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But rather than cater to healthy tastes, to distinguish itself in the Japanese market, McDonald's has found it more effective in 2007 to instead promote specials like the "Mega Mac, a hamburger with four patties," which "was originally to be a limited time offer," but the fast food chain decided to extend the promotion in order to meet the increased demand for Japanese wishing to sample how 'Americans really eat' -- even though ironically the burger is much more caloric and high in cholesterol than anything McDonald's in America offers to American consumers ("McDonald's extends Mega Mac campaign to meet demand," 2007, Japan, Inc.).
hen McDonald's had lost its social cache during its low point in 2003, it was increasingly the designees of solitary diners who preferred to look at their cell phones or laptops than chat. Such diners bring in less revenue, price-wise, and often consume smaller, less…
Lewis, Leo. (May 2003) Japan's fast food funk: McDonald's Japan slips into the red for the first time in 30 years. Blame deflation -- and fashion - Upfront - Company Profile Japan Inc. Retrieved 27 Apr 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NTN/is_43/ai_108881939/pg_2
McDonald's Japan to re-vamp stores, images." (31 Mar 2005) Fox News. Retrieved 27 Apr 2007. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,152056,00.html
McDonald's extends Mega Mac campaign to meet demand." (17 Jan 2007). McDonald's extends Mega Mac campaign to meet demand." Japan, Inc. Retrieved 27 Apr 2007. http://www.japantoday.com/jp/news/396309
A more severe downturn in the Japanese economy seems likely, given concerns about radiation and environmental damage.
'Green' is clearly a trend worldwide -- and the trend towards smaller, lighter, and more efficient has been a long-standing trend in Japan's corporate culture. There is also a long tradition of using efficient manufacturing techniques within the nation. Japan is the founder of the JIT (just-in-time) approach to manufacturing and places a strong emphasis on quality control (JIT, 2011, Investor Glossary).
Make strategy selection
Unlike a car, which can convey some status in terms of the appearance of 'going green' with a hybrid, hybrid planes are unlikely convey a luxury image to consumer. Thus, creating an airplane that is popular and affordable amongst a wide demographic is the most feasible market strategy. Beginning research and development in Japan is a possibility, given the strength of &D hybrid at the nation in…
Chapter 7: Market entry strategies. (2011). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations (FAO). Retrieved May 21, 2011 at http://www.fao.org/docrep/W5973E/w5973e0b.htm
JIT. (2011). Investor Glossary. Retrieved May 21, 2011 at http://www.investorglossary.com/jit.htm
The institution found several breaches in human rights policies and strives to increase awareness of these problems. In a clearer formulation, Amnesty International found that Ukraine does not respect the international law in human rights of hosting refugees and allowing them to become settled in other countries, but that the state's officials send these refugees back to their original countries, where many of them stand to suffer torture or other breakings of human rights policies (Amnesty International, 2008). However statistics relating to country risk and human rights are scarce, the foreign investor must also consider these findings when making his decision. In this line of thoughts, Ukraine's country scoring is reduced to their inability to safeguard international human rights stipulations.
A highly important element to be assessed relative to the political and economic status of Ukraine refers to the country's ratings relative to institutional investors. The World Bank finds that…
Yim, J., Mitchell, H., January 2005, Comparison of Country Risk Models: Hybrid Neutral Networks, Logit Models, Discriminant Analysis and Cluster Techniques, Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 28, Issue 1
2001, a New Database on Foreign Direct Investment, World Bank, http://www1.worldbank.org/economicpolicy/globalization/data.html last accessed on April 11, 2009
June 5, 2008, Ukraine: No Safe Haven for Refugees, Amnesty International, http://www.amnesty.org.au/news/comments/14132 / last accessed on April 11, 2009
April 1, 2009, Country Profile -- Ukraine, BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/1102303.stm last accessed on April 11, 2009
Country isk Evaluation
Country isk Assessment: Iran
The process of Country isk Assessment demands a full analysis of a nation's political, economic, and cultural outlook. "Country risk analysis rests on the fundamental premise that growing imbalances in economic, social, or political factors increase the risk of a shortfall in the expected return on an investment" (Meldrum 2000:1). Country isk Assessment is a holistic process and while there is no scientific formula for assessing risk in all instances, most rating agencies consider the following six factors: economic risk, transfer risk, exchange rate risk, location or neighborhood risk, sovereign risk, and political risk (Meldrum 2000:1)
Economic risk assesses the prudency of the government's fiscal and monetary policy, taxes, and debt. Another concern is transfer risk, "the risk arising from a decision by a foreign government to restrict capital movements. estrictions could make it difficult to repatriate profits, dividends, or capital" (Meldrum…
Country risk model. (2011). The Economist. Retrieved:
Meldrum, Duncan H. (2000). Country risk and foreign direct investment. Business Economics.
isks in Export Market
There is need for companies to develop a professional approach before venturing into the exporting business. The management of the company is supposed to be committed extremely as well as devoting time and money in commencing the campaigns of export. A company is supposed to be ready to face greater competition as well as more stringent rules and regulations concerning products and packaging due to the variance in rules to which or across which the company will be exporting.
In the process of exportation, there are a number of risks that the company will face. These elements of risks are encountered in every commercial transactions as well as the complexity of the environments that exporters operate in. The content of this paper will analyze risks that a company can face while entering the field of exporting as well as discussing the roles of intermediaries in the…
Aaby, N. & S. Slater. (1989). Management Influences on Export Performance: A Review of the Empirical Literature1978-88. International Marketing Review, 6: 7-26.
Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, (2007). "Firms in International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 105-130, Summer.
Barney, J. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17: 99-120.1997. Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage. Reading, MA: Addison.
Cornelius Bothma (2012). Managing your export risk. EXPORTHELP. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from http://www.exporthelp.co.za/modules/10_risk/intro.html
Pakistan is the South Asian country and was established in 1947. It shares border with India, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran and China. It has a coastline spanning of 1,046 km with Arabian Sea. The country has highest peaks in the world that are K2 and Nanga Parbat of Karakorum and Pamir in the northern and western highlands of Pakistan. Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi provide the major by air gateways to Pakistan. India and Iran also provides the way to reach Pakistan by train.
There are several favorable characteristics that make Pakistan an ideal country for an international business. However, the country is facing imbalanced economic, societal and political conditions since independence due to which investors gets reluctant to invest in the country. This report reviews the favorable and unfavorable aspects of Pakistan for U.S. investors.
Investors need to consider various factors before making investment for an international business. First…
Dawn. (2012, May 27). Taxation and Foreign Investment. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from Dawn: http://dawn.com/2012/05/27/taxation-and-foreign-investment/
Khan, A.H. (2012, January 31). Instability and Economy. Pakistan.
Mahmood, J. (2012, 07-16). Pakistani Stock Market, Rupee Exchange Rate Rise. Karachi, Pakistan.
Masood. (2010, June 3). Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan. Pakistan.
They have been committed to the development of what they deem to be Consciousness Cosmetics for more than a decade. Entry into the Portuguese market offers certain benefits, such as the Portuguese people's commitment to high moral standards, which would be conducive to cruelty-free, environmentally responsible products such as Alba Organics. However, there are risks as well that need to be taken into consideration.
The Portuguese market is small and growing at only a nominal rate, in comparison to other EU countries. The population is still primarily located in rural areas. Although the euro is quite stable currently, that could change, affecting Alba's profitability. and, there are three primary, well-established competitors that control the majority of the market share currently, with large financial backing that could out compete Alba.
About us. (2005). etrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.avalonorganics.com/?title=About+Us.
Alba: FAQs. (2005). etrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.albaorganics.com/index.php?title=FAQ%27s.
About us. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.avalonorganics.com/?title=About+Us .
Alba: FAQs. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.albaorganics.com/index.php?title=FAQ%27s.
Carioca, M., Diniz, R., Pietracci, B. (2004). Making Portugal competitive. McKinsey Quarterly, (3). Retrieved July 11, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.
Consciousness in cosmetics. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.avalonorganics.com/index.php?title=Consciousness+in+Cosmetics .
Risks of Climate Change
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
Climate Change Impacts on Engineering Infrastructure
Key Impacts on Water and Resources
Risk Management Analysis Coping Methods Possibility And Probability
Recommendations And Guidelines For The Vulnerability Of Climate
Change Impacts Using Risk Management Methods And Analysis
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
This work examines climate change in relation to impacts upon infrastructure, utilities, and water in relation to the affects from projected sea level rise, flooding, and other related impacts expected to result from climate change. This work also reviews models used for risk assessment and analysis and examines their usefulness and the associated limitations with these models. Knowledge and expertise is growing in the risk-assessment and analysis field of study and reliable models are being developed although the primary effective and appropriate use for the majority of these models…
Adapting to Climate Change Impacts on Water Management: A Guide for Planner (2006) AEA Technology - Prepared for the South East England Regional Assembly. May 2006. Online available at http://www.southeastra.gov.uk/our_work/planning/sust_nat_res/planners_adaptation_guide/planners_adaptation_guide.pdf
Sandell, 2007) ABC News Report Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/Technology/GlobalWarming/story?id=3582433&page=1
Blakemore, Bill (2007) Greenland: Where Towering Icebergs Raise Sea Levels. 9 Sept 2007. ABC News Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/WN/story?id=3579084&page=1
Cities Should Plan Now for Effects of Global Warming on Infrastructure (2005) University of Maryland 21 Feb 2005 Science and Technology Online available at http://www.newsdesk.umd.edu/scitech/release.cfm?ArticleID=1036
They were just so intense, so focused, so transaction-driven, there literally wasn't time for people to put ideas out and discuss and debate them."
These constraints to effective management oversight and innovation were further exacerbated when the company went private in 2001. According to Stopper, "ARAMARK went from a leveraged buyout situation in 1984, with only some 50 people having equity in the company, to an initial public offering (IPO) in 2001 with 97% ownership by employees. It was a huge cultural shift. Many employees incurred debt in order to have ownership in the company. In his view, HR's power and influence came from performance and creating value, not from advancing or acceding to personal agendas."
To their credit, though, Hayes reports that the company finally took action to remedy this situation by creating an action project team to assess the potential threats involved in retaining the status quo and…
About ARAMARK." (2007). ARAMARK Corporation. [Online]. Available: http://www.aramark.com/MainLanding.aspx?PostingID=336&ChannelID=187 .
Alleyne, Sonia (2007, July). "40 Best Companies for Diversity: In Our Third Annual Survey, We Focus on Supplier Diversity and Senior Management Representation-How Much Companies Spend with Black Suppliers and Who They Let into the Corporate Suite." Black Enterprise 37(12): 106
Caddell, Cathy L. (2004, October). "Taste of Chicago." Corrections Today 66(6): 46
Goldberg, Karen (1996, July 18). "How to Feed 10,800 Athletes." The Washington Times 13.
An interesting trend has been registered in the service industry, especially in the field of tourism. One of the main engines of Spanish economy in the past, now tourism in this country faces fierce competition from Eastern Europe countries. The beautiful resorts in Palma del Majorca and Costa rava must compete with low cost sea side resort, which offer similar services at incredibly low prices. Another field which needs reforms and reformulation policy is the agricultural and fishery one, which accounts only 4.1% out of GDP, although the important political forces attached to this sensible sector.
In order to be able to face the challenges and the opportunities on the regional and global market, Spain needs reforms in most fields of activity. Unemployment level is one of the highest in EU 9.2% at the end of 2005, while the rate of inflation was around 3.4 per cent in 2005, which…
1) Carol Matlack and Joan Tarzian - 'Spain: Immigrants Welcome', Business Week, May 21, 2007
2) 'Plain sailing no longer', the Economist print edition, 3rd of March 2007.
3) 'Spanish property - the pain in Spain', 26th of April 2007.
4) Human Development Index report, for the year 2006
Risks From International Business
What are some risks of international business that may not exist for local business?
There are many risks inherent in competing on a global or internal level compared to being a local business. As the chapter suggests, there is a much greater level of economic and socio-political pressure on governments to work together for the common good of the global economy. Despite these best intentions, global macroeconomic factors often cause nations to restrict or unnecessarily increase the cost of transactions and trade based on fear over the trading partner's economies. Such is the case for American companies attempting to gain sales within China, whose government holds nearly $1.1 trillion in U.S.-based debt. China and the United States are two of the more powerful economic forces in the global economy, and as their economies go, so goes the world. What this means for international businesses is that…
This was because they were seeing one of their primary competitors (Travelers) merging with Citicorp (which created a juggernaut of: insurance, banking and brokerage activities). At which point, executives at AIG felt that in order to: maintain their dominance in the industry and offer new products they should become involved in similar activities. The difference was that they would grow the company by expanding into areas that were considered to be speculative to include: commodities, stocks, options and credit default swaps. The way that this was accomplished is by purchasing a host of businesses that were involved in these activities. This is significant, because it meant that a shift would take place in: how managers were accounting for risks and the kinds of activities that they were becoming involved in. With the newly acquired companies; bringing over executives that did not practice the same kind of strategies for dealing with…
Travelers, Citigroup Unite. (1998). CNN. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/1998/04/06/deals/travelers/
US saw 13 Bank Failures Every Month in 2010. (2011). Economic Times. Retrieved from: http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-01-02/news/28424370_1_medium-banks-bank-failures-problem-banks
Baum, C. (2009). The Impact of Macro Economic Uncertainty. Boston College, Boston, MA.
Byoun, S. (2007). Financial Flexibility. Baylor University, Waco, TX.
Howeve, befoe giving the medicine, anesthesiologist caefully examines the condition of the pegnant woman to whom anesthesia is to be given. Epidual anesthesia duing labo and nomal delivey does not cause unconsciousness; thus, patients do not lose thei psychological aletness (Halpen and Douglas 2008).
Accoding to (Oebaugh 2011), epidual anesthesia is commonly administeed by injecting the medicine in the lumba egion of the back, specifically in the epidual egion. The detailed pocedue egading the administation of epidual anesthesia has aleady been discussed in the pevious section of the pape. Howeve, the anesthetic dug injected in the epidual space inteupts the passage of neve impulses that oiginate in epoductive ogans and tavel though neves to lowe spine and then to bain. This hindes the feeling of sensation/pain that is poduced in the lowe pats of the body.
The degee of insensitivity induced depends on few factos that include the…
Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.
Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010).
There are no benefits for society in the legalization of marijuana. The money from the taxing of the marijuana will end up being use to regulate and enforce the dispensaries. The money to treat the addiction will be another source of lost revenues from the taxation.
Increased usage by underage teens will be the same as cigarettes and alcohol and will increase as the price drops as it did in the Dutch experiment. Kids will be introduced onto the drug culture that leads to the use of the harder narcotics as a result of the increased access to the marijuana. The benefits will be just moved from one area to other areas of criminalization.
DEA website. 2010. etrieved on May 10,…
DEA website. 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drugs_marijuanaharm.html
"Feature: Hundreds of Los Angeles Medical Marijuana Dispensaries Face Closure Under New Rules Passed by Council" 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/618/los_angeles_medical_marijuana_dispensary_ordinance_approved
Joffe, a. & Yancy, W. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." 2004. PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. e632-e638. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/113/6/e632
"Legalization- Arguments Pro and Con." 2010 Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2395/Legalization-ARGUMENTS-PRO-CON.html
These were being make, passiveness or unassertiveness, and a father who avoids conflict with a teenage child. Parental guidance on safer sexual practices, skillful assertion, negotiation and resolution of conflicts all help improve dating communication between teenagers. ut parents' strategies in solving everyday conflicts and issues with teenage children may be the true basis for the safe-sex negotiations in their dating. Parents who actively engage in open disagreement with their teenage children may induce confidence in their children to assert themselves and communicate their preference with a sexual partner regarding the use of condoms. These strategies are likely to develop from safe-sex communication with parents (Feingold).
Parental Processes and Style
The Kaiser Family Foundation surveys suggested that teenagers whose parents monitor their children's whereabouts and particular behaviors tend to have only one sexual partner or avoid unprotected sex (Howell, 2001). A combination of high-level communication and parental monitoring works well…
Aspen (2009). Sexual promiscuity in adolescents. Fact Sheets. Aspen Education Group.
Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://www.aspeneducation.com/factsheetpromiscuity.html
Feingold, A. (2006). Parents can help reduce sexual risk-taking. PsychCentral:
PsychCentral.com. Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/parents-can-help-teens-reduce-sexual-risk-taking
The government is trying to create an environment that is favorable for investing and the rapid pace of economic growth indicates that this is a success. However, there remains considerable political risk. Relations with many of Turkey's neighbors have been difficult in the past and relations with Greece in particular could sour a move by the country into the EU. If EU membership is taken off the table -- which could happen if the country fails to resolve the Cyprus issue, the Kurdish issue and the Armenian issue -- the political scene could become highly unstable.
Turkey has strong financial resources. There has been a strong influx of capital into the country. Despite strict government control of the banking sector, the government's desire to modernize its banking and investment climate means that capital is available. Talent is less available. hile many Turks speak English, it is difficult to find top…
CIA World Factbook: Italy. (2009). Retrieved November 4, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/it.html
CIA World Factbook: Turkey. (2009). Retrieved November 4, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html
Administrative and political distance risk is most seen from the standpoint
of legal and financial institutions, the monetary systems and political
associations and the role of foreign governments in defining the barriers
to entry for foreign businesses. Geographic distance risks have more to do
with the physical distance and varying climates. The geographic distance
set of risks also capture the lack of potential infrastructure due to
remoteness. The economic distance risk assessments include the different
information or knowledge process workflows throughout a culture and the
blind-spots this causes for many companies in creating the strategies to
move into another company. There are many risks also present in the
economic distance of given foreign nation, emanating from the differences
in consumer incomes and wide variations in costs and quality of natural,
financial, and human resources.
In assessing the risks of global expansion, it is critical to consider the
use of analytical…
Ghemawat (2001) - Distance Still Matters: The Hard Reality of Global
Expansion. Harvard Business Review. Pankaj Ghemawat. Harvard Business
School Press. Cambridge, MA September, 2001.
Government bonds are called risk-free because they will be paid back. he underlying assumption is that the U.S. reasury can always print more money in order to finance the payback of these bonds. hat does not by any means make the bonds truly risk-free, but they are guaranteed to return face value. here are actually a few different ways in which government bonds are risky.
A recent change to the more orthodox view of government bond risk is that U.S. government bonds were downgraded in 2011, something that had never happened previously. his has not changed the market view of U.S. government paper, but it does imply that, according to one rating agency at least, the bonds of some other governments are less risky than the bonds of the U.S. government. hat said, the risk conditions of U.S. bonds have not changed. hey are still considered risk free because…
The risk of default in U.S. government bonds, aside from political shenanigans like the debt ceiling debacle in the summer of 2011, lies largely with the federal budget. This is known as sovereign risk. The sovereign risk of the United States, and several other developed nations, is very low. With other countries, however, there are genuine budget issues that make default a possibility. In the Eurozone, for example, nations like Greece are struggling to meet their debt payments. With Greece, there is no ability for the government to print more money in order to cover its obligations, and that increases the sovereign risk. Nations that have their own currencies do not have this type of risk, but still have sovereign risk to the extent that they could find themselves one day without enough cash to pay their obligations.
It should be noted that part of the reason that government bonds give a return is not related as much to risk as it is to providing the incentive to invest. Governments issue debt because they need to raise funds. If there was no return given on that debt, nobody would invest. Therefore, there must be some sort of return offered, in order to entice investors. The rate is typically set in regard to the opportunity cost of capital, and the market yield will reflect the market's views about the sovereign risk associated with debt.
Thus, risk free securities are not truly risk free. There is the risk of default, although this risk is very minor. There is the risk as well that the value of the investment will not be much. In the event of hyperinflation, for example, the value of the money might be very low. However, the value will always be paid out because the Treasury can print that money. The interest rate reflects, in addition to an enticement to invest, the combined risk of default and the risk associated with expected future interest rate moves.
With this in mind communications strategy has to be developed and implemented. The central debate remains that of degree of uniformity. The pros and cons are obvious, i.e. economies of scale, consistent message across markets, centralized control, different market characteristics, media availability and costs and government regulations (alabanis & Diamantopoulos, 2011). The stronger argument appears to be that different strategy appears to work in different situations, rather than a totally standardized campaign. Once these geographical issues are decided upon then the scope of the campaign, objectives and elements of strategy can be worked on. If the organization develops a message for one market and then transposes this intact into others or if it develops a message with a number of markets in mind from the start, it may be centrally conceived in both cases (Han, 2009; Wills & Ryans, 1977).
This is popular because of co-ordination and control providing the…
Ahmed, S.A., a. d'Atrous and M.E. Adraoui. 1994. 'Country-of-Origin Effects on Purchasing Managers Product Perceptions.' Industrial Marketing Management 23 (July): 323-332.
Keller, Kevin Lane. 1993. Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57, No. 1. pp. 1-22
Shirin, Khosrozadeh; Kambiz, Heidarzadeh Hanzaee. 2011. The Effect of the Country-of-Origin Image, Product Knowledge and Product Involvement on Consumer Purchase Decisions. Chinese Business Review, August Vol. 10, No. 8, 601-615
Bailey, W. And S.A. Gutierrez de Pineres. 2007. 'Country of Origin Attitudes in Mexico: The Malinchismo Effect.' Journal of International Consumer Marketing 9 (3): 25-41.
The author John Cheever is a suburbia novelist. However, in his short story The Country Husband, Mr. John Cheever has exposed suburbia's murky and dark side, which traps its people in a conformity web. The main character and leading role of the story Francis Weed is a winning, middle-aged man, working in New York City where his life is of genteel satisfaction and who lived in the suburbs. The whole story and plot revolves around this main character.
Analysis of the story
As The Country Husband opens, the author brings Francis Weed in a conflict with his own mortality; when the plane due to bad weather flying from Minneapolis to New York made an emergency landing. Thus, Francis experience begins in terms of thinking of his life in more heroic terms than he was familiar to do before.
Since, after his arrival at home none of…
Most developed economies, however, allow the market to set exchange rates, only influencing currency values through indirect means such as the increased or reduced sale of bonds to foreign entities and individuals, or through other means of international wealth exchange. Essentially, all manipulations of exchange rates and actions based on predictions of exchange rates are focused on the forward exchange rate, or the predicted rate of exchange between two currencies at a future point in time.
The spot exchange rate, on the other hand, is the rate of exchange at the current moment in time. It is through a comparison of the spot rate and the forward rate of exchange -- inasmuch as it can be predicted with any accuracy -- that companies and businesses make decisions that affect either the exchange rate itself (in the case of some governments, notably China in the modern period), or more often make…
Christofferson, Peter F. Elements of Financial Risk Management. San Diego: Elsevier Sciences, 2003.
Comptroller of the Currency Administrator of National Banks. Interest Rate Risks. 1997. Accessed 19 March 2010. http://www.occ.treas.gov/handbook/irr.pdf
Cusatis, Patrick and Martin R. Thomas. Hedging Instruments and Risk Management. New York: McGraw Hill, 2005.
Dun & Bradstreet. Financial Risk Management. New Delhi: McGraw Hill, 2008.
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
Phishing Spea Phishing and Phaming
The following is intended to povide a vey bief oveview of examples of some the most dangeous and pevasive secuity isks in the online and netwoked wold. One of the most insidious of identity theft is known as phishing. The tem 'phishing' efes to the pactice of "fishing fo infomation." This tem was oiginally used to descibe "phishing" fo cedit cad numbes and othe sensitive infomation that can be used by the ciminal. Phishing attacks use "…spoofed emails and faudulent websites to deceive ecipients into divulging pesonal financial data, such as cedit cad numbes, account usenames and passwods, social secuity numbes etc." (All about Phishing) . Thompson ( 2006) clealy outlines the basics of a phishing attack.
A typical phishing sends out millions of faudulent e-mail messages that appea to come fom popula Web sites that most uses tust, such as eBay, Citibank, AOL, Micosoft…
references the CISA Review Manual, 2006.
Thompson, S.C. (2006). Phight Phraud: Steps to Protect against Phishing. Journal of Accountancy, 201(2).
This study by Thompson provides some significant aspects that the business owner and customers in online commerce should pay attention to. These include basic but important aspect that should include in e-training; for example, never e-mail personal or financial information or never to respond to requests for personal information in e-mails. This provides useful background to the issue of risk identification and is also related management of this threat.
Wetzel R. ( 2005) Tackling Phishing: It's a Never-Ending Struggle, but the Anti-Fraud Arsenal Continues to Grow. Business Communications Review, 35, 46+.
This study A sheds light on the implications in term of the costs of identity fraud to financial institutions. The study underscores the severity of the vulnerabilities faced by today's organizations in the online world. The author refers to the obvious cost to intuitions like banks and also discusses hidden costs that relate to the erosion of customer confidence as a result of ID theft.
ISK Management - CAPM and APT
Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory
The contemporaneous business community is extremely competitive, meaning as such that the organizational leaders strive harder than ever to overcome the competitive forces. Virtually, they have to hire and retain the best skilled staff members; they have to develop and offer the best quality products and services and they must be able to raise the interest of a vast and large customer base. All these constitute competitive advantages.
Yet, another element which has to be granted the adequate attention is that of the management of assets. The specialized literature offers a multitude of definitions of the concept of asset, yet the underlying idea is basically the same. Stickey, Weil and Schipper (2009) for instance argue that an asset is "a probable future economic benefit that a firm controls because of a past event or transaction" (p.108).…
Bailey, R.E., 2006, The Economics of Financial Markets, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052184827X
Cheng, B., Tong, H., 2008, Asset Pricing: A Structural Theory and Its Applications, World Scientific, ISBN 9812704558
Fabozzi, F.J., Markowitz, H., 2002, The Theory and Practice of Investment Management, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471228990
Fabozzi, F.J., Focardi, S., Kolm, P.N., 2006, Financial Modelling of the Equity Market: From CAPM to Cointegration, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471699004
BIC Country Analysis
The objective of this report is to carry out economic analysis of Brazil, ussia, India, and China (BIC) and provide the country projected economic growth, country business environment and country risk. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is one of the major economic tools to measure economic growth of a country. Using GDP, the report analyzes the country's economic growth.
China is a country enjoying rapid economic growth among the BIC countries. Over the years, the country has maintained a strong economic growth and between 2007 and 2011, the China's economy showed constant growth with economic output reaching $3.7 trillion in 2010. As being revealed Table 2, China ranks third with reference to personal disposable income where personal disposable income is projected to increase from $2,300 in 2011 to $4,190 in 2015. However, the global economic crisis that affected many advanced countries also affected China making the…
Datamonitor. (2011). Country Analysis Report: China.
Economist Intelligence Unit Limited .(2012). China Country Report. The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. United Kingdom.
Economist Intelligence Unit Limited .(2012). Russia Country Report. The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. United Kingdom.
PRS Group (2011).Brazil Country Conditions Climate for Investment & Trade. PRS Group Inc.
Credit isk Management
Banks are an important part of the economy of any nation. Traditionally, the banks operate as financial intermediaries serving to satisfy the demand of people in need of various forms of financing. Through this, banks enable people to purchase home and businesses to expand. These financial institutions therefore facilitate investment and spending that are responsible for fueling the growth of the economy. In spite of their vital role in the economy, they are nevertheless prone to failure and just like other types of businesses, they also go bankrupt. Unfortunately, the failure of banks can have many and significant implications than any other type of business. As witnessed during the great depression, and in recent times following the global economic crisis and recession, the stability or lack of it in the banking system could trigger economic epidemics that would impact millions of people. With respect to this, it…
Bank for International Settlements (BIS). (2001). Consultative Document -- Overview of The New Basel Capital Accord. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision.
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (1988) "International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards" (www.bis.org/publ/bcbs04A.pdf).
Benston, G.J. (1998) "Regulating Financial Markets: A Critique and Some Proposals." Hobart Paper no. 135. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.
Blundell-Wignall, A., Atkinson, P. And Roulet, C. (2013). Bank Business Models and the Basel System: Complexity and Interconnectedness. OECD Journal: Financial Market Trends, Issue 2.
CEMEX:Strategic isk Management
CEMEX: Strategic isk Management
CEMEX is a leading producer of cement products. Headquartered in Monterrey, Mexico, CEMEX serves customers around the globe. Before the 1970s, CEMEX was a sleepy company, limited in scope to the domestic market, engaged in cement, mining, tourism and petrochemicals. ising through the ranks of the company his grandfather founded in 1906, CEO Lorenzo Zambrano focused the company on the world market for cement after divesting the non-core businesses. (Spieth, 2005)
isk Management as an Operational Competence
The single biggest risk to a company with a cement-only strategy is the requirement to commit substantial capital to factory-level plant and equipment, in the face of uncertain and fluctuating demand. This risk is heightened by the commoditization of the products and services which results in prices falling to the level of marginal cost during times when supply exceeds demand. Long-term, the natural ebb and flow…
Millman, Joel, December 11, 2008, Hard Times for Cement Man. Retrieved March 7, 2011 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122894691555195919.html
Lessard, Donald R. & Lucea, Rafel, May 2008, Embracing Risk as a Core Competence: The Case of CEMEX, MIT Sloan School and George Washington University.
Spieth, Scott, December 12, 2005, Cementing the Future: Hedging Foreign Currency Risk at CEMEX. Retrieved March 7, 2011 from http://people.hbs.edu/mdesai/IFM05/Spieth
The project manager should at all times be present to monitor and ensure that it's the correct mixing of materials being done, it's the right quality of material being used, and it's the right amount of time being given to the treatment process in the different construction phases. In the event that this is not observed, and the building is erected, there's a high probability that the building will deteriorate at an early stage before its lifespan or even collapse as witnessed almost daily Zwikael and Ahn, 2011()
As a construction is ongoing, a major contribution to its success is the relationship between the different stakeholders. This includes the architect, the engineer, the owner, the contactor and the workers. In order to smoothly run the project and limit malice and incorporation, there should be a union and set goals and objectives between all these parties so as to ensure everyone…
BUYS, A., BENDEWALD, M. & TUPPER, K. 2011. Life Cycle Cost Analysis: Is it Worth the Effort? ASHRAE Transactions, 117, 541-548.
CHRIS HENDRICKSON 1998. Project Management for Construction. 2 ed.: Prentice Hall PTR.
EHRENFELD, J.R. 1996. Risk Assessment and Management: A Critique of Current Practices and Policy Implications. Organization & Environment, 9, 376-404.
GURCANLI, G.E. & MUNGEN, U. 2009. An occupational safety risk analysis method at construction sites using fuzzy sets. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 39, 371-387.
Political risk is the risk that is associated with the political stability of a nation and the risk associated with political actions on the part of a nation's government. A decline in the economy of a nation because of a violent change in government falls under the category of political risk, as does the risk of nationalization or other adverse government action directed at the company. There is considerable political risk associated with doing business in a nation like Fiji, for example. There are a number of ways that firms seek to manage the political risk that they face when doing business overseas.
Because of the nature of political risk, the implications can be significant for business. The worst case scenarios could see the loss of the entire business, combined with risk to life and limb of the employees that work for the business. Even minor political risks could…
CIA World Factbook. (2011). Fiji. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 19, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fj.html
Fiji Times. (2008). Fiji rated a high political risk. Fiji Times Online. Retrieved April 19, 2011 from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:WAtbT2f3jdwJ:www.fijitimes.com/story.aspx%3Fid%3D81962+fiji+political+risk&cd=3&hl=en&ct=clnk&client=firefox-a&source=www.google.com
Hsu, T. (2010). Fiji Water to stop operating in Fiji. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 19, 2011 from http://articles.latimes.com/2010/nov/30/business/la-fi-fiji-water-20101130
IHS. (2009). Fiji plunged into political turmoil as government declares state of emergency. IHS Global Insight. Retrieved April 19, 2011 from http://www.ihs.com/products/global-insight/industry-economic-report.aspx?id=106595628
Political risk is one of the different elements of country risk that a company must take into consideration when operating internationally. Political risk reflects the risk posed by the government of a country, including risks that the government will take action against your company (China v. Google), up to and including the risk of nationalization (Argentina v. YPF). Governments have the capacity to, in an unpredictable and ad hoc manner, change the rules governing a company's operations in a country. In the West, where political processes tend to be transparent, it is a lot easier to understand and measure political risk. Political risk, it should be noted, reflects actions taken on existing ventures, and not something like project approval. So Keystone XL is a pending decision, not a political risk. isk would be if Keystone is approved and then after it is started the next government moves to block the…
Erb, C., Harvey, C. & Viskanta, T. (2003). Political risk, economic risk and financial risk. Fuque School of Business. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from https://ciber.fuqua.duke.edu/~charvey/Teaching/CDROM_BA456_2003/Other_Harvey_Papers/P38_Political_risk_economic.pdf
Huff, E. (2013). India passes GMO labeling law, but some worry its provisions were poorly planned. Natural News. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.naturalnews.com/039137_india_gmo_labeling_laws.html
Jijakli, N. (2013). Country risk assessment: India. Credendo Group. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.delcredereducroire.be/newsletter/en/cra/2013/cra-india-november-2013
Sieg, L. (2009). Five political risks to watch in Japan. Reuters. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/11/02/us-japan-risks-factbox-idUSTRE5A111A20091102
As a means to gain access to several million people who live a estern lifestyle, South Africa can be a good country to enter, but as a growth story it is much less exciting. Only when the GDP per capita of black and mixed-race South Africans begins to grow rapidly will the country be a truly attractive one for most companies. Arguably, the Human Development Index is a better measure, because it can reflect the overall potential of a nation like South Africa, where the development of one segment of the population is more critical to the market's potential than GDP, which is driven by another segment of the population.
A fourth reason why average per-capita income is not always the best indicator of an emerging market's potential lies in the Gulf States. Many Gulf States have very high average GDP per capita figures, driven by oil revenues. The lifestyle…
Gibson, K. (2002). A case for the family-owned conglomerate. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved October 18, 2012 from http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/A_case_for_the_family-owned_conglomerate_1238
Rajwani, S. (2011). How should firms deal with political risk? Cranfield University. Retrieved October 18, 2012 from http://www.som.cranfield.ac.uk/som/p16495/Think-Cranfield/2011/May-2011/How-Should-Firms-Deal-with-Political-Risk
Sargeant, N. (2006). What risks do organizations face when engaging in international finance activities? Investopedia. Retrieved October 18, 2012 from http://www.investopedia.com /ask/answers/06/internationalfinancerisks.asp#axzz29f2QIadw' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
isks of Trading and Investing:
Involving a Developing Country with a Developed Country's Business
Description of XYZ Corporation
It will be the assumption within this paper that the multinational corporation depicted resides within the United States, a developed country, while it is trying to generate business with Ecuador, a developing country. A multinational corporation is a corporation that operates by supervising or transports products or services to more than one country. XYZ Corporation is a competitive multinational corporation deeply interested in expanding its business to countries in which they have not already established business in. The company currently focuses on the manufacturing and the wholesale of products in the oil and petroleum industries. Most of XYZ Corporation's foreign entities are located in the Middle East. ecently, a member of the XYZ team has given vital information to corporate executives explaining that Ecuador has enormous oil and petroleum potential that could…
Carroll, A.B. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: towards the moral management of organizational stakeholders-balancing economic, legal, and social responsibilities. Retrieved January 14, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n4_v34/ai_11000639/pg_2/
Ecuador.us. (2009, December 21). Ecuador economy, Ecuador exports, Ecuador business.
Retrieved January 15, 2010 from http://www.ecuador.us/business.htm
EconomyPoint.org. (2006). Rate of exchange regime. Retrieved January 13, 2011 from http://www.economypoint.org/r/rate-of-exchange-regime.html
This change in national politics has resulted in a much improved standard of living throughout Mexico and the growth of the middle class. The business climate inside Mexico is much improved and this trend should continue, however, the country is only a few years removed from being a totalitarian regime.
The illegal drug business remains a serious problem for the Mexican Government. It is a high priority for the Government as substantial portion of the national budget and military manpower is dedicated toward Mexico's war on drugs. This war often affects the operation of business within Mexico and must be considered (Gonzalez).
The taxing structure within Mexico is highly transitory (Stewart). The system is in a continual state of flux and anyone contemplating doing business in Mexico should be careful to be diligent and avail themselves of a qualified tax accountant well-versed in Mexican tax laws. The national government has…
DeMente, Boye Lafayette. Why Mexicans Think and Behave the Way They Do!: The Cultural Factors that Created the Character & Personality of the Mexican People. (2d Edition). Beverly Hills, CA: Phoenix Books, 2009.
Gilbreth, Chris. "Democratization in Mexico: The Zapatista Uprising and Civil Society." Latin American Perspectives (2001): 7-29.
Gonzalez, Francisco E. "Mexico's Drug Wars Get Brutal." Current History (2009): 72-76.
Nelson, Mexico Mike. Live Better South of the Border: Practical Advice for Living and Working (Live Better South of the Border in Mexico) 3rd Edition. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 2000.
The diffused infrared configuration however, uses a transmitter that fills a given office space with signals. The signal receiver can then be located anywhere in the office area in order to successfully receive the I signal.
The Spread spectrum LANs
This form of arrangement utilizes the multiple-cell configuration. Each of the cells are appropriately assigned a unique center frequency that lies within a specific band in order to avoid signal interference. This transmission technique makes use of two methods; frequency hopping as well as direct sequence modulation
The Frequency hopping method uses signals that jumps from a given frequency to the other within a specific bandwidth. The transmission unit then "listens" to a give channel and if successfully detects any idle time (a time when no signal is transmitted),then transmits the packet via the full channel bandwidth .In case a channel is deemed "full," the transmitter then "hops" to the…
Bruce, WR (2002).Wireless LANs End to End, Ron Gilster (ed.), John Wiley & Sons.
Burell, J (2002) 'Wireless Local Area Networking: Security Assessment and Countermeasures: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks', Dec. 2002, retrieved 22 March
2011, < http://telecom.gmu.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Jim-Burrell-December-2002.pdf>
Cisco (n.d)"Cisco HWIC-AP WLAN Module for Cisco 1800 (Modular), 2800 and 3800."
The UK needs to build good economic relationships with emerging markets even more than with its EU neighbors. China is already highly competitive in manufacturing and is gaining competitiveness in high-technology manufacturing. India is a leader in Information Technology and, being an English speaking country, also has the ability to be globally competitive in Professional Services. Latin American and Southeast Asian economies, such as Brazil or Indonesia, will become increasingly competitive in agriculture and energy. The WTO and various other bilateral free trade agreements are reducing the barriers to these types of goods, making them increasingly attractive to the European consumer.
Considering the competition for European markets, the EU's greatest value and likely greatest priority will be the protection of European markets, not the opening of global markets. The UK, because of its focus on global finance and professional services, has little to gain from the protection of its own…
Vicarelli, Claudio & De Santis, Roberta & De Nardis, Sergio, 2008. "The Single Currency's Effects on Eurozone Sectoral Trade: Winners and Losers?," Economics - the Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy, vol. 2(17), pages 1-34. P. 13
0 tool has little to do with its overall effectiveness in getting attaining learning goals and objectives for example. Controlling for the informality or formality of Web 2.0 tools use is required, as many instructors are relying on the conversational and broadcast functionality of social networks as a substitute for e-mail. Still, the informal aspects of social networking applications including Web 2.0 tools and their anticipated benefits as a learning tool must be indexed or evaluated from their actual effectiveness in assisting learned to gain mastery of subjects. Creating this link between Web 2.0 tool effectiveness and their relative perception of value with respondents to this study will require a research design that can isolate attitudinal and effectiveness measures while not introducing sampling bias or error.
Fifth, the risks that Web 2.0 tools might create for formal learning in educational institutions also faces the same dilemma from a methodology standpoint…
Ayala, G, and Yano, Y (1998). A collaborative learning environment based on intelligent agents. Expert Systems with Applications, 14, 129-137.
Bill Ashraf. (2009). Teaching the Google-eyed YouTube generation. Education & Training, 51(5/6), 343-352.
Barros, B., and Verdejo, M.F. (2000). Analysing student interaction processes in order to improve collaboration. The DEGREE approach. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 11, 221-241.
Bereiter, C. (2002). Education and mind in the knowledge age. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
risk that one needs to be concerned with when selling a franchise (and this is a general case, not only the case of Germany) is that the franchiser (that is, the person who buys the franchise) may not fulfill all his contractual obligations. These include a certain quality standard and a brand image of the mother company (the franchisor). This obviously may lead to the fact that the customers will associate with the mother company a certain level of quality that is less than that agreed upon and less that the one the company actually has in the country of origin. This can cause serious prejudice to the brand image. If we think of a classical case of franchising, McDonald's, a level of quality may include a certain degree of organization, in order to avoid long lines, a certain quality of the products (for example, the franchise contract foresees that…
country has been experiencing a religious "war of words" for several decades now. Some Democrats were caught completely off guard by it when most of the swing voters voted for Bush instead of Kerry, giving Bush the Presidency. Surveys and polls done afterwards revealed that those voters, the ones who won the election for Bush, were opposed to the Iraq war, but saw Bush as representing the one thing that was more important to them than whether we were at war or not: moral values. Actually the movement to make the Presidential race a moral one has been going on for decades, galvanized by the shift in this country in the late sixties and early seventies regarding both sex and drug use. The Roe V. Wade decision by the Supreme Court became a rallying cry, and that issue has been important in every Presidential election since. This time, the issue…
Opportunity Supporting Client's Operational Needs
Threat Factors and Trends
isk of maintained and possibly new U.S. sanctions
Structural Weaknesses in economy
Poor technology and brain drain
Opportunity and Threat Factors/Trends
Country Level Analyses
Quest Diagnostics has its headquarters positioned in Madison and its main operation encompasses the provision of diagnostic information. The company's operations encompass two arms. One, Diagnostics Solutions Group provides resolutions for insurers, and also the firm's health information technology operation that provides resolutions for healthcare providers. The other arm is Diagnostic Information Services, which nurtures and offers diagnostic testing information and services. The two countries in this essay is Iran and Egypt and the analysis encompasses a PESTEL framework of both nations. From the perspective of Iran, opportunities include political support through the reelection of Hassan and ouhani, securing the nuclear…
Egypt in Chicago. (2014). Egypt's Economic Recovery & Investment profile. Retrieved 6 June 2017 from: http://www.egyptinchicago.org/investment-opportunities-in-egypt.html
Euler Hermes. (2017). Iran. Retrieved 6 June 2017 from: http://www.eulerhermes.com/economic-research/country-reports/Pages/Iran.aspx
Focus Economics. (2017). Egypt Economic Outlook. Retrieved 5th June 2016 from: http://www.focus-economics.com/countries/egypt
Focus Economics. (2017). Iran Economic Outlook. Retrieved 5th June 2016 from: http://www.focus-economics.com/countries/iran
Audit Management DQ
Consider the governance of the company owning ana Plaza and describe the regional expectations as well as best practice in this area and the benefits that adoption brings. Evaluate the governance of ana Plaza during and after the collapse of the building against these and explain how this helped or hindered ana Plaza.
The management of ana Plaza failed to ensure employee safety. In such a case, workers and suppliers equate the weakest points in relation to conditions of order and input dependency, footloose sourcing practices, and hand-to-mouth contracting. One of the incidents that happened in 2013 at Sadia Garments Ltd. saw new unionized workers facing aggressive campaigns on factory management (Ayres, 2014). Workers faced threats of violence while lead organizers were sent death threats. Later, one factory supervisor attacked the Union General Secretary for Sadia Garments with a pair of scissors while demanding for the resignation…
Ahmed S. & Lakhani, L. (2013). Bangladesh Building Collapse: An End to Recovery Efforts, a Promise of a New Start. CNN. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/14/world/asia/bangladesh-building-collapse-aftermath/index.html?iref=allsearch
Ayres, A. (2014). A Guide to the Rana Plaza Tragedy, And Its Implications, In Bangladesh. Forbes. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/alyssaayres/2014/04/24/a-guide-to-the-rana-plaza-tragedy-and-its-implications-in-bangladesh/
BBC Bengali Service (2013). Bangladesh factory collapse toll passes 1,000. BBC Bengali Service. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-22476774
Benettongroup.com (2014). Benetton Group Backs an Initiative In Support Of the Victims of Rana Plaza and Their Families. Benettongroup.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014 from http://www.benettongroup.com/archive/press-release/benetton-group-backs-initiative-support-victims-rana-plaza-and-their-families
Homeland Security isk Management
isk Management in Homeland Security
This paper provides a brief examination of the role of risk management within the homeland security operations. The discussion first addresses issues related to risk assessment, which is a necessary, prudent step for publicly funded activities, and particularly so given the national scope and the potential consumption of resources. The Strategic National isk Assessment (SNA) serves as a vehicle to link policy -- the Presidential Policy Directive 8 (PPD 8) and the National Preparedness System. The core capabilities of the National Preparedness Goal are mapped to the hazards and threats identified in the SNA (SNA 2011). This tactic enables additional core capabilities to be identified, and provides a resource to inform the establishment of priorities needed for making decisions about future investing in capabilities (SNA 2011).
As with any major projects of risk management, the initial stage is focused on assessment.…
The White House. National Security Strategy. (2010, May). Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office. Retrieved National_Security_Strategy.pdf
U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Secure Boarders, Safe Travel, Legal Trade. U.S. Customs and Boarder Protection Fiscal Year 2009-2014 Strategic Plan. Retrieved CBP_Strategic_Plan.pdf
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Department of Homeland Security Strategic Plan. Fiscal Years 2012 -- 2016. (2012, February). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved DHS_Strategic_Plan-2012-2016.pdf
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. DHS Risk Lexicon. Risk Steering Committee. (2010, September). Washington, D.C. Retrieved http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs-risk-lexicon-2010.pdf
Corporate Governance and Risk Management
The charity and commercial sectors offer different notions concerning risk management in the corporate arena. Currently, the charity sector is facing various difficulties including a reduction in the funding amount and the need to adopt the use of the ever-changing technology. esides, the communication means is dynamic hence creating emptiness in service provision. However, it embraces new ideas and innovation that prepare the corporate field for the future. Risk management is the process of ensuring that the occurrence of various risks or activities does not cause any financial loss to the entity (Merna, and Al-Thani, 2011). This differs to corporate governance, which refers to the identification and clarification of activities and responsibilities undertaken by various individuals in an organization (rikend, 2014). The commercial sector offers direct and proportional risk management proposals where the corporate management pays some money for it to be covered against the…
Brikend A. 2014. Corporate Governance: A Literature Review. Management Research and Practice, 09/2014, Volume 6, Issue 3, p. 53
Brown, I., Steen, A., and Foreman, J. 2009. Risk Management In Corporate Governance: A Review And Proposal. Corporate Governance, ISSN 0964-8410, 2009, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp. 546 -- 558
Dellaportas, S., Langton, J., West, B. 2012. Governance And Accountability In Australian Charitable Organizations. International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp. 238 -- 254
Jizi, M.I., et al., 2014. Corporate Governance And Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure: Evidence From The U.S. Banking Sector. Journal of business ethics, Volume 125, Issue 4, pp. 601 -- 615
Te need for so many new workers will tend to elp women enter fields were tey ave been istorically under-represented since tere is suc a need for so many new workers.
Wile tis synergy of so many different factors is useful for workers at all stages of teir careers, it may be tat it is especially elpful to new graduates. Higly skilled and qualified senior workers are likely to ave more opportunities open to tem tan are younger workers and so are likely to suffer less during economic downturns. Younger workers, especially tose just finising teir undergraduate work, will fare better in an environment tat as a range of opportunities and an overall good business climate. In fact, tis may be te only kind of business environment in wic new graduates will reliably be able to find jobs tat matc teir training and ambitions. Tis may be especially true for…
http://www.extremetag.com / http://www.mimotec.ch/Francais/Produits/produits.html
isk Management Plan for Exxon Mobil
A risk management process is a systematic application of management policies for the purpose of identifying, analyzing, evaluating and mitigating any possible risks within an organization. The following paper focuses on formulation of risk management plan for Exxon Mobil, one of the world's most renowned oil and gas companies. The risks would be identified and selected applicable to this firm and after their evaluation, a risk treatment plan would be advised.
Establish the isk Context
Identifying the Context for isk Assessment
eviewing current organizational processes
Being in the gas and power marketing department of the company, there are certain risks applicable within my area of operation. In order to clearly determine those risks, first, a comprehensive look at Exxon Mobil's organizational processes along with a SWOT analysis is presented. The firm is dedicated to create and maintain an environmental policy that would protect the…
Bastian, B.L. & Tucci, C. (2010). An empirical investigation on the effects of political risk on technology strategies of firms, presented at Summer Conference 2010, London, 2010. London: Imperial College London Business School. Retrieved from http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/viewpaper.php?id=501908&cf=43
Exxon Mobil. (n.d.). About us: How we operate. Retrieved from http://lubes.ExxonMobil.com/Lubes/about_how.aspx
Green Peace. (2011). Risks and potential impacts of oil exploration in the Arctic. Retrieved from http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/publications/climate/2011 / FinalArcticBriefing2011.pdf
Hirsch, A. (2011, June 17). Exxon Mobil accused of 'fraud' in Jacksonville gas spill trail. The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved from http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/baltimore - county/bs-md-co-exxon-trial-closing-20110617-story.html
The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief paper about the subject of risk communication and the implications of that subject to the security manager. Of course, a huge part of identifying and mitigating risks involves one or more levels of communication depending on the nature and depth of the risks that exist. Whether it be brainstorming about what could happen, analyzing what has happened, issuing alerts to the people that work or otherwise inhabit a building and so forth, communication is a huge part of stopping or preventing risk. Bulletins about suspects on the lam or Amber Alerts are two publicly known and commonly used examples of this but such communication happens in much more localized fashions as well. While some may deem security communication and management to be a lot of busywork for nothing, nobody with a brain would say that when…
Gill, M. (2014). Handbook of Security. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
HOFMANN, MA 2013, 'PREPARING FOR THE WORST', Business Insurance, 47, 11, p. 0014,
Small Business Reference Center, EBSCOhost, viewed 24 April 2016.
Prince, M 1997, 'Tailored communication key to delivering message', Business Insurance, 31,
isk, isk Management Strategies, and Benefits in Cloud Computing
SEVICE AND DEPLOYMENT MODELS
BENEFITS OF CLOUD COMPUTING
CLOUD COMPUTING ISKS
ISK Management STATEGIES
Centralized Information Governance
Other Organization-Level Measures
Individual-Level Security Measures
Cloud computing model
Cloud computing service and deployment models
ISO/IEC broad categories
The emergence of cloud computing has tremendously transformed the world of computing. Today, individuals, organizations, and government agencies can access computing resources provided by a vendor on an on-demand basis. This provides convenience, flexibility, and substantial cost savings. It also provides a more efficient way of planning disaster recovery and overcoming fluctuations in the demand for computing resources. In spite of the benefits it offers, cloud computing presents significant security concerns, which users must clearly understand and put strong measures in place to address them. Users are particularly…
Abiodun, A. (2013). A framework for implementation of risk management system in third party managed cloud. Journal of Information Technology & Economic Development, 4(2), 19-30.
Ahmed, N., & Abraham, A. (2013). Modeling security risk factors in a cloud computing environment. Journal of Information Assurance and Security, 8, 279-289.
Alali, F., & Yeh, C. (2012). Cloud computing: overview and risk analysis. Journal of Information Systems, 26(2), 13-33.
Alijani, G., Fulk, H., Omar, A., & Tulsi, R. (2014). Cloud computing effects on small business. Entrepreneurial Executive, 19, 35-45.
Taxation and double taxation risks
Australia imposes taxes on resident economic entities and the Australian-sourced income of non-residents. However, "Australia's capacity to tax non-residents may be limited where the non-resident is resident in a country with which Australia has concluded a double taxation agreement (DTA)," including the United States (Ellison 2009, p.8). DTAs allocate taxing rights to the country of residence of the taxpayer (Ellison 2009, p.8).
Market risks (four Ps)
Demand and overall economic growth has remained strong in Australia (product), although high inflation (price) is of a concern for many residents. Growth tends to be centered in urban areas (place/distribution), while rural areas are often underserved in terms of goods and services. The greater diversity of Australia's growing Asian and European allow for potential new sources of economic growth (promotion and marketing).
Australia economic analysis. (2010). Economy watch. etrieved February 22, 2010 at http://www.economywatch.com/economic-analysis/australia.html
Ellison, Minter. (2009).…
Australia economic analysis. (2010). Economy watch. Retrieved February 22, 2010 at http://www.economywatch.com/economic-analysis/australia.html
Ellison, Minter. (2009). Doing business in Australia. Retrieved February 22, 2010 at http://www.minterellison.com/public/connect/resources/file/ebe2744c07a0264/RG-DoingBusInAus2009.pdf
Foreign exchange: Expatriates. Managing Forex. Retrieved February 22, 2010 at http://www.exfin.com/foreign-exchange-expatriates
Nuclear Energy: isks vs. eward
Every source of energy has its own drawbacks. This is more so the case taking into consideration the recent energy source related accidents including but not limited to coal-mining mishaps, the nuclear crisis in Japan, the B.P. oil spill, etc. In this text, I will amongst other things concern myself with nuclear power and the consequences associated with the development of the same.
As I have already pointed out in the introductory section, every source of energy has a set of drawbacks. For instance, while there are a number of benefits associated with wind energy, the same also has several disadvantages. In the words of Eccleston, March and Cohen (2011), "wind farms can interfere with radar, creating a hole in radar coverage affecting aviation and national security." The author further points out that wind energy is largely unpredictable. Similarly, although hydroelectric power in the opinion…
Eccleston, C.H., March, F. & Cohen, T. (2011). Inside Energy: Developing and Managing an ISO 50001 Energy Management System. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Ginley, D.S. & Cahen, D. (Eds.). (2011). Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McKinney, M.L., Schoch, R.M. & Yonavjak, L. (2012). Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Miller, G.T. & Spoolman, S. (2007). Environmental Science. Belmont, CA: Thompson Higher Education.
Codification and Liability isk: Napoleonic Code vs. Common Law
In today's modern world, insurance has become an everyday concept. We ensure our homes, vehicles, and valuable property. In many states, vehicle insurance is now demanded by law of its drivers. Yet, very few of us step back and actually question where this notion of insurance actually comes from. It is a strange concept, to pay a premium monthly in order to protect oneself from damages later in the event of a catastrophe. In fact, insurance around the world is not considered the same thing. In fact, codification of insurance in various countries is influenced by different legal systems. While in the United States, insurance is influenced by common law practices, other countries in Europe, the Middle East, and South America use codification principles stemming from the Napoleonic Code.
In most Western countries, like the United States, common law is the…
Cozen. (2001). Insurer, insured and priority in recovery proceeds: Who gets what and when? Cozen O'Connor. Web. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CDMQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cozen.com%2Fadmin%2Ffiles%2Fpublications%2FPriority_in_recovery_proceeds.DOC&ei=coyfUvSILtfhoAS3voDoBQ&usg=AFQjCNHhkK58zNH1PONY8_1DXOksY2Lrqw&sig2=GeTJ6ZZH846RqBuPkcoB_g&bvm=bv.57155469,d.cGU&cad=rja
Schwartz, Ben. (1998). The Code Napoleon and the Common Law World. The Lawbook Exchange.
Stamenkovic, Mark. (2010). Middle East insurance & subrogation overview. Cozen O'Connor. Web. http://www.cozen.com/admin/files/publications/middle%20east_110510.pdf
Tetely, William. (1999). Mixed jurisdictions: Common law vs. civil law (codified and uncodified). Electronic Library of International Commercial Law. Web. http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu/cisg/biblio/tetley.html
Private -- Cloud Computing isks and Challenges -- Bahrain Gov.
Cloud Computing Experiences of Other Countries
Focus on Japan
Japan has in the past had the rather lousy record of being an unwilling (or late) adopted of non-Japanese technology. Indeed, as a matter of fact, most of the country's businesses were rather reluctant to embrace West-developed technological innovations including but not limited to Twitter and Facebook. It hence comes as a complete surprise that the country received an excellent BSA Global Cloud Computing Scorecard ranking. In the words of BSA (2013), "the scorecard examines major laws and regulations relevant to cloud computing in seven policy categories as well as each country's ICT-related infrastructure and broadband deployment." Some of the factors that carry significant weight in the said scoring system therefore include but they are not limited to cloud computing rules international harmonization, presence of effective anti-cyber crime penalties, intellectual property…
Assia, N. (2012). Privacy Implications of Cloud Computing in Israel. Retrieved from http://www.otusgroup.com/legal-issues-surrounding-cloud-computing/
BSA (2013). 2013 BSA Global Cloud Computing Scorecard. Retrieved from http://cloudscorecard.bsa.org/2013/index.html
Harada, Y. (2011). Study on Cloud Security in Japan. Retrieved from http://www.isaca.org/Knowledge-Center/Research/Documents/Cloud_Sec_ITGIJapan_23Feb2011.pdf
Katz, J. & Seller, B. (2013). Legal Issues Surrounding Cloud Computing. Retrieved from
Description of Learning:
Educational institutions are teaching subjects for a digital future but it is from a superficial manner however students need a deeper knowledge of it as a curriculum. When teaching students about math, it should be integrated in all subjects they are learning by being motivated by educators (Singhal, 1997). As shown in the examined scenario planning with an elementary school, it is apparent things became better for the students as far as the educational resources, and environment, which ultimately affects the learning process. Educational institutions must engage partnerships with other schools around the world. By providing student exchanges they will produce world class students, the internet is facilitating the process of globalization and providing virtual interaction with others. As it is shown in schools, technology is the key to change the educational environment and resources. The internet is encouraging students to engage in meaningful cross cultural dialogue…
This means that there is a likelihood of some risks being overlooked with these individuals facing pressure to circumvent different procedures for the benefit of the firm. As a result, this process is producing mixed results with the company receiving notoriety for having safe practices in select locations. While at other times, this has led to accidents and labor disputes inside various mines they own. (Corporate Profile 2012) (Fanning the Flames 2010)
Systems for hazard control (list). Consider elimination, substitution, engineering, isolation, administration and use of PPE. Are they effective?
The systems for hazard control involve each manager receiving written reports about potential incidents. They have the ability to interview, isolate, substitute and administer the company's policies for enhancing WHS safety practices. These findings are presented to upper management and an executive committee (which monitor these challenges). They are using PPE to a certain extent. Yet, many of these issues…
Corporate Profile, 2012, Rio Tinto, Available from: [22 April 2013]
Work Health and Safety Act, 2012, Comcare, Available from: [22 April 2013]
Fanning the Flames, 2010, War on Want, Available from: [22 April 2013].
Lea, D, 1999, 'Corporate and Public Responsibility,' Business Ethics, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 151 -- 162.
Enterprise isk Management
The difference between enterprise risk management and traditional risk management
Traditional risk management focuses on pure risks. In this context, pure risks are defined as risks involving losses or no losses. The condition of a pure risk does not allow for a favorable outcome than the current situation. Owning a home is a typical example of a pure risk. The home might be hit by an earthquake, burn down or be infected by insects. If none of these happens, then the owner will not be in a position for losses (Damodaran, 2008).
Traditional risk management focuses on pure risks because of various reasons. People who worked in the insurance field developed and taught the concept of risk management. The focus tends to be on risks, which insurers could be willing write. The job duties of some risk managers are limited to purchasing insurance as many other options…
Damodaran, A. (2008). Strategic risk taking: A framework for risk management. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Wharton School Pub.
Tonello, M., & Conference Board. (2007). Emerging governance practices in enterprise risk management. New York, N.Y: Conference Board.
Strategic National isk Assessment
Compare and contrast the deductions about the national-level threats and hazards as listed by the DHS in the SNA against the findings you made in Week 5's analysis of the WTAs. As always, assume what is listed first is the greatest risk [also called "most dangerous"] and probability [also called "most likely"] and the last is least
The Strategic National isk Assessment (SNA) is designed to provide the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) with the tools it needs to effectively deal with various challenges. The threats and hazards are illustrating the overall scope of the problems and the probability that they will occur at some point in the future. They are classified into different categories called most dangerous and likely.
The most dangerous threats are areas where there is an immediate risk to the U.S. homeland and different national interests. A few of the most notable…
"Strategic National Assessment." DHS. (2011): 1 -- 7.
US DHS. National Infrastructure Plan. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.
Turabian Format http://www.libs.uga.edu/ref/turabian2009.pdf
"Strategic National Assessment," DHS, 2011, 1 -- 7.
Economics - Country Analysis
Country Overview and Current Events (News)
Ethiopia, traditionally known as Abyssinia, is a landlocked Sub-Saharan country located at the Horn of Africa in East Africa, bordering Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan, and the newly-created South Sudan. It covers approximately 1,126,829km2 of land; about the size of the state of Texas, and was, until the split of Sudan, the second-largest country in Africa. Being landlocked, Ethiopia largely relies on the port of Djibouti, to which it is connected by both rail and road. Economic elements such as this, together with the country's history, population, geography and economic performance have been explored in the subsequent sections of this text.
Population: the U.S. Census Bureau, in June 2013, estimated Ethiopia's population to be 93,877,025; a figure that makes the country the second-most populous in Africa, after Nigeria (orld Bank, Index Mundi). Ethiopia's population has been on a steady increase…
AFDB. "Inflation Dynamics in Selected East African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda." AFDB Brief, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014 http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflatin%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf
This article analyses the trend in Ethiopia's inflation rates vis-a-vis those of other countries in the Sub-Saharan region and was a valuable source of regional statistics, which formed the main basis for comparison.
Broussar, Nzinga, and Tekleselassie Tsegay. "Youth Unemployment: Ethiopia; Country Study." International Growth Center, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014 http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflation%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf
This article analyzes the trend in Ethiopia's employment patterns. It reinforced my arguments that unemployment is more prevalent in urban Ethiopia, and that the country's informal sector contributes more to GDP than the formal sector.
environment host country chose study. Discuss briefly political, economic, legal environment focus culture. Make present deeper levels culture, artifacts. HOFSTEDE'S DIMENSIONS .ID
Germany: Country analysis
Germany is a parliamentary democracy. It is a multi-party system, which means that political parties must often share power to govern. It is currently led by Chancellor Angela Merkel, who became Germany's first female chancellor in 2009. Merkel is the leader of the center-right Christian Democrats (CDU). Merkel won a close election and serves as "chancellor in a 'grand coalition' involving the CDU, its Christian Social Union (CSU) allies and the centre-left Social Democratic Party (SPD)" ("Germany," BBC, 2012). Merkel has faced recent resistance from the Germany populace, who are growing increasingly discontented with the feeling that Germany is being forced to 'bail out' financially undisciplined members of the European Community, to preserve the EC in the wake of the meltdown of the…
Crumly, Bruce. "In Paris and Berlin, fury over a Greek bailout." Time. 2010. [23 Mar 2012]
"Germany." BBC. [23 Mar 2012]
Gordimer's Country Lovers
Issues of race and gender have been considered to be popular subjects in literature and allow individuals to express how these issues have affected them and how they have affected society. "Country Lovers" (1975), by Nadine Gordimer, allows the reader to understand how issues of race and gender are universal. Gordimer also uses "Country Lovers" as a platform to show how these issues impacted her personally and the lasting effect that they have on people living in South Africa, where she was born and raised. "Country Lovers" (1975) analyzes how racial discrimination and gender influence how the story's female protagonist, Thebedi, is treated.
Despite the fact that Gordimer herself is not involved in politics, "her writings document, decade by decade, the impact of politics on personal lives and what an increasingly radical white South African woman felt, thought, and imaged during the rise and fall of apartheid"…
Bazin, N.T. And Gordimer, N. (1995). An interview with Nadine Gordimer. Contemporary Literature. 36.1 (Winter), pp. 571-587. JSTOR. Accessed 30 October 2012.
The History of Apartheid in South Africa. (n.d.) Stanford University. Accessed 30 October 2012,
Gordimer, N. (1975). Country Lovers.
Capital Requirement and Risk ehavior
Arab African International ank
Midan ElSaray El Koubra, Garden City Caoro
The research will mainly dwell on the capital requirements and risk behavior of banks, more in particular the credit risk. The purpose of this research is to identify and analyze the relationship between capital requirements and the risk behavior of banks in Egypt
more in particular the Arab African International ank, which is the case study for this research. Secondly, the research will seek to investigate the impact of capital regulation on the banking behaviors and particularly on the levels of credit risk of banks operating in Egypt
The findings of the research show that there is negative relationship between capital requirement and banks' risk behavior; the findings also show there is empirical evidence to prove that capital regulations have a negative impact on credit risk of banks levels of credit risk of banks…
Aggarwal, R. And K. Jacques, (1998), a Simultaneous Equation Estimation of the Impact of Prompt Corrective Action on Bank Capital and Risk, New York, 12-23
Avery, R.B. And A.B. Berger, (1991), Risk-based capital and deposit insurance reform, Journal of Banking and Finance pp 847-874
Berger, A.N., Herring R.J. And Szego, G.P. (1995), the Role of Capital in Financial
Institutions, Journal of Banking and Finance pp 19, 393-430.
In addition, a series of joint ventures in which West German steel firms joined with East German firms and Krupp, Klockner, and Thyssen of Germany was pursuing other developmental initiatives in eastern Europe as well. Likewise, Arbed of Luxemburg was involved in steelmaking facilities in the former East Germany. According to Mangum et al., "The rising market for improved galvanizing for automobiles, appliances, canning, and other uses is producing a rash of joint ventures throughout the world. Some of these are internal to various countries and others involve international partners" (p. 74).
As a result, nearly 30% of the world's steel supply is now produced by plants belonging to companies that did not exist just 3 decades ago (Ahlberg, Pitkanen & Storsch 1999). As these authors point out, "Such upstarts have entered a global market that since 1980 has grown by less than 1% a year -- an average combining…
Ahlberg, J., A. Pitkanen and L.L. Schorsch. 1999. "Forging a New Era for Steel." The McKinsey
Altunisik, M.B. And O. Tur. 2004. Turkey: Challenges of Continuity and Change. New York:
The main hazards related to LNG include:
upture due to Corrosion
upture while excavation
upture while excavation
upture during an earthquake
upture due to mechanical failure
upture at compressor
upture at inspection stations
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Blow-out of gas at head and subsequent fire
Gas leak from infrastructure
Fire involving combustible
LPG or Diesel
Diesel pump fire involving equipment brittle fracture valve Leaks
Welding failure welding casting failure
Mechanical overstressing of equipment Vibration
Failure due to external loading or impact
Underground pipe rupture of transmission pipeline
Pipe rupture at main line valve sites.
upture of adjacent gas pipeline
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Gas leak from pipeline infrastructure
Drop of pipe from pipe lifts
Accommodation fire involving combustible construction LPG or Diesel
Diesel fire involving mobile fuel tanker
Uncontrolled release of LNG
Uncontrolled release of refrigerant gas
Uncontrolled release of by- product…
Acutech Consulting (2009). The HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) Method
American Petroleum Institute (August 2009). Analysis of U.S. Oil Spillage. p26