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The solution was to reduce processing and manufacturing costs (Lynch, 1998)
Patents: Tate & Lyle got their products licensed and obtained patents for them; this strategy was highly useful when the demand for one of the company's sweeteners increased and the company was the only one with rights to produce it (Lynch, 1998)
Despite the expected beneficial results, the company's international expansion failed to deliver the foreseen growth as its profitability decreased after the entrance on global markets. A main reason for this is that the market for starch and sweeteners is a mature one and the registration of massive profits is rather difficult to achieve. Another reason for the company's limited success onto the international market is given by the nature of their activity. As such, since they operate and process agricultural products, they are directly dependent upon the crops; which are also dependent upon natural conditions, which are…
2008, Vitafoods, http://www.vitafoods.eu.comlast accessed on February 22, 2008
2008, Official Website of Tate & Lyle, http://www.tateandlyle.com , last accessed on February 22, 2008
2008, Official Website of Tate & Lyle Ventures, http://www.tateandlyleventures.com , last accessed on February 22, 2008
Tate & Lyle 2007 Annual Report, Retrieved at
Vermeulen, Freek. 2001 'Controlling International Expansion.' usiness Strategy Review Vol. 12 Issue 3 pp29-36.
Reynolds, Scott & Hatfield, Alcinda 1996 'Shanghai's Rising Tide of Consumerism Means Food Export Opportunities' AgExporter. [online] available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3723/is_n7_v8/ai_19161841
Gamble, Jos & Huang, Qihai 2007 Multinational Retailers in the Asia Pacific. [online] available at http://www.consume.bbk.ac.uk/research/gamble.html
Kage, en 2006. 'Sugar Industry Claims Splenda Engaged in Deceptive Advertising' NaturalNews [online] available at http://www.naturalnews.com/021026.html
The PEST or PESTLE Analysis Rapidbi.com [online] http://www.rapidbi.com/created/the-PESTLE-analysis-tool.html
Hoffmann, Nicole 2000 'An Examination of the Sustainable Competitive Advantage Concept Past, Present and Future' University of Alabama [online] available at: www.amsreview.org/articles/hoffman04-2000.pdf
Olson, Parmy 2007 'Tate & Lyle gets Caned'. Forbes Sept 28, 2007 [online] available at www.forbes.com/markets/2007/09/28/tate-lyle-sugar-markets-equity-cx_po_0928markets10.html
Tate & Lyle Targets Dairy Drink oom' everageDaily.com Feb 6, 2007 [online] available at http://www.beveragedaily.com/news-by-product/news.asp?id=73951&idCat=0&k=Tate-&-Lyle -- yoghurt-dairy-drinks%20class
Porter, Michael E. 1980 Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. Free Press, New York.
Vermeulen, Freek. 2001 'Controlling International Expansion.' Business Strategy Review Vol. 12 Issue 3 pp29-36.
Reynolds, Scott & Hatfield, Alcinda 1996 'Shanghai's Rising Tide of Consumerism Means Food Export Opportunities' AgExporter. [online] available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3723/is_n7_v8/ai_19161841
Gamble, Jos & Huang, Qihai 2007 Multinational Retailers in the Asia Pacific. [online] available at http://www.consume.bbk.ac.uk/research/gamble.html
Corporate Strategy for British Airways
Airlines compete for a finite amount of passengers worldwide with a growing number of local, national and international carriers. Some airlines are specifically termed discount because they cut their costs in extreme ways to allow passengers to fly at much reduced rates. It is difficult for a full service international airline to compete and turn a profit in the environment that has grown up in the last two decades for the airline industry.
British Airways knows the challenges that are inherent in the airline industry since the airline has been flying since 1971 (British Airways, 2011), but, as with most carriers, the airline has had to continuously reinvent itself to meet the demands of the industry. These shifts have been the impetus behind increased electronic ticketing and surveillance, a move toward mergers with other carriers to gain a greater share of the world market, and…
British Airways. (2011). 2010 annual report. Retrieved from http://www.britishairways.com/cms/global/microsites/ba_repo rts0809/pdfs/Strategy.pdf
Environmental Leader. (2009, January 26). British Airways to cut CO2 emissions in half by 2050. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalleader.com/2009/01/26/british - airways-to-cut-co2-emissions-in-half-by-2050/
Kay, J. (1993). Foundations of corporate success. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Larson, E. (2010). British Airways cartel case may trigger U.S.- style class-actions in UK. Bloomberg. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-17/british-airways - cartel-case-may-trigger-u-s-style-class-actions-in-u-k- .html
This fits perfectly with the resource-based view of the organization. e will set out to acquire -- via compensation packages and stimulating work assignments -- talent from our competitors, the military and government. Then we will focus our efforts on retention, keeping such workers out of the hands of our competition. This isolation strategy should yield a workforce that our competition simply cannot match.
3. hile it is expected that the core of this strategy will not change significantly, the first change will come in the early phases of the expansion. e will need to place increasing emphasis on retention rather than attraction. Poaching in the industry is rampant, so we need to ensure that our employees are not only well-compensated but are exceptionally happy. hen firms were poaching federal employees for their security clearance, it was the inherent unhappiness of those employees with their current work conditions that allowed…
Monroe, J. (2009). Feds to contractors: Stop whining about employee poaching. FCW. Retrieved November 17, 2009 from http://www.fcw.com/Blogs/Insider/2009/08/FCW-Insider-government-poaching-contractors.aspx
No author. (2009). Resource-based view of the firm. 12 Manage. Retrieved November 17, 2009 from http://www.12manage.com/methods_barney_resource_based_view_firm.html
Kustka, B. (2008). Creating a staffing strategy. Business Week. Retrieved November 17, 2009 from http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/tips/archives/2006/03/creating_a_staf.html
Bechet, T. (no date). Developing staffing strategies that work: Implementing pragmatic, nontraditional approaches. United Nations Public Administration Network. Retrieved November 17, 2009 from http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UN/UNPAN021815.pdf
The problem with this kind of thinking is: once it begins to spread within an organization, it is only a matter of time until the entity will be slow to respond to changes that are take place. Once this happens, it can mean that a company can go from dominating their competitors, to becoming a cautionary tale. A good example of this can be seen with Sony's obvious lead with etamax. This was the forerunner to the VCR and was believed to the future of the video cassette industry. ecause of these perceptions, the managers and executives believed that their success in the past would translate into future success. What they were not taking into account, was a strategic partnership that a weaker competitor made to develop an alternative model, VHS. In this situation, JVC (the weaker competitor) would form an alliance with Matsushita. This would give the company the…
Famous Companies Founded During an Economic Recession, 2009, Resource Nation. Available from [27 August 2010].
Understanding the Internal Environment, 2010, lecture notes.
Jones, G, 2008, 'External Analysis,' Strategic Management, Cengage Learning, Mason, pp. 38- 45.
Pech, R, 2005, 'Business Manuever,' Handbook of Business Strategy, Emerald Group, pp. 35 -- 42.
Walmart's Stock Performance
Today, the largest retailer in the world is Walmart, with more than 11,000 stores in 27 countries (Walmart profile, 2014). Founded in 1945 and headquartered in Bentonville, Arkansas, Walmart operates its chain of retail stores using various formats, including discount stores, supermarkets, hypermarkets, supercenters, warehouse clubs, apparel stores, restaurants, drug stores, and convenience stores, as well as various retail Websites including walmart.com and samsclub.com (Walmart profile, 2014). This paper provides an evaluation of Walmart's stock performance in recent years, and recommendations concerning the company's future direction. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Since 1995, Walmart has been a top-four Fortune 500 company and from 2002 to 2005, was ranked first as well as again in 2007 (Souza & Awasthi, 2009). According to Souza and Awashti, Walmart's success is "attributed to a few relentlessly implemented…
Gates, S. & Nicolas, J-L. (2012, Spring). Enterprise risk management: A process for enhanced management and improved performance. Management Accounting Quarterly, 13(3), 28.
Souza, C.A. & Awashti, V.N. (2009, April). Probing financial statements in a post-Sarbanes-
Oxley world. Strategic Finance, 90(10), 37-45.
Walmart profile. (2014). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=
Corporate Strategy Electrolux
Electrolux is a company that was established in the year 1919. The company has significantly grown and presently retails products to over 150 markets. In particular, Electrolux designs plenty of products, which include vacuum cleaners, washing machines, dryers, dishwashers and several others. In accordance to Electrolux (2013), the company did experience a decline in its profits, generated in the recent number of years. However, the company has picked back up on its returns. Electrolux ought to make certain that it has an efficacious strategic plan in order to have a competitive edge over other companies.
Use Barney's VIO framework to analyze the competencies of Electrolux. Discuss whether AB Electrolux can compete with local Chinese consumer manufacturers
VIO framework is a tool that was developed by Barney, J. B in the year 1999, which can be employed to analyze and examine the internal resources and competencies of a…
Electrolux. (2013). Electrolux 2013 Annual Report. Retrieved from http://group.electrolux.com/en/company-overview-271/
Electrolux. (2015). Our employees and diversity. Retrieved 31 December 2015 from: http://www.electroluxgroup.com/en/our-employees-and-diversity-2791/
Ernst & Young. (2013). Hitting the sweet spot. Retrieved from http://www.ey.com/GL/en/Issues/Driving-growth/Middle-class-growth-in-emerging-markets
Griffin, D. (2015). Four Generic Strategies That Strategic Business Units Use. Small Business. Retrieved 31 December 2015 from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com /four-generic-strategies-strategic-business-units-use-496.html
Newell's Corporate Strategy And How It Adds Value To Its
Newell's corporate strategy, inspired by Bob Katz, was in 1967 to describe "its focus as the market for hardware and do-it-yourself (DIY) products to volume merchandisers" (Montgomery 1999:2). The philosophy behind this strategy was Katz's -- and it prompted Dan Ferguson, CEO of Newell, to allow the company to "build" on what it knew how to do best. What Newell knew best was "how to relate to and sell to a large retail institution -- the large mass retailer," and so -- after going public with its stock in 1972 -- Newell began a policy of actively "adding new products by acquisition," which could then be sold in retail stores (Montgomery 1999:2). Newell's strategy was aggressive, centralized (initially -- later departmentalized), and functional, and allowed the company to become a billion dollar corporation by the 1990s. This paper will…
Montgomery, CA 1999 'Newell Company: Corporate Strategy', Harvard Business
Functional Areas Support Corporate Strategy answer questions regard Invesco: •How functional areas supported corporate strategy? •Does Invesco possess a competitive advantage result functional area support? •Provide recommendations change.
Invesco has had a long history as an investment company and its prestige spans over all regions of the world and on multiple areas of activities. However, in the globalized world the competition is both essential and a status quo. Therefore, in order to acquire and maintain the pool of clients and to expand its market segment, Invesco needs to constantly improve its corporate strategy and to allow customers to make the choice for their services after a competitive analysis. In other words, Invesco needs to ensure its strategy is competitive in order to keep its place on the market and to advance. This is especially due to the fact that the size of the company as well as human resources should…
Invesco. Investor Center. 2013. Available at http://www.invesco.com/portal/site/global/InvestorRelations/
Invesco. Opportunities. 2013. Available at http://www.invesco.com/portal/site/global/Opportunities/
Invesco. Invesco Cares. 2013. Available at http://www.invesco.com/portal/site/global/InvescoCares/
Airbus Corporate Strategy
Business Level Corporate Level Strategies
Business-Level Corporate-Level Strategies
Business-Level Corporate-Level Strategies
Airbus is a company that manufactures aircrafts. Airbus follows the corporate strategy of its holding company EADS that is European aerospace company. Airbus is based in France and has extended operations in Europe. Airbus produces about 50% of the world's jet airliners. With around 63,000 employee force, the company has designed more than dozen aircrafts. The company had 4,682 aircrafts in December 2012 with a value of above $638 billion. The revenues and operations are ever increasing since its inception. The company supplies aircraft to almost all the countries and has started diversifying its operations. The company has been challenged by Boeing in the aircraft industry but adopts unique strategies that help it maintain a leading status in the industry.
Strategies of Airbus
Corporate strategy is about strategic scope of the company as a…
Massingham, P., (2004) "Linking business level strategy with activities and knowledge
Resources," Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(6), 50-62
Nandakumar, M.K., Ghobadian, A. And O'Regan, N., (2010) "Business-level strategy and Performance: The moderating effects of environment and structure," Management Decision, 48(6), 907-939
Roth, K. And Morrison, A.J., (2005), "Business-Level Competitive Strategy: A Contingency
Global Corporate Strategy: Continental AG
Compare and contrast the meaning of 'corporate entrepreneurship' and 'strategic leadership'.
Corporate entrepreneurship is a term used to refer to the spirit of entrepreneurship of people within the company. In this instance, corporate entrepreneurship can be used to describe the attitude of many of the employees that worked for Continental. Corporate entrepreneurship is the "process by which individuals inside organizations pursue opportunities without regard to the resources they currently control (Stevenson, oberts and Grousbeck, 1999). As a means of solving problems, a person with a truly entrepreneurial attitude would be able to gather the right resources to solve problems in as efficient a way as possible.
It would be in a company's best interest to foster an environment that encouraged corporate entrepreneurship. Because Continental did this, they were able to save their company. According to Bruche and Vogel, Continental liberated their company's "entrepreneurial energy" by…
Bruche, H., & Vogel, B. (2001). Continental 2001: liberating entrepreneurial energy. University of St. Gallen, Institute for Leadership and Human Resource Management.
Continental Corporation, . (2011, January 11). Continental corporation: continental realizes sales of over $25.5 billion. Retrieved from http://www.conti-
online.com/generator/www/com/en/continental/pressportal/themes / press_releases/2_corporation/financial_information/pr_2011_01_11_2010pre_en.html
Ireland, Duane R. And Hitt, Michael A. The Academy of Management Executive (1993-2005).
Q1: What would you expect to happen if you made significant changes in all of the text’s components of execution, in pursuit of a changed strategy?
According to Thompson (et al.) the first step of executing a strategy is ensuring that the organization has the necessary staff for execution. Quite simply, without enough numbers in terms of personnel and without personnel that possess the necessary skills to succeed, the strategy will not thrive. Attempts to ignore this fact will result in failure even with the best intentions. Even if functions are outsourced, the company must make sure that the staff at the other, contracted organization have the needed skills. The organization itself must also have the structure and capabilities (resources) to execute the strategy. This will differ between industries (some industries require a more hierarchical structure while others may benefit from more fluid arrangements) and the complexity of the strategy…
Thompson, Arthur A., Peteraf, Margaret A., Gamble, John E., & Stricklannd, A.J., Crafting & Executing Strategy: The Quest for Competitive Advantage: Concepts and Cases (20th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education, 2017.
Corporate Strategies: Why are they so Important?
What is your biggest Professional Accomplishment?
Organizational Design and Culture
The 80s and Deregulation
The Election of Barack Obama
US rise as a world super power
Dominoes use the strategy by depending on the population and household. They believe that the population and household income are what needs to help when it comes to figuring out if people are willing to pay the pizza price and how much is the request for pizza. They think that this method is important because the population is what helps figuring out the demand for pizza as a consequence of the law of the demand, the bigger population the greater the demand. The household income will help likewise for the reason that the more disposable income the more individuals will purchase a common good. However, Pizza is…
Albarracin, D. (2012). The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals. J Pers Soc Psychol., 1129 -- 1141.
Broken Racial Barriers Pave the Way for Obama Presidency. (2013, May 2). Retrieved from Voice of America: http://www.voanews.com/
Dukes, E. (2013, May 21). 4 Ways Technology Has changed the Modern Workplace. Retrieved from Office: http://www.iofficecorp.com/blog/4-ways-technology-has-changed-the-modern-workplace
Goldsmith, J. (2014, April 3). Three Approaches to Innovation. Retrieved from CBSMoney Watch: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/three-approaches-to-innovation/
The company offers training sessions for their staff members and presents them with several incentives, such as discounts on the organization's services or employee empowerment. This virtually means that the individual staff members are valued as vital organizational assets, and their input is considered throughout the decision making process.
The second component of the transportation and logistics infrastructure is given by the fleet. This is composed from the following:
654 aircraft fleet, out of which 71 are Airbus A300; 56 are Airbus A310; 13 are AT 72s; 26 are ATT 42s; 79 are Boeing 727; 1 is Boeing DC10 (10s); 6 are Boeing DC10 (30s); 57 are Boeing MD 10 (10s); 12 are Boeing MD 10 (30s); 57 are Boeing MD (11s); 10 are Cessna 208As; 242 are Cessna 208Bs and finally, 24 are Boeing 757-200s
43,000 vehicle fleet over 100,000 power ships over 2 million ships and ship managers…
Marc h 16, 1995, FedEx Extends Tracking and Information Capabilities to America Online Users; Federal Express Customers already Using Services on FedEx Internet Worldwide Web Home Page, Business Wire
2000, FedEx Corporation SEC Filling, http://apps.shareholder.com/sec/viewerContent.aspx?companyid=FDX&docid=784953 last accessed on January 18, 2010
2010, FedEx Corporation, Hoovers, http://hoovers.com/company/FedEx_Corporation/rfhhti-1-1njdap.html last accessed on January 18, 2010
2010, The 9 Faces of Leadership, Fast Company, http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/13/9faces.html last accessed on January 18, 2010
" Managers are responsible for promoting open and honest two-way communications. Managers must be positive activists and role models who show respect and consideration for each of our associates. Managers must diligently look for indications that unethical or illegal conduct has occurred and report it. If you ever have a concern about unethical or illegal activities, you are expected to take appropriate and consistent action, and inform your manager, the Law Department or the EthicsLine." (Motorola)
In conclusion, this report aimed to find the greatest hazard for a corporation to not realize its strategic goals or not meeting the expectations of its stakeholders and investors. The report is designed to explain corporate decisions that are aligned with the corporate goals and objectives and also support the process to and the judgmental calls to a Board of Directors. The company this report focused on was Motorola. The overall objective was…
Motorola "Motorola Home Page." Retrieved on 29 Nov. 2004 from http://www.motorola.com/content/0,115-110,00.html .
Yahoo Finance. Motorola. Retrieved on 11/29/2004 from Yahoo at http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=MOT .
Garmin Corporate Strategy
You are now the CEO of Garmin Incorporated. You've watched your industry and your business rise to prominence and you've watched as your competitors have slowly eaten away at your share of the market. At the same time, you've witnessed your bread and butter automotive opportunity erode before your very eyes.
Garmin has been an innovator in Global Positioning System (GPS) technology as well as a worldwide provider of navigation, communication, and information devices which are all somehow related to GPS systems. Garmin is a global company that operates through a global network of subsidiaries and the parent organization and home office is located in Taiwan. There are four broad categories in which Garmin's products are produced in; the automotive, outdoor/fitness, marine, and aviation products are the respective product lines.
ithin 5 short years, the GPS manufacturer went from a small niche producer to a…
Bourdeaux, P. (2009, December 30). Google's Impact on GPS Devices. Retrieved from Sun Dog: http://www.sundoginteractive.com/sunblog/posts/googles-impact-on-gps-devices
Fletch, P. (2008, May 8). GPS Brands Market Share Data for 2007. Retrieved from GPS Magazine: http://www.gpsmagazine.com/2008/05/gps_brands_market_share_data_f.php
Garmin. (2011, December 31). Garmin 10-k. Retrieved from About Garmin: http://www8.garmin.com/aboutGarmin/invRelations/reports/10-K_2011.pdf
Google Finance. (2013, December 9). Garmin Ltd. Retrieved from Google Finance: https://www.google.com/finance?q=NASDAQ:GRMN
company with which the author of this report is familiar. This report will be divided into several points of analysis including an executive summary, a general analysis of the corporate strategy of the selected firm, the formulation of a corporate strategy, the implementation of a corporate strategy and the conclusions and recommendations that the author of this report feels are appropriate given the company involved and its circumstances.
For the sake of privacy and trust, the author of this report will not mention the company in question by name. However, the author will say it is in the broader financial services sector and it does very well in the industry within which it operations. Even so, there are some things that the company has struggled with here and there including the management of employee workloads, overtime management, staffing management in general and the ways in which it does (and does…
Port of Baltimore's Strategic Orientation
As the Case Review by Ross et al. (2005) shows, the Port of Baltimore finds itself almost perpetually in a highly challenging and precarious position where environmentalism is concerned. The demands of its industry, and particularly those relating to the highly competitive market driven by the leverage of the shipping sector, require the POB to seek a balance in the variant priorities of profitability, satisfaction of state interests, security and environmentalism. Often, when this last dimension of its operation is relegated behind other considerations, POB has been forced to confront the ire of environmental advocacy groups, lobbyists and public agencies.
One of the more complex issues surrounding its environmental position is that relating to dredging, which has a mix of negative and constructive implications to the ecology surrounding the port and the Chesapeake Bay. According to Ross et al., "dredging, which is the process of…
Campbell, A.; Goold, M. & Alexander, M. (1995). Corporate Strategy: The Quest for Parenting Advantage. Harvard Business Review.
Hart, S.L. (1996). Beyond Greening: Strategies for a Sustainable World. Harvard Business Review.
Ross, D.N.; Sanford, D.M. & Kucerova, R. (2005). Traditional Case 9: The Port of Baltimore: Stakeholder Management and Security. Towson University.
Stalk, G.; Evans, P. & Shulman, L.E. (1992). Competing on Capabilities: The Rules of Corporate Strategy. Harvard Business Review.
H and Corporate Strategy
The work entitled "Overcoming the Barriers to Strategic H Management: Old Issues. New Solutions" states that strategic H "is characterized by being forward-thinking, proactive and, most of all, creative...Strategic H is also about thinking about possibilities and connecting those possibilities in concrete ways to the business that you support." (ADP, 2007) This work intends to address organizational strategic H management as it relates to the: (1) sales; (2) marketing; (3) operations; and (4) finance departments of the organization.
The objectives stated by the VP of sales are the following: (1) Increase the number of field sales representatives (FS) from 20 to 30; (2) Increase gross sales by 8%; and (3) Create positions for four regional sales managers so that FSs do not report directly to the VP of sales.
The objectives stated by the VP of marketing are those as follows: (1) Develop marketing…
A Guide to Strategic Human Resource Planning (2010) Work Info. Retrieved from: http://www.workinfo.com/free/downloads/176.htm
Bobinski, Dan (2004) The Role of HR in Strategic Planning. Management Issues. 26 Feb 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.management-issues.com/display_page.asp?section=opinion&id=1137Successful
Jackson, Susan E. And Schuler, Randall S. (2005) Managing Human Resources. Chapter 6. Recruiting and Retaining Qualified Employees. Thomson business & Professional Publishing.
Jackson, Susan E. And Schuler, Randall S. (2005) Managing Human Resources. Chapter 5 / Using Job Analysis and Competency Modeling. Thomson business & Professional Publishing.
Wal-Mart has recently experimented with diversifying into smaller stores. Its first move in testing smaller stores was on a university campus in Arkansas, where it offered food and non-food ranges in the Campus store replacing their ordinary parapharmacy / drugstore products. Its objective in diversifying into smaller stores is intended as competition against the other two major players, CVS and Wal-Green who showed rapid growth between 2005-2010.
Wal-mart's other decision to diversify arises from the fact that it has saturated its hypermarket and mass merchandiser channels and wishes to grow and find new store locations without destructing existent ones. Its modest growth sales in the U.S. In 2010, and its disappointing consequences of its Project Impact programme, have compelled it to look into the possibility of diversifying into smaller stores.
Porter (2001) presents three essential tests for assessing the conditions under which diversification will create shareholder value:
1. The attractiveness…
Euromonitor International. Wal-Mart tests small stores to exploit new growth areas, Jan. 2011.
Porter, M.E. From competitive advantage to corporate strategy, Harvard Business Review, 2001
As some queries about corporate governance were there ever since 1932 - the period of erle and Means, the expression of the concept of Corporate Governance was not found in English vocabulary until 25 years ago. However, in the previous two decades, matters relating to corporate governance have gained importance in academic literature as well as in public policy deliberations. Corporate governance came to be acknowledged as being synonymous with takeovers, financial restructuring, and activities of institutional investor's during this part of the era. Corporate Governance is now at a turning point. Several budding and up-coming economies that are on the path of development have identified by now that excellent corporate governance is vital for sustainable economic development. Furthermore, a lot are on the lookout for a novel or appropriate standard for making it relevant for their particular internal situation. (erle and Means, 1932)
The last ten years…
Berle, A; G. Means (1932) "The modern corporation and private property" Macmillan, NewYork. pp.54-58
Hart, O. (1995). "Firms, contracts and financial structure" Clarendon Press, Oxford. pp.32-36
Jensen, M and Meckling, W. (1976). "Theory of the firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure" Journal of Financial Economics, Volume. 3.pp. 305-360
Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert W. (1997) "A Survey of Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance Volume. 52. pp. 737-83.
The shared understanding is crucial in order to build strength and enough confidence necessary for the implementation of strategy and to necessitate evolution.
Second Phase: LG's strategic intent
In order to remain competitive, LG has to stick to its long-term vision which should act as stabilizers to the corporation in times of uncertainty. The vision in this case refers to as a statement of the things that can be achieved by the corporation. The concept of strategic intent is very crucial to the operating of a corporation since it acts as a magnet that pulls the present corporate dynamics and activities to the future. Any given strategic intent should be formulated in a manner that the corporation's remain with a large vision that can energize the workforce at all times. The formulation of new strategic intent options can help LG in capturing new markets while remaining competitive within the uncertain…
Chandler, AD (1962).Strategy and structure: chapters in the history of the industrial enterprise.
The American Historical Review, October 1962, Vol. 68 Issue: Number 1 p158-158
Bradford, RW (2008). Communicating Your Strategic Plan with Employees . Available online http://www.strategyletter.com/CD1103/featured_article.php retrieved 16 January 2011
Bartlett, C. And Ghoshal, S. (1994), "Changing the role of top management: beyond strategy to purpose," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 72
Corporate Operations Management
Corporate strategy provides long-range guidance for the whole organization. It is often expressed as a statement of its mission that defines key stakeholders and describes the overall strategy to meet objectives. Business strategy is concerned with products and services offered in the market defined at the corporate level. It defines the competitive advantage of the products and services. Functional strategy, termed operational, is where business functions make long-range plans that support the competitive advantage and incorporate corporate goals (Greasley).
The performance objectives allow the organization to measure performance in achieving strategic goals. Quality is measured by the cost of quality, speed measures time delay between customer request and receipt of product, dependability measures the consistency of promised delivery, flexibility measures ability to quickly change what it does, and cost measures profits and competitor deterrence.
3. 4. Product or service needs to flexibility to quickly meet changing customer…
Greasley, A. (n.d.). Chapter 2. In A. Greasley, Operations Management, 2nd Ed.
Moore, S. (2014). The Disadvantages of Focused Manufacturing. Retrieved from Chron: http://smallbusiness.chron.com /disadvantages-focused-manufacturing-35836.html
They are held responsible by the CEO.
The shareholders of the corporate are the legal owners of the corporation. In most cases, they do not actively control the corporation, but rather are responsible for appointing the board to oversee the corporation on their behalf. The shareholders as owners have some entitlement to profits from the company, but the terms of that profit distribution are generally decided by management when it announces its dividends. The shareholders do have a small handful of legal responsibilities. They elect the board. They also vote to approve the auditors. Occasionally, such as when Arthur Andersen collapsed, shareholders may be compelled to vote outside of normal shareholder meetings. The shareholders also have certain rights of ownership such as the rights to the proceeds from the dissolution of a company, should there be any.
The above definitions apply primarily to public corporations. These roles may differ in…
eNotes. (2010). Agency theory. eNotes. Retrieved September 24, 2010 from http://www.enotes.com/biz-encyclopedia/agency-theory
Raymond, D. (2005) Independence and the private company: Adopting Sarbanes-like rules on director independence would impair the smooth function. Entrepreneur. Retrieved September 24, 2010 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/135241457.html
There have been controversies on the subject of the governance and accountability of big corporations, but it is only recently that these issues have gained prominence. The compensation for the top management is one of the major issues of corporate governance today. The primary reason for offering stocks to executives was for raising the share prices and thereby increasing its value for both investors as well as shareholders. Though this proved to be a major success, there were a few executives who would not disclose their stock options or would not make full use of the stock options offered to them. This caused inefficiency in the financial market. Stakeholders have the freedom to check their shares and to question the management if there were any discrepancies. Despite these constant checks with financial analysts, the board of directors, the panel of regulators, auditors and managers, there has been instances…
Charkham, Jonathan. 1994. 'Keeping Good Company: A Study of Corporate Governance in Five Countries' New York: Oxford University Press.
Davies, Adrian. 1999. 'A Strategic Approach to Corporate Governance' Gower.
De George, Richard T. 1995. 'Business Ethics' New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Fort, Timothy L. 2001. 'Ethics and Governance: Business as Mediating Institution' New York, N.Y: Oxford University Press.
Communities are looking for social expenditures by the business to benefit the community (hospitals, stable employment, donations, and investments). Managers face a challenge in making such crucial decisions. Therefore, corporations must be clear on how to make tradeoffs between these often inconsistent and conflicting interests from different stakeholders.
In the Shareholder Wealth Maximization model, three types of maximization exist in a company. They include total stakeholder maximization, shareholder maximization and stakeholder-owner maximization. Shareholder maximization is based on a single stakeholder maximization whereby the sole business owner is taken into account during maximization. The stakeholder owner maximization focuses on desired interests and resources important for shareholders commitment. It is crucial for the overall success of the business venture (Tricker, 2012).
Of all the three-wealth maximization of companies, shareholder wealth maximization is more significant than the other two. While most businesses presume total stakeholder maximization to be the most significant role, it…
Calder, a. (2008). Corporate governance: A practical guide to the legal frameworks and international codes of practice. London: Kogan Page.
Moffett, M.H., Stonehill, a.I., & Eiteman, D.K. (2012). Fundamentals of multinational finance (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
Tricker, R.I. (2012). Corporate governance: Principles, policies and practices. Oxford: Oxford University Press
The claim that a board member familiar with forensic accounting would have been able to uncover such a fraud holds little water given that it took a team of experts working in secret many months to uncover the fraud. However, the argument generally holds that better board composition, and more engaged board members, would have prevented such a fraud. Nadler (2004) argues that better boards are less important for preventing frauds as they are for driving better performance. This then shifts the emphasis of the board away from governance and towards performance enhancement.
Nadler's argument supports Nohria's claims about the relative irrelevance of strong corporate governance. No matter whether the boards take a strict shareholder approach or the expanded stakeholder approach proposed by Post et al. (2002), there are limits as the impact that they can have over a company's performance, no matter how well-composed the board is. If the…
Bowden, P. & Smythe, V. (2008). Theories on teaching & training in ethics. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organizational Studies. Vol. 13 (2) 19-26.
Nadler, D. (2004). Building better boards. Harvard Business Review. May 2004, 102-111.
Nohria, N. (2004). What really matters. Harvard Business School. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from http://info.umuc.edu/mba/HBS/realmathi/presentation/title/start.html#play
Post, J.; Preston, L. & Sachs, S. (2002). Managing the extended enterprise: The new stakeholder view. California Management Review. Vol. 45 (1) 6-28.
This is too simple a solution. An analysis of the corporate strategies shows that the flaw in the lack of any ethics in the formulation of these strategies is greater the culprit and the corporate executives that were responsible for the development of these flawed strategies, lacking in ethics were more to blame than a few leaders in the organization. (Leadership: Facing Moral and Ethical Dilemmas)
In conclusion a corporate executive may choose to employ ethical and moral values at the time of formulating corporate strategies, but should he choose to ignore the immense good that morals and ethics bring to a corporate strategy he does at not just his peril but puts at risk the whole organization with the chances of it collapsing like Enron very high.
Ethics Must Come From the Top. Jacksonville Business Journal. August 27, 2004. etrieved from http://www.foley.com/publications/pub_detail.aspx?pubid=2226Accessed on March 3,
Implementing Ethics Strategies…
Ethics Must Come From the Top. Jacksonville Business Journal. August 27, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.foley.com/publications/pub_detail.aspx?pubid=2226Accessed on March 3,
Implementing Ethics Strategies within Organizations. Retrieved at http://www.aicpa.org/cefm/management_control_02.asp . Accessed on March 3, 2005
Leadership: Facing Moral and Ethical Dilemmas. Retrieved at http://www.leadershipadvantage.com/moralAndEthicalDilemmas.shtml. Accessed on Orlitzky, Marc. A case for ethics. August 30, 2001. Retrieved at http://www2.agsm.edu.au/agsm/web.nsf/Content/AGSMMagazine-AcaseforethicsAccessed on March 3, 2005
Tishler, Carla. Where Morals and Profits Meet: The Corporate Value Shift. November 18, 2002. Retrieved at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item.jhtml?id=3530&t=strategyAccessed on March
Others feel Five Forces is too cumbersome in its need for data and heavy-duty analysis and does not fit today's rapidly changing, dynamic market.
So where do we go with this thought that some of today's tools may not suffice as the market moves faster and companies need these dynamic, flexible analytical tools to update their strategies?
Where Is the Field of Strategy?
Disruptive Innovation? Four actions framework? Factor conditions? Demand conditions? Preemptive strategies? Five Forces? Ten Schools? Are any of these concepts/theories new and innovative? Do they pave the path toward the future of corporate and competitive strategizing? The answer is probably yes...and no.
It is difficult to find a brand new strategizing tool or model or school that is not just a rehashed version of our current standard, and quite effective, methods to analyze strategies. One innovative strategy to arise out of an existing concept is "lue Ocean."…
Corporate Level Strategy. (2003, January). Retrieved 11-07, 2008, from BNet Business
Day, G., & Reibstein, D. (1997). Wharton on dynamic competitive strategy. Hoboken,
N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Business Level and Corporate Level Strategies
Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies
General Motors business level and corporate level strategies
General Motors (GM) is a company based in the United States with its headquarters in Detroit, Michigan. GM is a publicly traded company that is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. GM designs, manufactures, distributes, and markets vehicle parts and vehicles (Laudon & Laudon, 2011). The company also sells financial services. GM acquired the title for the world's largest automaker in 2011. It managed to do this by achieving the highest number of unit sales in vehicles since its establishment. For 77 consecutive years, GM was able to lead the global automobile unit sales from 1931 to 2007. However, GM lost this position to Toyota with GM coming second. Toyota still dominates the market. The preference and needs of the customers are the focus of a company's core competencies. In a…
Aguinis, H., Joo, H., & Gottfredson, R.K. (2012). Performance management universals: Think globally and act locally. Business Horizons, 55(4), 385-392.
Freyssenet, M. (2011). The start of a second automobile revolution: corporate strategies and public policies. Economia e Politica Industriale.
Laudon, K.C., & Laudon, J.P. (2011). Essentials of management information systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Shimokawa, K. (2010). Japan and the global automotive industry. UPH, Shaftesbury Road: Cambridge University Press.
Using the concepts developed by Collis and Montgomery in Competing on esources describe how the Cellox could attain a sustainable competitive advantage. Clearly state the competitive advantage and indicate how the following impact the competitive advantage
The esource-Based View (BV) combines internal analysis of phenomena within companies with external analysis of industry and competitive environment. Since no two companies are alike, a company is best positioned for success if it has the best and most appropriate pool of resources for its business and strategy. esources may be both physical such as needed element for the product, and intangible such as the brand name or technological know-how. It is these specific resources slanted to the need of the particular company that make the company an outstanding, rather than mediocre, organization in the long run. Competitive advantage gives the company an edge over competitors. For Cellox, therefore, to become distinct…
Buchanan, D. & Huczynski, A.: Organizational behavior, introductory text. Prentice Hall, Third Edition (1997)
Corning, P.A. Synergy and self-organization in the evolution of complex systems.
The corporate level strategy of General Mills is the horizontal growth strategy. Imperatively, horizontal growth is accomplished by expanding its business operations into other geographic expanses or by expanding the range of products as well as services being offered in the prevailing market. In this regard, General Mills has expanded its business operations not just in the United States but also internationally and increasing its wide range of products retailed in its stores. The generic Porter strategy followed by General Mills is the differentiation focus strategy. This is in the sense that the company strives to accomplish differentiation in its target segment (Porter, 1985). This is largely owing to the fact that the company deals with different products within its segment including cereals, frozen vegetable, fruit, dry dinners, frozen pizza as well as pizza snacks, and an extensive range of organic products (Forbes, 2018). The strategic choices of…
Nike was founded in 1964 as Blue Ribbon Sports, and became Nike in 1971, by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight, the latter going on to become the company’s long-serving CEO (O’Reilly, 2014). Today, Nike describes its business in the 2018 10-K as “the design, development and worldwide marketing and selling of athletic footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories and services” (p.55). In addition to the eponymous brand, Nike markets Converse, Hurley, and entire Jordan brand, and others. Nike’s revenues in 2018 were $36.397 billion, up nearly 6% from the year previous. Net income was $1.933 but this was down significantly from the prior year, as the company recorded a much higher income tax expense.
Nike competes in the sports apparel industry, which is estimated to be worth around $184.6 billion worldwide, meaning that Nike holds about a 19.7% share. The industry is mature but still growing, with a CAGR of 4.3% over…
Clarify and discuss the purposes of corporate communication strategies
In definition, corporate communication encompasses the entirety of a company's endeavors to have communication that is not only efficacious but also effective in attracting revenues. In particular, it can be delineated as a tool utilized by corporate managers in the way that they make certain that all kinds of internal and external communication are in synchronization in the most efficacious manner. The general purpose of corporate communications strategy is to institute and sustain positive engagement between the company and its stakeholders (Cornelissen, 2011). In addition, the purpose of the corporate communication strategy takes into account the promotion of effectual corporate principles and beliefs, a comprehensive distinctiveness, a fitting and capable association with all channels of communication and instantaneous, responsible means of communicating in all circumstances (Cornelissen, 2011). The organization in consideration is Coca Cola Company. In particular,…
Adrian, A. D., Downs, C. W. (2004). Assessing Organizational Communication: Strategic Communication Audits. New York The Guilford Press.
Cornelissen, J. (2011). Corporate Communication: A Guide to Theory and Practice. London: SAGE Publications.
Eisenhauer, T. (2015). 15 Ways to Measure the Effectiveness of Internal Communications within Your Company Intranet. Axero. Retrieved 9 July 2016 from: https://axerosolutions.com/blogs/timeisenhauer/pulse/325/15-ways-to-measure-the-effectiveness-of-internal-communications-within-your-company-intranet
Essays, UK. (November 2013). Purpose of Corporate Communication Strategy Marketing Essay. Retrieved from https://www.uk***.com/essays/marketing/purpose-of-corporate-communication-strategy-marketing-essay.php?cref=1
Management and Ethical Issues
hat is the difference between efficiency and effectiveness?
hen companies brainstorm about how to get employees to be more effective and more efficient they are trying to make their business more successful. But the two concepts are quite different and often times they are confused as being the same. According to the Small Business section in the Houston Chronicle, an effective worker "produces at a high level" while an efficient worker "…produces quickly and intelligently" (Miksen, 2012). And when an employee is both efficient and effective, a company can produce "better products faster and with fewer resources" (Miksen, p. 1).
Basically, effectiveness is defined by business as the results from the "…actions of employees and managers," and employees and managers that are effective in the workplace generally produce "high-quality" results, Miksen writes on page 1. For example, in a retail situation, the worker on the sales…
Goh, Gareth. "Effectiveness vs. Efficiency -- What's the Difference?" Insight Squared.
Retrieved March 25, 2014, from http://www.insightsquared.com . 2013.
Green, Charles H. "The New Leadership is Horizontal, Not Vertical." Trust Advisor.
Summary of the purpose of Corporate Sustainability Reporting
Reporting corporate sustainability is one of the best ways to ensure that a company is not only doing well financially in the present but also in securing a better and more certain future. The reporting of corporate suitability ensures that the current needs of the organization are effectively met without comprising future needs of the organization. Reporting on corporate sustainability also ensure that organization are able to keep up with all changes in the industry, with ensuring that new innovations have been developed, maintained and employed in the daily operations of the organization. Corporate sustainability is developed on a grid developed to ensure that the future is secure, and that the organization will survive for a long time.
Corporate sustainability also encompasses the assessment of current and future risks that the organization is likely to endure. As such, a majority…
Chee Tahir, A., and Darton, R. C, 2010, "The process analysis method of selecting indicators to quantify the sustainability performance of a business operation." Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 18, 1598 -- 1607.
Kaufman, A. And Englander, E, 2011, "Behavioral Economics, Federalism, and the Triumph of Stakeholder Theory." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 102 No.3, 421-438.
Fassin, Y, August 2012. "Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 109 No.1, 83-96.
Pryor, M, Humphreys, J, Oyler, J, Taneja, S. And Toombs, L, December 2011, "The Legitimacy and Efficacy of Current Organizational Theory: An Analysis." International Journal of Management Part 2, Vol. 28 No.4, 209-228.
Corporate Social Action of McDonald's and the Problem of Obesity
Corporate Social Responsibility
This paper proposes a corporate social action to McDonald's to address the issue of obesity among general consumers which is caused by high-calorie and spicy fast foods. The paper starts by highlight some research studies which explain how fast foods cause obesity among children and adults, and proceeds by discussing why McDonald's should take an initiative to remove this criticism by the local and international community. The paper also highlights the strategies to implement this action plan, the intended outcomes and affected stakeholders, the constituent parts of the plan, and unintended consequences or weaknesses of this initiative by the company.
The Social Problem:
Obesity is one of the major issues in health care. It gives rise to various heart diseases, diabetes, and other health related consequences (orld Heart Federation). A number of research studies have been conducted…
Benloulou, Jonathan. "Pelman v. McDonald's: An In-depth Case Study of a Fast Food -- Obesity Lawsuit," 2005. Print.
Environmental Action, "Marching against McDonalds," ProQuest Central, 1993: 25 (3). p-10.
Lu-sted, Marcia, Amidon. Obesity & food policing, 1st Edition. Edina, Minn.: ABDO Pub. Co., 2008. Print.
McBride, Sarah. "Currents: Exiling the Happy Meal; Los Angeles Lawmakers Want to Escalate the War on Obesity (and Fast Food)." Wall Street Journal, 22nd July, 2008: A.14. ProQuest. Web. May 11th, 2013.
Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics
Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…
Career Services. The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from:
Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Supply Chain.. APEC
Human Resources Development Working Group. Retrieved from: http://hrd.apec.org/index.php/Corporate_Social_Responsibility_in_the_Global_Supply_Chain.
Global corporations are often difficult to control because they operate in various countries throughout the world. As such actions that may be illegal in some countries are perfectly legal in others. Furthermore law enforcement officials and governments do not have the power to enforce laws that are outside of their jurisdictions. These issues call into question the effectiveness mechanisms that exist to control global corporate conduct. The purpose of this discussion is to Assess the effectiveness of various mechanisms that exist to control global corporate conduct and recommend a mechanism that I believe is the most effective.
Survey of Mechanisms and their Advantages/Disadvantages
Private regulations employ civil regulations to compel transnational corporations to operate according to a certain set of standards. According to the "defining feature of civil regulation is that its legitimacy, governance and implementation is not rooted in public authority. Operating beside or around…
Fritsch, S.(2008) The UN Global Compact and the Global Governance
of Corporate Social Responsibility: ComplexMultilateralism for a More Human Globalisation? Global Society, Vol. 22, No. 1, pg. 2-26
Haufler, V. 2003 "Globalization and Industry Self-Regulation," in Governance in A Global Economy: Political Authority in Transition, Miles Kahler and David Lake, eds. Princeton University Press, 2003, p. 226
Haufler, V. 2002 The Public Role for the Private Sector, and The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance Rodney Hall and Thomas Biersteker, eds. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Additionally, it has been observed that whenever companies implement strategies of CS, they do this not out of individual choice and desire, but as a result of imposed legislations. "All of these decisions are made under the mandatory legal rules embodied in employment and labor law, workplace safety law, environmental law, consumer protection law, and pension law. Such rules, because they often apply to all businesses, are not susceptible to easy evasion through choice of form. As a result, those charged with governing a corporation find their decision tree considerably trimmed and their discretion decidedly diminished by mandatory legal rules enacted in the name of protecting stakeholders" (Winkler, 2005). In other words, the modern day evolutions of corporate social responsibility "caution against a rush to declare the ultimate triumph of shareholder primacy" (Winkler, 2005).
As a direct result of this changing legislation, more companies have commenced corporate social responsibility programs.…
Akerstrom, a., 2009, Corporate governance and social responsibility: Johnson & Johnson, GRIN Verlag, ISBN 364045605X
Boyd, C., 2003, Human resource management and occupational health and safety, Routledge, ISBN 0415265908
Conley, J.M., Williams, C.A., 2005, Engage, embed and embellish: theory vs. practice in the corporate social responsibility movement, Journal of Corporation Law, Vol. 31, No. 1
Greenwald, R., 2005, Wal-Mart: the high costs of low price (documentary available on DVD)
Corporate Social esponsibility
I attaching assignment paper write essay CS.
Given the heightened level of international operations and globalization, pressure is mounting for corporations to behave ethically. Corporations are forced to developing standards, policies and behaviors as a demonstration of their sensitivity to concerns of stakeholder. The policies behaviors and standards are what a European commission called corporate social responsibilities. The Commission defined corporate social responsibility (CS) as "a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis" Commission, 2001.
Complementing this definition, McWilliams and Siegel. (2001)
, said CS include all actions that are intended to forge, beyond the firm's interest, a social good, and is a requirement in law.
Composition Corporate Social esponsibility
Corporate social responsibility entails coming up with solutions specific to a society. The corporation is however, not forcefully charged with an…
Balmer, John M.T., & Dinnie, K. (1999). "Corporate identity and corporate communications: the antidote to merger madness," Corporate Communications: . An International Journal,, 4, 68-86.
Balmer, J.M.T. (2001). Corporate Identity, Corporate Branding and corporate marketing European Journal of Marketing 34(4), 248-291.
Buckley, P.J., & Ghauri, P.N. (2004). Globalisation, Economic Geography and the Strategy of Multinational Enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(2), 81-98.
Commission, E. (2001). Promoting a European Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility.' Green Paper, 264.
It should not be treated as a separate exercise undertaken to meet regulatory requirements." (ICA, 29) Here is expressed a philosophical impetus that drives the focus of this research, that such compliance which will generally concern matters such as corporate accounting, the practice of internal oversight and the practice of financial transaction must be considered inextricable from other aspects of practical, procedural and legal operation in terms of its relevance and necessity.
The practice of corporate governance may perhaps best be understand from the perspective that deregulation has largely defined the processes and direction of the global economy across the two decades following the Cold ar and its inevitable opening of economic channels. This is because in practice, corporate governance is a concept which has suffered much neglect. To the point, the statistics availed by organizations such as the orld Bank and the International Monetary Fund illustrate that…
Aguilera, R.V. & Yip, G.S. (2004). Corporate Governance and Globalization:
Toward an Actor Centred Institutional Analysis. University of Illinois: College
of Business. Online at .
ASB. (1999). Reporting Financial Performance. Financial Reporting Council. Online at
This strategy was successful for some time but when WorldCom tried to acquire MCI (a company with two times more revenues than WorldCom), the binge of acquisitions was ended due to objections from antitrust and other stakeholders.
WorldCom's strategy was to display revenues and profits in extremely positive basket; for which the company had to make false misstatements in their accounting records. I think, it was the social and ethical responsibility of WorldCom to avoid misinterpretations in their financial statements and to show clear picture of the company to its stakeholders.
This strategy resulted in expansion of WorldCom through acquisitions and the expansion became so huge that the management of WorldCom was unable to handle the business. The debt of the company touched $41billion with $11billion of accounting frauds and misinterpretations. These all were the fruits of strategies implemented by Ebber just to display a very sound and positive picture…
Besser, T. And Miller, N. (2008). Is the good corporation dead? Journal of Socio-Economics, 30 (3). 221-241.
Crawford, K. (2005). Ex-WorldCom CEO Ebbers guilty: Faces up to 85 years in prison after being convicted on all nine counts in accounting fraud. Retrieved on May 7, 2011, from http://monev.cnn.eom/2005/03/l5/news/newsmakers/ebbers/index.htm?cnn=yes
Sidak, J.G. (2003). The failure of good intentions: The WorldCom fraud and the collapse of American telecommunications after deregulation. Yale Journal on Regulation, 20(2), 207-267.
was sold off in March of 2002 (www.stadium-electronics.com/investor-relations/corporate-history/). KP Power Source was acquired in 2006, a key acquisition as KP specializes in the distribution of power supplies. In 2007, Ferrus Power was acquired, and additionally was a key acquisition due to its specialization in custom power supplies. 2008 of October, Fox Industries Limited was acquired, which produced custom made power supplies and EMC filter products; November was the acquisition of EMS provider Zirkon Limited; 2010 saw the sale of the non-core asset Branded Plastics Business (www.stadium-electronics.com/investor-relations/corporate-history/).
Stadium managed to acquire the distribution and manufacturing units of many of its competitors. Such strategic acquisition from Stadium is a strategic target for a bigger competitor to discover the value in Stadium and acquire the company before they become too large for acquisition. When reviewing the acquisition strategy of Stadium, one must ask whether the company was preparing its balance sheet to be…
Maximising Shareholder Value -- Achieving clarity in decision-making. Technical Report. Measuring Shareholder Value, the Metrics
Farinella, M.A. 1996, "Mergers and acquisitions drove 1995 corporate changes," Best's Review, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 65.
Huang, C.T.W. & Kleiner, B.H. 2004, "New Developments Concerning Managing Mergers and Acquisitions: MRN," Management Research Review, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 54.
"Mergers and Acquisitions: What Has Changed," 2011, Healthcare Financial Management, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 105.
In these cases, others working in those fields are the only ones who have the ability to conduct quality check to verify instances of possible fraud. Qualified doctors can analyze the work of other doctors to attest their medical malpractice. An honest lawyer who deals with related issues can understand how a fellow lawyer could have used deceitful methods to cheat a client off his money. Proficient lecturers can set good examples for students to bring out the incompetency of others. In the managerial level, well qualified professionals are the only ones who are smart enough to figure out the plots hatched by higher executives in order to use the shareholder money for personal needs. Scams in the political sector can only be challenged by opposing political parties or powerful entities like the court. The media is highly potent in this regard as they present malpractices in front…
Description of Corporate Governance [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 August 2010]
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 August 2010]
Blundell M., Explain what is meant by the principal agent problem [online] Available at:
< tutor2u.net/blog/files/Principal_Agent_Problem.pdf > [Accessed 11 August 2010]
Advisers for example survey the market and make recommendations to their customers on the strength of such estimations. Such investments carry a high level unknown risks, depending upon the type of investment a customer prefers to make. Some customers prefer higher risks for higher returns, while others are more careful with their investments. In such a company, risk quantification and creation play a more important role than risk prevention.
Diversifying risks in the financial business is a strategy that mitigates the risk of investment. The strategy entails diversifying the number and types of investment made in order to minimize the risk of financial loss for the client. Such a strategy is useful in high-risk and high-return types of investments.
Concentrating risk is the opposite strategy of diversifying risk in the investment business. This strategy carries a high risk of loss, but also a high possibility of return if successful. It…
When combining the two, future market trends can be more accurately predicted by basic it upon existing trends. In this way, the risk factors associated with both areas of R&D are significantly reduced.
The most prominent risks associated with R&D, as identified above, include market research and competition. In addition to risks associated with market trends, risks posed by competitors can also be mitigated with a combination of strategies. The three remaining categories of R&D include long-term, short-term, and intermediate-term R&D.
Long-term R&D can be associated with the offensive R&D strategy, as it entails a projection of market needs in the long-term. This means that products and services are developed on the basis of prediction rather than fact. The most important reason for this is to rise above the competition. The risk associated with this is the fact that competitors may develop long-term products that exceed the company's projects, thus…
Another alternative for companies with uninsurable risks is mutualization. However, this category of insurance carries further risks that may not be suitable for all companies. The main problem is that mutual insurers require participants to be from a homogenous population, making this alternative unviable for a variety of clients. Some companies are however working on overcoming such problems to make mutualization less problematic for their investors.
Some insurance companies now recognize the main concern of organizations for cash flow in the event of a major loss. These insurers then offer such organizations solutions that guarantee cash flow in the form of a possible loan alternative, which is then to be repaid at a later time, when the company has mitigated its loss. Cash flow insurance can then be based upon income factors such as future royalties or rental income, that are generally not shown on current income statements.
Both proposals were consequently amended and eventually accepted by the SEC.
The audit committee makes sure that the books aren't being cooked and that shareholders are properly informed of the financial status of the firm. Characteristically, the audit committee advocates the CPA firm that will audit the company's books, appraises the activities of the company's independent accountants and internal auditors, and reviews the company's internal control systems and its accounting and financial reporting requirements and practices. The compensation committee usually does the following: (1) recommends the selection of the CEO, (2) reviews and approves the appointment of officers who report directly to the CEO, (3) reviews and approves the compensation of the CEO and the managers reporting to the CEO, and (4) administers the stock compensation and other incentive plans. The suggested committee establishes experience for potential directors (Lunnie, 2007; pg. 90). It also puts collectively a list of candidates…
Such problems are not overcome easily, but in time and with sustained efforts. To better understand my standpoint of defending the bailouts, consider what would have happened had the TAP never been implemented. All of the companies would have commenced bankruptcy procedures and the millions of workers they were employing would have been fired. At a first level, the state would have had to offer those former employees social aid. Then, the national purchasing power would have decreased even more, to impact the national demand and the national production. Also, the country's competitive position within the global market would have decreased dramatically. Overall then, while the bailouts may not have been fairly and efficiently allocated and while they did not revive the economy immediately, they did prevent it from taking an even more damaging turn.
Haugen, D., 2010, Bailout Money Should Not Be Used to Pay Executive Bonuses, Detroit:…
Haugen, D., 2010, Bailout Money Should Not Be Used to Pay Executive Bonuses, Detroit: Greenhaven Press
Haugen, D., 2010, the Government Bank Bailout Plan Is a Fraud, Detroit: Greenhaven Press
Haugen, D., 2010, the Government Bank Bailout Will Not Jump Start the American Economy, Detroit: Greenhaven Press
September 2008, Government Bailouts Must Put Americans First, U.S. Newswire
For IBM, it took Louis Gerstner getting angry about unfulfilled opportunities for new businesses to create the EBO structure. For Nokia, the similarities with IBM are at a very high structural level, yet Nokia relies on a completely different set of processes for fostering innovation and corporate entrepreneurship. The rapidly changing world of laptop computers needed a corporate nonconformist to accomplish what carefully defined processes in Toshiba could not. In the case of Trilogy the need for creating a steady stream of significant new innovation forced the creation of a proving ground where PhDs in software and mathematics could quickly define entirely new product and business concepts.
Abetti, P (2004) - Informal corporate entrepreneurship: implications from the failure of the Concorde alloy foundry and the success of the Toshiba laptop;. J. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2004, pp. 529-545
Arthur D. Little (2002) - Developments in…
Abetti, P (2004) - Informal corporate entrepreneurship: implications from the failure of the Concorde alloy foundry and the success of the Toshiba laptop;. J. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2004, pp. 529-545
Arthur D. Little (2002) - Developments in the area of Corporate Venturing based on a global Arthur D. Little Study. December, 2002. Page 11 quoted with the Nokia graphic. Accessed from the Internet on March 30, 2007: http://www.adlittle.com/insights/studies/pdf/corporate_venturing_study_report.pdf
Garvin, D.A., & Levesque, L.C. (2006). Meeting the Challenge of Corporate Entrepreneurship Harvard Business Review, Business School Publishing. Pages 102-112.
Nunes, S. (2004). IBM research: Ultimate source for new business. Research Technology Management, 47(2), pages 20-23.
Corporate Social and Environmental eporting
Companies have presented investigations about their motivation towards voluntarily social and environmental as insolvent. This paper argues in agreement with Adam's view that the goal of CS reporting is to promote credibility and corporate image of stakeholders operating in a particular industry. Whereas companies must focus their efforts on enhancing their profitability, they should also ensure that the welfare of other stakeholders is protected.
Previous literature offers a revelation on various competing theories based on why companies make voluntarily report and engagements in corporate social responsibility. The major perspectives considered are within the scope of application include accountability and image promotion. Many studies hold consequential evidence towards accountability to shareholders making it difficult for organizations to distinguish relevance from accountability based on continued practice. The absence of actual legitimacy crises makes it hard to identify voluntarily reporting as a proactive measure in preventing future crises…
Adams, C. (2002). "Internal organizational factors influencing corporate social and ethical reporting beyond theorizing." Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 223-250
Bebbington, J., Larringa-Gonzalez, C., and Moneva, J. (2008). "Corporate social responsibility reporting and reputation risk management." Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 337-361.
Brennan, N.M. And Merkl-Davies, D.M. (2013). "Accounting Narratives and Impression management," In Jackson, L., Davison, J., and Craig, R. (Eds.). Routledge Companion to Communication in Accounting. Routledge, pp. 109-132. (on blackboard)
Daft, R.L. (2011). The leadership experience (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson, Southwestern
A corporation is a form of business structure. The corporation is given the same basic rights and duties as an individual. This shields members from the corporation from some liability for the corporation's actions, but also prevents them from utilizing corporate assets in the same way that one would use personal assets. There are some differences between publicly held and privately held corporations; however the basic structure of a corporation remains the same regardless of how the corporation is held. There are three main groups in the corporate structure. The first group consists of the directors of the corporation. The second group consists of the officers of the corporation. The third group consists of the shareholders of the corporation. Individuals may belong simultaneously to more than one of these groups, but each group has different responsibilities.
The first group consists of the directors of the corporation. When forming…
Findlaw. (2011). Corporate structure: directors to shareholders. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.findlaw.com/business-structures/corporations/corporations-structure.html
Investopedia. (2009). The basics of corporate structure. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/basics/03/022803.asp#axzz1PF3LAIe7
Investopedia. (2011). What's the difference between publicly- and privately- held companies?
Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/162.asp
Like many of the great charismatic military leaders of the past such as Alexander the Great (Bristol 204) or General George S. Patton (Rosenback & Taylor 223; Rost 72), Gibson and Blackwell report that Kelleher is not afraid to get down in the trenches with his "troops" and endure the same types of challenges that his employees typically encounter on their jobs. Kelleher is also well-known for his insistence on allowing his employees to identify appropriate solutions to the problems with which they are most familiar, just as George Patton was fond of saying, "Never tell people how to do things, tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity" (Valle 1999:245). In addition, both Alexander the Great and General Patton were famous for leading their troops into battle and for being willing to suffer the same types of deprivations and make the same personal sacrifices…
Blackwell, Charles W. And Jane Whitney Gibson. (1999). "Flying High with Herb Kelleher: A Profile in Charismatic Leadership." Journal of Leadership Studies 120.
Blackwell, Charles W., Jane Whitney Gibson and John C. Hannon. (1998). "Charismatic Leadership: The Hidden Controversy." Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(4):11.
Bristol, Michael D. (2001). "Charismatic Authority in Early Modern English Tragedy." Shakespeare Studies, 203.
Chaganti, Rajeswararao and Hugh Sherman. Corporate Governance and the Timeliness of Change: Reorientation in 100 American Firms. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1998.
With this position, she gained a wide variety of skills in many different areas of P such as corporate reputation, product marketing and placement, crisis communications, employee communications and social marketing. She says that some people get frustrated at the beginning of a communication position because of all the administrative and coordination work.
With the changes that are rapidly occurring across the world, crisis communication is an area that is growing in importance. All organizations are vulnerable to crises, from an oil spill or 9-11, to Enron and Worldcom, the Asian Tsunami Disaster, Hurricane Katrina and Virginia Tech killings. Organizations have to be prepared for the very worst and have an emergency plan in action for handling all areas of communication.
In a "crisis document audit," they look for a failure to address the many communications issues related to crisis/disaster response. Organizations do not understand that, without adequate communications: Operational…
Berkeley Career Center (May 13, 2005). What's a Communication Manager? Retrieved http://career.berkeley.edu/article/050513a-rh.stm
Bernstein, J. Ten steps of crisis communication. March 8, 2008 http://www.bernsteincrisismanagement.com/docs/the_10_steps_of_crisis_communications.html
Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidelines. (2005) New York: Ferguson.
Fogg, N., Harrington, P.E., and Harrington, T.F. (2004) College Majors Handbook.
Internal entities therefore bear the burden of the company's interest, making the risk identification process subjective, and compromising it to the eventual disadvantage of the company. Here also it is advisable that entities from the outside be involved in the process.
The risk quantification process refers to assessing the scale of severity in the risks identified. When a risk is identified, resources need to be allocated in order to mitigate it. Severe risks will therefore require a greater amount of resources, while lower severity also means lower priority. Quantification therefore results in prioritizing. This is a process that can then mitigate the financial resources necessary for preventing the risk factors involved.
In the quantification process, however, ambiguity and subjectivity are also detrimental factors. Ambiguity for example means that there is uncertainty regarding which priority to assign to which levels of risk. Once again, subjectivity works in concomitance. Internal risk teams…
Over the last several years, the portfolio theory has been used as a way to help corporate investors analyze different securities and determine the impact of specific investments on their total returns. This is when a firm will construct a portfolio of securities which are based upon expected returns associated with certain levels of risk. During this process, there are four steps that are involved to include: security valuation, asset allocation, portfolio optimization and performance measurement. ("Modern Portfolio Theory," 2013)
These different areas reduce volatility and enhance the total returns for corporate investors. To fully understand these ideas requires: carefully examining the effects of the theory in relation to the risks of a security and the overall costs of capital to firms. Together, these elements will highlight why this approach has become so popular with corporate investors. ("Modern Portfolio Theory," 2013)
The effect of the portfolio on risk…
Modern Portfolio Theory. (2013). Investopedia. Retrieved from: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/modernportfoliotheory.asp
Elton, E. (2009). Modern Portfolio Theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Francis, J. (2013). Modern Portfolio Theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Scherer, B. (2005). Modern Portfolio Theory Optimization. New York, NY: Springer.
While it may be seen as quite simple to put preventative measures in place to limit discrimination within a company, large companies especially may have difficulty in monitoring every case of discrimination in the company. There are however risk factors that can be taken into account when assessing discrimination issues.
The amount of diversity in a company and its various divisions should for example be taken into account. It should be ensured that there is a reasonably fair distribution in terms of various diversity factors such as religion, race, and gender. Furthermore, training programs and informal events can go a long way towards introducing employees to each other from a basis other than their personal preferences or heritage. Such issues should be handled with extreme care, while the specific personalities should be taken into account. A secretary may for example see a comment that was meant as a joke, as…
Business Link. 2007. Insure your business - people, life and health. http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/layer?topicId=1074301420
Business Link. 2007. Prevent discrimination and value diversity. http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/layer?topicId=1074003268
Environmental Agency. 2007. Pollution Prevention Guidelines: Above Ground Oil Storage Tanks. Environmental Alliance. http://publications.environment-agency.gov.uk/pdf/PMHO0204BHTN-e-e.pdf?lang=_e
When a merger the size of the AOL ime Warner merger takes place and then disintegrates, it is time to look for what went wrong. Both companies were regarded as important in their fields; both had been successful, one for many years (ime Warner), the other for only a short while (AOL), but that success was extreme.
What did go wrong? he simple answer is that is was probably a classic clash of old paradigm vs. new paradigm.
In fact, the simple answer is the whole answer, and it appears in graphic detail on the 91st page of Alec Klein's book, Stealing ime: Steve Case, Jerry Levin, and the Collapse of AOL ime Warner. On that page, Klein describes the scrambling of the lawyers for both firms -- AOL and ime Warner -- when operation Alpha ango is revealed to them. (Both Case and Levin chose to keep…
The shareholders need to be stinking mad. Time Warner executives, even after the truth was coming out, didn't want to challenge the belatedly charismatic Steve Case. Case had also belatedly reassumed his former pretty persona, perhaps to meld, at last, with the 'suits' at Time Warner. Too little too late. On Sunday, January 12, 2003, Case finally stepped down as chairman of AOL Time Warner. Too late for Jerry Levin. And Ted Turner, who had turned his initial 'nay' reaction to a yea, eased on out the door to become a philanthropist. He didn't lose enough loot to matter. Levin is sitting pretty, despite not cashing in on his AOL Time Warner stock. Case cashed out for millions. The AOL Time Warner Center, costing $1.8 billion, killed at least one worker in the building, and sits as a tony home to those who can afford $2 to $40mliion for a condo.
Very likely, few stockholders can afford that. And some stockholders actually invest with two aims: to make a good return for themselves, and to be part of the growth of American business.
In the case of AOL Time Warner, investors lost on both those fronts, and suffered the embarrassment of hatching the world's biggest merger turkey, whether they had actually cast a proxy ballot or had merely sat back and watched, as well.
A lack of foresight and initial risk assessment therefore resulted in the losses suffered by the company.
In the area of maintenance and risk assessment, a lack of regular spillage inspection resulted in financial, legal and environmental risks for an oil company. The oil rig was not inspected on a regular basis, which resulted in a lack of regular maintenance. Hence the damage to one of the oil containers was overlooked, and a substantial amount of spillage occurred as a result. The environment suffered considerable damage as a result, and the company lost financial resources because of the need to clean up the spillage and mitigate the environmental damage. Furthermore, the company's reputation was damaged in terms of public perception.
Also I the area of maintenance and risk assessment, a lack of adequate safety clothing resulted in injury for several workers of a construction company. Disregarding safety regulations, several workers…
Eduneering. 2007, Feb. "Understanding the Financial Risks of Regulatory Non-Conformance." www.eduneering.com/downloads/whitepapers/fr_WP_020907.pdf
HM Treasury. 2004, Oct. "The Orange Book: Management of Risk - Principles and Concepts." www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media/FE6/60/FE66035B-BCDC-D4B3-11057A7707D2521F.pdf
Proctor, Ken. 2007. "Manage Risk, Improve Performance: Brintech's Enterprise Risk Management Guidelines. www.brintech.com/Knowledge_Center/PDF/Brintech%20White%20Paper%20Manage%20Risk%20Improve%20Performance.pdf
Statutory Instrument 1999 No. 3242. 1999. "The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si1999/19993242.htm