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This disconnect from a cultural standpoint needs more empirical research to further understand and capitalize on from a change management strategy perspective as well.
Implications for Individuals Working Multinationally with the Japanese
The work completed by Masumoto has major implications not only for expatriates working in Japan yet for anyone going to work for a Japanese company anywhere in a westernized nation. The vast differences in how space is allocated are diametrically opposed to how western nations view work space given in companies being more of a relative indicator of independence, individuality, achievement and status. In Japan there more of an orientation on arranging working space to speed up the assimilation and socialization process. This is a critical point for anyone joining a Japanese corporation anywhere in the world to keep in mind, as many Japanese corporations continue this practice of using space for collaboration in the U, S, and…
Sam Beldona, Andrew C. Inkpen, Arvind Phatak. 1998. Are Japanese managers more long-term oriented than United States managers? Management International Review 38, no. 3 (July 1): 239-256. (Accessed December 3, 2007).
Meredith Downes, Masoud Hemmasi, Lee a Graf, Lane Kelley, Lenard Huff. 2002. The propensity to trust: A comparative study of United States and Japanese managers. International Journal of Mgmt 19, no. 4 (December 1): 614-621 (Accessed December 3, 2007).
Tomoko Masumoto 2004. Learning to 'Do Time' in Japan a Study of U.S. Interns in Japanese Organizations. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management: CCM 4, no. 1 (April 1): 19-37. (Accessed December 3, 2007)
Neelankavil, James P. 1992. Management Development and Training Programmes in Japanese Firms. The Journal of Management Development 11, no. 3 (January 1): 12 (Accessed December 3, 2007).
Although it is a cliche of the business world, it is nonetheless also true that no business that neglects - or abuses - its workers can prosper for long. Badly trained, badly prepared, or badly treated workers do not do their best - and indeed, why should they? The best way to get the most out of a worker is to ensure that that worker feels appreciated and respected, and it is the job of those in supervisorial and managerial positions who must ensure that an environment of mutual respect in instigated and maintained.
This is always a challenging task: Managing the relationships among employees is one of the most difficult tasks that there is for supervisors. It is especially difficult when those people who come together in the workplace come from different cultures. This paper addresses this topic: How does a supervisor manage cross-cultural differences in the…
Bivin, C. (2002). Interview.
Carr-Ruffino, N. Managing diversity: People skills for a multicultural workplace (2nd ed.). Boston: Ginn, 2001. http://www.hcgnet.com/html/articles/understanding-Culture.html
Mason, M. (2002). Interview.
Simons, G. (ed.). EuroDiversity: A business guide to managing difference. London: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002.
Additionally the theory also provides for instrumentality which is based on the belief that the performance will result in rewards. In essence, valence is the importance linked with an individual on the expected result (Steele, 2011).This expectation is not the satisfaction that employees expect to receive after achieving the goals: it is seen in Haier through recognition. Expectancy is the faith that best efforts will result in better performance. This is the driving force in Haier by expecting employees and managers to perform better (Harold & Heinz, 2006). This is affected by factors such as possession of appropriate skills for the job, the availability of the right resources, and availability of the required information to perform the required tasks. This theory focuses on the relationship between effort, performance and reward (Raiffa, 1982).
Organizational Culture at Haier
The case study expectancy theory is evident from Haier's Case since employees have the…
(Hofstede, 2005, 232)
Background of Relativism Dimension
A was previously mentioned the idea of cultural relativism in the modern world is based on the fact that colonialism, often seen as an insidious attempt to overrule one culture over another is fundamentally destructive to culture and therefore cannot be applied to business. Individuals and organizations must in the modern world learn to see differences as an opportunity, and overcome the obstacles they place in from of the individual expatriate manager to manage his or her workforce effectively to an organizational standard. Changes must be negotiated and balanced within the context of the foreign culture and must only be made when they prove productive to the common goal.
The east-west cultural differences are some that have been most pervasive in business as so much business transverses the east-west cultural divide. The differences between these two cultures can be staggering, especially with regard…
Adler, Nacy J., Allison Gundersen, 2008. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior 5th edition. Mason, OH: Thomson Higher Education.
Hofstede, Geert, 2005. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind 2nd edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Employees to Foreign Country
Sending Employees to Foreign Countries
Cross-cultural training is essential when companies opt to send employees to foreign countries to accomplish company's objectives. Sending employees without training them on the diverse culture they will encounter is a bad decision, which can lead to accumulation of losses. In addition, the approach used by the company to train their employees, also plays a role in the success of the employee in the foreign country. Different studies have provided different views concerning the major cross-cultural training approaches, but this paper supports the use of the experiential approach. This approach gives the employee an opportunity to work with the micro-culture of the host country, in an effort to prepare the employees effectively.
Regardless of the approach used, cross-cultural training is effective in preparing the employees for overseas assignments. There are various reasons or motives as to why companies send employee to…
Caligiuri, P. et al. (2001). The theory of met expectations applied to expatriate adjustment: The role of cross-cultural training. International Journal of Human Resources Management, 12, 357-372.
Cranfield University. (2006). Measuring the value of international assignments. Pricewaterhousecoopers.com [Online] http://www.pwc.fi/fi_FI/fi/palvelut/tiedostot/pwc_measuring_the_value.pdf (accessed March 30, 2014)
Dowling, P., Festing, M. & Engle, A. (2008). International Human Resource Management. London. Cengage Learning EMEA
Ko, H., Yang, M., & Jung, C. (2011). The Effects of Cross-Cultural Training on Expatriate Assignments. International communication studies, 20(1), pp. 158-174.
Cross cultural challenge related to dialogue in your professional life Management
The cross-cultural issue identified is management. There is a disconnect between managers and employees, especially in cross-cultural work environments. In most cases, organization management does not recognize the different cultures found in the organization and this causes friction between employees. We all have biases that have to do with our upbringing and the culture we learned when growing up. As a manager one should be aware of these biases to ensure that they can avoid them when working in a multicultural environment (Søderberg & Holden, 2002). There are verbal and nonverbal communication styles that could contribute to this challenge. Gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact. There are cultures where keeping eye contact is a sign of disrespect and most people will avoid making direct eye contact. However, I was brought up and taught to always maintain eye contact with…
Maznevski and Peterson (1997) reiterated that culture is important in the provision of an individual's first impression. Studies have indicated that national culture has a lot of influence on the perceptions of individuals, their behaviors as well as their beliefs as noted by Harrison and Huntington (2000) and Hofstede (2001).In order to fully understand the various cultural dimensions; we present Hofstede's cultural dimensions in the next section.
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions
This theory is based on the work of Hofstede (1980) in his landmark study that involved a focus group derived from IBM employees. He derived a total of four dimensions namely; Individualism, Uncertainty Avoidance Index, Masculinity as well as Power Distance Index. An additional dimension called the Long-Term Orientation (LTO) was later added.
Individualism Vs Collectivism
Individualism denotes the strength of the bond that exists between individuals within a given society. Companies and countries having high individualism are noted to…
Harrison, L.E. And Huntington, S.P. (2000) Culture matters: how values shape human progress. Basic Books, New York.
Hofstede, G. (2001) Cultures' Consequences, 2nd ed., CA: Sage, Thousand Oaks.
Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. London: Mc Graw Hill.
Hofstede, G.H. (1980), Culture Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values, Sage Publications, London
cross cultural management international companies ussia. The paper full compare contrast sources. Start cross cultural management finish
Cross cultural management in international companies in ussia
Understanding cross-cultural management
As the forces of globalization spread out and lead to the creation of culturally diverse workforces, the business community is confronted with the need to develop and implement strategies of cross cultural management. Cross cultural management is generically understood as an administrative act which seeks to efficiently lead the culturally different staff members. However, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the concept, the following definitions were retrieved from the specialized literature:
Cross-cultural management is "an inclusive approach to leadership that seeks to build bridges across cultures" (Shonhiwa, 2008).
Cross-cultural management is "a form of management which, recognizing the existence of local cultures, attempts to integrate the values upon which these cultures rest in different organizational functions and, at the same time,…
Bernhard, E., Cook, J.A., 2011, Five principles of effective cross-cultural management, http://ffbsccn.wordpress.com/2011/03/12/five-principles-of-effective-cross-cultural-management / last accessed on May 5, 2011
Browaeys, M.J., Price, R., 2008, Understanding cross-cultural management, Pearson Education ISBN 0273703366
Bhattacharyya, Cross-cultural management: text and cases, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., ISBN 8120340094
Dumetz, J., Communication within the Russian business culture: mind the context, Going Global, http://old.goinglobal.com/hot_topics/russia_jerome_business.asp last accessed on May 5, 2011
There rarely exists a phenomenon that could not be defined in terms of the society and social norms because the social behavior goes hand in hand with every concept associated with living things. The idea of a leader and his follower is present everywhere in every society. Whether it is the boss of a multi-national company having 200 employees underneath him or a president ruling a nation of billion individuals, whether it is the Brahmins or the Shudras in Hinduism or a beggar and a common man in any country, the distinct class difference is prevalent since a very long time. Class stratification is understood as the basic reality of every society. This concept has become the core of Sociology because of its importance and connection to the world's economy, politics, culture and the overall well-being of individuals. Sociology is the study of society and the…
Brown K, 2006, Introduction to Sociology AS Level, Polity Press.
Giddens A, 2001, Sociology, 4th Edition, Polity Press: Gill and MacMillan: Dublin
Goldthorpe, John H. 2000, On Sociology: Numbers, Narratives and the Integration of Research and Theory, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Saha D, 2006, Sociology of Social Stratification, Global Vision Publishing Ho
ole of Communication in Cross Cultural Management
We are engaged in interaction with others all the time in one way or the other at our homes, at our jobsites and in our associations within the community. Irrespective of the fact our understanding with each other the communication is considered difficult. 'Culture' becomes a crucial issue in respect of communicational problems. The methodology for confronting the communication problems and our involvement in the associations within the society are determined by our cultural aspects. Our involvement in groups often reveals astonishing facts about the approach of the people towards working collaboratively. Culture is a complicated concept with varied implications. However, simply the 'culture' can be expressed as a group or community with whom we ventilate our common experiences that design the way we appreciate the world. It incorporates the groups that we are succumbed to like gender, race, or national origin. (DuPraw;…
Barrett, Deborah J. (April, 2003) "Leading Organizations Through Transition: Communication and Cultural Change." Journal of Business communications. Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go2909/is_200304/ai_n7486473 Accessed on 7 December, 2004
"Cross Cultural Communication." Retrieved from http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/mgmtprog/training/DV210.html Accessed on 7 December, 2004
"Cross-Cultural Communication Strategies." International Online Training Program on Intractable Conflict. Retrieved from http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/treatment/xcolcomm.htm Accessed on 7 December, 2004
Cross-Cultural Management and Communication Research. Retrieved from http://www.ntu.edu.sg/nbs/research/HRM1-cross_cultural_mgt.htm Accessed on 7 December, 2004
Cross Cultural Age of Globalization
The quickening pace of globalization continues to force varying cultures, their expectations, norms, value and practices together at a pace that is much faster than had been the case in the past. This presents a unique series of challenges for managers who must navigate the task of creating an agile enough organization to compete, yet still provide enough structure and stability for objectives to be attained. National political culture is a critically important foundation to guiding the definition of a globalization strategy in that it encompasses citizenship practices (Bird, Fang, 2009). The intent of this analysis is to critically evaluate if the concept of a theoretical framework is sufficient to support globalization strategies aligned to the nuances and specific considerations of a given region. Appraising the legitimacy of management strategies in the context of cross-cultural citizenship practices is central to this analysis (Chevrier, 2009).
Bird, A. & Fang, T. (2009) 'Editorial: cross cultural management in the age of globalization', International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9 (2), pp. 139 -- 142, Sage Premier Database [Online]. DOI: 10.1177/1470595809335713 (Accessed: 21 December 2009).
Chevrier, S. (2009) 'Is national culture still relevant to management in a global context? The case of Switzerland', International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9 (2), pp. 169 -- 181, Sage Journals [Online]. DOI: 10.1177/1470595809335723 (Accessed: 23 December 2009).
Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R.R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.
Management Issues Facing Australian Banks in Asia Today
Today, the Australian banking industry enjoys a high level of confidence among domestic and international investors alike, and the nation has managed to weather the fallout from the Asian financial crisis and Great ecession far better than many of its neighbors, and continues to grow economically. This economic development is due in large part to Australia's increasing commercial trade and cultural exchanges with its largest trading partner, China (Chinese economy, 2016). Not surprisingly, the Australian banking industry has taken advantage of these opportunities to establish an ever-increasing number of branches in China, which have largely experienced positive returns on their investment. Nevertheless, given the fundamental cultural differences and worldviews that exist between consumers in Australia and China, it is the argument of this paper that there are also a number of significant management issues facing Australian banks in Asia in general and…
Allen, D. E. & Powell, R. (2011, March 1). Customers and markets: Both are essential to credit-risk measurement in Australian banks. Australasian Accounting Business & Finance Journal, 5(1), 57-61.
Anbari, F. T. & Khilkhanova, E. V. (2009). Managing cross-cultural differences in projects. Orlando, FL: PMI Global Congress North America.
Australia's banking industry. (2011). Australian Trade Commission. Retrieved from http://www.austrade.gov.au/articledocuments/2792 / australias-banking-industry.pdf.aspx.
Australian banks in Asia. (n.d.).
Cross-National Management: Questions
Although the Chinese company Nice Group and the American company it is entering into a partnership with may not face linguistic barriers, they are likely to face considerable cultural barriers that could impede their mutual understanding. The first likely communications obstacle is one of managerial styles. America is a highly individualistic culture, and tends to prefer managers who adopt an empowering or 'coaching' style, meaning that they either give employees considerable autonomy and/or provide support and guidance to employees. This is true particularly regarding complex tasks that require professional expertise. Employees are regarded as valuable human assets who can make a meaningful contribution to the company. In contrast, within high-context cultures such as China, there is a tendency to prefer a far more directive style of management, and to view employees' individual needs as less important than serving the collective (Motivation, n.d, Handout).
Another issue is one…
Dimensions of culture: Ways to understand others. (2012). PowerPoint.
Motivation (or what do we look for in a job?). (n.d). Handout.
Shea, Catherine. (1994). Case study: Moscow Aerostar. The Richard Ivey School of Business.
herefore, the standpoint of social embeddedness is a tool that offers to provide a clear picture if one wants to comprehend the contribution of the relational factors in the success of outsourced IS projects (Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009).
If one is to increase his/her comprehension and develop an insight about how to monitor and control outsourced IS projects, Johns' (2006 as cited in Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009) suggestions come in useful. He recommended that the theory be contextualized by assessing the effect of characteristics of social framework in the setting of outsourced IS projects. It should be assessed how the adopted cultural features of the project affect its success and performance.
Later, the social embeddedness standpoint needs to be contextualized to the setting of the outsourcing of IS projects and a cultural variation framework should be applied to assess mutual principles and standards for those projects that are…
Trent, R.J. And R.M. Monczka (2003). "International purchasing and global sourcing -- what are the differences?" Journal of Supply Chain Management 39(4): 26-37. Taken from: Mittal, R. (2010). CULTURAL CONGRUENCE in CROSS-BORDER ALLIANCES: A MULTI-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of Business RESEARCH, Volume 10, Number 3.
Uzzi, B. 1997. "Social Structure and Competition in Interfirm Networks: The Paradox of Embeddedness," Administrative Science Quarterly (42), pp. 35-67. Taken from: Rai, a., Maruping, L.M. And Venkatesh, V. (2009). OFFSHORE INFORMATION SYSTEMS PROJECT SUCCESS: THE ROLE of SOCIAL EMBEDDEDNESS and CULTURALCHARACTERISTICS. MIS Quarterly Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 617-641.
Werner, S. (2002). "Recent Developments in International Management Research: A Review of 20 Top Management Journals." Journal of Management 28(3): 277-305. Taken from: Mittal, R. (2010). CULTURAL CONGRUENCE in CROSS-BORDER ALLIANCES: A MULTI-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of Business RESEARCH, Volume 10, Number 3.
Cross Cultural Business
Conducting Cross-Cultural Business
Three Cross-Cultural Differences:
Certainly, among the most critical differences that must be accounted for before one begins practicing business in Asia is that regarding the way that people interact. In many ways, estern and Eastern culture stem from very different perceptions of the self and, consequently, how individuals should be expected to conduct themselves in interaction with one another. Indeed, Anbari (2008) et al. highlight this issue, indicating that "two main cultural differences have been identified. Hofstede distinguishes between individualism and collectivism. Trompenaars breaks down this distinction into two dimensions: universalism vs. particularism and individualism vs. communitarianism." (p. 2)
As we most certainly know from experience, the United States is a culture, both professionally and socially, where individuality is stressed. By contrast, in a general sense and throughout its business culture, Asia tends more toward collectivism or communitarianism. This influences how individuals express themselves…
Anbari, F.T.; Khilkhanova, E.V.; Romanova, M.V. & Umpleby, S.A. (2008). Cross Cultural Differences and Their Implications for Managing International Projects. GWU.edu.
Kolesnikov-Jessop, S. (2012). Respecting Cultural Differences. New York Times.
The employee could not however wait until the launch and directly entered in conflict with the manager, accusing him of conspiring to steal the employees' hard earned wages.
3. Framing of the Conflict
Framing the conflict can be achieved from numerous standpoints, but given the characteristics of this particular conflict, the most relevant frame would be that of identity. This basically means that the two parties have different identities and the conflict could have even aroused due to their appurtenance to different groups. In this particular case then, it becomes obvious that each individual belongs to a different group, serving different interests. The head of the sales department belongs to the managerial team, and his focus falls on the company's success onto the market. This success also implies an increased cost efficiency, which, in the eyes of the employee, could explain his interest in granting lowered wages. The employee on…
Gilboa, E., 2002, Media and Conflict: Framing Issues, Making Policy, Shaping Opinions, Transnational Pub
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Internal and external customers are both considered important and their needs must be anticipated and satisfied in the most suitable manner. The decisions that the executive leader makes must be based on solid information. He must be aware of the consequences of his decisions. At the same time, he must have a long-term perspective and make the best choice even if at the beginning its consequences might seem negative.
A further competency that must be taken into consideration refers to the ability to efficaciously manage strategic resources including the human ones, the financial ones and the information ones. From this point-of-view, one needs to be updated with the technological development which are relevant for his work area. In addition, he must make sure that everything from the recruitment process to the selection and rewarding of the staff members is done in the manner which best serves the organization.
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Cross Cultural Leadership
Cultural Differences in Leadership
Cultural differences determine certain leadership traits and portions of our personality. It is easy to discredit the importance of cross-cultural differences and their influences on various leadership styles. Different cultures are known for certain traits. For instance, the Australian culture is known for it egalitarianism. Chinese culture is known as an authority oriented culture (Sharpe, 2007). These differences in culture result in the development of different leadership styles and traits. The following will explore the issue of cultural differences and will support the thesis that leaders from authoritarian countries have a greater power distance from their employees than do those in egalitarian cultures.
Sharpe (2007) found that the Australian culture and the Chinese culture dictated certain traits in regards to desirable leadership traits. Both the Australian and Chinese participants felt that these leadership traits were more important on the lower levels than on…
DeGrosky, M. (2011). Lost in Translation. Wildfire. Retrieved March 4,.2011 from http://wildfiremag.com/command/cultural-context-leadership-200907/
Deng, L. & Gibson, P. (2008). A Qualitative Evaluation on the Role of Cultural Intelligence in Cross-Cultural Leadership Effectiveness. The International Journal of Leadership Studies. 3 (2): 181-197.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Lewis, R. (2006). Cultural Differences in a Shrinking World: Leadership Implications. Personnel Decisions. January 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.hreonline.com/pdfs/PDIPaper.pdf
Typically, difference in expectations between Japanese and American is manifested because of the cultural variables. American believes that it is acceptable to express emotions openly. On the other hand, Japanese culture does not believe in overt expression. Japanese considers the overt expression as unacceptable, and in most cases, Japanese considers the American overt expression as a sign of aggressiveness.
Japanese considers endurance and harmony to be important. Japanese believes that individual is expected to endure hardship in fulfilling the business obligations and this is reflected in the Japanese business style. On the other hand, American believes in business deal that reflects little or no hardship. That is the reason American believes in achieving short-term and immediately goals in the business outcome. (Kumayama, 1991).
Saee (2008) discusses in how the non-verbal behavior varies between Japanese and American culture and its impact in the negotiation process. Non-verbal behaviors such as facial expression,…
Adachi, Y. (1997). Business Negotiations between the Americans and the Japanese. Global Business Languages. 2(4): 18-30. Retrieved 23 September 2012 From
Adair, W.L. (2003). Integrated Sequences and Negotiation Outcome in Same and Mixed Culture. International Journal of Conflict Management. 14 (3/4):. 273-296. Retrieved 23 September 2012 From
Managing Across Cultures
Internationalization of the economy has influenced companies to operate their business globally. The global operation has impact managers with several challenges. Market, product, and production plans must be coordinated on a worldwide basis. The global operation necessitates organization structure to balance centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy. As companies have started their business operation on the international front, the number of their employees has increased. Increase in the employee's abroad management is faced with new global challenges. The three broad international business management challenges were identified by the management gurus as follows (obert, Kossek & Ozeki, 1998):
a) Deployment: To get the right skills where it is required in an organization regardless of the geographical location.
b) Knowledge and creativity distribution: Spreading the knowledge and practices throughout the organization regardless of where they have actually originated.
c) Talent identification and development on global basis: To identify…
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Global workforce issue April 1997, pp. 29-30
Cross-cultural comparison on work value between U.S. And China
A value is "what a person consciously or subconsciously desires, wants, or seeks to attain" (Locke, 1983). Peterson and Gonzalez (2005) say values "are motivational forces," and "influence the role work plays in people's lives." Dawis (2005) asserts that each person (P) has requirements that need to be met, most through their environments (E). In fact, Dawis claims that "Many of P's needs in adulthood can be met at work." The ones that matter most to P. are E's ability to deliver rein forcers (e.g., pay, prestige, and working conditions) that satisfy P's needs. Similarly, E has parallel and complementary requirements that can be met by P. And make P. A satisfactory worker. Thus, understanding work values has a benefit for both individuals (as they look for work environments that support their values), and also for organizations (if they…
Bernstein, Paul. (1997). American Work Values: Their Origin and Development. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Cappelli, P., Bassi, L., Katz, H., Knoke, D., Osterman, P. And Useem, M. (1997). Change at Work. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dawis, R.V. (2005). The Minnesota theory of work adjustment. In Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. (Eds.) Career development and counselling: putting theory and research to work. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Farber, Henry S. (1997). "Changing Face of Job Loss in the United States, 1981-1995." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1: Microeconomics: 55-128.
Managing Diversity in Organizations
Diversity can be described as the manner of recognizing, appreciating, accepting, respecting, and reveling dissimilarities among individuals with regards to age, class, ethnicity, sex, physical and intellectual capability, race, and sexual orientation (Esty et al., 1995). Diversity has become a significant and beneficial component for organizations. With the constant increase in globalization, organizations have been forced to diversify their set of personnel in the work environment. Employees come from diverse backgrounds, geographical areas, tribal and ethnic origins and bear distinctive diverse abilities and aptitudes. It is essential for people to work together and combine abilities and manage diversity commendably in the environment. Every individual's opinions, activities, and also principles are molded by his or her culture. Organizations have to institute diversity into their structures and policies in order to attain the projected goals and objectives (Esty et al., 1995).
The issue of diversity does not just…
Bolen, L., &Kleiner, B. H. (1996). Managing diversity in the workplace. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 3(4), 3-8.
Cox, T., & Beale, R. L. (1997). Developing competency to manage diversity: Readings, cases & activities. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
Estyy, K., Griffin, R., Schorr-Hirsh, M. (1995). Workplace Diversity: A manager's guide to solving problems and turning diversity into a competitive advantage. Massachusetts: Adams Media Corporation.
esearch also helps in planning marketing programs through helping to identify new opportunities and thus to evaluate the potential for a new idea and also to identify the areas where the marketing efforts will be concentrated KnowThis LLC, 2012()
esearch also helps to minimize risks. By the marketing managers being able to plan the marketing efforts effectively and they can then identify what is required and to ensure that the development of the programs is highly focused towards the demand in the market. Market research also helps to create benchmarks and to measure progress. Early research helps to highlight any major gaps in the marketing plan which need to be bridged and regular market research helps to show if there are any improvements in sales being brought about by the marketing efforts.
Segmentation and the marketing mix
Segmentation helps greatly in customer retention and acquisition of new clientele. This is…
Cherian, M., Flores, M., & Srinivasan, G. (2008). Critical Success Factors to Collaborate in Cross Border Alliances: Experiences of Indian Manufacturing Enterprises. Paper presented at the SMF conference, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur.
Horn, L.P. (2011). Online Marketing Strategies for Reaching Today's Teens. [Article]. Young Adult Library Services, 9(2), 24-27.
KnowThis LLC. (2012). Marketing Research Retrieved May 20th, 2012, from http://www.knowthis.com/principles-of-marketing-tutorials/marketing-research/examples-of-research-in-marketing/
Kotler, P., & Keller, K.L. (2012). Marketing Management, Thirteenth Edition. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
IDV skyrockets in the U.S. which is supported by the concept of rugged individualism and taking care of one's own family (Minkov, Hofstede, 2011). It's nearly the opposite in Japan, where communities care for each other, showing IDV to be a measure of collectivism and collaboration over individuality (Hofstede, McCrae, 2004). For Mercedes, the brand in Japan would need to stress a wealthy homeowner or land owner using their new car to help their neighbors and those around them who are not necessarily relatives. In the U.S., the Mercedes brand has quickly become a symbol of individual achievement, status and financial accomplishment. As a result, the Mercedes brand means something completely different in Japan than it does in the U.S. On the Long-Term Orientation (LTO) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) areas of the model, Japan far outpaces the U.S. For Mercedes and Nike, the safety and security of their brand need…
Anders Bengtsson, Fleura Bardhi, & Meera Venkatraman. (2010). How global brands travel with consumers: An examination of the relationship between brand consistency and meaning across national boundaries. International Marketing Review, 27(5), 519-540.
Czinkota, M.. (2011). Why international marketing? Marketing Management, 20(2), 14.
Geert Hofstede, & Robert R. McCrae. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.
Michael Minkov, and Geert Hofstede. 2011. The evolution of Hofstede's doctrine. Cross Cultural Management 18, no. 1, (January 1): 10-20.
Management STYLE IN THE United States
Cultural Values and Business
Theory X vs. Theory Y
Management the High Tech Way
Management STYLE IN THE DOMINICAN EPUBLIC
CULTUAL VALUES AND Business
ole of Entrepreneurship
In the United States, management values, beliefs and attitudes have undergone a gradual shift away from the simplistic stance of planning, organizing and directing. Valuable managerial skills, no matter what culture is being considered, have traditionally been masculine skills, highlighting the dominant, assertive, and decisive elements of management behavior and downplaying the team and supportive aspects that are more readily identified with women. This traditional view is now giving way in the United States to an approach where team behaviour is seen as increasingly important to a truly successful management style.
The global leadership skills of the future will evolve from a combination of individual/group and masculine/feminine traits involving strategic thinking and communication skills. The final result…
Arnold, D.J. & Quelch, J.A. (1998). "New strategies in emerging markets." Sloan Management Review, 40, 7-20.
Bakhtari, H. (1995). "Cultural Effects on Management Style: A Comparative Study of American and Middle Eastern Management Styles." International Studies of Management & Organization, 25(3), 97+.
Barham, K., Fraser, J. & Heath, L. (1988). Management for the future. Foundation for Management Education/Ashridge Management College.
Bennis, W., Heil, G. & Stephens, D. (2000). Douglas McGregor, revisited: Managing the human side of enterprise. New York: John Wiley.
Starbucks wants to enter South Africa, the "ainbow Nation," and learn about doing business in Africa for future expansion across the continent. It has the conditions for success, but critical will be managing a multicultural team of employees in every store. There are 11 major languages in South Africa, highlighting the diversity of the country, and it has also become a magnet for immigrants from other African countries as well. Starbucks needs to implement programs such as employee groups in charge of multicultural initiatives and it should track the demographics of its workforce to ensure that they are diverse. Management teams should also be diverse. The company should have a multicultural management training program as one of its major controls.
The corporation to be discussed in this paper is Starbucks, and they wish to enter the South African market. Starbucks operates in dozens of countries worldwide.…
BBC. (2013). South Africa profile. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094760
Japan Today. (2013). Starbucks on track to open 1000th store in Japan. Japan Today. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://www.japantoday.com/category/business/view/starbucks-on-track-to-open-1000th-store-in-japan
Luthans, F., Doh, J. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior. McGraw-Hill.
Managing the Modern Workforce
Date Here (Day, Month, Year)
When an organization expands its operations into international markets, it hires individuals from different nations and cultures. These individuals are culturally diverse and need to be managed effectively. Numerous researches have been conducted to elucidate this important issue of the business world; each of them has some application for the modern management practices. Although workforce diversity is more an issue of the 21st Century, but massive of researches have been conducted in the late 80's and 90's.
The literature has some limitations which entice the modern researches to work on this issue and broaden the basis of knowledge for the future studies. The biggest limitation is the unclear definition of workforce diversity. Every researcher has given his own definition for this concept; however the most common definition is explained in the context of 'culture'. Most of the…
Darmadi, S., 2010, Do Women in Top Management Affect Firm Performance? Evidence from Indonesia. Indonesian Capital Market and Financial Institution Supervisory Agency (Bapepam-LK), pp. 2-5 Available at
Ferro, N., 2004, Cross-Country Ethical Dilemmas in Business: A Descriptive Framework. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Working Paper No. 28, pp. 16-22. Available at
Guidroz, A., M., Kotrba, L., M., & Denison, D., R., 2009, Workplace Diversity: Is National or Organizational Culture Predominant? Linkage, Denison Consulting, LLC, pp. 1-5
Huckman, R., S., & B., R., Staats, 2010, Fluid Tasks and Fluid Teams: The Impact of Diversity in Experience and Team Familiarity on Team Performance, Harvard Business School Technology & Operations Management. Unit Working Paper No. 09-145, pp. 2-10. Available at
Cross-Cultural Differences and Communication
Cultural identity is a significant force that shapes the interaction between people from different cultures. The contemporary globalization has made intercultural interactions inevitable in the contemporary society. People draw conclusions about other people's culture depending on a wide range of observations about the individual's way of live, values and behavior. For instance, understanding what people from specific cultural values helps in drawing about that culture in that specific aspect of value or behavior (Byram, 2015). For example, I have drawn the conclusion that martial art is a significant cultural practice in the Chinese culture. This conclusion is informed by the several Chinese films that I have watched that have largely been characterized by Martial Arts. This predominance of martial arts in these films informed the conclusion I have drawn from the Chinese culture.
UNIT 4 DISCUSSION
I am visiting a new country within a different culture…
oles and Experiences in Cross-Cultural Business
Cross-cultural differences are recognized as the biggest barrier to doing business in the world market (Fan & Zigang, 2004). esearch aimed at exploring cross-cultural differences in regards to international business investigated key differences in personality traits between business leaders in different countries. The key finding demonstrated by this research was that the factors that counted for most of the differences experienced by executives working internationally were agreeableness and emotional balance (P Newswire, 2007). This is expressed in differences between countries with regard to how extensively group harmony is valued and the extent to which emotions are expressed or muted (P Newswire, 2007).
The way businesses in China experience and process risk has been found to differ significantly to that of the West (Brumagim & Xianhua, 2005). These differences may be appropriated explained through prospect theory, which hypothesizes that potential losses are experienced more intensely…
Bouncken, R.B., Ratzmann, M., and Viviane, A., 2008. Cross-cultrual innovation teams: effects of four types of attitudes towards diversity. International Journal of Business Strategy [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 3 December 2010].
Brumagim, A.L. And Xianhua, W., 2005. An examination of cross-cultural differences in attitudes towards risk: testing prospect theory in the People's Republic of China. Multinational Business Review [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 5 December 2010].
Business Editors, 2003. Cultural and communication barriers are of the greatest challenges when conducting business in China. Business Wire [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 3 December 2010].
Fan, P. And Zigang, Z., 2004. Cross-cultural challenges when doing business in China. Singapore Management Review [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 3 December 2010].
The impact of technology and the increase of international travel and exploration, the global environment has provided a landscape that depends on the knowledge of other culture. The differences among the human race are everywhere and the denotation of such individualities create challenges for those wishing to attain a successful career based in international exposure.
The purpose of this essay is to explore various themes and ideas that relate to cross-cultural management theory applied in a practical and pragmatic manner. This essay aims to answer the following question:
Which international skills, knowledge, behaviours and experiences will be advantageous in the development of my future career?
My future career selection is not quite clear at this time but I have narrowed it down to becoming involved in hotel management in Central America. This essay will first examine the basics of culture to help give a theoretical background to my…
Branine, M. (2011). Managing across cultures: Concepts, policies and practices. Sage.
Crowne, K.A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence?. Business Horizons,51(5), 391-399.
De Bono, S., & Van Der Heijden, B. (2011). Managing cultural diversity. Meyer & Meyer Verlag.
Duncan, T. (2005). Current issues in the global hospitality industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(4), 359-366.
Business Management -- Annotated Bibliography
Eisenberg, J., Lee, H.J., Bruck, F., Brenner, B., Claes, M.T., Mironski, J., and Bell, R. "Can
Business chools Make tudents Culturally Competent? Effects of Cross-Cultural
Management Courses on Cultural Intelligence." Academy of Management Learning & Education. 12.4 (2013): 603-621. Web. 25 July 2014.
Because of the ongoing globalization for businesses and the need to develop management policies and strategies that help the workforce understand and relate to diversity, business schools need to teach management courses on "cultural intelligence"
(CU) Eisenberg and colleagues explain. This article is valuable and the recommendations for business schools should be incorporated because managers working for international firms need skills that allow them to interact with people from a variety of cultures. For students pursuing a business career, the development of cultural intelligence is vital.
Hence, taking courses in cross-cultural management brings knowledge and benefits.
Espedal, B. Gooderham, P.N., and tensaker,…
Scherer, A., Palazzo, G., and Matten, D. "Introduction to the Special Issue: Globalization as a Challenge for Business Responsibilities." Business Ethics Quarterly, 19.3 (2009): 317-
347. Web. 25 July 2014.
This is an article that deals with the ethics of international business relationships. Because national borders are not as politically significant as they once were, global business organizations enter into markets with "ill-defined rules" of conduct (Scherer, et al., 327). Thus, corporations become "political actors" because they make up their own rules as they enter each new market, Scherer points out. The article asserts that global businesses must become accountable democratically and incorruptible as well. The value of this article is in part because it insists that corporate social responsibility (CSR) goes to deeper levels when a firm is operating in a variety of diverse cultures. Also this piece is important to today's business major because ethical behavior in the international market place isn't just recommended, it is imperative for success in terms of profits and accountability as well.
(Buhalis, 2008) at the same time, the Internet is helping to bring many regions closer together. This means that some of the challenges which were mentioned earlier are exposing people in specific areas to different ideas. (Hase, 2007) Over the course of time, they will become more accepting and interested in learning about new cultures. (Hase, 2007) This is when multiculturalism management strategies can be effective in creating a unique work environment that is embracing all of the various attributes. (Buhalis, 2008) (Hase, 2007)
This is positive because it is changing the mindset of everyone for the better and dealing with cultural barriers (which were difficult to address in the past). (Brennan, 2007) the way that this can be maximized is to use new technology to introduce cutting edge ideas to someone. This can occur by having them work with particular devices that will discuss specific attributes (which can take…
Brennan, R. (2007). TQM Marketing Perspectives. Quality Assurance in Education, 15 (1), 44 -- 60.
Buhalis, D. (2008). Progress in Information Technology. Tourism Management, 29 (4), 609 -- 623.
Canen, a. (2008). Multicultural Leadership. International Journal of Conflict Management, 19 (1), 4 -- 19.
Devine, F. (2007). Managing Cultural Diversity. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, (19) 2, 120-132
Support for the second hypothesis, that male speakers would be perceived as less cooperative than female speakers, also varied across situations, and the effect was even smaller" (Edwards & Hamilton 2004). Support for the Tannen model only was found after additional research was done, and a new questionnaire was given that scored recipient's self-perception in terms of feminine and masculine characteristics and inculcation into traditional gender roles. Individuals with strong gender self-images were more likely to fall in line with the Tannen model of women perceiving nurturance and males perceiving conflict in relatively neutral scenarios and seeing men in general as less cooperative.
This study is provocative on several levels, not the least of which in its stress upon the individualized nature of gender norms and the lack of inherent biological tendencies towards perceiving nurturance and conflict. It suggests the need to more carefully screen subjects in terms of individualized…
Edwards, Renee & Mark a Hamilton. "You Need to Understand My Gender Role: An Empirical
Test of Tannen's Model of Gender and Communication." Sex Roles. 50.7/8 (2004):
491-504. Research Library. ProQuest. 30 Oct. 2008 http://www.proquest.com/
Oetzel, John G. & Stella Ting-Toomey. "Face concerns in interpersonal conflict."
Generational issues, while seemingly the obvious hindrance to a smooth flow of production, are, as Tulgan offers (198), "merely a reflection of the business issue at play - transition to the workplace of the future."
However, that said, the one pivotal / key sentence Tulgan offers, also on page 198, is very straight to the point, on the money, and a salient theme Charlie should launch in order to save his job, and the jobs of most people under his jurisdiction. "Charlie must get things back on track and restore harmony by getting people focused on mission instead of personality."
The 10 points Tulgan offers are all very cogent and wise; however, Charlie doesn't really have time to implement all those ideas. Gloria egalbuto, with Bath & Body Works, offers some common sense solutions, as do Diedra Wager, Pat Crull, and others. But Judy Corson hits the nail on the…
Zemke, Ron; & Raines, Claire; & Filipczak, Bob. Generations at Work: Managing the Clash of Veterans, Boomers, Xers, and Nexters in Your Workplace. New York:
Lessons From Vietnam
The concept of cross-cultural capability is a relatively new area of study in the academic world, even though we have known for years that a number of issues might have been better resolved with a greater understanding and sensitive towards other cultures. The term itself applies to human behavior in a number of dimensions -- psychologically, sociologically, certainly political, and cultural. This phenomenon of cultural misunderstanding was quite apparent in the post-World War II conflicts, particularly that of the regional conflicts in Vietnam post-1950 (Killick, 1999).
Many of the diplomatic and cultural issues surrounding the Vietnam Conflict were a result of a Cold War mentality. The Cold War, not really a war, but more a preparation for conflict, was the tensions between the U.S.S.. And Allies (Warsaw Pact) and the U.S. And Allies (NATO). One side held that America was economically and militarily aggressive after World War…
The Vietnam War. (2006). The History Channel. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com / topics/vietnam-war
Belmonte, L. (2010). Selling the American Way -- U.S. Propaganda and the Cold War. Pittsburg, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Damms, Richard, (2001), The Eisenhower Presidency, 1953-1961, New York: Longman.
Davidson, P. (1991), Vietnam At War: The History, 1946-1975. New York: Norton.
Accordingly, text article notes that "international negotiation is often not just between individual people, but between large delegations, each of which is well organized and where every person has specialized and skilled work. There may be cultural experts, linguists and subject specialists as well as a chief negotiator and support negotiators. In a complex negotiation, there may be multiple and interlined sub-negotiations going on at the same time, for example where a trade negotiation includes deal involving various industries and interests." (Changing Minds, 1)
This denotes that negotiations are typically an extremely complex and nuanced process. Such mediation may occur over an extended period of time and require multiple face-to-face encounters and the constant recasting of terms and conditions. This is because such negotiation is confounded by the true challenge of establishing an equilibrium between parties. Ideally, a negotiation will produce a compromise that is viewed as essentially favorable to…
Changing Minds. (2002). International Negotiations. Changing Minds.org.
McMahon, H. (2008). Fact Sheet: International Negotiations on Climate Change. World Resources Institute.
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…
Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf
Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading
Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf
Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
(Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)
Agencies are required to develop a good understanding of their individual strengths and weaknesses so as to plan their programs to their best advantage. An agency acquires this information by evaluating the views of the employees on diversity issues. Analysis of the trends and projections of the workforce in determination of the skills gaps and necessitates and devising successive planning strategies are crucial moves for agency strategic and business planning. Such efforts facilitate the managers with the required facts so as to be aware of the assignment of resources and the making the necessary planning for the future work of the organization and the points of concentration of their energy to produce a high performance organization. (Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce)
The successful managers understand the necessary skills for producing a successful diverse workforce. Firstly they should be aware of the discrimination and…
Building and Maintaining a Diverse Workforce" (25 June 2000) Retrieved at http://www.opm.gov/Diversity/diversity-3.htm . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Creating a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved from Retrieved at http://www.businessweek.com/adsections/diversity/diversework.htm . Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Recruiting and Managing a Diverse Workforce" Retrieved at http://www.vault.com/nr/newsmain.jsp?nr_page=3&ch_id=402&article_id=19018&cat_id=1102Accessed on 15 January, 2005
Green, Kelli A; L. pez, Mayra; Wysocki, Allen; Kepner, Karl. "Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools" University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved at http://www.minoritygraduate.com/feature27.asp. Accessed on 15 January, 2005
In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.
Effect of Cultural Diversity on…
Cultural Distance: How Is it Measured, And How it Impact on Global Marketing Operations
The persistence of cultural distances is relevant for the global multinational marketing operations exposed to multiple cultures in their everyday activities. This indicates that marketing across border introduces complexities because it forces global marketers to tailor their approaches and practices to each cultural context they carry out their business activities. As a result, this paper will discuss concepts applicable to different aspects of cross-border operations. The primary focus of the paper is on multinational business corporations (Baumann, 2007).
This study shows how Hofstede's model is still the most relevant piece of reference for a successive cross-cultural analysis despite it being a widely criticized. The paper compares and contrasts Hofstede's famous concepts with Turner and Schwartz, Trompenaars and Hampden's valued inventory. It will attempt to provide empirical evidence of how cultural diversity influences the global markets by…
Baumann, A. (2007). Influences of culture on the style of business behavior between Western and Arab managers. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Baumu-ller, M. (2007). Managing cultural diversity: An empirical examination of cultural networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations. Bern: Lang.
Cavusgil, T. & Ghauri, P.N. (2009). New challenges to international marketing. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Curry, J.E. (2009). A short course in international marketing: Approaching and penetrating the global marketplace. Petaluma, CA: World Trade Press.
The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.
In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…
Devine, P. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 56 (1) 5-18.
Geert Hofstede.com (2012). National culture. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved May 7, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com
Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 14 (Fall 1983) 75-89.
Mallol, C., Holtom, B. & Lee, T. (2007). Job embeddedness in a culturally diverse environment. Journal of Business Psychology. Vol. 22, 35-44.
The content language adopted for white collar workers will be a simple, plain one as the goal is for the message to be understood best and used by the employees in their interaction with the customers. In global communication campaigns, the language will be the same for white and blue collar workers and therefore a simple and plain one for everyone. In specific communications, the language can increase in complexity if the auditorium that needs to receive the message had a higher education level.
The content will take under consideration the cultural differences between the corporate headquarters country (e.g. UK) and the local offices (e.g. Korea) and adapt global campaigns to the local requirements. Additionally, the content will be designed to match company objectives and how these objectives can be understood by personnel. Therefore, a specialized team will be dedicated to understanding the personnel, the company values the personnel needs…
Acosta, C., Leon, V.J., Conrad, C., Gonzalez-Cervantes, R. And Malave, C.O. 2004. Case Study on Culture and the Implementation of Manufacturing Strategy in Mexico. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, vol. 23(3): pp. 173-181.
Davis, Alison. 2005. Applying Employee Demographics. Strategic Communications Management. August 1st, http://www.allbusiness.com/technology/computer-software-management/943392-1.html
Hofstede, G. 1984. Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning, Asia Pacific Journal: pp.84-99.
Internal Comms. 2006. The Top Seven Macro-Trends in Internal Communications. April edition, www.internalcommshub.com
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…
Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.
Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
Particularly in the conflict between Gerstner and the IBM head in Europe, conflicts arise because of the different culture that Americans and Europeans have. There are several assumptions that can be considered to deduce why conflicts arise between Gerstner and IBM head in Europe. First, the action of directly sending emails to European employees may be offending to the head of IBM Europe. It may be a culture to Europeans to show respect to the organization heads by communicating with them first before any other employees. Second, it can also be assumed that the action committed by Gerstner may just really be a normal procedure to the culture he was brought in. That is, that his business culture is to be straight and direct to the point and that he did not really intend any harm to the IBM head in Europe. Thirdly, based on several researches on the European…
The Pitfalls of Cross-Cultural Business, in Risk Management, March 2004, Volume 51, Pages: 38-43, by Jared Wade
Business: A hyper market, The Economist, London, April7, 2001
Shah, Satish. Who Says Elephants Can't Dance. http://www.chally.com/enews/issue10/elephants.html
The society has always looked down upon women whose roles are always as the subordinate of her male counterpart. The modern business world has seen the presence of women in top managerial positions and the organizations are steered successfully. It is important to provide equal training opportunities because anybody despite gender can be a leader Jones and George 66()
Business organizations are faced with everyday challenges influenced by culture, gender and characteristics of an effective leader. Leadership skills have to be acquired to ensure coordination of all these aspects, so as to ensure the company derives maximum profits from its activities. Anyone can be a leader as it is not based on masculinity. Cultural values have to observe so that coordination of the employees is harmonized. On the other hand it is important to acknowledge our diversities and work towards programs that unify us while at the same time…
Carli, L.L., and a.H. Eagly. Gender, Hierarchy, and Leadership. California: Blackwell for the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, 2001. Print.
Jones, G.R., and J.M. George. Contemporary Management. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2007. Print.
Press, Harvard Business School. Managing Diversity: Expert Solutions to Everyday Challenges. Texas: Harvard Business Press, 2009. Print.
Terrell, R.D., and R.B. Lindsey. Culturally Proficient Leadership: The Personal Journey Begins Within. Corwin Press, 2008. Print.
The second phase needs to concentrate on initiative and performance to restart the business of Tyco and make it profitable again.
Imagine that you were CEO of Tyco when the former CEO was still on trial for fraud. You are trying to rebuild the company's corporate reputation. Write a script for your address to the shareholders after 18 months in the position. Pay attention to the appropriate use of metaphors in your change conversation to this group.
Transformation is difficult but critical for any business to attain growth and realize its full potential over the long-term. Over the last eighteen months our company has been through a crucible that has tested the trust and value we deliver as a business with our suppliers, customers, employees and shareholders. The goal is to rebuild a solid foundation of trust based on complete accountability. My appointment of a Chief Ethics Officer who is…
Ford, J., & Ford, L.. (2008). Conversational Profiles: A Tool for Altering the Conversational Patterns of Change Managers. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44(4), 445.
Glenna Gerard, & Linda Teurfs. (1997, August). Dialogue and transformation.
Executive Excellence, 14(8), 16.
Geert Hofstede, & Robert R. McCrae. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.
As the saying goes, 'two heads are better than one' so teams working together can find solutions better than a person working alone. Collective wisdom is important in business and as such, given the diversity in the workforce, professionals are required to be adaptable and willing to evaluate the way they conduct business. According to the Anti-Defamation League diversity has a direct impact on the marketplace, talent, and organizational effectiveness.
Moreover, according to them, when companies value diversity and effectively manage it, they can build better relationships, improve decision-making, stimulate effective team building, expand the ability to change problems into opportunities, provide employees with skills that promote organizational effectiveness, increase employee initiative, camaraderie and morale, and reduce conflict among many other benefits. In today's economy, successful organizations "recognize that managing diversity is an opportunity to increase productivity and create effective business strategies." (Anti-Defamation League, 2003).
Anti-Defamation League. (2003).…
Anti-Defamation League. (2003). The Business Case for Diversity. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/education/edu_awod/anti-Bias_in_workplace.pdf
Kelly, E., Young, A., Clark, L. (1993). Sex Stereotyping in the Workplace: A Manager's Guide -- Women in Business. Business Horizons, March-April. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n2_v36/ai_13815063/?tag=content;col1
Taggart, A. (2007). Beyond Diversity: Becoming a Culturally Competent Organization. Ivey Business Journal, September-October. Retrieved from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/article.asp?intArticle_ID=712
Workman, D. (2008). International Trade Communication: Smart Business Negotiators Adapt to Audience Cultural Styles. Retrieved from http://internationalbusiness.suite101.com/article.cfm/international_trade_communication
Schwartz Values -- Conformity
Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence
Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.
Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.
Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Metropolitan University. Cited in:
Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…
Hodgetts, R., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. Retrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States
Crossvergence in a Period of Dynamic. Turbulent Cultural Change: Assessing The Kelley, MacNab, And Worthley Study
The nuances and subtle shifts in a culture as a result of globalization is a paradox for many enterprises to manage over time and also for shot nations to anticipate and plan for economic, political and social shifts over time. As globalization continues to accelerate the integration and assimilation of diverse cultures together, the long-standing cultural frameworks including Hofstede's Model of Cultural Dimensions increasingly appears unable to capture cultural nuances effectively, and often, due to its structure, generalize differences between cultures (Kelley, MacNab, Worthley, 2006). One of the most valuable lessons learned from the Kelley, MacNab, and Worthley study is that there are often significant nuances and differences in the five cultural dimensions within a region, which…
Gupta, V. & Wang, J. 2004, "The Transvergence Proposition Under Globalization: Looking Beyond Convergence, Divergence and Crossvergence," Multinational Business Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 37-57.
Kelley, L., MacNab, B. & Worthley, R. (2006) 'Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: a longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors', Journal of International Management, 12 (1), pp. 67 -- 84, Science Direct [Online]. DOI:10.1016/j.intman.2005.04.002 (Accessed: 23 December 2009).
Ralston, D.A. 2008, "The crossvergence perspective: reflections and projections," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 27-40.
Sarala, R.M. & Vaara, E. 2010, "Cultural differences, convergence, and crossvergence as explanations of knowledge transfer in international acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1365-1390.
multicultural business environment, Geert Hofstede's cultural dimension provide an interesting framework by which to understand the management function. Hofstede proposed that there are five dimensions along which cultures differ -- power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, and time horizon. Managers today must understand each of these dimensions, because they closely relate to how well the workers in the company are going to respond to management challenges.
Since their inception, Hofstede's dimensions have come under scrutiny by the academic community, even though people in business have found them particularly useful to put intercultural interactions into their appropriate context. Hofstede (2011) himself notes that the dimensions are aggregate, and should not be placed on any given individual, because while some individuals more readily fit the dimensions, every individual is different and it is risky to assume that there is going to always be a perfect fit.…
Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: the Hofstede model in context. Psychology and Culture. Article 8, retrieved April 24, 2014 from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014
Minkov, M. & Hofstede, G. (2011). The evolution of Hofstede's doctrine. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal. Vol. 18 (1) 10-20.
Taras, V., Kirkman, B. & Steel, P. (2014). Examining the impact of culture's consequences. University of North Carolina
Jones, R., Lyu, J., Runyan, R., Fairhurst, A., Kim, Y., Jolly, L. (2014). Cross cultural consensus: Development of the universal leadership model. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management. Vol. 42 (4)
Employee development and training is an alternate zone. In the IT business, training is not simply about recognizing training needs and giving the presupposed training, but anticipating and reckoning the necessities and advancing suitable training to equip employees so that they can handle the challenges.
Another serious challenge is the way businesses have the ability to fuse all the sub-systems in H and help them in accomplishing a definitive objective: extraordinary performance. Individuals must be groomed to get in tune with the performance culture. Making an environment that invigorates the formation of information and its sustenance all through the organization is an enormous challenge. However, investments in Human esource Information Systems (HIS) must create, maintain, and enhance a performance driven culture. The role shifts to that of a facilitator. H will include the entire organization in this process and go about as an advisor and facilitator. This is a H…
Aswathappa, A. (2009). International business. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
Bell, M.P. (2012). Diversity in organizations. Mason, Ohio: South-Western College.
Burke, R.J. (2005). Reinventing human resource management: Challenges and new directions. London [u.a.: Routledge.
Congress, E.P., & Gonza-lez, M.J. (2013). Multicultural perspectives in social work practice with families. New York: Springer Pub. Company.
Strategic Management of Human esources
This paper acquaints the reader with the Human esource Management at the largest fast food brand in the World -- McDonald's. It describes the core HM practices which are currently in use at the company and discusses them in the light of modern International H Management practices. The paper also contains recommendations on how McDonald's can improve its H practices.
McDonald's is the World's largest fast food service retailer. Head quartered in Oak Brook, United States; it operates with almost 33,000 fully functioning fast food outlets in 119 countries. It was incorporated as a barbecue restaurant by ichard and Maurice McDonald in 1940. Initially, McDonald's was just offering beef burgers, drinks, and fries. In 1955, McDonald brothers sold it to aymond Albert Kroc who was a franchising agent at that time. ay Kroc took this business to the heights of success…
Anca, D.C., & Vazquez, A., 2007, Managing Diversity in the Global Organisation. New York: Palgrave: Macmillan
Ashamalla, M., H., 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, 8 (2): 54-63
Bloom, M., C., & Milkovich, G., T., 1997, Re-thinking international compensation: From expatriate and national cultures to strategic flexibility. NY: Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies, pp. 1-2
Chain, P., H., 2000, What Real MNEs are doing in Managing Expatriate Assignments: Trends and Strategies, International Management, IS 6670, pp. 2-4
International Human esource Management
International Business H: Vital and Pivotal
During the 20th century, the human resources (H) function has become quite skilled at managing human capital which is frequently defined as the skills, knowledge and experience of individual workers within a company. Human resources management has never been more vital to organizations than it is today as more and more businesses are going global. For globalizing companies, experienced, informed and effective Human esource people skills are becoming a strategic asset. In order to maximize the competitive potential of employees across global markets many multinational companies will need to revise their H policies and programs.
Table of Contents
Background and Significance
Discussion and Implications
During the 20th century, the human resources (H) function has become quite skilled at managing human capital which is frequently defined as the skills, knowledge and experience of individual workers within…
Adeleye, Ifedapo. (2011). Theorizing the diffusion of International Human Resource
Practices:Towards an Integrated Conceptual Approach. International Journal of Business andManagement, 6(12), 254-269.
Baughn, C. Christopher, Neupert, Kent E., Anh, Phan Thi Thuc, and Hang, Ngo Thi
Minh.(2011). Social capital and human resource management in international joint ventures inVietnam: a perspective from a transitional economy. The International
Longford is a small community of approximately 3,000 people situated 20 kilometres south of Launceston. Longford lies within the Northern Midlands local government area, and has a predominantly Anglo-Saxon community. Longford Medical Services (LMS) has an active patient population of 9,905 people residing in or around Longford and employs eleven General Practitioners (GPs). In the past, some GPs experienced difficulties managing clients with mental health issues. They frequently required longer consultations, creating delays for other LMS patients, which became difficult to accommodate. There were also long delays for appointments with private psychiatrists, Tasmanian Psychiatric Services, and other programs that must be accessed in Launceston. As in other small communities, transport options are limited. The MHNIP commenced in Longford in early 2009. This coincided with the closure of a residential psychiatric service (Howard Hill) in Longford. Medical services are delivered from two LMS premises. The main site is in Longford itself,…
Carter, L., Ulrich, D., & Goldsmith, M. (Eds.). (2012). Best practices in leadership development and organization change: how the best companies ensure meaningful change and sustainable leadership (Vol. 18). John Wiley & Sons.
French, R. (2007) Cross-cultural management in work organisations. London: Chartered institute of personnel and development.
Fuller J. N & Green J. (2005). The Leader's Role in Strategy.
Gerras, S. J., Clark, M., Allen, C., Keegan, T., Meinhart, R., Wong, L., ... & Reed, G. (2010). Strategic leadership primer. ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA.
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…
Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html [Accessed 18 August 2012].
Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].
Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm [Accessed 24 August 2012].
Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=36 [Accessed 18 August 2012].
In the contemporary, globalization continues to increase rapidly and this has given rise to diversity within organizations. This has necessitated leaders to nurture and advance a cultural mindset that permits diversity to success devoid of risking the extent of productivity and output. Devoid of this, personnel can constantly be in conflict with each other, and this can give rise to inefficiency, increase in turnover and lower performance and productivity (Gupta and Govindarajan, 2002). The purpose of this paper is to address the development and carrying out of a cultural mindset amongst a diverse global group of employees.
Integrating Varied Perspectives in Dynamic Environments to Lead Successfully in a Culturally Diverse Society
In order to become a successful leader in a culturally diverse society, it is necessary to undertake the integration of varied perspectives in dynamic settings. One of the ways is acknowledging that indeed there exist differences in perspective and…
Global Perspectives on Leadership
Working with individuals from Latin America requires significant consideration of various factors that influence the relationship and the realization of a shared organizational objective. Firstly, taking into consideration the cross-cultural communication that will dominate the interaction with individuals from this culture is imperative. The fact that cultural differences exist translate to the communication breakdown that should be managed by the leader of an organization. Developing a culture-sensitive environment will help eliminate such barriers. The leader should also consider the context and content of understanding business setup when working with individuals with Latin America culture. Textual analysis shows that Latin business culture focuses on the broad aspects of the organizational relationship, social approaches, and broad circumstances influencing the business (Moran, 2011, p. 215).
However, the culture of other states such as the U.S. places a strong emphasis on the communication content. The content of focus includes facts,…
Moran, Robert T. Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success (8th Edition).: Routledge, . (2011). Print
Because these issues have become more pronounced in recent years, it is not surprising that efforts have been made to define these differences in an effort to measure them. In this regard, Hofstede (1980) identified five basic dimensions of culture as follows:
1. Power distance (focusing on the extent to which the less powerful expect and accept that power is distributed unequally);
2. Individualism-collectivism (focusing on the degree to which the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships -- highly individualist cultures believe individual is the most important unit, whereas highly collectivistic cultures believe group is the most important unit);
3. Uncertainly avoidance (focusing on the degree to which the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, uncertainty and ambiguity within the society)
4. Masculinity-femininity (focusing on the extent to which a society emphasizes achievement or nurturing -- masculinity emphasizes ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles, whereas…
Bardovi-Harlig, K. & Hartford, B.S. (2005). Interlanguage pragmatics: Exploring institutional talk. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mann, GA. (2006). A motive to serve: Public service motivation in human resource
management and the role of PSM in the nonprofit sector. Public Personnel Management
Cultural and Construction History of the Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age is also known as the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic Renaissance. The term refers to a system of political, cultural, and religious authority derived from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed in the early sixth century AD. At its high point under the Abbassid Dynasty (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD), Islamic civilisation experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements (Kraemer). The result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements (Wiet). At the height of its power, the Caliphate controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa and into Spain, and as far east as the Indus Valley, making it among the largest empires of all time and one of the few states ever to extend direct rule over three…
Australia, indigenous people recognize themselves as belonging to Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander or by descent, and also identified as the same by the society. A resistance has been observed in them to access hospitals for healthcare. Therefore, healthcare professionals need to plan, implement and maintain appropriate policies for their treatment. Also, cross-cultural awareness training should be given to paediatric hospital staff. (Munns & Shields, 2013, p. 22)
How would you support ianna and her family in this situation?
The poor health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is well documented, and has been the subject of official policy and program attention for many years. The mainstream health system has responded to increased funding and clear portfolio responsibility, with increasing attention to the burden of illness that Aboriginal people experience and the need for effective health care (Dwyer et al., 2014). I would thus make arrangement for proper…
Ansuya. (2012). Transcultural Nursing: Cultural Competence in Nurses. International Journal of Nursing Education, Volume 4(1), pp. 5-7.
Durey, A, Wynaden, D, Thompson, SC, Davidson, PM, Bessarab, D & Katzenellenbogen, JM. (2012). Owning Solutions: A Collaborative Model to Improve Quality in Hospital Care for Aboriginal Australians. Nursing Inquiry, Volume 19(2), pp. 144-152.
Dwyer, J, Willis, E & Kelly, J. (2014). Hospitals Caring for Rural Aboriginal Patients: Holding Response and Denial. Australian Health Review, Volume 38(5), pp. 546-551.
Kelly, J & Willis, E. (2014). Travelling to the City for Hospital Care: Access Factors in Country Aboriginal Patient Journeys. Australian Journal of Rural Health, Volume 22(3), pp. 109-113.