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Countrywide Financial Corporation and the Subprime Mortgage Debacle
In 2006, the world discovered that Countrywide Financial and other lenders had been promoting mortgages practices that were not impractical, they were criminal. Countrywide was one of a number of corporations (but the one with the largest number of questionable mortgages) which followed the lead of a then recent push by the government to provide incentives to companies that offered a greater number of people home loans. These types of loans are called subprime because the people who want the loan do not qualify under the normal rules. Because of the government push, which became a push within the company, countrywide offered a greater number of loans to people who could not afford them, and many of these were structured as ARMs. An ARM is an adjustable rate mortgage one in which the rate can change over a specified number of years,…
Financial Plan and Conclusion
1. Financial Plan
A total of 39,500 will be committed in startup costs. The specific startup items have been described in table 1. Essentially, the flagship startup components are: lighting and studio/sound equipment, opening inventory, operating capital, fees and permits, and FFE. Lighting and studio/sound equipment are inclusive of 8 speakers, 2 amplifiers, 2 cd decks, 2 microphones, 2 switchers, 3 wash moving head lights, 1 LED DJ light, 5 DJ fog machines, 3 laser machines, 1 centerpiece effect DJ light, and other assorted lighting items. The opening inventory, on the other hand, is inclusive of all wine, beer, liquor, and other consumables (non-alcoholic drinks and beverages). The fees and permits component is inclusive of all fees we shall incur such as attorney, consultant, and accountant fees. Lastly, FFEs include, but they are not limited to, foldable chairs and tables, coolers, liquor racks, wine glasses, beer…
Improvements in Integrity, Financial Accountability, Ethical Conduct and Corporate Responsibilities under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
e passed Sarbanes-Oxley in the wake of the Enron scandal to try to root out financial and accounting irregularities. How could similar irregularities occur at Lehman Brothers? History has a way of constantly repeating itself. -- Joseph Grant 2010
The high-profile corporate shenanigans by Enron and Lehman Brothers have made it clear that tough legislation was needed to compel Americans businesses to clean up their financial acts. Indeed, in response to Enron's late 2001 bankruptcy, Congress enacted the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 but the Lehman Brothers' bankruptcy in late 2008 made it clear that there was still a problem in some sectors of American business. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine how the integrity of corporate finance, ethics, and other responsibilities have improved, what the corporate finance industry culture…
Bierstaker, James, Marshall, Kenneth K. And Greenwald, Jonathan. (2010, December).
"Strengthen Your Core: Are You Getting the Most from Your Compliance, Operations,
Risk, and Enterprise Support Functions?" Strategic Finance 92(6): 35-39.
Carter, Charles C. (2011, May 1). "Freefall: America, Free Markets, and the Sinking of the World Economy." Journal of Real Estate Literature 9(2): 492-499.
Estimation Techniques of Financial Crisis
The unquestionable ethical conducts within the corporate circle had been the major factor that led to 2008/2009 financial crisis. By studying the root causes of the crisis, it has been revealed that bad conducts among the CEOs of Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers, Citigroup and Countrywide Financial have been the primary factors leading to 2008/2009 financial crisis.
Objective of this paper is to argue that the CEOs of Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers, Citigroup and Countrywide Financial did not take the interest of the companies into a consideration leading to frictions between the CEO and the shareholders
In 2007, the financial markets were shaken by a serious financial crisis because of a dryness in liquidity associated with a subprime mortgage business where people with doubtful credit reports were offered mortgage loans leading to a rise of loan default. Moreover, lack of transparency, greediness and excessive desire for…
Gorton, G. B. (2008). The Subprime Panic, National Board of Economic Review, Working Paper 14398,
Larcker, D. & Brin, T. (2010). Lehman Brothers: Peeking Under the Board FaAade, Stanford Closer Look Series.
Tucker, E. (2014). Citigroup to Pay $7 Billion to Settle Subprime Case. Associate Press.
Wiggins, R.Z. Piontek, T. & Metrick, A. (2014). The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy: Overview. Yale Program on Financial Stability Case Study.
The real estate concept is very different in Great Britain. It consists of a system of bidding and auction. Still this obstacle did not stop Countrywide's management from seeing a wave of change. Many other companies had already seen Great Britain as an entry point into the rest of Europe. These success stories are Safeway, al-Mart and Pizza Hut to name a few. The means to acquiring a ready-made company within Great Britain was the next step. At this point, it was understood that independently opening a Countrywide branch there would be too risky. The strategy was to acquire or create a joint venture with a company that already existed where Countrywide could slowly take over meanwhile slowly introducing that workforce to American mortgage knowledge and skills (Globalhomeloans.com, 2005). The irony in this situation is that Countrywide may have been cocky. After all, the situation is very favorable and almost…
About Countrywide History. 19 Jan. 2005. http://about.countrywide.com/history/History.aspx?is Printable=Yes>.
AllDirect.com. 19 Jan. 2005. Company Profile. http://www.alldirect.com.html..
Globalhomeloans. 19 Jan. 2005. Company Web site. http://www.globalhomeloans.co.uk/mainsite/..
Lardy, Susan. 15 Jan. 2005. E-Marketing and Strategy within Countrywide Homa Loans,
They also helped wealthier buyers qualify for larger loans than they could really have qualified for, to purchase larger homes or to take equity out of the property in a booming housing market. When many of the unqualified and under-qualified borrowers began defaulting, the entire industry collapsed. The situation threatened the entire national economy because the wealth of some of the nation's largest banks and investment firms depended on the quality of those mortgage loans. Billions of dollars in stock value were based on complex mortgage-backed securities based on those bad mortgages sold by Countrywide and others.
3. What are the ethical issues that need to be addressed (be specific; cite examples)?
Countrywide violated ethical rules and the law almost every time they sold a mortgage in the years leading up to the housing market collapse. They knew that many of the buyers would probably end up defaulting and they…
Business Data Analysis
Tabel 1.0: data concerning the 30 fastest -- growing companies as listed on March 16, 2005, on the Fortune magazine website
New Century Financial
Central European Distribution
National Medical Health Card Sys
Friedman Billing Ramsey Group
Sanders Morris Harris Group
United PanAm Financial
Capital Title Group
Fidelity National Financial
Source: Fortune magazine website
1. Develop a stem-and-leaf display of the revenue growth percentages for the 30 fastest-growing companies and describe the shape of the distribution.
The largest majority of subprime housing property has been noted in this study to be located in minority and low-income neighborhoods and therefore the subprime lenders are flooding the housing markets and specifically the low-income housing market with housing in neighborhoods that generally do no bring healthy prices on the housing market. With the housing market flooded with this class of housing the properties values of these homes will be pushed even lower and this with interest rates simultaneously at their lowest possible rate. In fact, what has resulted from subprime lending practices is the lenders worst nightmare in that prices are very low, interest rates are very low, and prospective buyers are very low as well.
Isidore, Chris (2008) New Recession Worry: ank Failures - Recession Watch 2008. 3 March 2008. Online available at http://money.cnn.com/2008/03/03/news/economy/bank_failures/index.htm?ref=patrick.net
Goldman, David (2008) Fed Officials: Housing Crisis Critical. Eyes on the Fed -CNN…
Isidore, Chris (2008) New Recession Worry: Bank Failures - Recession Watch 2008. 3 March 2008. Online available at http://money.cnn.com/2008/03/03/news/economy/bank_failures/index.htm?ref=patrick.net
Goldman, David (2008) Fed Officials: Housing Crisis Critical. Eyes on the Fed -CNN News 29 Feb 2008. Online available at http://money.cnn.com/2008/02/29/news/economy/fed_speeches/index.htm?postversion=2008022912
U.S. files New Lawsuit Against Countrywide (2008) Reuters News Service 4 Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.reuters.com/article/bondsNews/idUSN0452271620080304
Weil, Judy (2008) Housing Market Tracker - What will Replace Subprime Lenders. 28 Feb 2008. Seeking Alpha. Online available at http://seekingalpha.com/article/66562-housing-market-tracker-what-will-replace-subprime-lenders
This in turn gives the financial professional better idea of the stock's risk behavior.
The equation used in this security market line relationship is as follows:
Mathis, CAPM, par. 3)
The measure of systematic risk is considered Beta or bi while E[Ri] is equal to the expected return on asset I and Rf is the risk-free rate. E[Rm] is the expected return on the market portfolio and E[Rm] - Rf is the market risk premium for the stock. Once the Beta is known then the risk and rate of return can be found.
APT is different because not only can forecast for the long-term, it can also work for the short-term scenario. This fact makes it the better of the two theories because it gives the financial professional more tools to assess risk and the rate of return. APT does this by using a model that captures all the data.…
Anonymous. "Risk and Return." The Economist (1991): 1-2.
APT: Risk Models and Portfolio Analytics. 22 Dec 2004 http://www.apt.com/..
Capital budgeting needs vision." Business Line. Islamabad: Jul 21, 2003. pg. 1.
Johnson and Johnson Financial Summary. Yahoo Finance. 22 Dec. 2004 http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=JNJ&d=t ..
If AIG would not have been helped by the Federal eserve, it is more
than obvious that the financial group would have declared bankruptcy.
Although the bailout reached an enormous sum, the action was justified.
Given the current market conditions, an eventual collapse of AIG would
contribute even more to the fragility of the financial market. Also, it
would have led to a reduction of public wealth, and it would have reduced
The opinion of U.S. taxpayers is that the AIG bailout was not
justified. For them, it did not seem fair that they should pay for the
mistakes made by financial corporations' CEOs and by the defective policies
and strategies practiced by financial groups.
There are two sides to this issue, one opposing the other. U.S.
citizens have strongly declared themselves against the bailout. Their
pressure determined the country's officials to reject financial saving
1. Chronology: Financial Crisis Spreads from U.S. to World
Markets (2008). Deutsche Welle. Retrieved November 7, 2008
2. Subprime mortgage crisis (2008). Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia. Retrieved November 7, 2008 from
3. DiMartino, D. & Duca, J. V. (2007). The Rise and Fall of
"Forecasts by Moody's Economy.com now use a 20 percent drop in median
existing-home prices from their 2005 peak as a baseline, with prices
weakening through at least mid-2009" (Shinkle, 2008, p. 44). Moody's
director of housing economics Celia Chen, states in the same report that
the 20% decline is the good news and that the bad news is that it could
easily be more than that. The worst-case scenario is a lot more than that.
"You want the darkest? Forty percent, she says. There's your apocalypse"
(Shinkle, p. 45).
Websites that track foreclosures indicate that "the US-wide total of
loans foreclosing was running at 2.5 million in 2007, up by 70% from about
1.5 million in 2006" (Dumas, 2008, p. 23). The problem is that the teaser
rates that were initially set in 2006 will reach their peak in 2008,
ultimately affecting another approximate 1.5 million mortgages, with
Aldrich, P.; (2008) UK banks preparing to access BoE's emergency liquidity
scheme, Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group Limited 2008, accessed May
18, 2008 at
Altfest, L.J.; (2008) What the subprime mess means to you, Medical
Economics, Vol 85, No. 2, p. 24
Predatory lenders look to stretch the debt-to-income ratio to a point where, it is not considered responsible lending (Smith 3). Another example of predatory practice is attaching a balloon payment to the loan. Balloon payments are typically seen in prime paperwork used when the borrower is upwardly mobile in their profession. Meaning simply, they will be making more money in the future and able to pay a large compounded payment years from origination. A balloon payment helps maximize the amount borrowed for a higher end property.
Another practice made by these lenders is to put the borrower under distress or fear of non-approval if they sop around but also to present different facts during the home-buying process and then show up at the Closing with different paperwork than discussed prior. Smith argues, "in a study of 255 very high-cost loans in Dayton, Ohio, 75% were found to have prepayment penalties…
Aaron, Ailis. "Study: Predatory Loan Terms Increase Risk of Subprime Mortgage Foreclosure by Up to Half." PR Newswire (Jan. 25, 2005).
ACORN Study Documents Problem of Predatory Lending and Financial Apartheid." U.S. Newswire (Nov. 2, 2000).
America's Homeownership Challenge. 23 Feb. 2005 http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/homeownership/homeownership-policy-book-ch2.html#challenge
Background on U.S. Homeownership. 23 Feb. 2005 http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/homeownership/homeownership-policy-book-background.html#goodfor
PESONAL & OGANIZATIONAL ETHICS
Personal and Organizational Ethics Values for, for-Profit and Non-Profit Organizations
Ethics is a requirement of the society to both individuals and organizations. Ethics are applied to business and personal behaviors, and are used to determine how companies and individuals abide to policies. To indicate the application of ethical principles in organizations, an analysis is carried out of For-Profit and Non-For-Profit organizations, in this case Bank of America and Boys Club of America. This is by analyzing an ethical dilemma they are experiencing, their approach to the problem, and the legal, political, and social outcomes emerging from this cause of action.
The Boys Clubs of America is a non-for-profit organization founded in 1860s in Harford, Connecticut Formed with the aim of giving boys who roamed the streets a positive alternative. The club has undergone major changes beginning in 191 when several boys' clubs affiliated to…
Anonymous. (2009, Dec 16). Boys & Girls Clubs of America, Lowe's Announces $1 Million
Bach, R. (2010, March). A Letter from our Chairman Emeritus: March 2010. Retrieved from Boys and Girls Club of America: http://www.bgca.org/chairman/Pages/MarchLetterfromOurChairman.aspx
Bank of America. (2013). Retrieved March 21, 2013, from Bank of America: http://message.bankofamerica.com/heritage/#/ourheritage
BCOA. (2011). Boys of America. Retrieved from Boys of America: http://www.bgca.org/Pages/index.aspx .
real or hypothetical situation?
The context of the report is based on the real world implications of the financial crisis on the banking industry and society as a whole. The report details the need for reform within the sector overall. Particular emphasis is placed on Bank of America, as it was a large component of the subprime-lending crisis.
Why did you choose this topic, and does it relate to you in any way?
I chose this topic because it has impacted both society and the world at large. Nearly $1 trillion in asset values were erased in 1 year due to the financial crisis. People were foreclosed on and subsequently lost their homes. Taxpayers were forced to pay large sums of money to bailout a corrupt and greedy system. This topic not only resonates with me personally, but with the entire developed world. We nearly were on the brink of…
1. Edward Gramlich (2004). "Subprime Mortgage Lending: Benefits, Costs, and Challenges." Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
2. Eichengreen and Hausmann (2005), Other People's Money: Debt Denomination and Financial Instability in Emerging Market Economies. Pg 6-15
3. Peter Coy (2007). "Why Subprime Lenders Are In Trouble." Business Week
4. Pitt, Harvey L. (2005). "Conflict of Interest Lessons From Financial Services." Compliance Week.pg 2-5
This report is an analysis of the American Express company.
Founder, date incorporated -- "Established in 1850 in New York, American Express Company was among the first and most successful express delivery businesses to arise during the rapid westward expansion of the United States." (American Express)
Initial source of Capital -- "Although in its early years American Express was not itself a financial services company, its largest and most consistent clients were banks. Delivering the banks' typically small parcels -- stock certificates, notes, currency and other financial instruments -- was considerably more profitable than transporting larger freight. Soon the company would scale down its parcel and freight delivery business in favor of creating and selling its own financial products." (American Express)
Key innovations -- "In 1882, American Express launched the money order business, which proved an almost instant success. The company introduced the world's first traveler's…
6-Month Forecasts. Ed. financial forecaster. neatidea.com. Retrieved on 12/17/2004, from .
American Express. History. American Express. Retrieved on 12/17/2004, from .
Yahoo Finance. American Express. Retrieved on 12/17/2004, from Yahoo Finance at .
I believe the market is simply too small for continued growth to occur.
In regards to Surrey British Columbia, I also believe it to be a viable option for FedEx, but not to the extent of Miami. For one, Surrey has a population of 394,976 people which makes it the provinces second most populous city (5). The economy is fast growing and has a significant upside potential. Because of this fact, I believe Surrey to be a better option than St. Johns. Industries that are growing quickly are Clean Energy, Finance, eal estate, High Technology, Advanced Manufacturing, Health, and Education (6). I believe the sectors of interest for FedEx are manufacturing, real estate and technology as they can either provide business possibilities or opportunities for joint ventures. Unlike the other two locations however, FedEx may want to defer entry into this market until the technologies actually come to fruition. This…
1) "Population by Age and Sex." Web. 02 Aug. 2011. .
2) "Detailed Highest Level of Schooling by Sex and Age Group." Economics and Statistics Branch (Newfoundland & Labrador Statistics Agency), 2001. Web. 02 Aug. 2011. .
3) "Canada Census." Web. 03 Aug. 2011. .
4) "Newfoundland." Web. 03 Aug. 2011. .
business section a newspaper a business magazine organizations change. For articles answer questions: 1. For article, rationale presented change? hich external internal pressures considered chapter referred ? Are additional pressures specifically considered chapter? (hint: Tables 3.
Change rationales: A comparison of recent cases
In the article, "Operating profit surges as Bank of America slims down," the fortunes of one of the largest banks in the world is reported to have recovered after the negative impact of the 2008 mortgage crisis through effective change management in the form of organizational cost-cutting. BoA has "slashed staff, combined business units and dialed back its massive mortgage business. These steps helped the bank post $3.6 billion in operating profit during the first three months of the year -- a 40% surge -- even as revenue fell 2.5%" (Reckard 2012). BoA has been subject to a great deal of negative press in recent years, based…
Hsu, Tiffany. "Starbucks to drop beetle juice from the menu." LA Times. 20 Apr 2012. [20 April
2012]. Retrieved: http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-starbucks-bug-color-20120420,0,6268561.story
Hirsch, Jerry. "In reversal, Ford brags it has smallest engines in the industry." LA Times. 19 Apr
2012. [20 April 2012]. Retrieved: http://www.latimes.com/business/money/la-fi-mo-ford-ecoboost-20120418,0,5046327.story
This is a short review of literature that discusses the subprime mortgage crisis which many believe had a significant impact on the financial crisis that began in 2008. The discussion will range from how the crisis started and what the banks knew might happen because of faulty legislation and greedy lenders prior to the crash, to how the crash has impacted families and how some entities have tried to mitigate it with little success.
The financial crisis that began in earnest in 2008 followed many decisions which, in retrospect, were not wise. Legislation can be traced back to the 1960s that began allowing lending companies (banks) and hedge funds to buy large numbers of mortgages and leverage them as if they were real assets (Block-Lieb & Janger, 2011). Other laws followed such as the Community einvestment Act first passed in 1977 and amended with much stronger language in 1995…
Block-Lieb, S., & Janger, E.J. (2011). Reforming regulation in the markets for home loans. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 38(3), 681-699.
Canner, G.B., & Passmore, W. (1995). Home purchase lending in low-income neighborhoods and to low-income borrowers. Federal Reserve Bulletin, 81(2), 71-78.
Miller, M. (2009). Stemming the subprime crisis: The North Carolina foreclosure prevention project. Stanford Law & Policy Review, 20(1), 213-231.
Peterson, J.R. (2005). Fannie fallout: The ongoing scrutiny of Fannie Mae will affect you. The effects could be a plus for some mortgage lenders, but hedging will require more careful attention. ABA Banking Journal, 97(4), 34-53.
redit Analysis Smehra
redit Analysis for Neal Harris
Neal Harris recently submitted his credit application for our consideration. Mr. Harris is 45 years old, married and has 2 children. He currently works at Franklin Industries where he has been employed as office manager for 2 years. Prior to that, he was in sales at Providencial Insurance for 3 years. Neal has resided at his current residence in Tennessee for 1 year.
His credit application has been filed in joint with his wife, Helen Harris, 43 years old. Helen has recently returned to the workforce from being a housewife. She is also employed by Franklin Industries where she has been marketing director for 4 months. Both individuals have a checking and savings account with AmSouth. The purpose of their loan is for a 2003 hevrolet Tahoe. Following is a review of the 5 's of redit for Mr. And Mrs. Harris…
After reviewing the joint credit application for Mr. And Mrs. Harris, I have drawn the conclusion that they should be granted the loan under the terms listed. These are for a loan of $24,000, repayable over 48 months at 4%, minimum monthly payment of $540. While Neal Harris has on record a Chapter 7 file in January, 2001, review of their assets and liabilities reveals that they are suitable candidates for this loan. They also demonstrate timely repayments to their current obligations which include a mortgage with Countrywide, an auto payment with Nissan, and 4 credit cards, one of which is currently at a 0 balance.
The couple is also within the 20% average for credit capacity- net income, and have also demonstrated that they will be able to take on the extra expenditure through this loan through their supplementary income listed. I recommend that AmSouth give Mr. And Mrs. Harris their requested loan under the conditions mentioned.
blow the whistle" on what you heard in the garden? If so, how will you blow the whistle? If you decide to blow the whistle, what are your reasons for doing so? Your discussion should reflect knowledge of what Boatright says about issues, problems and justifications for whistle-blowing. Also, in discussing the answers to these questions you should include the following: 1) you should evaluate real and potential conflicts of interests that confront you in your decision 2) you should explain how your reasoning is consistent or inconsistent with the three following moral theories: Kantian moral theory, utilitarian moral theory and virtue theory.
Our MBA is not really aware of what is going on; all he has is assumptions, guesses. He has no actual proof. In the first case, he has had suspicions of several transactions -- their accounting practices seem suspect - and he has pointed out…
"Behind the Enron Scandal - Multiple Articles." TIME 2002. 27 Apr. 2006 .
"BBC NEWS | Business | Enron Scandal At-a-Glance." BBC News. 22 Aug. 2002. The BBC. 27 Apr. 2006 .
"Enron Scandal - Information on Enron." Securities Fraud Fyi. 2003. 27 Apr. 2006 .
Hays, Kristin. "Prosecutor Questions Lay At Enron Trial." Business Week 27 Apr. 2006. 27 Apr. 2006
Ethical esponsibility of Corporate America
Many organizations strive to increase their profit margins by doing everything possible (including unethical practices) to increase their revenues. Nevertheless, the past three decades have seen some organizations embracing CS (Corporate Social responsibility). This idea has become significantly important to almost every organization that seeks to increase revenues. Corporate social responsibility is also referred to as community responsibility, stewardship, corporate sustainability, corporate responsibility, accountability and corporate ethics among others. In essence, CS enable organizations to bring in people and the environment into their decisions, strategies and plans (Anyango Ooko, 2014).
In this paper, the use of the term corporate social responsibility will mean a set of actions by enterprises that are geared towards meeting the legal, ethical, economic, and discretional responsibilities that the stakeholders expect them to fulfill. They should undertake the economic obligations of producing profits, and meeting the consumption requirements of the people;…
AnyangoOoko, G. (2014). The environmental factors that influence implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in an organization. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(12): 95-102.
Castka, P., Bamber, C., Sharp, J. (2005). Implementing Effective Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance: A Framework. UK: British Standards Institution.
Daft, R. L., & Marcic, D. (2006). Understanding management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western.
Pearce, J., Doh, J. (2005). The high impact of collaborative social initiatives. MIT Sloan Management Review, 46(3): 30-38.
Many subprime mortgages were made with little documentation of income or ability to repay, or other elements that typically safeguard loans of all types and mortgages especially. There have even been cases of widespread fraud, where documents were falsified in order to approve loans. The reason many lenders were so eager to make these bad loans is that they weren't ultimately going to be responsible for them -- the loans were bundled into groups and sold as "mortgage backed securities," so instead of dealing with many individual loans worth an average of a few hundred thousand dollars, banks and other institutions were dealing with bundled groups of these bad loans worth millions of dollars apiece. Companies like AIG made money in the short-term by providing insurance policies for these mortgage backed securities, as well. Eventually, however, people with loans they couldn't really afford began to default, either because they simply…
Big to Fail
The phrase "too big to fail" is a term used to describe certain institutions that are so large, interconnected and significant to the American economy that their failure would be disastrous. Because of this perception American public policy has evolved into government support for these institutions when their frequently poor management, greed, and risk-taking behaviors put them in jeopardy.
A partial list includes: Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, AIG, General Motors, Bank of America, Citigroup, JPMorgan Chase, Wells Fargo, GMAC, Chrysler, Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, Bank of America subsidiaries (Countrywide), U.S. Bancorp, Capital One, Regions and SunTrust.
The issue of taxpayer funded bailouts for institutions deemed too big to fail is one of the most controversial subjects that can be brought up. Bailouts for U.S. automakers like GM and Chrysler can at least be credited with saving jobs of U.S. employees. By preventing massive layoffs, bailing out these…
organizations can adhere to simple frameworks structured with a purpose of attaining continuous improvement in its operations or its supply chain. These structured approaches aid and facilitate different aspects such as decision-making, problem solving, as also process enhancement. This paper discusses the existing interrelations between organizations that utilize structured frameworks for improvement together with their operational performance through case studies
General Motors Company
General Motors Company is a multinational company involved in designing, manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of vehicles, vehicular parts, and accessories. The headquarters of the company is situated in Detroit, Michigan. The company founded in the year 1908, is 108 years old today. It is centered in the automotive industry and is one of the major renowned companies in more than thirty nations and operating with about thirteen brands. The business units of General Motors include General Motors Financial, General Motors International Operations, General Motors North America, General…
Burden, M. (2015). GM's new problem-solving focus reaps savings. The Detroit News. Retrieved 27 June 2016 from: http://www.detroitnews.com/story/business/autos/general-motors/2015/09/06/gm-savings/71829946/
Ford Motor Company. (2016). Ford Future Competitiveness. Retrieved 27 June 2016 from:http://corporate.ford.com/microsites/sustainability-report-2013-14/financial-competitiveness.html
Ford Motor Company. (2016). History. Retrieved 27 June 2016 from:http://corporate.ford.com/company/history.html
General Motors. (2016). History and Heritage. Retrieved 27 June 2016 from: http://www.gm.com/company/history-and-heritage.html
Wal-Mart Inc.: Operations Strategy Matrix
Operations Strategy Matrix: Wal-Mart Inc.
Wal-Mart is the world's largest retailer. It commits itself to providing everyday low prices to consumers to enable them live better. Its decisions center largely around the provision of commodities at low prices when customers need them. This text examines Wal-Mart's operational strategy and proposes a number of decisions that it could take to improve its standing in the retail market.
Wal-Mart Inc.: Operations Strategy Matrix
Wal-Mart is an American-based multinational corporation, operating a chain of retail stores in the UK and in 25 other countries. Founded in 1962, the company grew from a small general store into the world's largest retailer, with over 65 different banners. In the UK, the company operates under the name 'Asda', and runs over 70 stores dealing in general merchandise including clothing, apparel, foodstuffs, groceries and stationary. I had the opportunity to work as…
Barnett, W., 1998. Four Steps to Forecast Total Market Demand. Harvard Business Review. Accessed at https://hbr.org/1988/07/four-steps-to-forecast-total-market-demand
Johnson, P. F.,2006. Supply Chain Management at Wal-Mart. Ivey Business School. Accessed at https://profesores.ing.unab.cl/~gbadillo/archivos/cursos/management-information-systems/Case%20study%20/Wal-Mart%20Supply%20Chain.pdf
Kosasi, S. and Saragih, H., 2014. How RFID Technology Boosts Wal-Mart's Supply Chain Management. International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management, 24(1), pp. 29-37.
Thomas, K.,2010. Walmart SWOT Analysis. Scribd. Accessed at http://zh.scribd.com/doc/58504843/Walmart
ethical issues have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a variety of challenges are impacting the way executives and employees are behaving inside the workplace. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than Tyco. What happened is Dennis Kozlowski was the CEO of the company from the early 1990s until 2002. This is when a wide scale fraud was reported, as he used the company's funds to live a lavish lifestyle. (Hitt, 2009)
To help support the fraud he encouraged some of his closet executives to participate in covering up these issues. At the same time, he had a seat on the board of directors and was effective at preventing them from independently investigating these events. This helped him to live a celebrity lifestyle by showing to the world how he was new generation of CEOs. They were focused on creating large…
Wall Street's Role. (2008). PBS News Hour. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec08/econtrouble_08-20.html
Barr, A. (2007). Subprime Crisis. Market Watch. Retrieved from: http://articles.marketwatch.com/2007-04-10/finance/30757552_1_mortgage-brokers-broker-home-loans-harry-dinham
Bryce, R. (2004). Pipe Dreams. New York, NY: Public Affairs.
Goodwin, W. (2010). Previous BP Accidents. NPR. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=126564739&ft=1&f=2&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+NprProgramsATC+%28NPR+Programs%3A+All+Things+Considered%29
The Bank CEO's ole in Defining Ethical Integrity
Based on a thorough review of existing literature of the role of ethics in the banking industry, the role of the CEO as the ethical leader of their organization is next discussion. Based on the concepts presented in the paper to this point as the foundation, these key points provide insights into how CEOs and senior management actively shape the ethical standards of the organizations they manage on behalf of shareholders.
isk Management Is a CEOs' Ethical esponsibility combination of forces -- changing regulatory expectations that open companies up to intense levels of examination, heightened stakeholder sensitivity to and scrutiny of corporate behavior, and the severity of punishment by financial markets for corporate missteps -- push reputation and ethics management onto the CEOs' and senior managements' agenda. The paradox CEOs face is when to risk the reputation and brand of the company…
John Bond (2007). A safety culture with justice: A way to improve financial performance. Loss Prevention Bulletin,(196), 31-39. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1333256011).
Donald R. Cassling (2008). Poehl v. Countrywide Home Loans, Inc. The Banking Law Journal, 125(9), 865. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1571291211).
Chris Churchill (2007). State targets lender ethics: Mortgage brokers must get training, undergo criminal checks starting next year. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Dateline database. (Document ID: 1335614991).
Greenberg, J. (1990). Employee theft as a reaction to underpayment inequity: The hidden cost of pay cuts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 561-569.
Crime a Socially Constructed
One's conduct or deeds turn into a crime or an offence via a progression of societal or communal conditioning. The same deed can be regarded as wrong in one community and act of valor in another or in the same community at a different point in time. The lawful status of a deed-whether it is an offense-does not depend on its substance, but on the communal reaction to that deed or to the individual who does it (osenfeld, 2009). Shifts in the lawful status of a particular deed can be due to communal changes or may be part of serious communal differences. The latest debates and confrontations over assisted suicide and abortion policy are two fine examples in the U.S. Lastly, the communal reaction to crime, social science theories on illegal behavior included, is founded on the significance of the deed and also the communal and…
Rosenfeld, R. (2009). The Social Construction of Crime . Available: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0050.xml . Last accessed 9 Mar, 2015.
Henry. (2009). Social Construction of Crime. Available: http://www.sagepub.com/haganintrocrim8e/study/chapter/handbooks/42347_1.2.pdf . Last accessed 9 Mar 2015.
Aircraft Noise Abatement Act of 1968 states, how it is used and the impact it has had on the industry and on those affected. A conclusion is given at the end. A list of works cited is also given.
The Congress has, through legislation, tried to develop a uniform countrywide noise abatement plan that was to be implemented and monitored under one agency - the Federal Aviation Administration FAA). Unfortunately, their efforts were not successful. This is because when the FAA tried to limit federal government liability it failed to implement the function that was envisaged in the federal government legislation Werlich and Krinsky, 1981). Additionally, there have been two factors that must be considered. The first of these is the recent trend in which law courts have made decisions holding airport proprietors liable for the property damages and personal injury caused by aircraft noise. The second is the 'retreat'…
(n.d.). Airport Noise Law. 49 U.S. Code Section 44715. Retrieved July 12, 2015, from http://airportnoiselaw.org/49-44715.html
Garcia, B. (n.d.). Aviation Safety. Aviation Safety: The Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979. Retrieved July 12, 2015, from http://brandigarcia.blogspot.com/2010/05/aviation-safety-and-noise-abatement-act.html
Werlich, J., & Krinsky, R. (1981). The Aviation Noise Abatement Controversy: Magnificent Laws, Noisy Machines, and the Legal Liability Shuffle. Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://digitalcommons.lmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1391&context=llr
healthcare policy, using a Congressional bill introduced into the American parliament in its present legislative session.
Paul aeburn was faced with hardly any good alternatives when he required immediate assistance with his suicidal teenaged son, who threatened to lie in wait for a train on the nearby railway tracks. Despite aeburn, one of the top science and health writers in the American society, being more capable of locating the best mental health professionals and therapy options in the country for aiding his son compared to most other people, only one option came to mind when hit by this crisis -- seeking the police's help and risking the imprisonment, rather than hospitalization, of his son (Szalavitz, 2012). Though it is unclear whether mental ailments (alone or combined with any developmental disorder) had any part to play in the shocking Newtown shooting incident, the tragedy has sparked an important discussion…
(n.d.). Congress.gov -- Library of Congress. H.R.2646-114th Congress (2015-2016): Helping Families in Mental Health Crisis Act of 2015 -- Congress.gov -- Library of Congress. Retrieved February 19, 2016, from http://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/house-bill/2646
(2010, October 18). HRSA. Many children not receiving needed mental health services, study finds. Retrieved February 18, 2016, from http://www.hrsa.gov/about/news/pressreleases/2010/101018childmentalhealth
Jacques, M. (2015, June 30). World's Largest Professional Network -- LinkedIn. PRA Statement. Retrieved February 19, 2016, from http://www.linkedin.com/pulse/pra-statement-helping-families-mental-health-crisis-act-marc-jacques
Parens, & Johnston. (n.d.). The Hastings Center - Bioethics and Public Policy. Mental Health in Children and Adolescents - The Hastings Center. Retrieved February 18, 2016, from http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Publications/BriefingBook/Detail.aspx?id=2188
NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (reneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).
The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JL Associates (2004).
Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He…
Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.
Apling, R. (1993). Proprietary schools and their students. Journal of Higher Education 64:4, pp. 379-416.
Barone, T.E. (1992). Beyond theory and method: A case of critical storytelling. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 142-146.
Economic crash can be viewed from a number of perspectives ranging from causes and effects to the 2008 Crash's resemblance to the Crash of 1929, which began the Great Depression. This paper will consider the 2008 recession from the standpoint of the financial banking industry, which, according to economic journalists like Matt Taibbi (2010), played a major and significant role in the crumbling of the nation's economy -- just like it did in the Lawless Decade also known as the oaring Twenties.
Big Banking Meets Big Government
What has now become known as the Era of De-egulation actually had its beginnings in the 80s decade known just as much for its rampant excess as the early 20s were known for their unbridled lawlessness. Yet, while the latter enjoyed the snubs-to-the-law bootlegging speakeasies, the former enjoyed the merging of the financial sector with the political -- which began during eagan's tenure…
AP/HuffPost. (2011). Charles Ferguson's Oscar Speech Rips Wall Street: 'Inside Job'
Director Levels Criticism During Acceptance. HuffPost Business. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/28/charles-ferguson-oscar-speech-inside-job_n_828963.html
Sann, P. (n.d.). The Lawless Decade: A Pictorial History of the Roaring Twenties.
Retrieved from http://lawlessdecade.net/
prohibitively rising cost of housing in Rhode Island has affected both the nuclear and extended family. Rising housing costs may force family members to move to less expensive areas, causing a breakdown in both extended and nuclear family structure. However, this may be balanced by the increased tendency of young adults, who cannot afford the high housing costs in Rhode Island, to live at home.
Certainly, data outlined below indicate that the housing crisis in Rhode Island is very real and immediate. Individuals across Rhode Island society are beginning to feel the constraints of the difficult housing market, and low-income individuals are feeling the greatest strain.
Given that federal and private agencies are unable to keep up with the increasing demand for housing assistance for low-income residents, the housing crisis will only continue to grow. As a result, the pressures of the nuclear and extended family are not expected to…
Arditi, Lynn. House prices in R.I. soar in 2nd quarter. Low mortgage rates and a sluggish stock market promote heavy interest in real estate.
07/30/2002. The Providence Journal (projo.com). 30 October 2002. http://www.projo.com/news/content/projo_20020730_rhouse30.24270.html
Economic Research Service. County-level population data for Rhode Island. 30 October 2002. http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/Population/PopList.asp?ST=RI&LongName=Rhode%20Island
Economic Research Service. Rhode Island State Fact Sheet from USDA/ERS. 30 October 2002. http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/RI.htm
Hyundaicard's Marketing Strategy: Case Study
rite a full case analysis: HyundaiCard's Marketing Strategy
Hyundaicard's marketing strategy
General overview of Hyundaicard
Current marketing strategy assessment
Assessment of the strategic alternatives
Qualitative ranking of alternatives
Market share of credit card companies
Preference of payment
Hyundaicard financial statements
This essay is a case study for Hyundaicard marketing strategy. Hyundaicard is a company situated in Korea's credit card industry. It forms the basis of the case study because of its' unique experience with marketing, since it was a late comer in the very competitive market it had to employ various marketing strategies in order to shift from being a market follower to being a market leader.
This study will first of all identify some key issues or aspects of the company after which it will conduct an evaluation and assessment of the company's internal and…
Pujari, D., Peattie, K. & Wright, G. (2004), Organizational Antecedents of Environmental Responsiveness in Industrial New Product Development, Industrial Marketing Management, 33 (5), July, pp 381-391
Johansson, G. (2002). Success Factors for the Integration of Eco-Design in Product Development: A Review of State of the Art. Environmental Management and Health, 13(1), pp. 98-108.
Cramer, J. (2000), Responsiveness of Industry to Eco-Efficiency Improvements in the Product Chain: The Case of Akzo Nobel. Business Strategy and the Environment, 9(1), pp, 36- 48
Crane, A. (2001). Unpacking the Ethical Product, Journal of Business Ethics, 30(4), pp. 361- 373
The significance of exact transport actions and infrastructure can therefore be assessed for each division of the economy (odrigue, 2011).
Transportation connects together the aspects of production in a multifaceted web of associations between producers and consumers. The result is usually a more competent division of production by a utilization of geographical relative advantages, as well as the means to develop financial systems of degree and range. The output of space, capital and labor is consequently improved with the competence of distribution and personal mobility. It is accepted that economic growth is more and more connected with transport expansions, namely infrastructures but in addition managerial knowledge is crucial for logistics (odrigue, 2011).
Transportation growths that have taken place since the beginning of the industrial revolution have been associated with mounting economic opportunities. At each phase of human societal development, a meticulous transport mode has been developed or modified. On the…
Aboard Transportation. (2006).Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site:
Chavis, Jason. (2011). Different Types of Air Transportation. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site: http://www.ehow.com/about_4813389_different-types-air-transportation.html
Importance of Transportation to Society. (2009). Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site:
Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth." (Derrity, 1).
That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper. America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.
But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW of RELATED LITERATURE
History of Affirmative Action review of the history associated with affirmative action is the first step to…
Gratz v Bollinger, No. 02-516, U.S. Supreme Court. (2003)
Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306. (2003)
Fordyce v Seattle, 55 F. 3d 436.
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…
Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].
Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm [Accessed 24 August 2012].
Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=36 [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Fortress Finance was incorporated in March 2012 and since then, it has been involved in the business of offering short-term loans to salaried middle-class clients in the state of New York where it maintains active presence.
The company targets the New York's salaried middle-class. The Council of the City of New York, in its 2013 Report on the State of the City's Middle Class, defines the middle class as "households with incomes between 100% and 300% of median income." As of 2013, the state's middle-class working age adults totaled almost 2 million.
According to the Council of the City of New York, the middle-class was worst hit by the 2008-2009 recession. It should also be noted that in the council's own admission, New York is "one of the most expensive places to live in the country." To make matter worse, housing costs have been…
Stategic Planning fo Maket Enty
Baies to Enty
Maket Enty Stategy Selection
Agents, Distibutos and Tading Houses Agents
Distibution and Sales Channels
Stategic Alliances, Licensing and Fanchising
Foeign Diect Investment
Finding the Right Patne
Negotiating a Patneship Ageement
The Ageement Checklist
Have the salient points of the ageement been ageed upon in pinciple?
Paticipants and thei Roles
Section 10: Managing Intenational Business Opeations
In this wok, the case study of Tesla Motos has been taken as an example to undestand the stategies of intenational businesses with paticula attention to Gemany. The wok begins with exploation of stategies pevasive in intenational makets with close attention to enty issues. The vaious foms of foeign investments and business like Geenfield, acquisitions, meges, and Joint Ventues…
Alon, I. (2012). Global franchising operations management: cases in international and emerging markets operations. Upper Saddle River, N.J, Financial Times.
Aswathappa, K. (2010). International business. New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill Education.
Baron, R.A., & Shane, S.A. (2008). Entrepreneurship: a process perspective. Mason (OH), Thomson/South-Western.
Benjamin Levi, K.J. (2006). Market entry strategies of foreign Telecom companies in India. Wiesbaden, Dt. Univ.-Verl. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-8350-9453-6 .
In the former approach, tradable goods, money or services are exchanged between buyers and sellers at a rate that is agreeable to all parties. This approach assumes both the buyers and sellers have enough money, services or goods to have their needs met. The latter approach, public provision, is when all is available to those on an as-needed basis.
The Pharmaceutical and Manufacturing Association warns that whenever there is government control of prices it only has a negative impact on those who are in need of being helped: 1) When funding for new medical technology, cures for diseases and research and development are diverted to more lucrative economic areas; 2) Incentives to enter the pharmaceutical industry decline; 3) More restrictions are placed on providers; 4) the quality of medical care suffers and 5) This leads to a rationing of care. Instead, the association says there has to be a healthcare…
Barry, W., and Shaw, V. (2006) Moral Issues in Business. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Donaldson, T., and Werhane, P. (2007) Ethical issues in business: a philosophical approach. Englewood-Heights, NJ: Prentice Hall
DesJardins.(2008) an introduction to business ethics. New York: McGraw Hill.
Friedman, M., & Becker, G. On economics. (2008) Chicago: University of Chicago.
Dishonesty in either could result in disaster for companies. Communication is the element that unites everything else. Employers should encourage employees to communicate either grievances or suggestions. This opportunity will result not only in better mutual understanding, but also in loyalty that arises from being valued as an employee.
4. I certainly would want to do homework on any company I enter for the first time - and particularly one where my predecessor left under a cloud. It could mean many things, which my investigation is obviously meant to reveal. It could mean that the person who left was him- or herself not honest and brought about an unsavory situation. It could also however mean that working conditions became such that the person had no other choice than to leave, even if it meant that unsavory reputations would remain. I would want to thoroughly investigate to determine what the situation…
Greenberg, Josh. (2005, Jan 24). Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges and Solutions. http://ezinearticles.com/?Diversity-in-the-Workplace:-Benefits,-Challenges-and-Solutions&id=11053
Information Guide. (2006). Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. http://www.sarbanes-oxley-101.com/sarbanes-oxley-compliance.htm
Jung, Kim Dae & Wolfensohn, James. (1999, Feb. 26). Economic Growh Requires Good Governance. International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/1999/02/26/edkim.t.php
Adult Day Care Industry
ABC Adult Day Care will be a mid-sized company, which will provide adult day care services to the residents of Boston. This mid-sized adult care facility will serve adults aged fifty years and above. It will provide community-based day health services for the elderly and disabled. Services offered include living assistance, nursing, therapy, meals, and social activities. Their services will be secure and safe, presenting the elderly with an excellent place where their caring services will be met. ABC Adult Day Care will be a privately held organization headed by its founder, Ben Stevenson. Mr. Stevenson has extensive experience in strategic business planning. His advanced knowledge and interest in business are the driving force behind his business. A few employees who have extensive experience in adult care fields will support the daily operations of the facility. With the rising rate of inflation, many American families struggle…
Bryan, C.J., & Rudd, M.D. (2011). Managing suicide risk in primary care. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
Cooper, P.D. (2010). Health care marketing: A foundation for managed quality. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers.
Davis, C. & Lynn, J. (2010). Start your own senior services business: Adult day-care, relocation service, home-care, transportation service, concierge, travel service and more. Irvine, Calif.: Entrepreneur Press.
Fitzpatrick, J.J., Glasgow, A., & Young, J.N. (2013). Managing your practice: A guide for advanced practice nurses. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
At the same time, optimized care is mandated by the medical code of ethics. If older people are therefore sufficiently able to function independently, access to care should be available to them, because this is their preference, and professionals have an obligation to honor these preferences.
In the medical profession, there are no simple solutions to the discrepancy between the fiscal limitations of health care and the ethical obligations of professionals to their clients. The best ideal is to use specific codes of ethics in order to find an acceptable solution that satisfies both the drive to remain financially viable and the obligation to provide all clients with the optimal care.
As mentioned, above, the dilemma involves Mrs. DN, an elderly woman who suffered from a debilitating stroke that left her in a wheel chair. Because she was generally at home, she had the right to home care according…
Bevir, M. (2002). SidneyWebb: Utilitarianism, Positivism, and Social Democracy. Journal of Modern History, No. 74. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7vm01529.pdf
Bevir, M. And O'Brien, D. (2003, Jan 1). From Idealism to Communitarianism: The Inheritance and Legacy of John Macmurray. History of Political Thought, No. 24. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/95m6q13r.pdf
Carroll, M.J. (2007, Dec). Physical Therapists' Perception of Risk of Violating Laws and Rules Governing the Practice of Physical Therapy and/or Their Personal Moral and Ethical Values when Failing to Provide Treatment for an Uninsured or Underinsured Patient. Graduate College of Bowling Green. Retrieved from http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Carroll%20Mark%20J.pdf-acc_num=bgsu1193091796
De Sousa e Brito, J. (2008, Aug 8). From Utilitarianism To Kantism: Bentham's Proof of Utilitarianism, Mill and Kant. ISUS X, Tenth Conference of the International Society for Utilitarian Studies. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4zn812s7.pdf
UCC and NSF Checks
UCC and the Returned Check little wonton money, which burned out the bottom of his purse.
Sir Thomas More (1478-1535), Works
If one thing is sure in this financial world of ours, writing a check sure to bounce is a very bad thing. part from the messy ideas of morality and the duties of the upstanding citizen, it is a dangerous business, indeed, should one indulge in the practice either, willfully, or even mistakenly, yet with noticeable frequency.
In all states, knowingly writing a check with insufficient funds, or, in bank terminology, an NSF check, is a crime. Indeed, over 450 million so called "bounced checks" are written every year (in fact, some check recovery agencies put the number at closer to 700 million), and are the bane of commercial traders and service providers. For this reason, district attorneys countrywide are ready and able…
A www.lectlaw.com/def4/u021.htm. http://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/3/3-104.html
Sustainable Distibution fo Essential Medicines in Emeging Makets
Business Case Backgound
The Sustainable challenge
Cuent distibution climate of Cue Phamaceutical
The gowing impotance of the emeging makets
Baies to gowth
Pocuement and Distibution
Challenge to oveall sustainability in phamaceutical companies
Patneships utilized in emeging makets and essential medicine distibution
Suggestions of patneships effective in essential medicine distibution
Data gatheing in essential medicine distibution
Sustainable distibution fo essential medicines in emeging makets
Business Case Backgound
This epot addesses the ole phamaceuticals play in emeging makets. Many people have associated these makets as havens fo explosive futue gowth, but thee ae also seious challenges to be faced. The epot will discuss what views investos, stakeholdes, and company executives hold on emeging makets. Thee ae thee pobable significant factos that may sway thei stance. Fist, the efoms ecently made by the govenment egading phamaceuticals and the obligations of multinationals esulting fom the efoms.…
(Multi-Stakeholder Toolkit, n.d), A Toolkit for Improved Understanding and Transparency of Drug Shortage Response in Canada 2013
Banks, M.A., & Persily, G.L. (2010). Campus perspective on the National Institutes of Health public access policy: University of California, San Francisco, library experience. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 98(3), 256 -- 259. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.98.3.015
Bors, C., Christie, A., Gervais, D., & Wright Clayton, E. (2015). Improving Access to Medicines in Low-Income Countries: A Review of Mechanisms. The Journal of World Intellectual Property. 18, 1-28.
Cure Pharmaceutical http://www.curepharmaceutical.com/about.html
The Great ailroad Strike of 1877 was the nations' first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strikes in the country's history. The strikes and the violence it brought about temporarily paralyzed the country's commerce and led governors in ten states to mobilize sixty thousand militia members to reopen rail traffic. The strike would be broken within a few weeks, but it also helped set the stage for later violence in the 1880's and 1890's, including the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago in 1886, the Homestead Steel Strike near Pittsburgh in 1892, and the Pullman Strike in 1894 (1877: The Great ailroad Strike, 2006).
There have been many protests in American history against corporations, industrialists, bankers, Wall Street and the economic devastation their unregulated activities including the 19th-century labor movement that featured thousands of strikes and protests. The current protest that can be compared to that of the Great…
1877: The Great Railroad Strike. (2006). Retrieved from http://libcom.org/history/articles/us -rail-strikes-1877
Hogarty, R.A. (2001). Leon Abbett's New Jersey: the emergence of the modern governor.
Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society.
Mullen, S. (2011). The Strikes of 1877 & 1886: Historic Precedents For Occupy Wall Street.
They have been committed to the development of what they deem to be Consciousness Cosmetics for more than a decade. Entry into the Portuguese market offers certain benefits, such as the Portuguese people's commitment to high moral standards, which would be conducive to cruelty-free, environmentally responsible products such as Alba Organics. However, there are risks as well that need to be taken into consideration.
The Portuguese market is small and growing at only a nominal rate, in comparison to other EU countries. The population is still primarily located in rural areas. Although the euro is quite stable currently, that could change, affecting Alba's profitability. and, there are three primary, well-established competitors that control the majority of the market share currently, with large financial backing that could out compete Alba.
About us. (2005). etrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.avalonorganics.com/?title=About+Us.
Alba: FAQs. (2005). etrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.albaorganics.com/index.php?title=FAQ%27s.
About us. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.avalonorganics.com/?title=About+Us .
Alba: FAQs. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.albaorganics.com/index.php?title=FAQ%27s.
Carioca, M., Diniz, R., Pietracci, B. (2004). Making Portugal competitive. McKinsey Quarterly, (3). Retrieved July 11, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.
Consciousness in cosmetics. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.avalonorganics.com/index.php?title=Consciousness+in+Cosmetics .
Ngo Dinh Diem
orn in the year 1901 to an aristocratic family, Ngo Dinh Diem rose to become the Prime Minister of South Vietnam in the year 1954. This paper looks in detail at the events during the life of Ngo Dinh Diem, his era of governance and the events that took place in the aftermath of his assassination. Catholic missionaries converted his predecessors into Christianity several years back in the 17th century. Much like his pervious family generations, he too was educated in French Catholic schools. Following his successful graduation he was trained as an administrator who worked in conjunction with the French authorities based in Vietnam. At a very young age of twenty-five, he became a provincial governor. This was his foray into a long political career, which marked dramatic incidents both in his personal life and the history of Vietnam.
At a time when communism was rising…
Diem, Ngo Diem' Retrieved at http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/bios/29.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Ngo Dinh Diem - Encarta: An Encyclopedia Article' Retrieved at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761576219/Ngo_Dinh_Diem.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Colby's Vietnam: History Misrepresented' Retrieved at http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54/099.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Letter to John F. Kennedy' Retrieved at http://pages.xtn.net/~wingman/docs/lettdiem.htm Accessed on April 5, 2004
Capital punishment: Is it a deterrent to Cop Killings?
Capital punishment is the imposition of death penalty on persons condemned of a crime. (Americana, 596) Killing condemned criminals has been one of the most extensively practiced types of criminal punishment in the United States. Capital punishment has been enforced as a punishment for brutal offenses from the initial stages of documented history. The first evidence of death penalty in the United States dates back to the colonial period in 1608 in Jamestown. Possibly there do is no existence of any public policy matter connected to management of crime which has been explored and evaluated so long as the death penalty; in much diverse means than the death penalty; or in higher degree than the death penalty.
Expressed in an easy manner, the predicament is this: no crime control concern known by us more about than the death penalty and also…
Against Capital Punishment: A Summary of Arguments Presented at a Meeting of the Men's International Theosophical League of Humanity: March 31, 1914" (April/May 1998) Sunrise magazine, Theosophical University Press
Andrews, Chris. "Death penalty gets new push" (February 19, 2004)
Retrieved at http://www.lsj.com/news/local/020419_deathpenalty_1a-4adtxt.html . Accessed on 19 May, 2004
Bedau, Hugo Adam. (1988) "Recidivism, Parole, and Deterrence," in Bedau, (ed) "Death Penalty in America" Chicago University Press. p.308
Superintendents must deal with student populations that change yearly as school choice options alter. These alterations will influence schools that have to present school choice, and schools that do not get Title 1 funds. The child who uses school choice does not have to attend another Title 1 school. They may decide to go to a school that does not get Title 1 funding (Whitney, 2011).
Evaluation of the Effect and Effectiveness of NCLB
Holding schools and school districts responsible for the level of education that they supply is the chief principle of the No Child Left Behind Act. The key to the Act's approach is the make use of measurement tools like standardized tests to be given on a regular schedule, the utilization of benchmarks, and a scheme of encouragements and punishments linked to the generation of higher test scores. On some accounts, the outcomes of this law have…
Cleary, Robert E. (n.d.). The NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT of 2002. Retrieved from http://www.cosmosclub.org/web/journals/2004/cleary.html
Garrett, Rose. (2010). The New NCLB Blueprint: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Retrieved from http://news.change.org/stories/the-new-nclb-blueprint-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
History and Overview of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.bourgeois/overview_of_the_no_child_left_behind_act
Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson, Martinez, Felipe, O'Day, Jennifer, Stecher, Brian, Taylor, James and Cook, Andrea. (2007). State and Local Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
He encourages people to come aboard a train being engineered in "weirdo abandon" by musicians who "dramatized a sense of what it is to be American" (1987, p. 10). Christgau, another writer who sees the correlation between this music and the greater society in which it occurred, adds: "rock criticism embraced a dream or metaphor of perpetual revolution. . . . Worthwhile bands were supposed to change people's lives, preferably for the better. If they failed to do so, that meant they didn't matter." (2003, p. 140)
ock and roll is recognized much more than by its musical and stylistic differences. It is also utilized in many different ways by its followers. Grossberg (1983) analyzes the way that rock and roll functions in societal transformations. He notices that although rock and roll has a variety of different local effects, it appears to also have a unified historical identity. He says…
Cohen, S. (1993) Ethnography and popular music studies. Popular Music. 12(2), 123-138
Christgau, G. (2003) a History of Rock Criticism, in National Arts Journalism Program: Reporting the Arts II: News Coverage of Arts and Culture in America, Andras Szanto, Daniel S. Levy, and Andrew Tyndall (Eds) New York: NAJP at Columbia University, 140.
Finnegan, R. (1989). The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town Cambridge: Cambridge University
Greil, M. Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n Roll Music (1975) New York: Penguin Group
"Construction -- which was a substantial component of investment -- fell because the housing stock exceeded the demand after 1925. " (Temin 9) Termin goes on to say that
Consumption fell because wages, other income, and capital gains all fell, with the fall in wages having the largest effect. Business investment fell because profits fell and -- to a lesser extent -- because the yield on equities rose. Residential construction fell because the stock of housing four years previously was high. Inventories fell because sales fell. But wages, profits, and sales all fell because consumption and investment fell." (Temin 49)
All of these cascading events could and to some degree are occurring today and the cascading effect will likely result in economic fears and realities, "…under freely-competitive capitalism, periods of boom and overproduction were followed by downturns which 'corrected' prior imbalances via falling prices" (Burkett 60) All of the economic…
Badger, Anthony J. The New Deal: The Depression Years, 1933-1940 New York: Ivan R. Dee, 2002.
Brummer, Alex. "It's Still the Economy, Stupid: Reckless Lending in America Is Giving the World Markets the Jitters. But in Washington, the Big Worry for Presidential Hopefuls Is Who Benefits Most from an Election-Year Recession." New Statesman 5 Nov. 2007: 20.
Burkett, Paul. "Forgetting the Lessons of the Great Depression." Review of Social Economy 52.1 (1994): 60.
Byrne, J. Peter, and Michael Diamond. "Affordable Housing, Land Tenure, and Urban Policy: The Matrix Revealed." Fordham Urban Law Journal 34.2 (2007): 527.
Indeed the Germans, the French, and the rest looked back to an antiquity in which their ancestors had been subjugated by the legions. Nothing is more remarkable therefore than the rapid and irrevocable penetration of Italian ideas and practices among the "barbarians," as the Italian writers referred to them, some of whom were currently invading the peninsula." (Wiener, 124) it's also important to note that influence of antique classicism typical for Italian architecture of the 14-16th centuries is not observed in the north. Classical style of Italian cathedrals and churches, typical for Ancient Greek and oman pagan temples is usually not observed in buildings of enaissance epoch in Germany, Britain or France, where architecture was influenced by Gothic style, which got earlier spread in Europe.
eformation and Counter eformation
The spread of Protestantism over Europe, which is considered to be one of the most historically significant achievements of enaissance and…
Hileman, Tony Living on the Creative Edge of Our Culture available at www.americanhumanist.org/about/messageED1.php
Wiener, Philip P. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas available at http://etext.virginia.edu/DicHist/dict.html
Kohl, Benjamin G., and Witt, Ronald G., eds., the Earthly Republic: Italian Humanists on Government and Society (1978)
While the investors preview at buying stocks, among the various other matters, they concentrate on 'price/earnings ratio'. Simple arithmetic proves that 1.2 billion people existing in China along with an yearly economic rate of growth of around 10% in the coming years, the enhance in the purchasing power will be of a great dimension which has not yet been visualized. In addition to this about 1 billion Indians and also in Southeast Asia of around 500 million people, and they far offset any enhancement in purchasing power of U.S.. This is specifically correct as an increasing middle class emerges which has a purchasing power which is very strong. A stock may indicate a traditional p/e of, about for example 15, however, if we make additions in the growth probabilities from Asian market, a much increased p/e does not seem to be impossible. While p/e is higher than the…
This problem was solved in the following way: the program uuencode which is used by email-clients transforms its binary code (code of bits and bytes) into text code using ASCII table principle and it's send in the form of text character set in the following form (begin file name reports text translated binary body end). The recipient's email-client executes uudecode program and transforms it to binary primary code.
Telnet is a program for computer networks that use TCP/IP, for example Internet. It allows terminal emulation, as it connects user's computer to a networks' server. This program which works in console mode allows to manage the controll over server as if the commands were executed on the server computer initially, as well as it allows to control, communicate and do data exchange with other computers and servers. Telecom uses identification policies as username and password and allows control of web…
Hahn, Harley Hahn Teaches the Internet 2nd ed., Que 2002
Kasser, Barbara Using the Internet, Fourth Edition,
Gralla, Preston How the Internet Works, Fourth Edition, Que. 2001
Entrepreneur-Why investor would give me capital to start a decorating den?
With the spiraling demand for housing, the demand for interior decoration market is also rising in tandem. Concern regarding making the home interiors beautiful and plush is high on the wish list of many home-buyers. Modern and aware customers who view popular channels on TV dedicated to interiors and subscribe to the magazines flooding the market are valuing the quality of interior decorating in an increasing manner than ever before. ising on this demand for interiors among the people is a great opportunity to take up the Franchise offer of Decorating Den. It is an investment in the future compared to other franchise offered in the market and a completely new way of life. (Opportunities in a New Economy - Message from the President)
Convincing the Venture Capitalist for guaranteed profitability:
By taking up the franchise, owners of Interiors…
"A Beautiful Business" Retrieved from http://www.decoratingden.com/Bbusiness.shtml Accessed on 17 February, 2005
"Interior Views: Sample Plan" Retrieved from http://www.paloalto.com/sampleplans/MPP6/enu/Live/InteriorViews-mpp_Live.pdf
Accessed on 17 February, 2005
"Is the Business for you" Retrieved from http://www.decoratingden.com/foryou.shtml Accessed on 17 February 2005
By implementing safety training immediately, Joe will be complying with state laws but also reducing future risk on the job for his team. Also this can reduce his overall risk as the owner and help reduce insurance fees.
The element of change has played a far greater role than expected in the American economy. A shift will continue and not focus so much on corporate America but on smaller, independent firms and also small business owner demographics such as Joe's company. These segments will explode over the next ten years as more employees become disillusioned by American corporate culture. Today's small businessperson carries a greater amount of responsibility on their shoulders but due to recent poor business practices, one cannot help but sense an air of distrust for corporate America. One wants the control of taking care of one's own businesses. The possibilities for these segments are endless due…
Forms of Business Ownership. SBA Online Journal. Retrieved February 20, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www.sba.gov/starting_business/legal/forms.html
Gardner, H. (1995). Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership. New York:
BasicBooks Harper Collins.
Lardy, Susan. (2005). E-Marketing and Strategy within Countrywide Home Loans,
S. What kinds of jobs? What countries?
Starting around in the initial part of 2004, writings started getting published in the mass media opposing that "insourcing" - supposedly shifting jobs from the outside the U.S. into the U.S. is bigger than "outsourcing." This might seem difficult to accept as true, however there is a basis for accepting it as true. (Globalization: the Outsourcing-Insourcing Issue) "In-sourcing" produced a considerable range of comparatively high-skilled responsibilities in engineering, management consulting, banking, and legal services. Normally "in-sourced" jobs pay 16% higher than the national average. (Outsourcing and American Jobs) More than 90% of the in-sourced assignments arrive from the developed nations. Like for some of the American companies it translates into savings in utilizing an extremely learned, under worked personnel in nations like India and China, a lot of foreign companies see benefit in recruiting American workers to accomplishing some functions. They now engage…
Bates, Steve. Survey says most outsourced jobs stay within U.S. HR Magazine. June, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_6_49/ai_n6076889Accessed on 22 April, 2005
Beyond the Border: Do What You Do Best, Outsource the Rest? Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. Issue 6, November/December 2003. Retrieved at http://www.dallasfed.org/research/swe/2003/swe0306c.html . Accessed on 22 April, 2005
Frauenheim, Ed. U.S. firms move it overseas. ZDNet News. December 11, 2002. Retrieved at http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9595_22-976828.html . Accessed on 22 April, 2005
Insourcing' - When Foreign Companies Establish Jobs in the U.S. The North Carolina Example. The News and Observer. February 2, 2004. p: A13; Retrieved at http://www.wcit.org/topics/imports/outsourcing_2-04.htm . Accessed on 22 April, 2005
The FCC has recently authorized novel mergers amid media corporations; adversaries of the novel set of laws are expecting Congress to build no less than a temporary halt for such contracts and set of laws.
The set of laws, which was approved with a veto-proof majority and moved to the Senate, is an effort to kill one of a sequence of novel regulations produced by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) as fraction of a court-ordered reduction of government power over the media. The novel FCC regulation would boost present restrictions and permit media companies to possess an adequate amount of television stations to communicate amid 45% of the America's addressees. One more novel regulation that Congress has decided to turn over is going to permit companies to possess a newspaper, as well as a broadcast station in a huge media marketplace (1).
Relationship and authority between the FCC…
1) A.N. Crigler. The Psychology of Political Communication. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1996.
2) Elfriede Fursich and Eli P. Lester Roushanzamir. Corporate Expansion, Textual Expansion: Commodification Model of Communication. Journal of Communications Inquiry 25.4. October 2001.
3) Edward S. Herman, Z Magazine. Word Tricks & Propaganda. http://zena.secureforum.com/Znet/zmag/zarticle.cfm?Url=articles/june97herman.htm
all Street Bailout -- Part II
all Street Bailout
The government-orchestrated bailout of the banks has been hailed and yet also condemned due to its perceived efficacy or lack thereof. Jeffrey Fuhrer suggested a path that was a lot cheaper and perhaps a lot less encouraging and propagating of the bad habits of banks and government entities that led to the crisis. This alternative, of course, was the individual homeowner bailout. Indeed, bailing out homeowners directly would have cost a mere fraction of what it did indeed cost to bail out Citibank, ells Fargo and the other banks. However, neither solution alone has a clear advantage over the other when looking at all relevant circumstances. hile doing a homeowner bailout would have had its merits, doing just the bank or homeowner bailouts individually probably would not have been as effective as doing them both in concert.
This report will…
While some may view the bank bailouts as encouraging bad behavior, the money had to be and was paid back. Further, letting the banks fail would have imperiled a lot more bank deposits and assets that belonged to homeowners than would have been savable for a scant fifty billion. Indeed, the same bad consumer behavior that helped feed the mortgage monster would similarly feed runs on banks based on perceptions and hysteria. While the economic conditions of 2007 and 2008 were quite bad, they never approach Great Depression levels. On the same note, while unemployment reached roughly ten percent during the Great Recession, it was 2.5 times that during the Great Depression in the 1930's and the United States economy was quite dismal until the ramp-up during World War II (Perry, and Vernengo). However, when one inserts widespread panic into the equation, the Great Recession could have been a lot, lot worse. If the banking system had not been shored up at all in favor of bailing out only the consumers, it could have been quite cataclysmic because just bailing out the homeowners when the banks are failing due to their own or created problems would have negated much of what a homeowner bailout would have accomplished (Peicuti).
With that said, the housing bubble was not just the fault of the banks and the homeowners who procured the foolish loans had their part as well. A similarity regarding all of the bailouts is that everyone in the chain misbehaved and that includes the federal government, the homeowners and the banks. Indeed, part of the problem that created the housing bubble was improper oversight by the federal government. This oftentimes manifested with near-direct or entirely direct participation and complicity of the federal government. For example, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were not technically part of the government prior to the Great Recession but only in the sense that the United States Postal Service is not part of the federal government either. Referred to as government-serviced enterprises (or GSE's for short), those two entities had to be bailed out to the tune $66 billion had to be paid back to the federal government as those two groups had to be bailed out as well. Just as with AIG and the broader TARP program, all of that money was paid back and with a tidy profit on top of it to boot. The government really has no excuses about Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac going forward as the two groups became part of the federal government via conservatorship in 2008 and they are now federalized agency. There is some talk of those groups being wound down and done away with but that has not happened as of yet (Phillips).
While it may be more attractive to some to help homeowners directly and leave the larger banks hanging, proof of why that is an exceedingly bad idea was easy to spot during the Great Recession when banks were folding left and