement Critique
Quality products & services
Broad in scope
Increased differentiation through marketing portals
Great value for customers
Are dynamic in orientation
Provided where & when customers want products & services
Finely balanced between specificity & generality
This objective is achieved
Build positive, lasting relationships with customers
Arouse positive feelings & emotions
Shop Your Way and FitStudio
Be a preferred & trusted resource for products & services
Generate the impression that the firm is successful, has direction, and is worthy of time, support, and investment
Characteristics of the Mission Statement. Retrieved from http://www.zainbooks.com/books/management/strategic-management_6_characteristics-of-a-mission-statement.html
Gutman, B. (2012, May 18). Sears explains its success in content marketing. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/marketshare/2012/05/18/sears-explains-their-success-in-content-marketing/
Sears Holdings Corporation. (2015, February 26). Awards and Recognitions. Retrieved from http://searsholdings.com/about/recognition/
Sears Holdings Corporation. (2015, February 26). Sears Holdings Reports Fourth Quarter And Full Year 2014 Results. Investor Information. Retrieved from http://www.searsholdings.com/invest/
Instead of allowing individual franchisees to source products and perishable fruits and vegetables, McDonalds relies on an enterprise-wide quality management and food compliance division in Chicago as well (Hoffman, 2006). This ensures that all audits of their product quality can be quickly analyzed for any variation and acted on fast to ensure consistency of customer experience with each McDonald's product. The integration of quality management and the supply chain in the Chicago areas also provides the company with greater control over VMI and advanced planning and scheduling operations. The individual franchisees are then freed up to focus on expanding in their local markets as the core areas of the supply chain are managed by McDonalds' at the corporate level.
McDonald's concentrates first on a consistent and high quality user experience, and then creates the necessary systems to deliver those experiences daily. A large part of this effort is based…
Cramer, M.. (2009). The Emerging Role of Operations Research at McDonald's. OR-MS Today, 36(4), 22.
William Hoffman (2006, February). They're Lovin' Logistics. Traffic World,20.
David Walters, & Mark Rainbird. (2004). The demand chain as an integral component of the value chain. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21(7), 465-475.
Financial egulatory Harmonization in East Asia
As globalization continues to evolve local economies, there has been increasing pressure put on East Asian nations to implement corporate governance reform. Many East Asian nations lack the restrictions and regulations seen in Western nations that provide for more responsible treatment of corporate activities that impact the health of businesses in that economy and attract foreign investment.. Moreover, the lack of corporate governance regulations have also been thought to have played a role in the 1997 Asian financial crisis, as there were not checks in place to curb corporate behavior that contributed to economic decline. In his 2010 article, "Financial egulatory Harmonization in East Asia: Balancing Domestic and International Pressures for Corporate Governance eforms," ichard W. Carney discusses how harmonization of international and domestic expectations of corporate governance in the region is possible.
The international community has long been putting pressure on East Asian…
Carney, Richard W. (2010). Financial regulatory harmonization in East Asia: Balancing domestic and international pressures for corporate governance reforms. ADBI Institute. Web. http://www.adbi.org/files/2011.03.18.wp269.financial.regulatory.harmonization.east.asia.pdf
Corporate governance failure is a serious threat to the future existence of any organization. The high corporate failure rates witnessed in the first decade of the century brought to the limelight the concept of effective corporate governance, and the core principles of trust and integrity. This text examines Wal-Mart's corporate governance strategy to determine how the company restrains managerial power, and how it aligns the interests of managers and directors with those of the organization.
Corporate governance failure is a serious threat to the future existence of any organization. Following the stream of corporate failures witnessed in the first decade of the century, the investor base has become more aggressive about effective corporate governance based on the core values of trust and integrity. Today, a company's ability to conduct its profit-maximization goal within the ethical boundaries of integrity, honesty, fairness is widely regarded as a source of competitive advantage. Towards…
Arjoon, S. (n.d.). Corporate Governance: An Ethical Perspectives. The University of West Indies. Retrieved 18 December 2014 https://sta.uwi.edu/conferences/financeconference/Conference%20Papers/Session%205/Corporate%20Governance%20-%20An%20Ethical%20Perspective.pdf
Bernstein, D. (2010). Essentials of Psychology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Edwards, F.R. (2003). U.S. Corporate Governance: What Went Wrong, and can it be Fixed? Columbia University. Retrieved 18 December 2014 from https://www0.gsb.columbia.edu/mygsb/faculty/research/pubfiles/1661/U.S.%20Corporate%20Governance%2010-05.pdf
Rhode, D.L. (Ed.). (2006). Moral leadership: The Theory and Practice of Power, Judgment, and Policy. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Clarify and discuss the purposes of corporate communication strategies
In definition, corporate communication encompasses the entirety of a company's endeavors to have communication that is not only efficacious but also effective in attracting revenues. In particular, it can be delineated as a tool utilized by corporate managers in the way that they make certain that all kinds of internal and external communication are in synchronization in the most efficacious manner. The general purpose of corporate communications strategy is to institute and sustain positive engagement between the company and its stakeholders (Cornelissen, 2011). In addition, the purpose of the corporate communication strategy takes into account the promotion of effectual corporate principles and beliefs, a comprehensive distinctiveness, a fitting and capable association with all channels of communication and instantaneous, responsible means of communicating in all circumstances (Cornelissen, 2011). The organization in consideration is Coca Cola Company. In particular,…
Adrian, A. D., Downs, C. W. (2004). Assessing Organizational Communication: Strategic Communication Audits. New York The Guilford Press.
Cornelissen, J. (2011). Corporate Communication: A Guide to Theory and Practice. London: SAGE Publications.
Eisenhauer, T. (2015). 15 Ways to Measure the Effectiveness of Internal Communications within Your Company Intranet. Axero. Retrieved 9 July 2016 from: https://axerosolutions.com/blogs/timeisenhauer/pulse/325/15-ways-to-measure-the-effectiveness-of-internal-communications-within-your-company-intranet
Essays, UK. (November 2013). Purpose of Corporate Communication Strategy Marketing Essay. Retrieved from https://www.uk***.com/essays/marketing/purpose-of-corporate-communication-strategy-marketing-essay.php?cref=1
Summary of the purpose of Corporate Sustainability Reporting
Reporting corporate sustainability is one of the best ways to ensure that a company is not only doing well financially in the present but also in securing a better and more certain future. The reporting of corporate suitability ensures that the current needs of the organization are effectively met without comprising future needs of the organization. Reporting on corporate sustainability also ensure that organization are able to keep up with all changes in the industry, with ensuring that new innovations have been developed, maintained and employed in the daily operations of the organization. Corporate sustainability is developed on a grid developed to ensure that the future is secure, and that the organization will survive for a long time.
Corporate sustainability also encompasses the assessment of current and future risks that the organization is likely to endure. As such, a majority…
Chee Tahir, A., and Darton, R. C, 2010, "The process analysis method of selecting indicators to quantify the sustainability performance of a business operation." Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 18, 1598 -- 1607.
Kaufman, A. And Englander, E, 2011, "Behavioral Economics, Federalism, and the Triumph of Stakeholder Theory." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 102 No.3, 421-438.
Fassin, Y, August 2012. "Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 109 No.1, 83-96.
Pryor, M, Humphreys, J, Oyler, J, Taneja, S. And Toombs, L, December 2011, "The Legitimacy and Efficacy of Current Organizational Theory: An Analysis." International Journal of Management Part 2, Vol. 28 No.4, 209-228.
Corporate Social Action of McDonald's and the Problem of Obesity
Corporate Social Responsibility
This paper proposes a corporate social action to McDonald's to address the issue of obesity among general consumers which is caused by high-calorie and spicy fast foods. The paper starts by highlight some research studies which explain how fast foods cause obesity among children and adults, and proceeds by discussing why McDonald's should take an initiative to remove this criticism by the local and international community. The paper also highlights the strategies to implement this action plan, the intended outcomes and affected stakeholders, the constituent parts of the plan, and unintended consequences or weaknesses of this initiative by the company.
The Social Problem:
Obesity is one of the major issues in health care. It gives rise to various heart diseases, diabetes, and other health related consequences (orld Heart Federation). A number of research studies have been conducted…
Benloulou, Jonathan. "Pelman v. McDonald's: An In-depth Case Study of a Fast Food -- Obesity Lawsuit," 2005. Print.
Environmental Action, "Marching against McDonalds," ProQuest Central, 1993: 25 (3). p-10.
Lu-sted, Marcia, Amidon. Obesity & food policing, 1st Edition. Edina, Minn.: ABDO Pub. Co., 2008. Print.
McBride, Sarah. "Currents: Exiling the Happy Meal; Los Angeles Lawmakers Want to Escalate the War on Obesity (and Fast Food)." Wall Street Journal, 22nd July, 2008: A.14. ProQuest. Web. May 11th, 2013.
Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics
Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…
Career Services. The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from:
Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Supply Chain.. APEC
Human Resources Development Working Group. Retrieved from: http://hrd.apec.org/index.php/Corporate_Social_Responsibility_in_the_Global_Supply_Chain.
Additionally, it has been observed that whenever companies implement strategies of CS, they do this not out of individual choice and desire, but as a result of imposed legislations. "All of these decisions are made under the mandatory legal rules embodied in employment and labor law, workplace safety law, environmental law, consumer protection law, and pension law. Such rules, because they often apply to all businesses, are not susceptible to easy evasion through choice of form. As a result, those charged with governing a corporation find their decision tree considerably trimmed and their discretion decidedly diminished by mandatory legal rules enacted in the name of protecting stakeholders" (Winkler, 2005). In other words, the modern day evolutions of corporate social responsibility "caution against a rush to declare the ultimate triumph of shareholder primacy" (Winkler, 2005).
As a direct result of this changing legislation, more companies have commenced corporate social responsibility programs.…
Akerstrom, a., 2009, Corporate governance and social responsibility: Johnson & Johnson, GRIN Verlag, ISBN 364045605X
Boyd, C., 2003, Human resource management and occupational health and safety, Routledge, ISBN 0415265908
Conley, J.M., Williams, C.A., 2005, Engage, embed and embellish: theory vs. practice in the corporate social responsibility movement, Journal of Corporation Law, Vol. 31, No. 1
Greenwald, R., 2005, Wal-Mart: the high costs of low price (documentary available on DVD)
Corporate Social esponsibility
I attaching assignment paper write essay CS.
Given the heightened level of international operations and globalization, pressure is mounting for corporations to behave ethically. Corporations are forced to developing standards, policies and behaviors as a demonstration of their sensitivity to concerns of stakeholder. The policies behaviors and standards are what a European commission called corporate social responsibilities. The Commission defined corporate social responsibility (CS) as "a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis" Commission, 2001.
Complementing this definition, McWilliams and Siegel. (2001)
, said CS include all actions that are intended to forge, beyond the firm's interest, a social good, and is a requirement in law.
Composition Corporate Social esponsibility
Corporate social responsibility entails coming up with solutions specific to a society. The corporation is however, not forcefully charged with an…
Balmer, John M.T., & Dinnie, K. (1999). "Corporate identity and corporate communications: the antidote to merger madness," Corporate Communications: . An International Journal,, 4, 68-86.
Balmer, J.M.T. (2001). Corporate Identity, Corporate Branding and corporate marketing European Journal of Marketing 34(4), 248-291.
Buckley, P.J., & Ghauri, P.N. (2004). Globalisation, Economic Geography and the Strategy of Multinational Enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(2), 81-98.
Commission, E. (2001). Promoting a European Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility.' Green Paper, 264.
As some queries about corporate governance were there ever since 1932 - the period of erle and Means, the expression of the concept of Corporate Governance was not found in English vocabulary until 25 years ago. However, in the previous two decades, matters relating to corporate governance have gained importance in academic literature as well as in public policy deliberations. Corporate governance came to be acknowledged as being synonymous with takeovers, financial restructuring, and activities of institutional investor's during this part of the era. Corporate Governance is now at a turning point. Several budding and up-coming economies that are on the path of development have identified by now that excellent corporate governance is vital for sustainable economic development. Furthermore, a lot are on the lookout for a novel or appropriate standard for making it relevant for their particular internal situation. (erle and Means, 1932)
The last ten years…
Berle, A; G. Means (1932) "The modern corporation and private property" Macmillan, NewYork. pp.54-58
Hart, O. (1995). "Firms, contracts and financial structure" Clarendon Press, Oxford. pp.32-36
Jensen, M and Meckling, W. (1976). "Theory of the firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure" Journal of Financial Economics, Volume. 3.pp. 305-360
Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert W. (1997) "A Survey of Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance Volume. 52. pp. 737-83.
It should not be treated as a separate exercise undertaken to meet regulatory requirements." (ICA, 29) Here is expressed a philosophical impetus that drives the focus of this research, that such compliance which will generally concern matters such as corporate accounting, the practice of internal oversight and the practice of financial transaction must be considered inextricable from other aspects of practical, procedural and legal operation in terms of its relevance and necessity.
The practice of corporate governance may perhaps best be understand from the perspective that deregulation has largely defined the processes and direction of the global economy across the two decades following the Cold ar and its inevitable opening of economic channels. This is because in practice, corporate governance is a concept which has suffered much neglect. To the point, the statistics availed by organizations such as the orld Bank and the International Monetary Fund illustrate that…
Aguilera, R.V. & Yip, G.S. (2004). Corporate Governance and Globalization:
Toward an Actor Centred Institutional Analysis. University of Illinois: College
of Business. Online at .
ASB. (1999). Reporting Financial Performance. Financial Reporting Council. Online at
The shared understanding is crucial in order to build strength and enough confidence necessary for the implementation of strategy and to necessitate evolution.
Second Phase: LG's strategic intent
In order to remain competitive, LG has to stick to its long-term vision which should act as stabilizers to the corporation in times of uncertainty. The vision in this case refers to as a statement of the things that can be achieved by the corporation. The concept of strategic intent is very crucial to the operating of a corporation since it acts as a magnet that pulls the present corporate dynamics and activities to the future. Any given strategic intent should be formulated in a manner that the corporation's remain with a large vision that can energize the workforce at all times. The formulation of new strategic intent options can help LG in capturing new markets while remaining competitive within the uncertain…
Chandler, AD (1962).Strategy and structure: chapters in the history of the industrial enterprise.
The American Historical Review, October 1962, Vol. 68 Issue: Number 1 p158-158
Bradford, RW (2008). Communicating Your Strategic Plan with Employees . Available online http://www.strategyletter.com/CD1103/featured_article.php retrieved 16 January 2011
Bartlett, C. And Ghoshal, S. (1994), "Changing the role of top management: beyond strategy to purpose," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 72
Advisers for example survey the market and make recommendations to their customers on the strength of such estimations. Such investments carry a high level unknown risks, depending upon the type of investment a customer prefers to make. Some customers prefer higher risks for higher returns, while others are more careful with their investments. In such a company, risk quantification and creation play a more important role than risk prevention.
Diversifying risks in the financial business is a strategy that mitigates the risk of investment. The strategy entails diversifying the number and types of investment made in order to minimize the risk of financial loss for the client. Such a strategy is useful in high-risk and high-return types of investments.
Concentrating risk is the opposite strategy of diversifying risk in the investment business. This strategy carries a high risk of loss, but also a high possibility of return if successful. It…
Another alternative for companies with uninsurable risks is mutualization. However, this category of insurance carries further risks that may not be suitable for all companies. The main problem is that mutual insurers require participants to be from a homogenous population, making this alternative unviable for a variety of clients. Some companies are however working on overcoming such problems to make mutualization less problematic for their investors.
Some insurance companies now recognize the main concern of organizations for cash flow in the event of a major loss. These insurers then offer such organizations solutions that guarantee cash flow in the form of a possible loan alternative, which is then to be repaid at a later time, when the company has mitigated its loss. Cash flow insurance can then be based upon income factors such as future royalties or rental income, that are generally not shown on current income statements.
Both proposals were consequently amended and eventually accepted by the SEC.
The audit committee makes sure that the books aren't being cooked and that shareholders are properly informed of the financial status of the firm. Characteristically, the audit committee advocates the CPA firm that will audit the company's books, appraises the activities of the company's independent accountants and internal auditors, and reviews the company's internal control systems and its accounting and financial reporting requirements and practices. The compensation committee usually does the following: (1) recommends the selection of the CEO, (2) reviews and approves the appointment of officers who report directly to the CEO, (3) reviews and approves the compensation of the CEO and the managers reporting to the CEO, and (4) administers the stock compensation and other incentive plans. The suggested committee establishes experience for potential directors (Lunnie, 2007; pg. 90). It also puts collectively a list of candidates…
Such problems are not overcome easily, but in time and with sustained efforts. To better understand my standpoint of defending the bailouts, consider what would have happened had the TAP never been implemented. All of the companies would have commenced bankruptcy procedures and the millions of workers they were employing would have been fired. At a first level, the state would have had to offer those former employees social aid. Then, the national purchasing power would have decreased even more, to impact the national demand and the national production. Also, the country's competitive position within the global market would have decreased dramatically. Overall then, while the bailouts may not have been fairly and efficiently allocated and while they did not revive the economy immediately, they did prevent it from taking an even more damaging turn.
Haugen, D., 2010, Bailout Money Should Not Be Used to Pay Executive Bonuses, Detroit:…
Haugen, D., 2010, Bailout Money Should Not Be Used to Pay Executive Bonuses, Detroit: Greenhaven Press
Haugen, D., 2010, the Government Bank Bailout Plan Is a Fraud, Detroit: Greenhaven Press
Haugen, D., 2010, the Government Bank Bailout Will Not Jump Start the American Economy, Detroit: Greenhaven Press
September 2008, Government Bailouts Must Put Americans First, U.S. Newswire
There have been controversies on the subject of the governance and accountability of big corporations, but it is only recently that these issues have gained prominence. The compensation for the top management is one of the major issues of corporate governance today. The primary reason for offering stocks to executives was for raising the share prices and thereby increasing its value for both investors as well as shareholders. Though this proved to be a major success, there were a few executives who would not disclose their stock options or would not make full use of the stock options offered to them. This caused inefficiency in the financial market. Stakeholders have the freedom to check their shares and to question the management if there were any discrepancies. Despite these constant checks with financial analysts, the board of directors, the panel of regulators, auditors and managers, there has been instances…
Charkham, Jonathan. 1994. 'Keeping Good Company: A Study of Corporate Governance in Five Countries' New York: Oxford University Press.
Davies, Adrian. 1999. 'A Strategic Approach to Corporate Governance' Gower.
De George, Richard T. 1995. 'Business Ethics' New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Fort, Timothy L. 2001. 'Ethics and Governance: Business as Mediating Institution' New York, N.Y: Oxford University Press.
Corporate Social and Environmental eporting
Companies have presented investigations about their motivation towards voluntarily social and environmental as insolvent. This paper argues in agreement with Adam's view that the goal of CS reporting is to promote credibility and corporate image of stakeholders operating in a particular industry. Whereas companies must focus their efforts on enhancing their profitability, they should also ensure that the welfare of other stakeholders is protected.
Previous literature offers a revelation on various competing theories based on why companies make voluntarily report and engagements in corporate social responsibility. The major perspectives considered are within the scope of application include accountability and image promotion. Many studies hold consequential evidence towards accountability to shareholders making it difficult for organizations to distinguish relevance from accountability based on continued practice. The absence of actual legitimacy crises makes it hard to identify voluntarily reporting as a proactive measure in preventing future crises…
Adams, C. (2002). "Internal organizational factors influencing corporate social and ethical reporting beyond theorizing." Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 223-250
Bebbington, J., Larringa-Gonzalez, C., and Moneva, J. (2008). "Corporate social responsibility reporting and reputation risk management." Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 337-361.
Brennan, N.M. And Merkl-Davies, D.M. (2013). "Accounting Narratives and Impression management," In Jackson, L., Davison, J., and Craig, R. (Eds.). Routledge Companion to Communication in Accounting. Routledge, pp. 109-132. (on blackboard)
Daft, R.L. (2011). The leadership experience (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson, Southwestern
With this position, she gained a wide variety of skills in many different areas of P such as corporate reputation, product marketing and placement, crisis communications, employee communications and social marketing. She says that some people get frustrated at the beginning of a communication position because of all the administrative and coordination work.
With the changes that are rapidly occurring across the world, crisis communication is an area that is growing in importance. All organizations are vulnerable to crises, from an oil spill or 9-11, to Enron and Worldcom, the Asian Tsunami Disaster, Hurricane Katrina and Virginia Tech killings. Organizations have to be prepared for the very worst and have an emergency plan in action for handling all areas of communication.
In a "crisis document audit," they look for a failure to address the many communications issues related to crisis/disaster response. Organizations do not understand that, without adequate communications: Operational…
Berkeley Career Center (May 13, 2005). What's a Communication Manager? Retrieved http://career.berkeley.edu/article/050513a-rh.stm
Bernstein, J. Ten steps of crisis communication. March 8, 2008 http://www.bernsteincrisismanagement.com/docs/the_10_steps_of_crisis_communications.html
Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidelines. (2005) New York: Ferguson.
Fogg, N., Harrington, P.E., and Harrington, T.F. (2004) College Majors Handbook.
Henry W. Chesbrough uses this exact notion of "permeable boundary," when he gives his definition of open innovation: "In the open innovation model a company commercialises both its own ideas as well as innovations from other firms and seeks ways to bring its in house ideas to market by deploying pathways outside its current business. Note that the boundary between the company and its surrounding environment is porous, enabling innovations to move more easily between the two." (MIT Sloan Management Review: The era of open innovation, Henry W. Chesbrough) Having this in mind Procter and Gamble created their "Connect and Develop" innovation model.
In order for "Connect and Develop" to become what Procter and Gamble envisioned the company realized it was of the outmost important not to use time and valuable resources on ideas that may be interesting at first but later on prove to have no concrete, specific application.…
MIT Sloan Management Review: The era of open innovation, Author: Henry W. Chesbrough (undated) Available. Online. HTTP://sloanreview.mit.edu/wsj/insight/pdfs/4435.pdf (accessed 6th May 2007)
Harvard Business Review: Connect and Develop, Authors: Larry Huston and Nabil Sakkab (undated) Available Online HTTP: http://custom.hbsp.com/custom/INNOCR0603C2006032833.pdf;jsessionid=YVENOB4MC1EKCAKRGWDSELQBKE0YIISW (accessed 6th May 2007)
P&G Connect+Develop Homepage Available Online HTTP:
http://pg.t2h.yet2.com/t2h/page/homepage (accessed 6th of May 2007)
A corporation is a form of business structure. The corporation is given the same basic rights and duties as an individual. This shields members from the corporation from some liability for the corporation's actions, but also prevents them from utilizing corporate assets in the same way that one would use personal assets. There are some differences between publicly held and privately held corporations; however the basic structure of a corporation remains the same regardless of how the corporation is held. There are three main groups in the corporate structure. The first group consists of the directors of the corporation. The second group consists of the officers of the corporation. The third group consists of the shareholders of the corporation. Individuals may belong simultaneously to more than one of these groups, but each group has different responsibilities.
The first group consists of the directors of the corporation. When forming…
Findlaw. (2011). Corporate structure: directors to shareholders. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.findlaw.com/business-structures/corporations/corporations-structure.html
Investopedia. (2009). The basics of corporate structure. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/basics/03/022803.asp#axzz1PF3LAIe7
Investopedia. (2011). What's the difference between publicly- and privately- held companies?
Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/162.asp
Like many of the great charismatic military leaders of the past such as Alexander the Great (Bristol 204) or General George S. Patton (Rosenback & Taylor 223; Rost 72), Gibson and Blackwell report that Kelleher is not afraid to get down in the trenches with his "troops" and endure the same types of challenges that his employees typically encounter on their jobs. Kelleher is also well-known for his insistence on allowing his employees to identify appropriate solutions to the problems with which they are most familiar, just as George Patton was fond of saying, "Never tell people how to do things, tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity" (Valle 1999:245). In addition, both Alexander the Great and General Patton were famous for leading their troops into battle and for being willing to suffer the same types of deprivations and make the same personal sacrifices…
Blackwell, Charles W. And Jane Whitney Gibson. (1999). "Flying High with Herb Kelleher: A Profile in Charismatic Leadership." Journal of Leadership Studies 120.
Blackwell, Charles W., Jane Whitney Gibson and John C. Hannon. (1998). "Charismatic Leadership: The Hidden Controversy." Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(4):11.
Bristol, Michael D. (2001). "Charismatic Authority in Early Modern English Tragedy." Shakespeare Studies, 203.
Chaganti, Rajeswararao and Hugh Sherman. Corporate Governance and the Timeliness of Change: Reorientation in 100 American Firms. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1998.
Internal entities therefore bear the burden of the company's interest, making the risk identification process subjective, and compromising it to the eventual disadvantage of the company. Here also it is advisable that entities from the outside be involved in the process.
The risk quantification process refers to assessing the scale of severity in the risks identified. When a risk is identified, resources need to be allocated in order to mitigate it. Severe risks will therefore require a greater amount of resources, while lower severity also means lower priority. Quantification therefore results in prioritizing. This is a process that can then mitigate the financial resources necessary for preventing the risk factors involved.
In the quantification process, however, ambiguity and subjectivity are also detrimental factors. Ambiguity for example means that there is uncertainty regarding which priority to assign to which levels of risk. Once again, subjectivity works in concomitance. Internal risk teams…
Over the last several years, the portfolio theory has been used as a way to help corporate investors analyze different securities and determine the impact of specific investments on their total returns. This is when a firm will construct a portfolio of securities which are based upon expected returns associated with certain levels of risk. During this process, there are four steps that are involved to include: security valuation, asset allocation, portfolio optimization and performance measurement. ("Modern Portfolio Theory," 2013)
These different areas reduce volatility and enhance the total returns for corporate investors. To fully understand these ideas requires: carefully examining the effects of the theory in relation to the risks of a security and the overall costs of capital to firms. Together, these elements will highlight why this approach has become so popular with corporate investors. ("Modern Portfolio Theory," 2013)
The effect of the portfolio on risk…
Modern Portfolio Theory. (2013). Investopedia. Retrieved from: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/modernportfoliotheory.asp
Elton, E. (2009). Modern Portfolio Theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Francis, J. (2013). Modern Portfolio Theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Scherer, B. (2005). Modern Portfolio Theory Optimization. New York, NY: Springer.
Communities are looking for social expenditures by the business to benefit the community (hospitals, stable employment, donations, and investments). Managers face a challenge in making such crucial decisions. Therefore, corporations must be clear on how to make tradeoffs between these often inconsistent and conflicting interests from different stakeholders.
In the Shareholder Wealth Maximization model, three types of maximization exist in a company. They include total stakeholder maximization, shareholder maximization and stakeholder-owner maximization. Shareholder maximization is based on a single stakeholder maximization whereby the sole business owner is taken into account during maximization. The stakeholder owner maximization focuses on desired interests and resources important for shareholders commitment. It is crucial for the overall success of the business venture (Tricker, 2012).
Of all the three-wealth maximization of companies, shareholder wealth maximization is more significant than the other two. While most businesses presume total stakeholder maximization to be the most significant role, it…
Calder, a. (2008). Corporate governance: A practical guide to the legal frameworks and international codes of practice. London: Kogan Page.
Moffett, M.H., Stonehill, a.I., & Eiteman, D.K. (2012). Fundamentals of multinational finance (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
Tricker, R.I. (2012). Corporate governance: Principles, policies and practices. Oxford: Oxford University Press
A lack of foresight and initial risk assessment therefore resulted in the losses suffered by the company.
In the area of maintenance and risk assessment, a lack of regular spillage inspection resulted in financial, legal and environmental risks for an oil company. The oil rig was not inspected on a regular basis, which resulted in a lack of regular maintenance. Hence the damage to one of the oil containers was overlooked, and a substantial amount of spillage occurred as a result. The environment suffered considerable damage as a result, and the company lost financial resources because of the need to clean up the spillage and mitigate the environmental damage. Furthermore, the company's reputation was damaged in terms of public perception.
Also I the area of maintenance and risk assessment, a lack of adequate safety clothing resulted in injury for several workers of a construction company. Disregarding safety regulations, several workers…
Eduneering. 2007, Feb. "Understanding the Financial Risks of Regulatory Non-Conformance." www.eduneering.com/downloads/whitepapers/fr_WP_020907.pdf
HM Treasury. 2004, Oct. "The Orange Book: Management of Risk - Principles and Concepts." www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media/FE6/60/FE66035B-BCDC-D4B3-11057A7707D2521F.pdf
Proctor, Ken. 2007. "Manage Risk, Improve Performance: Brintech's Enterprise Risk Management Guidelines. www.brintech.com/Knowledge_Center/PDF/Brintech%20White%20Paper%20Manage%20Risk%20Improve%20Performance.pdf
Statutory Instrument 1999 No. 3242. 1999. "The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si1999/19993242.htm
Just as Sarbanes-Oxley legislation created significant opportunities for management consultancies, the same holds true for sustainability requirements in European nations.
In conclusion, all management consultancies are attempting to position themselves as trusted advisors to firms looking to stabilizing existing sales while growing into emerging markets. Of the five included in this analysis, all also have social media channels that are well-populated with content meant to convey their thought leadership in specific areas as well. Yet in the area of equating strategies to IT investments, the majority take the approach that more IT spending is potentially the path out of strategies not performing well. Only the Boston Consulting Group takes a more strategic view of systematic change to businesses, choosing to layer in TI after the frameworks have been created. Their legacy strengths in the BCG and Growth/Share Matrices could be the impetus for this approach. Despite that fact, Boston Consulting…
Greiner, L., Motamedi, K., & Jamieson, D.. (2011). New consultant roles and processes in a 24/7 world. Organizational Dynamics, 40(3), 165.
Mors, M.. (2010). Innovation in a global consulting firm: when the problem is too much diversity. Strategic Management Journal, 31(8), 841.
Klaasjan Visscher, & J. Irene A Visscher-Voerman. (2010). Organizational design approaches in management consulting. Management Decision, 48(5), 713-731.
Please title Case 4 I attached Previous 3 Papers (Case1-3) Explain process strategy mapping relates performance management establishing propositions. You discuss theoretically Glacier Inn case study presented Armitage Scholey (2009) document readings serve integrating ideas.
Strategy mapping, performance management and establishing value propositions
Virtually all organizations today have some sort of defined 'strategy' which they are ostensibly attempting to put into action -- but merely articulating strategy is not enough. Executing the strategy is the critical often-forgotten element. Following through, organizations often face roadblocks, both internal and external. A strategy map sets "appropriate overriding objectives in a corporate setting" and is intent upon "establishing a dominant value proposition that will set the direction for achieving those objectives, and "using that proposition to guide the selection of critical financial, customer, internal process, and learning and growth strategies" (Armitage & Scholey 2006: 4).
Although strategy mapping shares many similarities…
Armitage, H., Scholey, C., (2006). Using strategy maps to drive performance. Society of Mgt.
Accountants of Canada. Retrieved from: