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Conclusion: In the end, it appears that Ms. Kondrot should have called Chuck's parents and asked them to intervene with their troubled son. hy didn't she? Other questions remain. Did Ms. Kondrot experience any of the reactions mentioned in the paragraph above? Did she go through grief, anger or betrayal -- or perhaps self-doubt or inadequacy? Readers are not informed in the Bernstein article. Ms. Kondrot testified at the trial that if she broke Chuck's trust it might "make his depression worse" and tossing him out of school would have been "devastating" (Bernstein, p. 4). But since death is worse than depression, Ms. Kondrot's rationalization at the trial sounds pretty thin in hindsight. She was trying to save her own skin. And as for the countertransference issues that may apply to Chuck's case, all a reader can do is conjecture that perhaps at various times Chuck hatefully attacked Ms.…
Bernstein, Elizabeth. (2007). After a Suicide, Privacy on Trial. The Wall Street Journal (March
24, 2007), http://www.wsj.com .
Lipschitz, Hendin H., and Maltsberger, J.T. (2000). Therapists of Patients who Committed
Suicide Reported a Wide Range of Emotional Responses. American Journal of Psychiatry,
The committee noted that therapists do not have well developed and agreed upon ideas of when self-disclosure hinders and when it facilitates analysis. Therapists should have a context for discussing self-disclosure that recognizes disparities in analytical models -- for example those stressing the reparative needs of certain patients for 'new objects' as opposed to those focusing solidly on exploration of the patient's internal existence. The group finally attacked the discussion of evidence against and for self-disclosure. "Group members were in agreement that evidence for the usefulness of self-disclosing techniques based on the patient's sense of well being and exhilaration for a session or so after the revelation did not constitute convincing evidence of the benefit of such techniques." (Lansky, 7)
The gender influence of transference is also an area rife with examples and explanations. As Kalb has noted, "Psychoanalytical endeavor reflects some degree of culturally exaggerated normative roles, including tendencies…
APA: (2002) Ethical principals of psychologists and code of conduct. http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html#intro
Barnett, Jeffrey. (2001). Must some boundaries be crossed? Division 42:
Conner, Michael. (2001) Transference: Are you a biological time machine? The Source, June 2001.
Countertransference occurs when a psychotherapist transfers or projects feelings onto a patient. This can be a problem because when it happens the therapist introduces a third party's (his own) emotional state into the life of the patient, who is attempting to understand his own feelings without the insertion of another's to complicate matters. However, it can also be useful according to some researchers who view forms of countertransference as useful, namely in the way that it tells the therapist something about the patient's feelings and about the therapist's own feelings (Malcolm, 1988). In this case, transference on the part of the patient can be met with countertransference on the part of the therapist in a manner that does not have to be viewed as dangerous so long as the therapist is aware of the role that he is playing in the transference-countertransference paradigm and uses it to draw attention to…
Malcom, J. (1988). Psychoanalysis: The Impossible Profession. NY: Random House.
Tarnopolsky, A. (1995). Teaching countertransference. Journal of Psychoanalysis,
In a working situation with an elderly client, the care giver may have personal experiences with emotional displays and responses. This could have created psychological damage within the care giver, which is then projected in the form of negative responses. A frustrated elderly client may, for example, be in a constantly bad and hostile mood. A care giver who has experienced this from parents as a child may experience this in an extremely negative way and respond accordingly.
Induced countertransference is a process of empathy that is generally manipulated by the client. A client may, for example require a specific response to his or her situation by a therapist. Most commonly, such a client would seek sympathy or some other form of recognition that is not otherwise experienced in his or her life. For a care giver, an elderly person might act in an excessively helpless way to elicit more…
This is a paper that outlines the concept of countertransferrance. It has 4 sources.
Psychoanalysis is a process that requires the participants to accept and adhere to certain regulations. The closed environments in which these patient therapist sessions take place describe a predetermined analytic or mental space that will involve sharing and projection of ideas and emotions between the two individuals [Young 1990]. The processes of transference and countertransference are the basis of all communication not just the product of interpreting and interacting with powerful and often pathological emotions. [Young 1990; acker1968] Psychotherapy is an intense form of communication that inevitably affects the doctor as much as the patient. As Harold Searles observed, 'the analyst actually does feel, and manifests in various ways, a great variety of emotions during the analytic hour' [Searles, 1979].
Transference describes how a patient '"displaces" or "transfers" infantile and internal conflicts to…
Epstein L. The Therapeutic Function of Hate in the Countertransference. The Review Of Interpersonal Psychoanalysis 1977. Available at www.wawhite.org/ActiveLib/epstein.html
Racker, H. Transference and Countertransference, New York: International Universities Press. 1968.
Searles H.F. 'Countertransference and Related Subjects' Boston:International Universites Press.1979.
Young RM. 1990. The Analytic Space: Countertransference and Evocative Knowledge. Robert M. Young archive. Available at: http://www.shef.ac.uk/uni/academic/N-Q/psysc/staff/rmyoung/papers/paper2h.html
Freud coined the terms transference and countertransference to refer to the psychodynamics of the therapeutic relationship. Transference refers to the client transferring feelings or projecting onto the therapist; whereas countertransference refers to the therapist transferring onto the client. Freud believed that transference and countertransference were “universal,” and they are indeed inevitabilities in human relationships (Riedbord, 2010). Moreover, the phenomena of transference and countertransference can be detrimental to the therapeutic relationship, especially when they are undetected or ignored. As Hughes & Kerr (2000) put it, transference and countertransference are “inappropriate” because instead of addressing the actual client’s concerns and issues, the therapeutic conversation is shifted to one that is counterproductive to the therapeutic goals (p. 57). Countertransference violates the therapeutic alliance and needs to be remedied, primarily with self-awareness (Hughes & Kerr, 2000).
I have experienced both transference and countertransference. When working with counselors, I have externalized my feelings about parental…
Hughes, P. & Kerr, I. (2000). Transference and countertransference in communication between doctor and patient. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 6(1): 57-64.
Riedbord, S. (2010). Countertransference: an overview. Psychology Today. Retrieved online: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sacramento-street-psychiatry/201003/countertransference-overview
The author of this response will be addressing two major questions. The first will be three things that were learned from an article that was preselected for this assignment. The second thing will be a real-world situation or example from the life of the author of this response. In both cases, the central topic will be the same as it is with the article just mentioned and that is the subject of transference and counter-transference. The real-world example can come from a book or movie but it has to be something that the author has seen and is aware of. While not everyone knows what transference or counter-transference is by name, they surely know that they have personally experienced or witnesses the phenomenon to some extent and in some way.
Just to get the definition out of the way, transference is when a person transfers feelings or memories from a prior…
But there will also be situations where clinicians are asked to discuss with a patient whether they want to or should have resuscitation if they have had a cardiac arrest or life-threatening arrhythmia. The potential likelihood for clinical benefit in accordance with the patient's preferences for intervention and its likely outcome, involves careful consideration, as with many other medical decisions, in deciding whether or not to resuscitate a patient who suffers a cardiopulmonary arrest. Therefore, decisions to forego cardiac resuscitation are often difficult.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CP) is a set of specific medical procedures designed to establish circulation and breathing in a patient who's suffered an arrest of both. CP is a supportive therapy, designed to maintain perfusion to vital organs while attempts are made to restore spontaneous breathing and cardiac rhythm (Braddock 2).
The standard of care is to perform CP in the absence of a valid physician's order to…
Braddock, C.H. (1998) Termination of life-sustaining treatment. University of Washington School of Medicine. Seattle: Department of Medical History and Ethics. Retrieved 3/12/07 at http://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/topics/termlife.html .
Frequently asked questions. (2007). The World Federation of Right to Die Societies. Retrieved at http://www.worldrtd.net/faqs/qna/?id=8 .
Guru, V., Verbeek, P.R. And Morrison, L.J. (1999). Response of paramedics to terminally ill patients with cardiac arrest: an ethical dilemma. CMAJ. 61 Nov; 161(10).
Hilz, L.M. (1999). Psychology Terms: Transference and countertransference. Kathy's Mental Health Review. Riverside, CA: Mental Health. Retrieved at http://www.toddlertime.com/mh/terms/countertransference-transference-3.htm .
psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?
In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.
The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…
Bowlby, John 1999, Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2nd Ed. Basic Books, New York.
"Depth Psychology" Stepping Stones: bringing depth psychology to everyday life [online] viewed March 23, 2011, www.depthpsychologytoday.com.
Gay, P 1989, The Freud Reader, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York.
Hall, CS 1954, A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Books, New York.
Tori J. is a 12-year-old girl who was removed from her family at the age of 8, when she was placed with a foster family. Although her foster mother discussed some episodes of violence and defiance in the home, Tori was not initially violent or defiant in school. However, she frequently failed to complete her assignments, instead spending hours simply looking into space. She also spoke frequently to social workers and school counselors about problems in her foster home including allegations that she was not being fed sufficiently, that they would not purchase school supplies for her, and that there was emotional and physical abuse in their current home. These allegations were reported and determined to be unsubstantiated, but allegations of emotional and physical abuse and neglect in her family home were substantiated. The children were removed because of physical abuse and neglect. Interviews with Tori J.'s older brother reported…
AllPsych. (2011). Antisocial personality disorder. Retrieved July 2, 2013 from:
AllPsych. (2013). Borderline personality disorder. Retrieved July 2, 2013 from:
In ode to be ethically sound it must be client-cented.
If a counselo entes into the theapeutic elationship with stess that s/he is not willing to addess accoding to thei own techniques, then even with the best of intentions towad the client it is not possible to be genuine. This does not mean that the counselo is not allowed to expeience the same stesses that his/he clients also expeience. It does meant that a counselo is equied to be honest fist and foemost with him/heself and if that is not possible then attempting honesty with one's clients becomes hypocitical and has an unspoken negative influence on the theapeutic elationship.
Pape #2 Discuss you views on the necessity of getting pesonal theapy duing counseling taining and, late on, as a pofessional counselo. Also, discuss the ethical implications of both tansfeence and countetansfeence. Discuss how you, as a counselo, will ethically handle…
references to the end of the page written. This is very informal. Most of these questions are personal opinions of the individual. Please just use your own belief. I don't have a strong view on any of this.
Although interpersonal and group level communications reside at a lower level than organizational communication, they are major forms of communication in organizations and are prominently addressed in the organizational communication literature. Recently, as organizations became more communication-based, greater attention was directed at improving the interpersonal communication skills of all organizational members. Historically, informal communication was primarily seen as a potential block to effective organizational performance. This is no longer the case is modern times, as on-going, dynamic, and informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work
It is also widely accepted that top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors and that immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports. In regard to issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly. The Communication Accommodation Theory supports this rationale. In terms of supervisor-employee communication, one researcher argues the difficulty of trusting…
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147.
Blumberg, A. (1970). A system for analyzing supervisor-teacher interaction. In A.
Simon & G. Boyer (Eds.), Mirrors for behavior, 3, 29-45.
Davis, T. & Landa, M. (1999). The trust deficit. Management Accounting, 71(10), 12-
transference and transference love, as it is manifest in the psychoanalytic environment. Different therapists have recommended different methods of dealing with this love, which range from simple, knowing transference to idealized transference, and erotic transference. These range from exploring such issues verbally, to the use of surrogates for sex therapy, to sexual involvement with patients. Certain factions within the therapeutic community advocate some or none of these methodologies.
Answering his own question, "What are transferences?" he wrote: "A whole series of psychological experiences are revived, not as belonging to the past, but as belonging to the person of the physician at the present moment.... Psychoanalytic treatment does not create transferences, it merely brings them to light.... Transference, which seems ordained to be the greatest obstacle to psychoanalysis, becomes its most powerful ally if its presence can be detected each time and explained to the person" (1895:116-120). Freud went on to…
Winnicott, D.W. (1960). "Countertransference." British Journal of Medical Psychology, 33, 17-21.
Balint, M. (1965). Primary love and psychoanalytic technique. London: Tavistock.
Reich, A. (1951). "On countertransference." International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 32, 25-31.
Loewenstein, R.M. (1969). "Developments in the theory of transference in the last fifty years." International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 50, 583-588.
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
The difference between law and ethics in counseling
In practice, ethics entails grasping and incorporating principles and standards of specific professional organizations. Ethical codes for professionals in the mental healthcare field aim at outlining the responsibility and professional conduct expected of them (Jennings, Sovereign, Bottorff, Mussell, & Vye, 2005). Graduate students have to establish their understanding of ethics theory and apply it in practice, before entering professional practice. As stated by Laureate Education (2010), modern practice involves applying conventional theoretical models to therapeutic processes involving clients. Moreover, it is responsible for uniting mental healthcare professions, as every profession inducts identical conventional approaches or procedures for guiding practice. The inverse is represented by post-modern practice.
Legal practice standards and ethical standards are different. Usually, legal standards relate to standard professional practices within a particular professional community, whereas ethical standards are often idealistic. The following aspects are included under legal standards:…
ACA. (2005). 2005 ACA code of ethics [White Paper]. Retrieved from American Counseling Association: http://www.counseling.org/ Files/FD.ashx?guid=ab7c1272-71c4-46cf-848c- f98489937dda
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2000). Chapter 4 -- Therapeutic Issues for Counselors. In C. f. Treatment, Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP). Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (U.S.); .
Diaz, A., Neal, W. P., Nucci, A. T., Ludmer, P., Bitterman, J., & Edwards, S. (2004). Legal and ethical issues facing adolescent health care professionals. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 71(3), 181-185.
Dolgoff, R., Loewenberg, F. M., & Harrington, D. (2009). Ethical decisions for social work practice (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson.
Axelrod, S. D. (2012). "Self-awareness: At the interface of executive development and psychoanalytic therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 32(4), 340–357.
In “Executive Development and Psychoanalytic Therapy,” Axelrod (2012) focuses on the singular concept of self-awareness, from a psychoanalytic point of view. Self-awareness, or self-knowledge, is a traditional and established goal of the psychoanalytic therapeutic process. Through psychoanalysis, the client gains insight into his or her own psyche, thereby initiating a self-driven change that has the potential to transform lives. Related concepts include self-monitoring, which can be used outside of the therapeutic relationship, as well as in therapy. Self-monitoring requires the invocation of an executive self, an aspect of the ego. Self-reflection is presented as a process that promotes self-awareness, but which is ideally promoted, guided, and enhanced by the therapist.
Axelrod (2012) focuses on emotional awareness, which can be connected to emotional intelligence. The author takes the research a step…
For a person working through a shadowy part of him- or herself, the goal can be as generic as better self-knowledge and self-management.
Working through must be recognized as a process, but also as a process with a certain goal in mind. To successfully work through any part of the self, it must also be recognized that certain unpleasant elements may be uncovered before the goal is reached. The therapist must be able to help the client adhere to the process.
Stages of Development
According to object relations theory, human development entails a lifelong effort to break away from the dependency established in early childhood in order to reach the adult states of mutuality and exchange. The goal is to break the limitations of dependency in order to reach the autonomy that might be expected from the stage of adulthood. If a person does not break away from these bonds,…
Attachment was believed by owlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:
1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;
2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.
3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.
Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study…
DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: APA. - (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Aaronson, C.J., Bender, D.S., Skodol, a.E. And Gunderson, J.G. (2006) Comparison of Attachment Styles in Borderline Personality Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Journal Psychiatric Quarterly Vol. 77 No. 1 March 2006. Online available at http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=attachment+theory+and+borderline+personality+disorder&page=3&nt=null&userid=9218600308675950091&encquery=431f3e36d133ebdff7537ee6febc11c6eca098f7674f16b90920f3bd5b092d5ab49460504194f6e58ee065b5a3272811bc442682a5c9c059&ie=UTF-8&invocationType=keyword_rollover&clickstreamid=5154621097040471491 .
Adalist-Estrin, Ann (1993) Moral Development and Attachment: Disruptions that Create Cycles of Criminal Behavior October 10-12. The Fourth North American Conference on the Family & Corrections Family and Corrections Network. Family Pathway Project. Online available at http://www.fcnetwork.org/4thnorth/moral.html
Agrawal, H.R., Gunderson, J., Holmes, B.M. And Lyons-Ruth, K. (2004) Attachment Studies with Borderline Patients: A Review. HARV REV PSYCHIATRY 2004;12:94-104
a) Getz (1999) defines clinical supervision using the Goodyear (1998) model. Clinical supervision is always a process by which an experienced or senior member of the profession monitors a more junior professional within the same area of expertise. Moreover, the express purpose of clinical supervision is to improve the quality of services delivered. Supervision may entail goals that are measurable, or be more generally applied. There are three primary models of supervision, according to Getz (1999). Those three models include the skill development model, the personal growth model, and the integration model.
B1) The process of clinical supervision can be to serve as a "gatekeeper" of those who are entering the profession; it is not simply a means of monitoring the behavior of subordinates (p. 491)
B2) The skill development model of supervision entails a teaching relationship, and the goal is to improve the supervisee's skills.
B3) The personal…
Getz, H.G. (1999). Assessment of clinical supervisor competencies. The Journal of Counseling and Development, 77 (4), 491-497.
Pearson, Q.M. (2004). Getting the most out of clinical supervision. Strategies for mental health. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 26 (4), 361-373.
Jung's instrumental role in affirming psychology as a science is downplayed by modern researchers. Yet as the author notes, much of what Jung unearthed in his research and clinical work has bled through to modern clinical psychology. The most obvious implication that Jungian psychology has become part of the mainstream social sciences is the Myers-Briggs test.
However, the concept of the archetype is Jung's. So, too, are issues like extraversion and introversion. Jung is renowned for detailed personality typing, a process that is integral to healing. Typing indicates the quest for self-awareness. Like going backwards, the process of being more aware of the self is often akin to diving into a dark pool.
We Jungian therapists might sometimes be called upon to delve into primitive landscapes ourselves, searching for cultural emblems and icons that match a client's budding self-awareness. The Cambridge Companion to Jung, which contains a plethora of useful…
Gambini, R. (1998). The challenge of backwardness. Chapter 9 in Casement, a. (1998). Post-Jungians Today. p. 149-234. Routledge.
Robertson, R. (2005). Jung and the making of modern psychology. Psychological Perspectives, 48, 1.
Schwartz-Salant, N. (1982). Narcissism and character transformation. pages 133-169
Young-Eisendrath, P. & Dawson, T. (2008). The Cambridge companion to Jung. pages 141-313
& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.
Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…
Altman. N. (2007). Renewing psychoanalysis for the 21st century. Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy. Heldref Publications. Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam
Bacal, H.A. (2007). Discussion of Judy Pickles's case presentation from the perspective of psychoanalytic specificity theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. The Analytic Press, Inc.
Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Interning at a drug and alcohol addiction rehabilitation facility offers a tremendous opportunity to learn about psychological treatment methods, theories, and interventions. The experience also allows the intern to learn about healthcare management and administration, which entail their own research methods. One of the key things that an intern will learn in the rehabilitation center relates to research methods and methods of data collection. For example, we learn about the ethics of conducting research such as receiving informed consent. There are ample opportunities to conduct correlational and experimental studies in the clinical setting because of the fact that the patient population will in many cases already have been thoroughly assessed and diagnosed by psychologists. The patient status renders them a particular status in an any given research design, allowing for robust investigations of cause and effect. For example, if I wanted to find out what the treatment outcomes are between…
The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to…
Corsini, R., Wedding, D. (2011). Current Psychotherapies, 9th ed. Mason, OH: Cenage.
Yalom, I. (1989). Love's Executioner & Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Harper
Evidence, Evaluating Evidence, Making ecommendations
Life is a precious aspect of the human nature; the person has only one life to live. Therefore, it is essential for people to protect and guard the life of the individuals jealously. The nurses and other medical personnel do this work. The duty of the nurses is to care for all types of patients. However, the is a group of patients that require extra form of attention; this is the people that suffer from Terminal illnesses (Katz & Johnson 2006). Such people live with the reality of death in their faces. Dealing with such patients is quite difficult, and poses challenge to the nurses and the family of the individual who strive to facilitate the life of that patient. The nurses have difficulties in addressing the stressful nature of such people, as most of such patients lose interest in life. Additionally, the stress is…
Galbraithn .D. & Brownk .E. (2011) Assessing intervention effectiveness for reducing stress in student nurses: quantitative systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 67(4), 709 -- 721. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05549.x
Katz, R.S., & Johnson, T.A. (2006). When professionals weep: Emotional and countertransference responses in end-of-life care. New York: Routledge.
Herdman, T.H., & North American Nursing Diagnosis Association. (2008). NANDA-I nursing diagnoses: Definitions & classification, 2009-2011. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell
Campbell, L.A., & ProQuest Information and Learning Company. (2009). Effectiveness of interventions in changing ICU nurses' attitudes and beliefs towards open/flexible visitation.
The opening phase of dynamic psychotherapy helps the therapist to understand why the patient is seeking treatment; what kind of triggers to current problems are present; and house troubled the patient is in terms of both physical and psychological health (text p. 41). Yalom (1989) allows for several sessions of introductory therapy, also in keeping with the psychodynamic model. At this introductory phase, the therapist gets an idea of what treatment options to present and how to proceed. Yalom (1989) also determines the frequency of the treatment in the introductory phase (text p. 41). The core way that the relationship between Yalom (1989) and Carlos exemplifies psychodynamic therapy is in regards to the transference neurosis, which intensifies in therapy (text p. 53). However, transference is worked through as a core element of the therapeutic process. In the case with Carlos, neurotic transference is exemplified most clearly in the way…
Corsini & Wedding (n.d.). Textbook.
Yalom (1989), I.D. (1989). "2 - If Rape Were Legal..." In Love's Executioner and Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Basic, 1989. 59-78.
Fresh: A Biopsychosocial Assessment
In the Yakin-directed film Fresh, a 12-year-old boy -- "Fresh" -- struggles to balance school and a tumultuous home life with the drug-running activities that allow him to make and save money. Though Fresh is intelligent, ambitious, and highly motivated to rise above his current station in life, as an African-American living in the crime-driven projects, his perceived opportunities for advancement are limited. As a result, Fresh makes money in the only way he knows how; as an inner-city drug mule for the number one suppliers of heroin -- "smack" -- and cocaine, referred to as "base." The money he makes, he saves in a tin can hidden by the tracks on the city's outskirts. Says Fresh to his friend osie in scene two, "If I had me a million dollars, I'd get me a Porshe 959." And when osie says it doesn't matter because he'll…
Baker, F.M., & Bell, C.C. (1999). Issues in the Psychiatric Treatment of African-Americans. Psychiatric Services, 50 (3), 362-368.
Bender, L. (Producer), & Yakin, B. (Screenwriter/Director). Fresh [Motion Picture]. (1994). United States: Miramax Films.
Howard, D.E., Feigelman, S., Xiaoming, L., Cross, S., & Rachuba, L. (2002). The relationship among violence victimization, witnessing violence, and youth distress. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31 (6), 455-462.
Mountains Beyond Mountains
Author Tracy Kidder writes, "The world is full of miserable places…" His tongue-in-cheek quote then continues, "One way of living comfortably is not to think about them or, when you do, to send money." Kidder then proceeds to write Mountains Beyond Mountains (2003) and the obert Frost "road not taken" by Dr. Paul Farmer that is completely opposite to "sending money." Another Mother Theresa, Farmer focuses nearly all his waking time on the poverty and disease of Haiti's people, at the cost of forsaking the richness of family life with his wife and children. Although Farmer is a physician, his story holds considerable meaning for those in the counseling field. Similar to Farmer, many caring individuals become counselors to help the "miserable people" who fill the world. They want to do much more than "send money." Also, like Farmer, they are confronted with the impact of this…
American Counseling Association (2005) Code of Ethics. Web site retrieved December 2, 2010
Baird, S. & Jenkins, S.R. (2003). Vicarious traumatization, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout in sexual assault and domestic violence agency staff. Violence and Victims, 18, 71-87.
Everall, R.D., & Paulson, B.L. (2004) Burnout and Secondary Traumatic Stress: Impact on Ethical Behavior. Alberta: University of Alberta
Likewise, engaging in too much control over a Stage III supervisee could lead to quite a bit of tension in the supervisor/supervisee relationship and result in negative transference to clients in counseling sessions. Nonetheless, this notion that counseling supervisees develop in relatively predictable stages and that an effective supervisor can best help them progress by approaching them at the level of supervision that corresponds to their own development is very helpful in performing efficient and rewarding supervision for counseling trainees.
Empirical research has validated the approach of the integrated developmental models to some extent. In order to determine the supervisee's developmental McNeill, Stoltenberg, and omans (1992) developed the Supervisee Levels Questionnaire -- evised (SLQ -- ). Lovell (1999) found that the SLQ -- results from trainees indicated that the level of education and prior supervised experience was related to the level of the supervisee opposed to such concepts as cognitive…
Anderson, C.E., & Bang, K. (2004). Using the Integrated Developmental Model in a Substance
Abuse Practicum. Journal of Teaching in the Addictions, 2(2), 67-82.
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (4th
ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Multicultural therapies like ethnic family therapy recognize the multiple worldviews and diversity of values among clientele. Moreover, multicultural therapies avoid problems associated with decontextualization and the ignorance of politics and power structures in people's lives (Comas-Diaz, 2014). Therapists working in a diverse environment do need to develop cultural competence to serve their communities. Cultural competence requires self-awareness and recognition of one's own worldview, biases, and attitudes. Likewise, cultural competence leads to effective means of helping people whose worldviews and backgrounds are different from the therapist. Without branching too much into related social sciences like sociology, anthropology, and social work, multicultural psychological therapies do draw from other disciplines in order to form a more cohesive vision of cultural competence. No person develops in isolation of his or her culture or background. Therefore, it is critical to include dynamics of oppression, experiences of racism or stigma, issues related to the immigrant experience,…
Comas-Diaz, L. (2014). Multicultural theories of psychotherapy. In Corsini, R.J. & Wedding, D. Current psychotherapies (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
neurobiological approach and the overview of this text?
Intuition is typically not considered within a scientific, let alone a neurobiological, framework. Yet research continues to surface in support of the value of intuition in the counseling environment at the very least. The author points out two separate but related benefits of the intuitive counseling approach: the fact that cultivating intuition cultivates a meaningful emotional connection with the client that may be crucial in some cases to achieve goals and evoke change; and second, that "clinical insight often arises independent of conscious thought." Counselors are not robots and nor are their clients able to detach from emotions rationally, which is precisely why counseling works. Denying the efficacy or relevance of intuition can be dangerous. The neurobiological approach adds a concrete foundation to what counselors already intuited about their own profession.
While the research supporting the author's hypothesis is not yet substantive,…
Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study
K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…
Bladek, M. (2014). Against memory: Acts of remembering in Jamaica Kincaid's My Brother. Retrieved from http://criticism.english.illinois.edu/2007%20Fall%20Documents/Affect%20Abstracts/Abstracts.htm
DeJong, P. & . Berg I.K (1998): Interviewing for solutions. Thomson: Brooks/Cole.
Drisko, J. (2014). Research Evidence and Social Work Practice: The Place of Evidence-Based Practice. Clin Soc Work J. 42:123-133 DOI 10.1007/s10615-013-0459-9
Freud, S. (1924) A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni & Liveright.
Troubling Issue of Elder Abuse & Neglect
Recent research by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) reveals that one in ten Americans over the age of 60 have experienced physical abuse or neglect. Thesis: Family members and others should be alert to incidents of abuse against older people and should report those incidents to the proper authorities so that justice can be served and elderly people can be protected from harm.
Official attempts to solve the problem of elder abuse date back a few years
Evidence that this is not a new problem, or just now recognized, can be found in the Report from the Secretary's Task Force on Elder Abuse, prepared in 1992. The document is loaded with bureaucratic language that encourages the Department of Health & Human Services to develop and fund a "data collection strategy"; develop a "training program"; target public education activities; conduct…
Band-Winterstein, T., Goldblatt, H., and Alon, S. "Giving Voice to 'Age at the Edge'
A Challenge for Social Workers Intervening with Elder Abuse and Neglect."
Journal of Family Violence, Vol. 29 (797-807): 2014.
Penhale, B. "Responding and Intervening in Elder Abuse and Neglect." Ageing International.
Psychodynamic and Psychoanalytic theory suggest that early stages of human development have a significant impact on our relationships and our ego throughout the life span. According to Freudian theories, manifested behavior is based on latent problems of the past. The therapeutic process of psychoanalysis is designed to help the client become aware of past problems or latent desires that have been suppressed during the process of psychological development. Key themes that emerge in the literature on psychoanalytic theory include the role of the unconscious mind in shaping self-concept and behavior, dreams as the language of the unconscious mind, and the development of ego defense mechanisms as psychological coping mechanisms.
Dream analysis is one of the hallmarks of Freudian theory and central to psychoanalysis. In this article, Hebbrecht (2013) presents several case studies from clinical practice to illustrate some of the ways dream recollection can be stimulated during therapy, and how…
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…
Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820
Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016
Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
Ocial Work Practice With Individuals: Engagement Strategies
First I need to get past Mr. Fahza's son in order to get to his father. I need the former's agreement because I need a smooth start. His son agreement would encourage a discussion under the right auspices.
According to The Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) of 1990, Mr. Fahza has the right to be informed about his own clinical condition in order to take a decision about continuing with chemotherapy or going to the hospice and die peacefully. This is the strict approach of the western hemisphere.
The religion of Islam believes in death and resurrection of the body and soul, like Christianity. Islam also teaches about how to prepare for death, when aware that death is imminent. Statistics show that a vast majority of the American male population would want to know about the eventuality of dying because of a fatal illness…
Kagawa-Singer, M., & Backhall, L. (2001). "Negotiating cross-cultural issues at end of life." Journal of American Medical Association, 286(3001), 2993-. Available at: http://ethnomed.org/clinical/end-of-life/Table2.pdf retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014
Koenig B.A., Gates-Williams J. (1995) "Understanding cultural difference in caring for dying patients." West J. Med. Sep 1995; 163(3): 244 -- 249. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1303047/?page=4
Coolen Phyllis R., DNP, MN, RN. (2012)Cultural Relevance in End-of-Life Care. EthnoMed. Available at: https://ethnomed.org/clinical/end-of-life/cultural-relevance-in-end-of-life-care
Rizvi, Sayyid Muhammad. What You Should Do Just Before Death. Islam.org. Available at: http://www.al-islam.org/articles/what-you-should-do-just-before-death-sayyid-muhammad-rizvi