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C.S. Lewis' ideas about moral law are also worthwhile. According to Lewis, moral law is not necessarily tied to any religion, including Christianity. eligion is a vehicle for the dissemination of moral law but ultimately even non-religious people can understand the difference between right and wrong. His views show that Lewis accepts all faiths and even atheism as being acceptable and I respect that point-of-view. Morality is not necessarily related to religion.
Finally, I like that Lewis discusses free will with regards to moral law. Moral laws are immutable, but can nevertheless be broken by willful human beings. Lewis is careful to show that free will does not negate the absolute nature of moral law. ather, the author argues that human beings must continually strive to transcend their egos toward a more spiritual way of life. In that sense, mere Christianity is for everyone.
Lewis, C.S. Mere Christianity.… [Read More]
This is a metaphor for what all human beings must do in regards to God, as few people on earth are granted physical proof of God's existence, with the exception perhaps of the saints. Psyche, the bride of what she thinks is a nature-god initially accepts his goodness as a fact, until she is dissuaded. This is a metaphor for how life causes people to lose their first faith in God and mistrust their heart.
Is Psyche's trust in her husband's command noble or foolish? She accuses her sister of being foolish. Is Psyche being childlike, or is her sister being deceitful when she urges Psyche to challenge her husband with a trick?
Now Psyche goes out in exile. Now she must hunger and thirst and tread the hard roads" (173) in her quest for knowledge, Psyche, like Adam and Eve, is punished and she must go out…… [Read More]
Belief comes easily for Lewis: "Not that I am (I think) in much danger of ceasing to believe in God. The real danger is of coming to believe such dreadful things about Him. The conclusion I dread is not: 'So there's no God after all,' but 'So this is what God's really like. Deceive yourself no longer.'...Of course it's easy enough to say that God seems absent at our greatest need because He is absent -- non-existent. But then why does He seem so present when, to put it frankly, we don't ask for Him?" (Lewis, p. 5) In short, Lewis is tormented by the question of how can one believe in a good God, a God worthy of belief, in a world of suffering, where loss is part of human existence?
Ultimately, even in a world riddled with loss, Lewis insists on affirming the goodness of the…… [Read More]
C.S. Lewis writes the Screwtape Letters
Lewis: The Screwtape Letters
In The Screwtape Letters, Lewis discusses Christianity once again, this time from the point of the demon Screwtape, who puzzles over God and cannot understand what he needs to in order to gain more knowledge. He tried to destroy faith, but he is so limited in his knowledge and understanding of God that he is not very good at what he is trying to do. He wonders about God several times throughout the book because he cannot understand that God does not win people by wooing them away from the devil and bending them to his will by his punishment, but rather he wins them to him by showing them love and allowing them to be themselves. That does not mean that there are no rules, but only that they are not turned into copies of Him in the same…… [Read More]
Lewis: The Problem of Pain
According to Lewis, there is a reason that a loving, caring, compassionate, and concerned God would still allow the suffering of the human beings that he created. In his book The Problem of Pain, Lewis states that human beings believe that living a life that was pain-free would mean that God loves us. hen we suffer pain we think that God is angry with us and does not loves us and therefore we have a hard time reconciling the idea that He loves us so much but yet allows us to suffer. In truth, the idea of suffering has much more to do with God very much loving all of the individuals that he has created (Lewis, 104).
Lewis's argument continues in the idea that pain and suffering is what God uses to prepare us for the glories that Heaven will bestow upon us what…… [Read More]
God, C.S. Lewis and Sigmund Freud Debate God, Love, Sex and the meaning of Life
Dr. Armand J. Nicholi, Jr.
Full Book Title: The Question of God: C.S. Lewis and Sigmund Freud Debate God, Love and Sex and The Meaning of Life
Complete Publishing Information: New York: Free Press, 2003.
Armand J. Nicholi covers a wide spectrum of philosophical beliefs in his work of non-fiction, The Question of God: C.S. Lewis and Sigmund Freud Debate God, Love and Sex, and the Meaning of Life. Essentially, this manuscript pits the tenets of Sigmund Freud vs. those of C.S. Lewis in regards to one of the key questions of metaphysics -- whether or not there is a God, and if so or if not, how that reality should impact the living. The viewpoints of these two men were diametrically opposed on this subject. Freud was a staunch atheist all of his life,…… [Read More]
Open Letter to CS Lewis egarding the Good Life, with Special eference to That Hideous Strength
Dear Mr. Lewis,
I think you would agree that good is a moral term, denoting things that are morally defensible. The good life, therefore, would be living a life in accordance to moral values. You seem to explore the concept of morality in your novel, That Hideous Strength. Of all the characters that populate this novel, Mark and Jane Studdock show the greatest degree of moral development and maturity. In fact, one may argue that other than their central usage to the plot, the author has characterized them in the story in order to demonstrate the values of virtue and the hope for humanity that goodness inherently provides. What is even more interesting about these two characters is the fact that their moral development is far from parallel -- the spouses take individual routes…… [Read More]
The author C.. Lewis once wrote that, "We are told that Christ was killed for us, that His death has washed out our sins and that by dying He has disabled death itself. That is the formula. That is Christianity." Though I agree with the truth of this statement, on reflection I believe that each Christian must establish their own reasons for their faith. The most important principles in my understanding of Christianity are the power of personal testimonies, how individuals live their lives and the power of local churches to influence their communities in positive directions. It is through these three core concepts that not only can one's faith be enhanced but as Christians we can grow our congregation and strengthen both the people in our lives and even total strangers.
Personal Testimonies (Topic 7)
God is always at work in the world around us. By reading Christian…… [Read More]
McGrath's comments above suggest periods of conceptual adjustment as observers of the Christian faith worked to make explanations for the presence, even the commonality, of sin as it exists in spite of God's innate goodness.
So again, to the idea that Christianity's incredible facets couldn't rationally be reached by outsiders to the faith with some guesswork does not hold up against the process by which we know Christianity came to be. McGrath points out that in this discussion on how best to reconcile sin with God's innate goodness, Christianity was in a place of coming into its own identity. Answering questions such as this quandary on the dualism of good and evil would be very much a part of 'guessing' the structure of Christian faith as it were, but directly within the framework allowed by the basic tenets relating to God, man and the universe.
The text by Lewis demonstrates…… [Read More]
" (Polkinghorne, p. 4)
As with Lewis before him in our discussion, Polkinghorne supplies a reason for the certainty of God's presence in scientific affairs most simply because he believes there is no other more likely or rational explanation for certain accomplishments. Like Lewis, Polkinghorne simply places beyond the grasp of human capacity a certain loosely defined category of things that must inherently be accounted for by the unseen power of a higher being called God. This premise is a surprising one to extend from a discussion extolling the beauty of scientific accomplishments in that it satisfies itself on the basis of highly unempirical arguments. The central premise of Polkinghorne's text mirrors both in the blindness of its faith and the flaws in its presentation the central premise of Lewis' assertion. Namely, both proceed from the idea that because there are remarkable things for which explanations appear to be so…… [Read More]
Lewis writes a Grief Observed
Lewis: A Grief Observed
In C.S. Lewis' A Grief Observed, Lewis talks of the process of grief. Specifically, he discusses this process through a long and painful and journey which deals with the death of his wife. While he is not interested in going back he does talk about his love for his wife Joy and how this particular experience of grief meshes with ideas that he has expressed in some of the earlier things that he's written. Even though he spends much time revisiting the memories of the past he says that he finds that he is terrified by the idea of going back and being happy begin in that same way (Lewis, 70). He goes through various stages of grief and his faith undergoes much analysis and reflection. Sometimes he remembers some of the things about Joy that affect him very strongly.
He…… [Read More]
It is possible that Lewis had not intended certain matters from his books to have the effects that they eventually had on the public. It had most probably been because of the fact that he did not planned for a large amount of time before deciding to write the series. In contrast, Tolkien had prepared The Lord of the Rings for several decades, studying various geographical locations and history before he decided to proceed in writing.
In spite of being the sixth book from the Narnia series published by Lewis, The Magician's Nephew describes the first period when considering Narnian years. In this book, two children named Digory and Polly end up in magical universes in 1900 consequent to coming across two rings which have supernatural powers. One world in particular appears to be different from the others to Polly and Digory, and, after a chain of unfortunate incidents, they…… [Read More]
In showing the strength of his Christian faith and the rhetoric behind his revelations, Lewis uses the theme of his wife's death as a rhetorical devise. Lewis provides a rationale for the death of his wife in the context of grief. He argues, "[T]here's no denying that in some sense I 'feel better,' and with that comes at once a sort of shame, and a feeling that one is under a sort of obligation to cherish and foment and prolong one's unhappiness." Lewis within this passage concludes that prolonged grief after the death of his wife is a selfish act, because it is a pretense of "heroic love and tragedy." In putting forth this claim, Lewis carefully begins both his recovery and the explanation of his reaffirmation in Christianity. He cloaks this revelation in pessimism, "Praise in due order; of Him as the giver, of her as the gift. I…… [Read More]
Relativist said, 'The world does not exist, England does not exist, Oxford does not exist and I am confident that I do not Exist!' When Lewis was asked to reply, he stood up and said, 'How am I to talk to a man who's not there?'" (Schultz, 1998)
Lewis: A iography
This quote shows how, in truly CS Lewis style, the writer took the everyday questions about religion and faith, tacking them head-on. Lewis was a Christian writer who was deeply influenced by the teachings of God and His Scripture.
CS Lewis was born, in 1898, in elfast, Ireland. He was educated at various schools throughout England (Hooper, 1996). In 1914, he began studying Latin, Greek, French, German and Italian and later moved to Oxford. His education was disrupted by the first World War but within two years, he resumed his studies.
In 1924, Lewis became a teacher of…… [Read More]
The intent or purpose of this book was originally intended to be a science fiction written to meet a bet, but it ended up being the first book in a trilogy with the theme of describing how pitiful human beings are and how far from our original purpose on the earth - that is to tend it and make it plentiful, and to care for one another. C.S. Lewis was a Christian and this Christian theme permeates all of his novels. The theme of the book is that earth is seen by inhabitants of another planet as being valuable, but the humans are a problem when they think of inhabiting our planet. Oyarsa may be an angel and seems to care for the earth and sends Ransom back with a mission to make the earth better. This theme of bettering the planet Earth is the main one, plus Lewis has…… [Read More]
This is a reflection her attitude in
which the gods are responsible for her problems inside. She has become a
strong ruler, much like a man, but she is not in touch with spirituality at
all. In fact, she wears a veil to cover her face and hide it from the
truth. Her face had seen the god of the mountain, but she was not ready
for the encounter yet. In her delusion, Orual also says "hy must holy
places be dark places?" which is a reflection on her misunderstanding of
the nature of the gods and of holiness in general (Lewis 259). Orual is
not in touch with the actual positives of god and spirituality, and thus
needs to improve her relationship with the gods.
Ultimately, however, Orual succeeds in conversion. She succeeds in
realizing her errors. She is able to lift the veil from her face and
sacrifice…… [Read More]
Humans have a moral drive within them that attests to the existence of right and wrong. This innate standard was not "man-made," but evolved along with human society. It must come from an external superior force, or God. Yet, humans do fail and cannot always live up to such high standards. God therefore sent someone as a savior to make humans right. Christ forgave sins, "This makes sense only if He really was the God whose laws are broken and whose love is wounded in every sin."
Lewis then faces the readers with different moral issues, including sexual morality, forgiveness, and pride. Finally, he presents his case for Christ and the need everyone has of deciding whether or not to put one's faith in Him. In some respects Lewis' approach is like a modern-day Socrates dilemmas, where common sense and logic can only make one decision best. How can there…… [Read More]
Hell is portrayed as a bleak, dreary place. This suggests that the reality conceptualized by materialists, namely a reality with no transcendent significance in heaven, is the place to which all human beings who are believers are damned. As in the Screwtape Letters, a failure of religious intensity is shown as being linked to a kind of failure of imagination. hen confronted by heaven, the souls of human beings are awestruck, not at the surreal nature of heaven, but how real it seems, compared to their own, past existences. It is the spirits who are ghostly, not the actual substance of heaven.
In hell, those who are damned are not necessarily those who committed the worst crimes -- in heaven, there are even murderers. Instead, the damned are those who adopt the type of materialistic mindset that ormwood attempted to coax 'the patient' into adopting -- a mindset that salvation…… [Read More]
In spite o the accusations of being a misogynist and encouraging the young minds to embrace such theories related to gender stereotypes, Polly and Diggory, the first two children to populate the series, are far from impersonating stereotypes. Polly appears to be a smart and sensitive young girl, wiser to some degree than her friend, Diggory. In opposition to the children who regardless of their gender, seem to share similar degrees of intelligence, courage and common sense, the adults they describe as part of their reality are more likely to express what to some degree could be the result of certain personal convictions of the author in the two fields of gender that are not very flattering for women in general.
Nevertheless, the novels of the Chronicles are valuable, among other things, because of their potential to enchant, keep the reader interested and intrigued all the way up to the…… [Read More]
Furthermore, his choice to relate to his audience with humor and situations that they can understand allows him to tailor his argument to this audience. For example, Lewis sets out to show that the "right to happiness" is not considered a right in all matters, but only in sexual matters. He does this by suggesting that Clare, who was "rather leftist in her politics," would most likely take issue with someone who stated that "his happiness consisted in making money and he was pursuing his happiness," while pursuing money in a way that was harmful to others. Another example is his point that Clare might object to her friends' pursuit of happiness when that pursuit included "boxing her ears" (Lewis). Humor can also be found in Lewis's word choice and phraseology. For instance his statement that everything goes if "the object aimed at is 'four bare legs in a bed,"…… [Read More]
Generosity is the main characteristic of a Christian society. Along with that, Christians should be obedient to God and respectful toward government. The family would become a matter of great importance. Christians would not live luxurious lives while their brothers suffered. These communities would not support parasites not r would they support extravagant lifestyles. The Christian community is happy, joyful, and worry would not run rampant. Christians are courteous and they enjoy working because they see a greater purpose in life. The also live by the golden rule for the most part. Lewis examines this idea but considering it to its fullest extent. He writes, " may repeat 'Do as you would he done by' till I am black in the face, but I cannot really carry it out till I love my neighbour as myself: and I cannot learn to love my neighbour as myself till I learn to…… [Read More]
2003) Men and women: Becoming together. Intimate artners. (pp. 389-397).
This article stated that gender is ultimately a mystery that cannot be solved scientifically. Men and women can, however, come together in love and sex. Love increases this mystery.
Although gender is not a science, we can see obvious differences in gender. Thus results love between men and women.
Lewis, C.S. (1988) The four loves. Retrieved from http://duquesne.docutek.com/eres
This article spoke of need-love and gift-love. Gift-love is what moves people to work and plan for the future of their children. Need-love is what drives a child to run to his or her mother. Need-love is necessary for forgiveness.
It is obvious that need-love is necessary for a relationship, but perhaps the best relationships integrate gift-love as well.
The National Marriage roject. (2009, February) The state of our unions 2008: The social health of marriage in America. Retrieved from http://www.virginia.edu/marriageproject…… [Read More]
The specific distractions Screwtape tells his nephew to use include an intellectual curiosity, things ascertained and appealing to the senses, and certain contemporary issues such as orld ar II. He tells ormwood that it is best for the young man to be an extremist -- and to be extreme at anything, in whichever direction -- because in doing so there is a lack of temperance which alienates oen from God and makes one susceptible to the machinations of distractions.
These temptations fail for a variety of reasons. One is due to the power of the love of God, which sustains the young Christian through virtually all of his travails and triumphs, as well. Yet there are certain events that take place that fortify his faith. One of these is his relationship with a Christian woman, as opposed to the lewd one Screwtape is hoping he falls for. Also, his early…… [Read More]
In other words, all human beings, regardless of status, are equal, and a leader by virtue of his position is not 'more equal' than his fellow citizens, according to the principles of morality and the principles of democracy. What has made American leaders great is their sense of equality and fellowship with their fellow Americans, not their sense of exclusivity and superiority. Thomas Jefferson praised George Washington for refusing the offer to become America's first king. Washington instead became the first American president. Washington's integrity was pure and Washington's sense of justice was unwavering, and untainted by self-interest and bias: this was Jefferson's highest praise of our first president. Washington's integrity is so unique it even seems to contradict Glaucon's assertion in "The Ring of Gyges" that every man would be a dictator if he were given the chance. Washington rose above his baser instincts, and lived according to…… [Read More]
ith the link to the Bible, the story "…resonates with the richness of distant antecedents" and it no longer is "locked in the middle of the twentieth century"; hence, it never grows old, Foster concludes (56).
C.S. Lewis on the Importance of Reading Good Literature
C.S. Lewis, noted novelist, literary critic, lay theologian and essayist, advocates reading literature in his book an Experiment in Criticism. He is disappointed in fact when individuals only read important novels once. Reading a novel the second time for many on his list of incomplete readers is "…like a burnt-out match, an old railway ticket, or yesterday's paper" (Lewis, 2012, p. 2). Those bright alert people who read great works will read the same book "…ten, twenty or thirty times" during their lifetime and discover more with each reading, Lewis writes. The person who is a "devotee of culture" is worth "much more than the…… [Read More]
Armand Nicholi's The Question of God: C.S. Lewis and Sigmund Freud Debate God, Love, Sex, and the Meaning of Life is a downright unusual book. It places in counterpoint the thought and writings of two men who never met, spoke, or engaged in any important way with each other's writings -- in fact they had little in common apart from both living in Great Britain at the same time for a period of about fourteen months. These men are the Oxford don, C.S. Lewis, an authority on Renaissance literature and a novelist and Christian polemicist, and the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, still famous as a doctor and theoretician who posited the existence of such concepts as the Oedipus complex, the unconscious, and polymorphous perversity. Freud never read a word that C.S. Lewis wrote, and while it is extremely unlikely that Lewis could have escaped exposure to the widely disseminated ideas of…… [Read More]
The Tao does not encourage this type of thinking. ather, the Tao believes that it is natural for man to think for himself and to think logically. When we as humans are not allowed to think for ourselves, we take away the options we have to experience live to the fullest (www.columbia.edu/cu/Augustine/arch/lewis/abolition1.htm).
The Conditioners are not proponents of the Tao, either. Selective breeding goes completely against nature. The Conditioners have stepped totally outside of the Tao and created their own values system. Instead of allowing mankind to grow naturally, they seek to remake mankind to fit their mold. If this is allowed to take place, then we have a race of people that do not know how to think independently or behave. Instead, they think and behave in the manner in which they were conditioned and created. In doing this, the Conditioners ultimate goal is to control and eventually conquer…… [Read More]
Theodicy is the vindication or justification of divine goodness in spite of the evidence of a world where evil exists. When one has faith in the divine goodness of God, the question of why God allows evil things to happen is one that is not troublesome; it is one when one has no faith or has doubts that the question becomes pertinent. Thus, it is helpful to explain how and why a good God would allow evil to exist and evil things to befall innocent people so that others might come to believe or might come to believe more strongly. The main reason for the existence of evil is that God gave to men (and to the angels) freedom of will. Men and angels were given the choice, in other words, of whether they would serve Him or their own desires. The fallen angels (led by Lucifer now…… [Read More]
1. Using the language of possible worlds, explain what it means to say that ‘p is consistent with q.’
The idea that p is consistent with q is a logical premise that supposes there is a world in which p and q can both be true. This premise contrasts with the premise that p is contradictory of q, which states that if p is true, q must be false and there can be no possible world in which both are true and neither can there be one in which both are false. The idea here is that when p is consistent with q, the world in which such a premise could be true is one in which there may be a conjunctive proposition underlying the concept or there may simply be a nullification of the linguistic theory of necessary truth.
2. What is P.S.R. (The Principle of Sufficient Reason), and…… [Read More]
The authentic morals behind what are genuinely considered justice, also symbolized by the Tao, are shifting. Man consumes himself here by selfishly yet blindly carrying on as a conqueror mindlessly on a mission as opposed to a team-player. Men are falling away from the standard of justice, the Tao, to a new class of man, one that has claimed everything and will conquer himself.
Man has found ways to defy gravity, generate specific life, and try to conquer death; this is what leads man to strive toward conquering nature, and trying to conquer nature is what makes man conquer himself. Lewis explains this, accordingly, as man deceiving himself. With these scientific advances over nature becomes a "power exercised by some men over other men with nature as their instrument." This is leading to man's domination of some men over other men. These attitudes result in a loss of values and…… [Read More]
Einstein, A. "Religion and Science." Retrieved August 19, 2013, from http://www.sacred-texts.com/aor/einstein/einsci.htm
This article is intriguing because it was written by one of history's most renowned scientists with the purpose of clearing the mystery concerning the conflict between religion and science. Einstein was a convinced scientists, but this did not prevent him from acknowledging situations when religion had assisted the world of science and from realizing that religion was in many cases responsible for influencing people to come up with logical explanations to particular events.
Ferngren, G.B. (2002). Science and Religion: A Historical Introduction. JHU Press.
This book presents a typical account concerning the relationship between science and religion. The fact that it uses thirty scholarly essays with the purpose to document the history of the topic while also introducing strong opinions supporting each of the two sides shows that the debate is still alive and that it is very difficult…… [Read More]
Personal Theodicy Apologetics
The problem of evil is something everyone has to face sooner or later. As Schlesinger points out, philosophers want to understand “why there is any suffering in the world at all.”[footnoteRef:2] The problem with a philosophical approach to suffering is that it does not reveal the whole story or the whole picture of why suffering (evil) exists. Religion, on the other hand, does provide that whole story—and depending on the religion, the story will be a little different. Christianity teaches that evil is a result of sin—that it is not something that came of its own into the world or that God created but rather something that His creatures chose of their own free will. The choice to pursue evil (defined as an absence of the good) altered God’s world—or at least man’s perception of it. Prior to man’s fall, he lived in happiness in the Garden…… [Read More]
Lion, The itch, And the ardrobe
hat kind of world does the author present to the child in this fantasy text?
Lewis' book The Lion, the itch, and the ardrobe creates an entirely fantastical world of strange creatures and adult people called Narnia. However, this world is still penetrated by the world of the reader, as children from the real world enter through the venue of a common wardrobe. Different characters in Narnia test the children's moral fortitude. For example, the young boy Edmund is tempted with Turkish delight by an evil tempting female stranger, the witch of the title. Lucy learns not to judge people on appearances, as she befriends a fawn-like man as a friend.
hat is the author's philosophy in the text? (Christianity)
These moral lessons could apply to all children, of course. But it is important to note that C.S. Lewis approaches morality from a generalized,…… [Read More]
Some -- give trouble for half a year (Kipling)."
The above passage is clear and plain as it describes deaths by heart attacks that are sudden, accidents that are sudden and death by illness in which the person slowly dies.
In another passage Kipling illuminates the fact that just as there are many different personalities among the living, there are also many different personalities among the dying and how they choose to react to their impending death.
Some die quietly. Some abound
In loud self-pity. Others spread
Bad morale through the cots around...
This is a type that is better dead (Kipling). "
There is no question about what point Kipling seeks to make with his writing. He is clear and concise and there is no need to try and second guess any underlying meaning of his intent as one passes through the poems and stories of his career.
His…… [Read More]
Furthermore, philosophy and science can also offer religion insight in terms of the difference between 'brain' and 'mind.' Entwistle is a passionate advocate of the power of the 'mind' of consciousness that extends beyond the existence of mere brain, or physiology, although he does not deny the impact brain and body can have upon human cognitive life.
But for Entwistle, as a believing Christian, reason is something more than mere chemistry. Entwistle quotes C.S. Lewis that the seemingly innate, hard-wired desire in the human consciousness for the structures of faith and morality demonstrates the existence of something beyond the tangible, measurable world of nature. At its best, psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, and religion when reflected upon in tandem can overcome the increasingly vast divide between the gulf of the sciences and the humanities. The Christian mind must be able to take on the various challenges and debates regarding religion and use…… [Read More]
Reminiscing on My Teens
I actually learned a great deal from reading the several books that were required for this course, and which include Dennis McCallum's Christianity: The Faith that Makes Sense, Francis Chan's Crazy Love, Josh and Sean McDowell's More Than a Carpenter, and C.S. Lewis' Mere Christianity. I found the vast majority of these works thought provoking and relevant to Christianity today and to my life in particular. At times, I found myself wondering if these books actually helped to provide me with more questions than they did answers. In either case, I still enjoyed reading and believe that they have helped me substantially in my own journey of living as a Christian.
The book that was most critical to my own life as a Christian was Chan's Crazy Love. This book challenged the reader in numerous ways to actually become a better Christian. The basic premise of…… [Read More]
As it is typical in good vs. evil combats, the forces of good are initially shown powerless, with no one to help them and with no thought on how to remedy the situation they find themselves in. The Pevensies themselves are unable to reach Caspian and the rest of the Narnians because they constantly come across impediments.
The overall purpose of the heroes in this book is to return purity in a ruined land, this being a reference to how the forces of good ultimately have to defeat the forces of evil and impose their influence over the land, so as for it to become pure once more. As customary for a land conquered by evil, many of those previously devoted to good have lost their faith and are inclined to believe that there is no hope for them. The story can be considered to be a parallel to modern-day…… [Read More]
death means that all human accomplishment is in vain, according to Tolstoy. Do you think Tolstoy is right about this? Explain and defend your reasons for your answer.
Death is indeed inevitable, but Tolstoy was incorrect in his conclusion that death's finality and unavoidability meant that it made all human efforts on earth irrelevant and in vain. Tolstoy is incorrect about this idea because he devalues the importance of human effort and human activity. Human activity on earth is the point of living: the point of human existence is to grow and to develop. Often the desire to accomplish certain things and to achieve certain things is more important than the outcome. For example, if a runner desires to win and run a 10K marathon, often the experience for him that is the most shaping and influential is the time he spends training for the marathon -- all the early…… [Read More]
Apologetics: Evil, Suffering and Hell
1. What are some of the facts of history and experience that give rise to the problem this course calls the problem of evil?
The facts of history and experience that give rise to the problem of evil are primarily war, pain, death—i.e., suffering. This is what Lewis describes as the problem of pain: Why would a good God create a world wherein people suffer and are doomed to die? Why does it seem, moreover, that innocent people suffer? These are the questions that Lewis asks, noting in particularly that “all civilisations pass away and, even while they remain, inflict peculiar sufferings of their own probably sufficient to outweigh what alleviations they may have brought to the normal pains of man.”[footnoteRef:2] [2: C. S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain (Samizdat University Press, 2016), 2.]
2. To what extent would you defend the following claim: the…… [Read More]
Courage as Knowledge in the Laches
In the dialogue Laches, Socrates aids Nicias and Laches in advising their friend on the proper instruction of young men. In his usual fashion, Socrates gently turns the discussion from a simple question of whether or not a young man should study the art of fighting in armor to a more profound examination of the nature of courage. He asks Laches and Nicias both to offer their arguments for what constitutes courage. Laches makes an argument for the standard definition of courage: bravery in the face of danger and the "endurance of the soul" (Plato, 20). Socrates dismantles this argument by pointing out that both of these qualities can lead to foolishness as well as courage. Nicias makes a more sophisticated argument -- one that leaves the whole party in confusion at the end of the dialogue.
Nicias argues that courage is a…… [Read More]
The existence of human suffering poses a unique theological problem. If God is omniscient, omnipotent, and all-loving, then why does suffering exist? Indeed, this difficulty is confronted in scripture itself: perhaps the most important look into the problem of suffering comes in the Old Testament story of Job. Mainstream Christianity continues to have a variety of ways of approaching this theological question, although historically Christians had a much broader spectrum of responses. For example, today's mainstream Christianity is a result of the establishment of orthodoxy in the face of Gnostic Christians, who used the existence of suffering as a way of questioning whether God was indeed omnipotent or all-loving. Gnosticism instead posits a "demiurge" or "alien god" that created this world and its suffering without being omnipotent or good. ut the oldest mainstream form of Christian orthodoxy today -- represented by the Roman Catholic faith…… [Read More]
Instead, holiness is attained through right-mindedness and a right heart. You say that the body affects the mind -- and indeed it does. But no longer is an obsession with bodily attributes, such as food, drink, and adherence to the laws of Leviticus (including circumcision) that connects us to God.
"Again Jesus called the crowd to him and said, 'Listen to me, everyone, and understand this. Nothing outside a man can make him 'unclean' by going into him. Rather, it is what comes out of a man that makes him 'unclean.'" (Mark 7:14-15). I do indeed agree that religiosity cannot be found in rote prayers, learned in childhood, or be encompassed by a vague sense of spirituality that does not take into consideration Christ's sacrifice. On the subject of prayer, I can only say that I pray daily -- both in the conventional manner in which you seem to think…… [Read More]
This was known as pyrrexhia or trench fever. The first symptoms were shooting pains in the shins and was followed by a very high fever" (Simkin). It was not a deadly disease, but stricken men could not fight. Trench fever affected thousands of soldiers, and so did trench foot.
Trench foot is one of the most common ailments of soldiers in the trenches. Their boots and socks were always wet and muddy, and this led to the condition called trench foot. The feet would become numb and turn red or blue, and in extreme cases, it could lead to gangrene and amputation of the foot. The feet would also swell, fester, and develop sores. Soldiers had to change their socks at least three times a day to control the disease, and after the armies understood how severe is was, soldiers in the trenches received extra socks as part of their…… [Read More]
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…… [Read More]
Eastern eligion, Eastern Mysticism, And Magic
Influence the Pop Culture in America
Eastern religion" - also alluded to in this paper as "Eastern Mysticism" and "mysticism" - and the occult, along with magic and its many off-shoots have had a considerable influence on American Pop Culture over the past few decades. Movies, books, music - all have been touched and enhanced by mysticism and its cousins. So, when referring to "Eastern religion," this paper is generally alluding to the ancient religions: Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism, and other spiritual genres.
It is also important to be clear on what "occult" truly means; it is a word that comes from the Latin occultus, meaning, literally, "hidden" or "concealed" (Merriam-Webster defines occult as "to shut off from view or exposure"). "Occult" has been equated with Satan, witchcraft, vampires, and other unseemly topics related to death and blood-letting. For this paper's purpose, the occult will…… [Read More]
Verhey, Allen. "Playing God and Invoking a Perspective." Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 20 (1995): 347-364.
Any physician of a moral and ethical frame of mind would be reflexively offended if a patient, or the loved one of a patient, accused that physician of 'playing God.' But what does this phrase mean? According to Allen Verhey's essay on medicine, modern bioethics, and "Playing God and Invoking a Perspective," the phrase "humans should not play God" has been used quite often by individuals of a particular, naturalistic ideological frame of mind to argue against using of supposedly unnatural forms of medicine, technology, and the use of related forms of biotechnology to sustain human life, or to ameliorate the sufferings of human life. The idea that physicians, scientists and medical practitioners should not play God has even been used to argue against such processes as cloning and genetically modified food because these…… [Read More]
Constructing a Cooperative Community in Education
In a drama film "12 angry men" of 1957, one can draw some vital lessons that can help manage a community as well as an organization. The film explores various techniques on consensus building, and the difficulties a person encounters when managing a large number of people. When managing a large number of individuals, one cannot escape the fact that there is a variation of personalities to control. The film centers on an 18-year-old boy accused of stabbing his father to death. The judge in the case informs the jury that a guilty verdict will include a mandatory death sentence. The team of jurors retires to a private room before proclaiming their verdict.
They take a vote on the case, and majority members of the team have already taken a guilty stand except juror 8. However, the vote of juror 8 annoys other jurors…… [Read More]
What changes will occur will be demographic and social. These changes will influence the way in which faith is practiced, but not the faith itself. The faith remains. This can be compared with the current trend of the Global Church as well. Christians from across the world are joining this Church under the unifying umbrella of their faith. Culturally, this means the integration of a wide variety of cultures and denominations. These differences no longer cause division, since the unifying factor, faith, is stronger. Allen seems to imply the same in his work. The faith that makes the Catholic Church remains its foundation. In the Global Church, the same thing occurs on a wider scale. The Christian faith remains unchanged, although the way in which this faith is expressed and integrated undergoes some changes.
What Lewis seems to be describing is a type of uniform Christian society, free…… [Read More]
Teams are needed for completion of various projects which otherwise cannot be undertaken by an individual alone. However the question that arises in this connection is what are the strengths of teams that would make them better than an individual. Some advantages have been identified that make a team more desirable and they are as follows:
TWO HEADS AE BETTE THAN ONE
When more brains get together, they can come up with variety of ideas and solutions that can help solve problems in a much better way than an individual alone. Brainstorming sessions can generate many useful ideas which can enhance the performance of a team working on any project. (Wysocki, 2011)
During the completion of any project, people can come under serious stress which can negatively affect performance... A person who is handling stress alone finds it impossible to concentrate on completion of the task and hence…… [Read More]
National corporations own many chains, even though several others are independently owned but affiliated with a chain through a franchise agreement.
Types of Hotels
The U.S. Department of Labour (2004) denotes five basic types of hotels:
Commercial - These hotels operate year round and are primarily located in cities or suburban places. The larger properties offer an assortment of services for their guests, such as coffee shops, restaurants, cocktail lounges, gift shops, newsstands, theatre, health spas, swimming pools, etc.. Even larger hotels offer banquet rooms, ballrooms to accommodate wedding receptions; business meetings. Convention and business meetings provide major sources of revenue for larger hotels
esort - These hotels are primarily located in vacation destinations near mountains, the seashore, or other attractions. Nowadays, some resorts provide additional convention and conference facilities to stimulate their customers to combine business with pleasure. (U.S. Department of Labour, 2004)
esidential - These establishments provide a…… [Read More]
(Braunschweig; Day, 150)
Most of the current generation of project managers expects the project management tools to furnish them with almost real-time knowledge in order to facilitate their decision-making. Some of these tools like DOFF, "Field of the Future," "Smart Fields," Microsoft's "Oilfield Connectivity" and i-Fields are currently being examined by exploration and production oil companies. Some of these tools have the capability of generating information from apparently incongruent data and helping managers take important decisions based on them. (Oilfield Connectivity - Capturing the Value of the Digital Era)
There is substantial amount of risk in oil exploration and production since the concerned target is located many thousands of feet under the ground. There are a number of factors that can cause uncertainties and risks in these fields which may include the weather, people, geology, safety, and availability of tools and equipment. Agility is an important requirement in the oil…… [Read More]
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
African-Americans have come a long way since the nation's inception. From the days of slavery, to the present time many bridges have been crossed and many battles have been won. Gone are the days that Blacks were required to sit at the back of the bus.
No longer can Blacks be told they must eat at a certain restaurant. Black and white children go to school together daily, they grow up on the same streets and they marry into each other's race with increasing frequency. It is becoming the America that the founding fathers envisioned at the time the nation was created. One of the reasons…… [Read More]
The increasing skill of these terrorists in using cyberspace has led some officials to believe that they are on the point of using computers for increasing bloodshed. This new threat is not similar to hackers' earlier using computers for passing viruses and worms. This has now reached a level of being able to reach the meeting point of computers and physical structures controlled by computers. The belief of analysts in U.S. is that they may try to disable or control floodgates in dams or electrical stations handling large quantities of power and through them destroy lives and property around them.
Though there is not much evidence, they believe that al Qaeda may be using these capacities with other weapons like explosives. The al Qaeda is known to have capacity to use other sites for their own benefit, and al Qaeda laptop in Afghanistan had visited the French site of Anonymous…… [Read More]
This RIS includes Toshiba digital desktop telephones, plus 24 SpectraLink wireless telephones; these wireless phones were programmed to extend the features and capabilities of the users' desktop telephones to anywhere they roam at the 22-bed hospital; however, other wireless technologies such as cellular, could not be used due to the interference with sensitive medical equipment (Just the right prescription 24). The hospital's chief operating officer, Darryl Thornton, reported, "Being able to be mobile, yet still receive all our telephone calls, has greatly improved our efficiency and productivity. Toshiba's SpectraLink solution was the only one we found that would extend our desktop telephones to the palms of our hands" (Just the right prescription 24). The RIS also accommodated the needs of the hospital's remote users: "The system is so flexible that we were able to connect our remote users and still have it look like they are located at our corporate…… [Read More]
Morrison's continues to struggle with integrating the Safeway stores it bought last year. The Bradford-based chain is forecast to show like-for-like sales up about two per cent, but sales in Safeway stores yet to be converted to the Morrison's format are down by double-digit percentages (Palmer, 2010).
Tesco also is benefiting from its continued push into banking. The group's financial operation, Tesco Personal Finance, has prospered from the economic crisis as British consumers pull their money out of the country's troubled banks. Since last fall, the unit has seen a near-doubling of savings balances, to $6.6 billion, as of the end of February. Tesco, which bought out former partner oyal Bank of Scotland (BS) last December, plans to open 30 bank branches in its stores by the end of this year. Leahy seemed to confirm Tesco's ambitions to push more aggressively into full-service banking. "We believe that we've got a…… [Read More]
Onassis devoted most of her time to plan social events that were to be at the White House as well as other state properties. Frequently she could invite poets, writers, artists, musicians and scientists so that they could mingle with diplomats, statesmen and politicians, Molly Driscoll, (2011). She as well started to let guests at the White House drink cocktails, in an attempt to give the mansion a more relaxed feeling.
Onassis proved to be very popular among international dignitaries, and the reasons could be her skill at entertaining. Prior to her visit to France, a television special was shot in French house having First Lady on the White House lawn. In this visit, the public was really impressed with her ability to speak fluent French, and also her extensive knowledge of French history. Jacqueline learnt her French language through a prominent Puerto ican educator "Maria Teresa Babin Cortes."
While…… [Read More]
'Offshoring' can occur within the same company and involve movement of work to a different location of that company outside of the United States, or to a different company altogether" (4). Simply put, outsourcing is contracting with an outside company in any location, while offshoring is contracting with a company outside the United States.
Examples of Exclusive holesale Manufacturers
One example of a wholesale manufacturer that sells exclusively is Mona Lisa Fashions Inc. This "is a full-service cut & sew apparel contractor serving the women's, children's and men's apparel markets." They are located in Allentown, Pennsylvania and are encouraging designers not to outsource or offshore their products but to come to them instead. Another example is Sports and Sports International, a company that manufactures sports accessories and apparel. On their website, they announce, "e are one of the most prominent manufacturers, suppliers and exporters of an exclusively broad range of…… [Read More]
Employees become frustrated and develop negative views concerning management. Any animosity that the employee may exhibit could result in workplace violence. If employees are terminated or laid off under such conditions, resentment could lead to violence (Chenier 1998)." stressful work environment can also lead to poor service and customer dissatisfaction (aner 1995). In severe cases, problems communicating in the workplace can lead to the demise of a business or enterprise. Therefore, it is vitally important that workplace communications problems are addressed in a timely and appropriate manner. Over the next few paragraphs, we will discuss how communication problems in the workplace can be resolves.
Resolving Communications Problems in the orkplace
Stoppler (2005) explains that problems communication in the workplace will always exist to some extent. Therefore, managers and employees alike must find ways to resolve these conflicts. The author argues there are ten ways that communication problems in the workplace…… [Read More]
Software Processing Methodology
Understanding the Problem
Klyne Smith, DSE Candidate
Dr. Frank Coyle
esearch and Contribution Methods
Software Processing Methodologies
Where do we go from here (Spring 2010)?
Define measurement data points for Test Case analysis
Creation and Validation of the predictive model
Articles / Web Information
Software Processing Methodology:
Understanding the Problem
In this work, I examine three different Software Processing Methodologies. I start with the iterative model, followed by the spiral model, and conclude with the V-model. Each of these methodologies are discussed in length to gain a clear understanding of their similarities and differences. This paper focuses on gaining a key understanding of the methodologies and when it is best to utilize each.…… [Read More]
Chamberlain College of Nursing NR449 Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence Matrix Table
Size and Selection
(sample not a real article)
Smith, Lewis (2013),
What should I eat? A focus for those living with diabetes. Journal of Nursing Education, 1 (4) 111-112.
How do educational support groups effect dietary modifications in patients with diabetes?
Convenience sample-selected from local support group in Pittsburgh, PA
Support and education improved compliance with dietary modifications.
de Vries K, Green AJ (2012) Therapeutic use of cannabis. Nursing Times; 108: 9, 12-15.
Describe the potential uses of cannabis in palliative care, and to help nurses advocate for patients by providing information about cannabis use and legality. How should nurses react when patients ask about medical marijuana?
None; not an experimental research design.
Untold quantities of research studies in published journals.
Peer-reviewed and professional literature. Legal…… [Read More]