Cross Cultural Management Essays (Examples)

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Cross Cultural Age of Globalization the Quickening

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51562225

Cross Cultural Age of Globalization

The quickening pace of globalization continues to force varying cultures, their expectations, norms, value and practices together at a pace that is much faster than had been the case in the past. This presents a unique series of challenges for managers who must navigate the task of creating an agile enough organization to compete, yet still provide enough structure and stability for objectives to be attained. National political culture is a critically important foundation to guiding the definition of a globalization strategy in that it encompasses citizenship practices (Bird, Fang, 2009). The intent of this analysis is to critically evaluate if the concept of a theoretical framework is sufficient to support globalization strategies aligned to the nuances and specific considerations of a given region. Appraising the legitimacy of management strategies in the context of cross-cultural citizenship practices is central to this analysis (Chevrier, 2009).

How…… [Read More]

References

Bird, A. & Fang, T. (2009) 'Editorial: cross cultural management in the age of globalization', International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9 (2), pp. 139 -- 142, Sage Premier Database [Online]. DOI: 10.1177/1470595809335713 (Accessed: 21 December 2009).

Chevrier, S. (2009) 'Is national culture still relevant to management in a global context? The case of Switzerland', International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9 (2), pp. 169 -- 181, Sage Journals [Online]. DOI: 10.1177/1470595809335723 (Accessed: 23 December 2009).

Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R.R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.
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Cross Cultural Challenges to Banking Management

Words: 2040 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49725890

Management Issues Facing Australian Banks in Asia Today

Today, the Australian banking industry enjoys a high level of confidence among domestic and international investors alike, and the nation has managed to weather the fallout from the Asian financial crisis and Great ecession far better than many of its neighbors, and continues to grow economically. This economic development is due in large part to Australia's increasing commercial trade and cultural exchanges with its largest trading partner, China (Chinese economy, 2016). Not surprisingly, the Australian banking industry has taken advantage of these opportunities to establish an ever-increasing number of branches in China, which have largely experienced positive returns on their investment. Nevertheless, given the fundamental cultural differences and worldviews that exist between consumers in Australia and China, it is the argument of this paper that there are also a number of significant management issues facing Australian banks in Asia in general and…… [Read More]

References

Allen, D. E. & Powell, R. (2011, March 1). Customers and markets: Both are essential to credit-risk measurement in Australian banks. Australasian Accounting Business & Finance Journal, 5(1), 57-61.

Anbari, F. T. & Khilkhanova, E. V. (2009). Managing cross-cultural differences in projects. Orlando, FL: PMI Global Congress North America.

Australia's banking industry. (2011). Australian Trade Commission. Retrieved from http://www.austrade.gov.au/articledocuments/2792 / australias-banking-industry.pdf.aspx.

Australian banks in Asia. (n.d.).
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Cross National Management

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67460442

Cross-National Management: Questions

Although the Chinese company Nice Group and the American company it is entering into a partnership with may not face linguistic barriers, they are likely to face considerable cultural barriers that could impede their mutual understanding. The first likely communications obstacle is one of managerial styles. America is a highly individualistic culture, and tends to prefer managers who adopt an empowering or 'coaching' style, meaning that they either give employees considerable autonomy and/or provide support and guidance to employees. This is true particularly regarding complex tasks that require professional expertise. Employees are regarded as valuable human assets who can make a meaningful contribution to the company. In contrast, within high-context cultures such as China, there is a tendency to prefer a far more directive style of management, and to view employees' individual needs as less important than serving the collective (Motivation, n.d, Handout).

Another issue is one…… [Read More]

References

Dimensions of culture: Ways to understand others. (2012). PowerPoint.

Motivation (or what do we look for in a job?). (n.d). Handout.

Shea, Catherine. (1994). Case study: Moscow Aerostar. The Richard Ivey School of Business.
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Cross-Cultural Differences Risks of Outsourcing

Words: 4111 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48478503

herefore, the standpoint of social embeddedness is a tool that offers to provide a clear picture if one wants to comprehend the contribution of the relational factors in the success of outsourced IS projects (Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009).

If one is to increase his/her comprehension and develop an insight about how to monitor and control outsourced IS projects, Johns' (2006 as cited in Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009) suggestions come in useful. He recommended that the theory be contextualized by assessing the effect of characteristics of social framework in the setting of outsourced IS projects. It should be assessed how the adopted cultural features of the project affect its success and performance.

Later, the social embeddedness standpoint needs to be contextualized to the setting of the outsourcing of IS projects and a cultural variation framework should be applied to assess mutual principles and standards for those projects that are…… [Read More]

Trent, R.J. And R.M. Monczka (2003). "International purchasing and global sourcing -- what are the differences?" Journal of Supply Chain Management 39(4): 26-37. Taken from: Mittal, R. (2010). CULTURAL CONGRUENCE in CROSS-BORDER ALLIANCES: A MULTI-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of Business RESEARCH, Volume 10, Number 3.

Uzzi, B. 1997. "Social Structure and Competition in Interfirm Networks: The Paradox of Embeddedness," Administrative Science Quarterly (42), pp. 35-67. Taken from: Rai, a., Maruping, L.M. And Venkatesh, V. (2009). OFFSHORE INFORMATION SYSTEMS PROJECT SUCCESS: THE ROLE of SOCIAL EMBEDDEDNESS and CULTURALCHARACTERISTICS. MIS Quarterly Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 617-641.

Werner, S. (2002). "Recent Developments in International Management Research: A Review of 20 Top Management Journals." Journal of Management 28(3): 277-305. Taken from: Mittal, R. (2010). CULTURAL CONGRUENCE in CROSS-BORDER ALLIANCES: A MULTI-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of Business RESEARCH, Volume 10, Number 3.
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Cross Cultural Business Conducting Cross-Cultural Business Three

Words: 773 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1380218

Cross Cultural Business

Conducting Cross-Cultural Business

Three Cross-Cultural Differences:

Certainly, among the most critical differences that must be accounted for before one begins practicing business in Asia is that regarding the way that people interact. In many ways, estern and Eastern culture stem from very different perceptions of the self and, consequently, how individuals should be expected to conduct themselves in interaction with one another. Indeed, Anbari (2008) et al. highlight this issue, indicating that "two main cultural differences have been identified. Hofstede distinguishes between individualism and collectivism. Trompenaars breaks down this distinction into two dimensions: universalism vs. particularism and individualism vs. communitarianism." (p. 2)

As we most certainly know from experience, the United States is a culture, both professionally and socially, where individuality is stressed. By contrast, in a general sense and throughout its business culture, Asia tends more toward collectivism or communitarianism. This influences how individuals express themselves…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Anbari, F.T.; Khilkhanova, E.V.; Romanova, M.V. & Umpleby, S.A. (2008). Cross Cultural Differences and Their Implications for Managing International Projects. GWU.edu.

Kolesnikov-Jessop, S. (2012). Respecting Cultural Differences. New York Times.
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Cross Cultural Negotiation Management the

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36726788

The employee could not however wait until the launch and directly entered in conflict with the manager, accusing him of conspiring to steal the employees' hard earned wages.

3. Framing of the Conflict

Framing the conflict can be achieved from numerous standpoints, but given the characteristics of this particular conflict, the most relevant frame would be that of identity. This basically means that the two parties have different identities and the conflict could have even aroused due to their appurtenance to different groups. In this particular case then, it becomes obvious that each individual belongs to a different group, serving different interests. The head of the sales department belongs to the managerial team, and his focus falls on the company's success onto the market. This success also implies an increased cost efficiency, which, in the eyes of the employee, could explain his interest in granting lowered wages. The employee on…… [Read More]

References

Gilboa, E., 2002, Media and Conflict: Framing Issues, Making Policy, Shaping Opinions, Transnational Pub

Kaufman, S., Elliot, M., Shmueli, D., 2003, Frames, Framing and Reframing, Beyond Intractability, http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/framing/last accessed on September 15, 2008

1998, General Information About Framing, University of Colorado, http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/problem/framing.html. Ast accessed on September 15, 2008
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Cross Cultural Leadership There Is

Words: 3076 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4327320

Internal and external customers are both considered important and their needs must be anticipated and satisfied in the most suitable manner. The decisions that the executive leader makes must be based on solid information. He must be aware of the consequences of his decisions. At the same time, he must have a long-term perspective and make the best choice even if at the beginning its consequences might seem negative.

A further competency that must be taken into consideration refers to the ability to efficaciously manage strategic resources including the human ones, the financial ones and the information ones. From this point-of-view, one needs to be updated with the technological development which are relevant for his work area. In addition, he must make sure that everything from the recruitment process to the selection and rewarding of the staff members is done in the manner which best serves the organization.

A leadership…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Executive Competencies, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site: https://www.opm.gov/ses/ecq.asp

Executive management, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site: http://www.govexec.com/features/0404-15/0404-15view.htm

Krishnan, R. (2002). Impact of gender on influence, power and authoritarianism, Women in management review, vol.17, 197-206

Leadership, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site: http://www.leadershiplouisville.org/programs/network
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Cross-Cultural Perspectives the Company That I Am

Words: 1080 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78557619

Cross-Cultural Perspectives

The company that I am researching is McDonalds. McDonalds has expanded around the world and brings with it service standards and food standards that exemplify the brand. For the company, the cultural issue relates to many aspects of service in foreign countries. Dietary restrictions are one in particular that the company needs to address -- in some places people do not eat pork while in other places people do not eat beef. There are also environmental issues where the company is using beef from ranchland that came from deforestation -- in countries like Brazil, for example. The company also faces ethical problems with respect to its role in childhood obesity, a concern of some in estern markets. Overall, McDonalds has to address ethical issues around the world that stem from difference between the different cultures.

Cultural Issue

McDonalds must meet the expectations of culture wherever it operates, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Whitehouse, L. (2003). Corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship and the global compact. Global Social Policy. Vol. 3 (3) 299-318.

Werther, W. & Chandler, W. (no date) Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility. Sage Publications.
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Cross-Cultural Issue Cross Cultural Perspective Globalization Globalization

Words: 1361 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94607845

Cross-Cultural Issue

COSS Cultural Perspective GLOBALIZATION.

Globalization and Starbucks

Few aspects of individual's lives are more personal than that of the coffee they consume. The Starbucks Corporation has been forced to adjust its offerings and approach to marketing to address the needs and expectations of consumers abroad. There have also been ethical considerations about encroaching upon local businesses, as the Starbucks empire gains worldwide traction. Starbucks has tried to answer these concerns by giving back to the communities in which it has established itself.

Starbucks globalization can best be described as a kind of 'middle path:' Starbucks has attempted to stay true to the basic philosophy of the company without offending local sensibilities. According to its current CEO: "On a country-by-country basis, the largest hurdle we had to overcome was thinking we had to be different. There are regional differences in every market, but the main reason we are successful…… [Read More]

References

Aigerim, Tulepbergenova. (2010). Starbucks' global expansion. Business Today. Retrieved:

http://www.businesstoday.org/online-journal/starbucks-global-expansion

Hauser, S. (2006). Is Starbucks globalization? Loaded Learning. Retrieved:

http://sehauser.wordpress.com/2006/09/28/is-starbucks-globalization/
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Cross Cultural Leadership Cultural Differences in Leadership

Words: 1565 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26626360

Cross Cultural Leadership

Cultural Differences in Leadership

Cultural differences determine certain leadership traits and portions of our personality. It is easy to discredit the importance of cross-cultural differences and their influences on various leadership styles. Different cultures are known for certain traits. For instance, the Australian culture is known for it egalitarianism. Chinese culture is known as an authority oriented culture (Sharpe, 2007). These differences in culture result in the development of different leadership styles and traits. The following will explore the issue of cultural differences and will support the thesis that leaders from authoritarian countries have a greater power distance from their employees than do those in egalitarian cultures.

Sharpe (2007) found that the Australian culture and the Chinese culture dictated certain traits in regards to desirable leadership traits. Both the Australian and Chinese participants felt that these leadership traits were more important on the lower levels than on…… [Read More]

References

DeGrosky, M. (2011). Lost in Translation. Wildfire. Retrieved March 4,.2011 from http://wildfiremag.com/command/cultural-context-leadership-200907/

Deng, L. & Gibson, P. (2008). A Qualitative Evaluation on the Role of Cultural Intelligence in Cross-Cultural Leadership Effectiveness. The International Journal of Leadership Studies. 3 (2): 181-197.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Lewis, R. (2006). Cultural Differences in a Shrinking World: Leadership Implications. Personnel Decisions. January 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from  http://www.hreonline.com/pdfs/PDIPaper.pdf
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Cross-Cultural Negotiation in the Contemporary

Words: 2443 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23723317

Typically, difference in expectations between Japanese and American is manifested because of the cultural variables. American believes that it is acceptable to express emotions openly. On the other hand, Japanese culture does not believe in overt expression. Japanese considers the overt expression as unacceptable, and in most cases, Japanese considers the American overt expression as a sign of aggressiveness.

Japanese considers endurance and harmony to be important. Japanese believes that individual is expected to endure hardship in fulfilling the business obligations and this is reflected in the Japanese business style. On the other hand, American believes in business deal that reflects little or no hardship. That is the reason American believes in achieving short-term and immediately goals in the business outcome. (Kumayama, 1991).

Saee (2008) discusses in how the non-verbal behavior varies between Japanese and American culture and its impact in the negotiation process. Non-verbal behaviors such as facial expression,…… [Read More]

References

Adachi, Y. (1997). Business Negotiations between the Americans and the Japanese. Global Business Languages. 2(4): 18-30. Retrieved 23 September 2012 From

http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1018&context=gbl&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.ci%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3DBusiness%2BNegotiations%2Bbetween%2Bthe%2BAmericans%2Band%2Bthe%2BJapanese%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D2%26cad%3Drja%26ved%3D0CC8QFjAB%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fdocs.lib.purdue.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1018%2526context%253Dgbl%26ei%3DLRViUPOeNMay0QXMroGIAw%26usg%3DAFQjCNEAZI68TatFGvUk80miysRPxqcE3Q#search=%22Business%20Negotiations%20between%20Americans%20Japanese%22

Adair, W.L. (2003). Integrated Sequences and Negotiation Outcome in Same and Mixed Culture. International Journal of Conflict Management. 14 (3/4):. 273-296. Retrieved 23 September 2012 From

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1660055
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Managing Across Cultures 70

Words: 3211 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93114531

Managing Across Cultures

Internationalization of the economy has influenced companies to operate their business globally. The global operation has impact managers with several challenges. Market, product, and production plans must be coordinated on a worldwide basis. The global operation necessitates organization structure to balance centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy. As companies have started their business operation on the international front, the number of their employees has increased. Increase in the employee's abroad management is faced with new global challenges. The three broad international business management challenges were identified by the management gurus as follows (obert, Kossek & Ozeki, 1998):

a) Deployment: To get the right skills where it is required in an organization regardless of the geographical location.

b) Knowledge and creativity distribution: Spreading the knowledge and practices throughout the organization regardless of where they have actually originated.

c) Talent identification and development on global basis: To identify…… [Read More]

References

Drucker, P. (1988) The Coming of the New Organization. Harvard Business Review issue

January-February 1988

Fadel, J. & Petti, M (1997). International HR policy basics.

Global workforce issue April 1997, pp. 29-30
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Cross-Cultural Issues

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37961121

employee's cultural background has a direct influence on attitudes and job satisfaction. Research on cross-cultural organizational and human resource issues help management better understand and guide practice. The most cited cross-cultural work on employee attitudes is that of Hofstede (1980, 1985). ithin the Native American community there is a well-known tradition of respect for the importance of family and honoring of elders. In To Build a Bridge: orking with American Indian Communities, authors John Poupart and John Red Horse affirm that cultural values have been seen as a personal source of power within Indian cultures for years. Today, they say that the former traditional values are being rediscovered. This manifests in the form of restorative justice, leadership practices, alternate methods to resolve disputes, and community development programs on the reservation (Holmes, 2013).

orking within the Native American culture, there is a healthy concept called "Indian time" (Verbos, Kennedy & Gladstone,…… [Read More]

Working within the Native American culture, there is a healthy concept called "Indian time" (Verbos, Kennedy & Gladstone, 2011). This means that things will happen when they are supposed to - and no sooner. When I began working and supervising Native American employees in Indian country, I learned the origin of the phrase "Indian time." I came to understand that traditionally Indian people were very good students of nature. They studied the seasons and the animals to learn how to live well in their environments. Given this, they learned that it is important to be patient and to act when circumstances were "ripe" rather than to try and force things to happen when circumstances did not support them. I have also come to understand that it is a Western idea that we can control most circumstances, and that we should run our lives by the clock and the calendar.

When applying this to a work setting in a mainly Western situation, there are clearly clashes and struggles that can be had as far as meshing and melding Western management and business ideals and the needs/culture of Native Americans workers. Western work culture is very much built around structure, getting done when asked and not necessarily when the time is "ripe" and so forth. For a Native American worker, this can be a shock to the system and can go against the grain of their ideals of Indian Time and so forth. However, Native Americans hold that the control we think we have over circumstances is frequently an illusion and can lead to a lot of wasted energy. Much can be gained by watching, listening, waiting and then acting when the time is right. "Indian time" is really about respecting the "timeliness" of an action. It makes more sense to plant crops when the weather is right than when the calendar says it is time.

What a mistake it would be to take this traditional concept of timeliness and develop a misperception that contemporary Indian people are frequently late. Maximizing productivity of Native American workers (by non-Native American employers) requires an understanding of and respect for American Indian culture and associated activities. Successful work practices must recognize and/or deal with employees' ethnicity, family-sensitive supervision and work/family role conflict. Flextime and non-standard work schedules that permit flexible starting and quitting times as well as rotating days off, will eliminate conflicts between work and family life for Native American workers. Research will provide convincing evidence in favor of non-standard work schedules for Native American workers while maintaining organizational effectiveness, organizational membership, and positive employee attitudes. The use of flexible work schedules and break periods can be applied to people
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Cross-Cultural Comparison on Work Value Between US and China

Words: 2471 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15997293

Work Values

Cross-cultural comparison on work value between U.S. And China

A value is "what a person consciously or subconsciously desires, wants, or seeks to attain" (Locke, 1983). Peterson and Gonzalez (2005) say values "are motivational forces," and "influence the role work plays in people's lives." Dawis (2005) asserts that each person (P) has requirements that need to be met, most through their environments (E). In fact, Dawis claims that "Many of P's needs in adulthood can be met at work." The ones that matter most to P. are E's ability to deliver rein forcers (e.g., pay, prestige, and working conditions) that satisfy P's needs. Similarly, E has parallel and complementary requirements that can be met by P. And make P. A satisfactory worker. Thus, understanding work values has a benefit for both individuals (as they look for work environments that support their values), and also for organizations (if they…… [Read More]

References

Bernstein, Paul. (1997). American Work Values: Their Origin and Development. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Cappelli, P., Bassi, L., Katz, H., Knoke, D., Osterman, P. And Useem, M. (1997). Change at Work. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dawis, R.V. (2005). The Minnesota theory of work adjustment. In Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. (Eds.) Career development and counselling: putting theory and research to work. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Farber, Henry S. (1997). "Changing Face of Job Loss in the United States, 1981-1995." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1: Microeconomics: 55-128.
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Managing Diversity in Organizations

Words: 1891 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67174740

Managing Diversity in Organizations

Diversity can be described as the manner of recognizing, appreciating, accepting, respecting, and reveling dissimilarities among individuals with regards to age, class, ethnicity, sex, physical and intellectual capability, race, and sexual orientation (Esty et al., 1995). Diversity has become a significant and beneficial component for organizations. With the constant increase in globalization, organizations have been forced to diversify their set of personnel in the work environment. Employees come from diverse backgrounds, geographical areas, tribal and ethnic origins and bear distinctive diverse abilities and aptitudes. It is essential for people to work together and combine abilities and manage diversity commendably in the environment. Every individual's opinions, activities, and also principles are molded by his or her culture. Organizations have to institute diversity into their structures and policies in order to attain the projected goals and objectives (Esty et al., 1995).

The issue of diversity does not just…… [Read More]

References

Bolen, L., &Kleiner, B. H. (1996). Managing diversity in the workplace. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 3(4), 3-8.

Cox, T., & Beale, R. L. (1997). Developing competency to manage diversity: Readings, cases & activities. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.

Estyy, K., Griffin, R., Schorr-Hirsh, M. (1995). Workplace Diversity: A manager's guide to solving problems and turning diversity into a competitive advantage. Massachusetts: Adams Media Corporation.
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Cross-Border Alliances Are Defined as

Words: 2325 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75956403

esearch also helps in planning marketing programs through helping to identify new opportunities and thus to evaluate the potential for a new idea and also to identify the areas where the marketing efforts will be concentrated KnowThis LLC, 2012()

esearch also helps to minimize risks. By the marketing managers being able to plan the marketing efforts effectively and they can then identify what is required and to ensure that the development of the programs is highly focused towards the demand in the market. Market research also helps to create benchmarks and to measure progress. Early research helps to highlight any major gaps in the marketing plan which need to be bridged and regular market research helps to show if there are any improvements in sales being brought about by the marketing efforts.

Segmentation and the marketing mix

Segmentation helps greatly in customer retention and acquisition of new clientele. This is…… [Read More]

References

Cherian, M., Flores, M., & Srinivasan, G. (2008). Critical Success Factors to Collaborate in Cross Border Alliances: Experiences of Indian Manufacturing Enterprises. Paper presented at the SMF conference, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur.

Horn, L.P. (2011). Online Marketing Strategies for Reaching Today's Teens. [Article]. Young Adult Library Services, 9(2), 24-27.

KnowThis LLC. (2012). Marketing Research Retrieved May 20th, 2012, from http://www.knowthis.com/principles-of-marketing-tutorials/marketing-research/examples-of-research-in-marketing/

Kotler, P., & Keller, K.L. (2012). Marketing Management, Thirteenth Edition. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
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Cultural Marketing Strategies Comparing Marketing

Words: 522 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20451741

IDV skyrockets in the U.S. which is supported by the concept of rugged individualism and taking care of one's own family (Minkov, Hofstede, 2011). It's nearly the opposite in Japan, where communities care for each other, showing IDV to be a measure of collectivism and collaboration over individuality (Hofstede, McCrae, 2004). For Mercedes, the brand in Japan would need to stress a wealthy homeowner or land owner using their new car to help their neighbors and those around them who are not necessarily relatives. In the U.S., the Mercedes brand has quickly become a symbol of individual achievement, status and financial accomplishment. As a result, the Mercedes brand means something completely different in Japan than it does in the U.S. On the Long-Term Orientation (LTO) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) areas of the model, Japan far outpaces the U.S. For Mercedes and Nike, the safety and security of their brand need…… [Read More]

References:

Anders Bengtsson, Fleura Bardhi, & Meera Venkatraman. (2010). How global brands travel with consumers: An examination of the relationship between brand consistency and meaning across national boundaries. International Marketing Review, 27(5), 519-540.

Czinkota, M.. (2011). Why international marketing? Marketing Management, 20(2), 14.

Geert Hofstede, & Robert R. McCrae. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.

Michael Minkov, and Geert Hofstede. 2011. The evolution of Hofstede's doctrine. Cross Cultural Management 18, no. 1, (January 1): 10-20.
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Managerial Cross-Cultural Interaction

Words: 7475 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33443551

Management STYLE IN THE United States

Cultural Values and Business

Theory X vs. Theory Y

Management the High Tech Way

Management STYLE IN THE DOMINICAN EPUBLIC

CULTUAL VALUES AND Business

ole of Entrepreneurship

In the United States, management values, beliefs and attitudes have undergone a gradual shift away from the simplistic stance of planning, organizing and directing. Valuable managerial skills, no matter what culture is being considered, have traditionally been masculine skills, highlighting the dominant, assertive, and decisive elements of management behavior and downplaying the team and supportive aspects that are more readily identified with women. This traditional view is now giving way in the United States to an approach where team behaviour is seen as increasingly important to a truly successful management style.

The global leadership skills of the future will evolve from a combination of individual/group and masculine/feminine traits involving strategic thinking and communication skills. The final result…… [Read More]

References

Arnold, D.J. & Quelch, J.A. (1998). "New strategies in emerging markets." Sloan Management Review, 40, 7-20.

Bakhtari, H. (1995). "Cultural Effects on Management Style: A Comparative Study of American and Middle Eastern Management Styles." International Studies of Management & Organization, 25(3), 97+.

Barham, K., Fraser, J. & Heath, L. (1988). Management for the future. Foundation for Management Education/Ashridge Management College.

Bennis, W., Heil, G. & Stephens, D. (2000). Douglas McGregor, revisited: Managing the human side of enterprise. New York: John Wiley.
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Individual Cross Sectional Cultural Management Plan

Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29587810

Cultural Management

Starbucks wants to enter South Africa, the "ainbow Nation," and learn about doing business in Africa for future expansion across the continent. It has the conditions for success, but critical will be managing a multicultural team of employees in every store. There are 11 major languages in South Africa, highlighting the diversity of the country, and it has also become a magnet for immigrants from other African countries as well. Starbucks needs to implement programs such as employee groups in charge of multicultural initiatives and it should track the demographics of its workforce to ensure that they are diverse. Management teams should also be diverse. The company should have a multicultural management training program as one of its major controls.

Situation Analysis

The corporation to be discussed in this paper is Starbucks, and they wish to enter the South African market. Starbucks operates in dozens of countries worldwide.…… [Read More]

References

BBC. (2013). South Africa profile. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094760 

Japan Today. (2013). Starbucks on track to open 1000th store in Japan. Japan Today. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://www.japantoday.com/category/business/view/starbucks-on-track-to-open-1000th-store-in-japan

Luthans, F., Doh, J. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior. McGraw-Hill.
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Managing the Modern Workforce

Words: 3303 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94527269

Organization Behavior

Managing the Modern Workforce

Grade Course

Date Here (Day, Month, Year)

When an organization expands its operations into international markets, it hires individuals from different nations and cultures. These individuals are culturally diverse and need to be managed effectively. Numerous researches have been conducted to elucidate this important issue of the business world; each of them has some application for the modern management practices. Although workforce diversity is more an issue of the 21st Century, but massive of researches have been conducted in the late 80's and 90's.

The literature has some limitations which entice the modern researches to work on this issue and broaden the basis of knowledge for the future studies. The biggest limitation is the unclear definition of workforce diversity. Every researcher has given his own definition for this concept; however the most common definition is explained in the context of 'culture'. Most of the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Darmadi, S., 2010, Do Women in Top Management Affect Firm Performance? Evidence from Indonesia. Indonesian Capital Market and Financial Institution Supervisory Agency (Bapepam-LK), pp. 2-5 Available at

Ferro, N., 2004, Cross-Country Ethical Dilemmas in Business: A Descriptive Framework. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Working Paper No. 28, pp. 16-22. Available at

Guidroz, A., M., Kotrba, L., M., & Denison, D., R., 2009, Workplace Diversity: Is National or Organizational Culture Predominant? Linkage, Denison Consulting, LLC, pp. 1-5

Huckman, R., S., & B., R., Staats, 2010, Fluid Tasks and Fluid Teams: The Impact of Diversity in Experience and Team Familiarity on Team Performance, Harvard Business School Technology & Operations Management. Unit Working Paper No. 09-145, pp. 2-10. Available at
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Cultural Interaction and American Revolution

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38695040

Cross-Cultural Differences and Communication

Cultural identity is a significant force that shapes the interaction between people from different cultures. The contemporary globalization has made intercultural interactions inevitable in the contemporary society. People draw conclusions about other people's culture depending on a wide range of observations about the individual's way of live, values and behavior. For instance, understanding what people from specific cultural values helps in drawing about that culture in that specific aspect of value or behavior (Byram, 2015). For example, I have drawn the conclusion that martial art is a significant cultural practice in the Chinese culture. This conclusion is informed by the several Chinese films that I have watched that have largely been characterized by Martial Arts. This predominance of martial arts in these films informed the conclusion I have drawn from the Chinese culture.

UNIT 4 DISCUSSION

I am visiting a new country within a different culture…… [Read More]

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Managing Across Culture in Doing Business Oversea

Words: 1147 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8489084

oles and Experiences in Cross-Cultural Business

Cross-cultural differences are recognized as the biggest barrier to doing business in the world market (Fan & Zigang, 2004). esearch aimed at exploring cross-cultural differences in regards to international business investigated key differences in personality traits between business leaders in different countries. The key finding demonstrated by this research was that the factors that counted for most of the differences experienced by executives working internationally were agreeableness and emotional balance (P Newswire, 2007). This is expressed in differences between countries with regard to how extensively group harmony is valued and the extent to which emotions are expressed or muted (P Newswire, 2007).

The way businesses in China experience and process risk has been found to differ significantly to that of the West (Brumagim & Xianhua, 2005). These differences may be appropriated explained through prospect theory, which hypothesizes that potential losses are experienced more intensely…… [Read More]

References

Bouncken, R.B., Ratzmann, M., and Viviane, A., 2008. Cross-cultrual innovation teams: effects of four types of attitudes towards diversity. International Journal of Business Strategy [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 3 December 2010].

Brumagim, A.L. And Xianhua, W., 2005. An examination of cross-cultural differences in attitudes towards risk: testing prospect theory in the People's Republic of China. Multinational Business Review [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 5 December 2010].

Business Editors, 2003. Cultural and communication barriers are of the greatest challenges when conducting business in China. Business Wire [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 3 December 2010].

Fan, P. And Zigang, Z., 2004. Cross-cultural challenges when doing business in China. Singapore Management Review [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 3 December 2010].
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Cultural Impact on Hospitality Industry

Words: 2972 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45084448

Tourism Management

The impact of technology and the increase of international travel and exploration, the global environment has provided a landscape that depends on the knowledge of other culture. The differences among the human race are everywhere and the denotation of such individualities create challenges for those wishing to attain a successful career based in international exposure.

The purpose of this essay is to explore various themes and ideas that relate to cross-cultural management theory applied in a practical and pragmatic manner. This essay aims to answer the following question:

Which international skills, knowledge, behaviours and experiences will be advantageous in the development of my future career?

My future career selection is not quite clear at this time but I have narrowed it down to becoming involved in hotel management in Central America. This essay will first examine the basics of culture to help give a theoretical background to my…… [Read More]

References

Branine, M. (2011). Managing across cultures: Concepts, policies and practices. Sage.

Crowne, K.A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence?. Business Horizons,51(5), 391-399.

De Bono, S., & Van Der Heijden, B. (2011). Managing cultural diversity. Meyer & Meyer Verlag.

Duncan, T. (2005). Current issues in the global hospitality industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(4), 359-366.
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Managing Business at the International Level

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30107778

Business Management -- Annotated Bibliography

Eisenberg, J., Lee, H.J., Bruck, F., Brenner, B., Claes, M.T., Mironski, J., and Bell, R. "Can

Business chools Make tudents Culturally Competent? Effects of Cross-Cultural

Management Courses on Cultural Intelligence." Academy of Management Learning & Education. 12.4 (2013): 603-621. Web. 25 July 2014.

Because of the ongoing globalization for businesses and the need to develop management policies and strategies that help the workforce understand and relate to diversity, business schools need to teach management courses on "cultural intelligence"

(CU) Eisenberg and colleagues explain. This article is valuable and the recommendations for business schools should be incorporated because managers working for international firms need skills that allow them to interact with people from a variety of cultures. For students pursuing a business career, the development of cultural intelligence is vital.

Hence, taking courses in cross-cultural management brings knowledge and benefits.

Espedal, B. Gooderham, P.N., and tensaker,…… [Read More]

Scherer, A., Palazzo, G., and Matten, D. "Introduction to the Special Issue: Globalization as a Challenge for Business Responsibilities." Business Ethics Quarterly, 19.3 (2009): 317-

347. Web. 25 July 2014.

This is an article that deals with the ethics of international business relationships. Because national borders are not as politically significant as they once were, global business organizations enter into markets with "ill-defined rules" of conduct (Scherer, et al., 327). Thus, corporations become "political actors" because they make up their own rules as they enter each new market, Scherer points out. The article asserts that global businesses must become accountable democratically and incorruptible as well. The value of this article is in part because it insists that corporate social responsibility (CSR) goes to deeper levels when a firm is operating in a variety of diverse cultures. Also this piece is important to today's business major because ethical behavior in the international market place isn't just recommended, it is imperative for success in terms of profits and accountability as well.
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Opportunities to Improve the Cross-Cultural and Cultural-Awareness

Words: 4637 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61742493

opportunities to improve the cross-cultural and cultural-awareness training at Hilton Hotels International, Inc. This study was important because Hilton Hotels compete in 78 countries across six continents and hosts guests from virtually every country in the world during a given year. In order to continue to its efforts that began in the late 1990s to rebuild its eroded brand, Hilton Hotels has sought to exceed customer expectations at every turn. To achieve this goal, the study examines how Hilton Hotels can identify existing resources and use them to their optimal effect in developing timely human resource responses to the need for cross-cultural and cultural-awareness training. To this end, Chapter One of the study introduces the company and the issues under consideration, followed by a SWOT analysis of Hilton Hotels in Chapter Two. An analysis of the world's most widely spoken languages and their impact on Hilton Hotels in Chapter Three…… [Read More]

References

'About Hilton.' 2012. Hilton Hotels International, Inc. [online] available: http://www3.hilton.

com/en/about/index.html.

Beirman, D. 2003. Restoring Tourism Destinations in Crisis: A Strategic Marketing Approach.

Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
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Multi-Cultural Management What Are the

Words: 2957 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57630463

(Buhalis, 2008) at the same time, the Internet is helping to bring many regions closer together. This means that some of the challenges which were mentioned earlier are exposing people in specific areas to different ideas. (Hase, 2007) Over the course of time, they will become more accepting and interested in learning about new cultures. (Hase, 2007) This is when multiculturalism management strategies can be effective in creating a unique work environment that is embracing all of the various attributes. (Buhalis, 2008) (Hase, 2007)

This is positive because it is changing the mindset of everyone for the better and dealing with cultural barriers (which were difficult to address in the past). (Brennan, 2007) the way that this can be maximized is to use new technology to introduce cutting edge ideas to someone. This can occur by having them work with particular devices that will discuss specific attributes (which can take…… [Read More]

References

Brennan, R. (2007). TQM Marketing Perspectives. Quality Assurance in Education, 15 (1), 44 -- 60.

Buhalis, D. (2008). Progress in Information Technology. Tourism Management, 29 (4), 609 -- 623.

Canen, a. (2008). Multicultural Leadership. International Journal of Conflict Management, 19 (1), 4 -- 19.

Devine, F. (2007). Managing Cultural Diversity. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, (19) 2, 120-132
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Golden Rule of Cross-Cultural Communications

Words: 1659 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85513855



Finally, it should be noted that anxiety and language can hamper communication between people of the identical culture if the context is not mutually understood. Anecdotally, this author once requested a copy of a Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess from an elderly man behind a counter in a small-town used bookstore who appeared to be the husband of the full-time owner, who was away. The kindly man squirmed a bit, stared blankly into space and repeated the words one at a time: "A" -- "clockwork" -- "orange?" he asked. It was clear he understood the mother tongue and the meanings of the individual words, but taken together, he did not understand them in their context as being a reference to a book and motion picture by the same name, highlighting the universal need for context in day-to-day communications with anyone from any culture.

Conclusion

As the globalization process continues to…… [Read More]

References

Chu, Y., Strong, W., Ma, J. & Greene, W.E. (2005). Silent messages in negotiations: The role of nonverbal communication in cross-cultural business negotiations. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 9(2), 97-98.

Henderson, G.. (1999). Cultural diversity in the workplace: Issues and strategies. Westport, CT:

Praeger Publishers.

Pederson, P.B. & Ivey, a. (1999). Culture-centered counseling and interviewing skills. Westport,
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Intercultural and or Cross-Cultural Communication Theories

Words: 1848 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32191910

Support for the second hypothesis, that male speakers would be perceived as less cooperative than female speakers, also varied across situations, and the effect was even smaller" (Edwards & Hamilton 2004). Support for the Tannen model only was found after additional research was done, and a new questionnaire was given that scored recipient's self-perception in terms of feminine and masculine characteristics and inculcation into traditional gender roles. Individuals with strong gender self-images were more likely to fall in line with the Tannen model of women perceiving nurturance and males perceiving conflict in relatively neutral scenarios and seeing men in general as less cooperative.

This study is provocative on several levels, not the least of which in its stress upon the individualized nature of gender norms and the lack of inherent biological tendencies towards perceiving nurturance and conflict. It suggests the need to more carefully screen subjects in terms of individualized…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Edwards, Renee & Mark a Hamilton. "You Need to Understand My Gender Role: An Empirical

Test of Tannen's Model of Gender and Communication." Sex Roles. 50.7/8 (2004):

491-504. Research Library. ProQuest. 30 Oct. 2008  http://www.proquest.com/ 

Oetzel, John G. & Stella Ting-Toomey. "Face concerns in interpersonal conflict."
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Business Cross Cultural Communication Cross

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68668525

Generational issues, while seemingly the obvious hindrance to a smooth flow of production, are, as Tulgan offers (198), "merely a reflection of the business issue at play - transition to the workplace of the future."

However, that said, the one pivotal / key sentence Tulgan offers, also on page 198, is very straight to the point, on the money, and a salient theme Charlie should launch in order to save his job, and the jobs of most people under his jurisdiction. "Charlie must get things back on track and restore harmony by getting people focused on mission instead of personality."

The 10 points Tulgan offers are all very cogent and wise; however, Charlie doesn't really have time to implement all those ideas. Gloria egalbuto, with Bath & Body Works, offers some common sense solutions, as do Diedra Wager, Pat Crull, and others. But Judy Corson hits the nail on the…… [Read More]

References

Zemke, Ron; & Raines, Claire; & Filipczak, Bob. Generations at Work: Managing the Clash of Veterans, Boomers, Xers, and Nexters in Your Workplace. New York:

Amacom, 2000.
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Lessons From Vietnam the Concept of Cross-Cultural

Words: 1210 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74973510

Lessons From Vietnam

The concept of cross-cultural capability is a relatively new area of study in the academic world, even though we have known for years that a number of issues might have been better resolved with a greater understanding and sensitive towards other cultures. The term itself applies to human behavior in a number of dimensions -- psychologically, sociologically, certainly political, and cultural. This phenomenon of cultural misunderstanding was quite apparent in the post-World War II conflicts, particularly that of the regional conflicts in Vietnam post-1950 (Killick, 1999).

Many of the diplomatic and cultural issues surrounding the Vietnam Conflict were a result of a Cold War mentality. The Cold War, not really a war, but more a preparation for conflict, was the tensions between the U.S.S.. And Allies (Warsaw Pact) and the U.S. And Allies (NATO). One side held that America was economically and militarily aggressive after World War…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

The Vietnam War. (2006). The History Channel. Retrieved from:  http://www.history.com  / topics/vietnam-war

Belmonte, L. (2010). Selling the American Way -- U.S. Propaganda and the Cold War. Pittsburg, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Damms, Richard, (2001), The Eisenhower Presidency, 1953-1961, New York: Longman.

Davidson, P. (1991), Vietnam At War: The History, 1946-1975. New York: Norton.
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International Negotiation and Cross-Cultural Realities

Words: 868 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48066080

Accordingly, text article notes that "international negotiation is often not just between individual people, but between large delegations, each of which is well organized and where every person has specialized and skilled work. There may be cultural experts, linguists and subject specialists as well as a chief negotiator and support negotiators. In a complex negotiation, there may be multiple and interlined sub-negotiations going on at the same time, for example where a trade negotiation includes deal involving various industries and interests." (Changing Minds, 1)

This denotes that negotiations are typically an extremely complex and nuanced process. Such mediation may occur over an extended period of time and require multiple face-to-face encounters and the constant recasting of terms and conditions. This is because such negotiation is confounded by the true challenge of establishing an equilibrium between parties. Ideally, a negotiation will produce a compromise that is viewed as essentially favorable to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Changing Minds. (2002). International Negotiations. Changing Minds.org.

McMahon, H. (2008). Fact Sheet: International Negotiations on Climate Change. World Resources Institute.
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Cultural Schemata Theory Together With Formal Schemata

Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74524173

Cultural Schemata Theory:

Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.

Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:

Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…… [Read More]

References:

Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf

Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading

Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from  http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf 

Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
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Managing Diversity in the Workplace

Words: 3023 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38711581

(Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)

Agencies are required to develop a good understanding of their individual strengths and weaknesses so as to plan their programs to their best advantage. An agency acquires this information by evaluating the views of the employees on diversity issues. Analysis of the trends and projections of the workforce in determination of the skills gaps and necessitates and devising successive planning strategies are crucial moves for agency strategic and business planning. Such efforts facilitate the managers with the required facts so as to be aware of the assignment of resources and the making the necessary planning for the future work of the organization and the points of concentration of their energy to produce a high performance organization. (Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)

The successful managers understand the necessary skills for producing a successful diverse workforce. Firstly they should be aware of the discrimination and…… [Read More]

References

Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce" (25 June 2000) Retrieved at http://www.opm.gov/Diversity/diversity-3.htm. Accessed on 15 January, 2005

Creating a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved from Retrieved at http://www.businessweek.com/adsections/diversity/diversework.htm. Accessed on 15 January, 2005

Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved at http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&cat_id=1102Accessed on 15 January, 2005

Green, Kelli A; L. pez, Mayra; Wysocki, Allen; Kepner, Karl. "Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools" University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved at  http://www.minoritygraduate.com/feature27.asp . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
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Cultural Differences in Management Styles

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12392752

In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.

Effect of Cultural Diversity on…… [Read More]

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Cultural Distance How Is it Measured and How Does it Impact on Global Marketing Operations

Words: 3242 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70230823

Cultural Distance: How Is it Measured, And How it Impact on Global Marketing Operations

The persistence of cultural distances is relevant for the global multinational marketing operations exposed to multiple cultures in their everyday activities. This indicates that marketing across border introduces complexities because it forces global marketers to tailor their approaches and practices to each cultural context they carry out their business activities. As a result, this paper will discuss concepts applicable to different aspects of cross-border operations. The primary focus of the paper is on multinational business corporations (Baumann, 2007).

This study shows how Hofstede's model is still the most relevant piece of reference for a successive cross-cultural analysis despite it being a widely criticized. The paper compares and contrasts Hofstede's famous concepts with Turner and Schwartz, Trompenaars and Hampden's valued inventory. It will attempt to provide empirical evidence of how cultural diversity influences the global markets by…… [Read More]

References

Baumann, A. (2007). Influences of culture on the style of business behavior between Western and Arab managers. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Baumu-ller, M. (2007). Managing cultural diversity: An empirical examination of cultural networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations. Bern: Lang.

Cavusgil, T. & Ghauri, P.N. (2009). New challenges to international marketing. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Curry, J.E. (2009). A short course in international marketing: Approaching and penetrating the global marketplace. Petaluma, CA: World Trade Press.
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Cultural Differences International Business Cultural

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90137212

Practical obstacles like taste can be difficult to predict, in terms of how entrenched they may be, unlike simply adopting to bowing rather than shaking hands on a business trip. Dealing with local corruption is also hard to fully explain in an educational seminar for managers going to work abroad, versus advice on how to dress so as not to offend the local population. Subway is perhaps the best example of how to positively adapt to local needs and tastes.

In contrast, Domino's as a product was to some degree stymied by the nature of being a chain pizza business. On one hand, it was flexible enough to take into consideration some local needs, including daily rhythms of life, a belief in feng shui, and simple weather conditions that affected delivery logistics. But the fact that the Italian conception of pizza was different than that of most Americans, in terms…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gibson, R. (2006). Foreign flavors: When going abroad, you should think of franchising as a cookie-cutter business; unless, of course, you want to succeed. Wall Street Journal.

September 25, 2006: 8.

Wade, Jared. (2004). "The pitfalls of cross-cultural business." Risk Management, 51: 38-43
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Cultural Differences Cultural Mistakes That

Words: 1147 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29677569

However, in some culture, such practice may be taken as a rude process. For instance, being indirect is a form of politeness in Japan. But such will be seen as nothing but a form of dishonesty in the American business scenario.

How to Approach Foreign Markets from the Perspective of Culture

In the event of conducting business relationships, there are a number of strategies that business parties can use to approach the foreign markets from the perspective of culture. Some of them are the following:

Prior learning of the culture of one foreign business party will not do any harm to the other.

Before conducting business with a party from another region, it will be helpful for international companies to learn some cultural background of the other part. It is important to consider that not every people, especially between those that come from totally different cultural background, have similar regard…… [Read More]

References

The Pitfalls of Cross-Cultural Business, in Risk Management, March 2004, Volume 51, Pages: 38-43, by Jared Wade

Business: A hyper market, The Economist, London, April7, 2001

Cultural Savvy.

Retrieved on Sept. 05, 2005, from Online.  http://www.culturalsavvy.com/differences.htm
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Cultural Experience Description the Event Is More

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26516045

Cultural Experience

Description

The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.

In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Devine, P. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 56 (1) 5-18.

Geert Hofstede.com (2012). National culture. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved May 7, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com

Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 14 (Fall 1983) 75-89.

Mallol, C., Holtom, B. & Lee, T. (2007). Job embeddedness in a culturally diverse environment. Journal of Business Psychology. Vol. 22, 35-44.
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Cultural Differences in Companies the Globalization of

Words: 883 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69088583

Cultural Differences in Companies

The Globalization of Enterprise Software:

Comparing Oracle and SAP and Their Challenges

One of the most mercurial and fast-changing areas of technology today is enterprise software. Systems that enable large-scale enterprises to better serve their customers while orchestrating complex supply chains continue to rapidly evolve as Internet-based technologies and usability improve (ettig, 2007). The approaches companies take however to those challenges differ drastically due to ethical, legal, social and political differences in their location and formation. Oracle, founded in edwood City, California and SAP, founded in Walldorf, Germany exemplify these stark differences. The intent of this paper is to complete a comparative analysis of these two firms, analyzing the ethical, legal, social and political differences of each including an assessment of how these differences impact their decision-making processes as well. ecommendations and conclusions are included as well. There are also many potential frameworks to use for…… [Read More]

References

Chang, L. (2003). An examination of cross-cultural negotiation: Using Hofstede framework. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 2(2), 567-570.

Engelstatter, B. (2012). It is not all about performance gains - enterprise software and innovations. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 21(3), 223.

Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. The Executive, 7(1), 81-81.

Hofstede, G.J., Jonker, C.M., & Verwaart, T. (2012). Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents. Group Decision and Negotiation, 21(1), 79-98.
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Cultural Perspectives on Health Changing

Words: 2175 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76259472



In the health care practice, there are those aspects of culture that are sensitive and that the health care practitioners need to consider when making decisions related to the practice. Some of these cultural aspects are those that contradict with the principles of modern medicine. Therefore, by the practitioner having a good understanding of these sensitive aspects of culture, he/she will be able to make the appropriate decision for the situation at hand.

Communication skills are also important for all culturally competent health care professionals. For example, in situations which concern culture and the norms associated with culture based on the amount of information that can be disclosed and the type of information. This can form a serious barrier in the provision of health care and therefore the practitioner needs to understand the culture and the norms in order to be able to enable communication and self-disclosure of the patient.…… [Read More]

References

AUSTRALIAN NURSING and MIDWIFERY COUNCIL National Competency Standards for the Registered Nurse. Australia: Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council.

BURNS, N. & GROVE, S.K. 2009. The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence., St. Louis, MO Elsevier.

CROSS, T., BAZRON, B., DENNIS, K. & ISAACS, M. 1989. Towards a Culturally Competent System of Care, Volume I, Washington, DC, Georgetown University Child Development Center, CASSP Technical Assistance Center.

LEE, H.C., DUDLEY, R.A. & GONZALES, R. 2011. Translating Evidence into Practice, Policy, and Public Health in Perinatal Medicine. NeoReviews, 12, e431-e438.
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Management of Change Campaign Internal

Words: 2506 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16564369



The content language adopted for white collar workers will be a simple, plain one as the goal is for the message to be understood best and used by the employees in their interaction with the customers. In global communication campaigns, the language will be the same for white and blue collar workers and therefore a simple and plain one for everyone. In specific communications, the language can increase in complexity if the auditorium that needs to receive the message had a higher education level.

The content will take under consideration the cultural differences between the corporate headquarters country (e.g. UK) and the local offices (e.g. Korea) and adapt global campaigns to the local requirements. Additionally, the content will be designed to match company objectives and how these objectives can be understood by personnel. Therefore, a specialized team will be dedicated to understanding the personnel, the company values the personnel needs…… [Read More]

Reference List

Acosta, C., Leon, V.J., Conrad, C., Gonzalez-Cervantes, R. And Malave, C.O. 2004. Case Study on Culture and the Implementation of Manufacturing Strategy in Mexico. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, vol. 23(3): pp. 173-181.

Davis, Alison. 2005. Applying Employee Demographics. Strategic Communications Management. August 1st, http://www.allbusiness.com/technology/computer-software-management/943392-1.html

Hofstede, G. 1984. Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning, Asia Pacific Journal: pp.84-99.

Internal Comms. 2006. The Top Seven Macro-Trends in Internal Communications. April edition, www.internalcommshub.com
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Cultural Diversity in Organizations Organization

Words: 4681 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71138902

The solutions are numerous and more diversified.

Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.

Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…… [Read More]

Reference list:

Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.

Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.

Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
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Cultural Conflicts in the Company

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95907820



Particularly in the conflict between Gerstner and the IBM head in Europe, conflicts arise because of the different culture that Americans and Europeans have. There are several assumptions that can be considered to deduce why conflicts arise between Gerstner and IBM head in Europe. First, the action of directly sending emails to European employees may be offending to the head of IBM Europe. It may be a culture to Europeans to show respect to the organization heads by communicating with them first before any other employees. Second, it can also be assumed that the action committed by Gerstner may just really be a normal procedure to the culture he was brought in. That is, that his business culture is to be straight and direct to the point and that he did not really intend any harm to the IBM head in Europe. Thirdly, based on several researches on the European…… [Read More]

References

The Pitfalls of Cross-Cultural Business, in Risk Management, March 2004, Volume 51, Pages: 38-43, by Jared Wade

Business: A hyper market, The Economist, London, April7, 2001

Shah, Satish. Who Says Elephants Can't Dance. http://www.chally.com/enews/issue10/elephants.html
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Managing Diversity Managing Diversities in

Words: 1747 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97515989

The society has always looked down upon women whose roles are always as the subordinate of her male counterpart. The modern business world has seen the presence of women in top managerial positions and the organizations are steered successfully. It is important to provide equal training opportunities because anybody despite gender can be a leader Jones and George 66()

Conclusion

Business organizations are faced with everyday challenges influenced by culture, gender and characteristics of an effective leader. Leadership skills have to be acquired to ensure coordination of all these aspects, so as to ensure the company derives maximum profits from its activities. Anyone can be a leader as it is not based on masculinity. Cultural values have to observe so that coordination of the employees is harmonized. On the other hand it is important to acknowledge our diversities and work towards programs that unify us while at the same time…… [Read More]

Works cited

Carli, L.L., and a.H. Eagly. Gender, Hierarchy, and Leadership. California: Blackwell for the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, 2001. Print.

Jones, G.R., and J.M. George. Contemporary Management. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2007. Print.

Press, Harvard Business School. Managing Diversity: Expert Solutions to Everyday Challenges. Texas: Harvard Business Press, 2009. Print.

Terrell, R.D., and R.B. Lindsey. Culturally Proficient Leadership: The Personal Journey Begins Within. Corwin Press, 2008. Print.
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Managing Organizational Change Describe How

Words: 807 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95278440

The second phase needs to concentrate on initiative and performance to restart the business of Tyco and make it profitable again.

Imagine that you were CEO of Tyco when the former CEO was still on trial for fraud. You are trying to rebuild the company's corporate reputation. Write a script for your address to the shareholders after 18 months in the position. Pay attention to the appropriate use of metaphors in your change conversation to this group.

Transformation is difficult but critical for any business to attain growth and realize its full potential over the long-term. Over the last eighteen months our company has been through a crucible that has tested the trust and value we deliver as a business with our suppliers, customers, employees and shareholders. The goal is to rebuild a solid foundation of trust based on complete accountability. My appointment of a Chief Ethics Officer who is…… [Read More]

References

Ford, J., & Ford, L.. (2008). Conversational Profiles: A Tool for Altering the Conversational Patterns of Change Managers. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44(4), 445.

Glenna Gerard, & Linda Teurfs. (1997, August). Dialogue and transformation.

Executive Excellence, 14(8), 16.

Geert Hofstede, & Robert R. McCrae. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.
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Cultural Differences in Professional Setting

Words: 555 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87880823

"

As the saying goes, 'two heads are better than one' so teams working together can find solutions better than a person working alone. Collective wisdom is important in business and as such, given the diversity in the workforce, professionals are required to be adaptable and willing to evaluate the way they conduct business. According to the Anti-Defamation League diversity has a direct impact on the marketplace, talent, and organizational effectiveness.

Moreover, according to them, when companies value diversity and effectively manage it, they can build better relationships, improve decision-making, stimulate effective team building, expand the ability to change problems into opportunities, provide employees with skills that promote organizational effectiveness, increase employee initiative, camaraderie and morale, and reduce conflict among many other benefits. In today's economy, successful organizations "recognize that managing diversity is an opportunity to increase productivity and create effective business strategies." (Anti-Defamation League, 2003).

eferences

Anti-Defamation League. (2003).…… [Read More]

References

Anti-Defamation League. (2003). The Business Case for Diversity. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/education/edu_awod/anti-Bias_in_workplace.pdf

Kelly, E., Young, A., Clark, L. (1993). Sex Stereotyping in the Workplace: A Manager's Guide -- Women in Business. Business Horizons, March-April. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n2_v36/ai_13815063/?tag=content;col1

Taggart, A. (2007). Beyond Diversity: Becoming a Culturally Competent Organization. Ivey Business Journal, September-October. Retrieved from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/article.asp?intArticle_ID=712

Workman, D. (2008). International Trade Communication: Smart Business Negotiators Adapt to Audience Cultural Styles. Retrieved from http://internationalbusiness.suite101.com/article.cfm/international_trade_communication
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Cultural Dimensions

Words: 2623 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32081712

Cultural Dimensions

"Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." - Dr. Geert Hofstede

After working for six years as a clinical psychologist at BM, both collecting and analyzing data from over 100,000 individuals from forty different counties, Hofstede became interested in the sociology of communication between people of different cultures. An expert, Hofstede's influential wisdom on the interactions between national cultures and organization cultures begot a model identifying five dimensions to differentiate cultures; these dimensions, particularly as they relate to strategy, team communications, influence tactics, and conflict management, are integral in analyzing the cultural communications of such vastly different states as the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, and Spain.

n his work, Gert Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the different dynamics of behavior in organizations, both corporate and civic.…… [Read More]

Ibid.

"Spain." <  http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/spain.htm >

Ibid.
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Cultural Dimension Theory One of

Words: 1514 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31126435



Schwartz Values -- Conformity

Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence

Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.

Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.

EFEENCES

Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf

Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds

Metropolitan University. Cited in:

http://www.aiec.idp.com/pdf/Killick,%20David.pdf

Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Hodgetts, R., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. Retrieved from:  http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf 

Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
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Crossvergence and Cultural Tendencies A Longitudinal Test

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56514825

Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States

Banking Sectors

Crossvergence in a Period of Dynamic. Turbulent Cultural Change: Assessing The Kelley, MacNab, And Worthley Study

The nuances and subtle shifts in a culture as a result of globalization is a paradox for many enterprises to manage over time and also for shot nations to anticipate and plan for economic, political and social shifts over time. As globalization continues to accelerate the integration and assimilation of diverse cultures together, the long-standing cultural frameworks including Hofstede's Model of Cultural Dimensions increasingly appears unable to capture cultural nuances effectively, and often, due to its structure, generalize differences between cultures (Kelley, MacNab, Worthley, 2006). One of the most valuable lessons learned from the Kelley, MacNab, and Worthley study is that there are often significant nuances and differences in the five cultural dimensions within a region, which…… [Read More]

References

Gupta, V. & Wang, J. 2004, "The Transvergence Proposition Under Globalization: Looking Beyond Convergence, Divergence and Crossvergence," Multinational Business Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 37-57.

Kelley, L., MacNab, B. & Worthley, R. (2006) 'Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: a longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors', Journal of International Management, 12 (1), pp. 67 -- 84, Science Direct [Online]. DOI:10.1016/j.intman.2005.04.002 (Accessed: 23 December 2009).

Ralston, D.A. 2008, "The crossvergence perspective: reflections and projections," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 27-40.

Sarala, R.M. & Vaara, E. 2010, "Cultural differences, convergence, and crossvergence as explanations of knowledge transfer in international acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1365-1390.
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Multicultural Business Environment Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimension

Words: 1189 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57741089

multicultural business environment, Geert Hofstede's cultural dimension provide an interesting framework by which to understand the management function. Hofstede proposed that there are five dimensions along which cultures differ -- power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, and time horizon. Managers today must understand each of these dimensions, because they closely relate to how well the workers in the company are going to respond to management challenges.

Hofstede's Dimensions

Since their inception, Hofstede's dimensions have come under scrutiny by the academic community, even though people in business have found them particularly useful to put intercultural interactions into their appropriate context. Hofstede (2011) himself notes that the dimensions are aggregate, and should not be placed on any given individual, because while some individuals more readily fit the dimensions, every individual is different and it is risky to assume that there is going to always be a perfect fit.…… [Read More]

References

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: the Hofstede model in context. Psychology and Culture. Article 8, retrieved April 24, 2014 from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014

Minkov, M. & Hofstede, G. (2011). The evolution of Hofstede's doctrine. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal. Vol. 18 (1) 10-20.

Taras, V., Kirkman, B. & Steel, P. (2014). Examining the impact of culture's consequences. University of North Carolina

Jones, R., Lyu, J., Runyan, R., Fairhurst, A., Kim, Y., Jolly, L. (2014). Cross cultural consensus: Development of the universal leadership model. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management. Vol. 42 (4)
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Global HR Management Human Resource

Words: 3280 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69567668

Employee development and training is an alternate zone. In the IT business, training is not simply about recognizing training needs and giving the presupposed training, but anticipating and reckoning the necessities and advancing suitable training to equip employees so that they can handle the challenges.

Another serious challenge is the way businesses have the ability to fuse all the sub-systems in H and help them in accomplishing a definitive objective: extraordinary performance. Individuals must be groomed to get in tune with the performance culture. Making an environment that invigorates the formation of information and its sustenance all through the organization is an enormous challenge. However, investments in Human esource Information Systems (HIS) must create, maintain, and enhance a performance driven culture. The role shifts to that of a facilitator. H will include the entire organization in this process and go about as an advisor and facilitator. This is a H…… [Read More]

References

Aswathappa, A. (2009). International business. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Bell, M.P. (2012). Diversity in organizations. Mason, Ohio: South-Western College.

Burke, R.J. (2005). Reinventing human resource management: Challenges and new directions. London [u.a.: Routledge.

Congress, E.P., & Gonza-lez, M.J. (2013). Multicultural perspectives in social work practice with families. New York: Springer Pub. Company.