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7% in Shanghai, 24.5% in Taipei and 46.2% in Hong Kong., the average income of respondents in Taipei was at the maximum income level and in Hong Kong, at the median level overall. The entire sample was highly educated with 80.2% of Shanghai respondents, 79.5% of Taipei respondents and 43.8% of Hong Kong respondents having a university education. The majority of respondent sin Shanghai and Taipei were 18 to 25 and 26 -- 30 in Hong Kong.
The study found that each respondent base scored high on the self-expectation dimensions as shown in Table III of the report with many having a strong sense of self-esteem and seeing the value of true friendship and inner harmony. There is also a strong belief in freedom in the orientation towards life dimension of the ANOVA analysis completed, just short of true friendship as a fundamental value in the analysis (Tai, 2008). The…
Jap, W. (2010). Confucius face culture on Chinese consumer consumption values toward global brands. Journal of International Management Studies, 5(1), 183-192.
Lin, Y., & Lai, C.Y. (2010). A study of the attitudes of Chinese consumers to aesthetic product designs. International Journal of Management, 27(1), 177-184,201.
Susan H.C. Tai. (2008). Relationship between the personal values and shopping orientation of Chinese consumers. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 20(4), 381-395.
Teimourpour, B., & Kambiz, H.H. (2011). The impact of culture on luxury consumption behaviour among Iranian consumers. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 2(3), 309-328.
Different marketing campaigns might be needed, if the product is supposed to target an extremely large audience, economically and ethnically.
Brazil is quite a diverse society, and race is unfortunately a divider between most of the populace -- one Black Brazilian remarked that "Blacks amount to 49% of a population of 180 million people, but it is impossible to create a middle class without education and with salaries 51% less than the salaries of whites," and he said that in his opinion, the face of poverty in Brazil is black (Ramos 2007). Treating race with sensitivity is thus essential in advertisements. However, one common, uniting dynamic between most social classes and peoples in Brazil, is a great love of music and the centrality of music to the culture and to festivals and daily life. Using music effectively in advertising campaigns is thus essential.
Another common dynamic are certain patterns of…
Apple Brazil. (2009, August 8). Visual Media.
Retrieved February 17, 2009 at http://www.visual -- media.com/blog/?p=351
High context vs. low context cultures. (2009). Via. Retrieved February 19, 2009 http://www.via-web.de/273.html
Ramos, Italo. (2007. October 17). The difference between Black Brazil and Black U.S. Black
Looking beyond the educational, social, and esteem needs of students, the practical considerations of LE have given substance to the argument for LE. Given the tight monetary budgets that many school districts are faced with to provide the bare essentials of conventional education, the provision of special education services is virtually impossible. Citing previous court rulings, the school districts often claim budget shortfalls as a selling point for the implementation of LE.
Socio-cultural Framework of LE
Looking beyond the legal and practical ramifications of LE, consideration must be given to the socio-cultural implications of LE within the American educational system. In its most basic sense, socio-cultural theory holds that human beings learn through a cognitive and interpretive process, which uses the senses, primarily sight and hearing, in order to gain and retain knowledge (Houng, 2005). Based on this, the integration of students in an interactive learning environment makes it possible…
Davis, L.J. (1993, October 4). The Prisoners of Silence. The Nation, 257, 354+.
Houng, LPH (2005). The Mediational Role of Language Teachers. Retrieved August 19, 2006 from the World Wide Web: http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol41/no3/p32.htm .
Osborne, A.G., & Dimattia, P. (1994). The IDEA's Least Restrictive Environment Mandate: Legal Implications. Exceptional Children, 61(1), 6+.
Palley, E. (2006). Implementing the Least Restrictive Environment Mandate. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 16(4), 229+.
In any given country, there is a dominant and prevailing culture that tends to be more pervasive than others. However, there are also cultures that are counter or parallel to the dominant culture. One of those common subcultures is that of deaf people. Even with the fact that deaf and hearing-impaired people live in the same dominant cultures as everyone else, they have to exist and act in a different way because they cannot hear well, if at all. As such, it is important to assess and review deaf culture and how it is different than other cultures, how it is the same as other cultures and what cultural cues and trends are near and dear to people with no or little hearing.
Even though deaf culture has surely existed on some level for all of human existence, it did not come into its own as a definitive…
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica
Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.
Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.
In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…
Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)
Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.
(Adjaye 1994, 57)
2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.
An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…
references during the first half year of life: Evidence from German and French infants." Infant behavior and development 32(3), pp. 262-74.
Laroche, M.; Pons, F. & Richard, M. (2009). "The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: A multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation." Journal of social psychology 149(4), pp. 513-40.
Nguyen, T.; Ingrahm, C. & Pensalfini, J. (2008). "Prosodic transfer in Vietnamese acquisition of English contrastive stress patterns." Journal of phonetics 36(1), pp. 158.
Turk, a. & Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (2007). "Multiple targets of phrase-final lengthening in American English words." Journal of phonetics 35(4), pp. 445-72.
Wyatt, J. (2007). "Skinner 1, Chomsky 0." Behavior analysis digest 19(4), pp. 13-4.
In addition, this door panel, composed of cedar wood, may represent a type of social event which was rather prominent during the Early Christian period, circa 430 C.E. Since one can make out some kind of brick background behind the three figures, the panel might not have been designed to teach or provide instruction on a spiritual event like the crucifixion of Jesus but may be images "from an early passion play, possibly one performed outside the city walls" of Rome. This type of play was part of what is known as Roman mime theater which "specialized in short scenes of gory violence, irony, satire and sarcasm" for the delight of audiences which still clung to and appreciated some of the worst social aspects of the Roman Empire, a good example being the killing of Christians in the coliseum (Storage, "The Door Panels of Santa Sabine," Internet).
Around the year…
Flowering of Faith: Christianity and Buddhism." Chapter 8.
De la Croix, Bertrand. History of Western Art. New York: Prentice-Hall, 2003.
Storage, Bill. "The Doors Panels of Santa Sabine." 2006. Internet. Retrieved May 3, 2008 from http://www.rome101.com/Christian/Sabina .
Gandharan Art." 2008. Internet. Retrieved May 3, 2008 at http://www.afghan-network.net/Culture/gandhara.html.
Cross-Cultural Differences and Communication
Cultural identity is a significant force that shapes the interaction between people from different cultures. The contemporary globalization has made intercultural interactions inevitable in the contemporary society. People draw conclusions about other people's culture depending on a wide range of observations about the individual's way of live, values and behavior. For instance, understanding what people from specific cultural values helps in drawing about that culture in that specific aspect of value or behavior (Byram, 2015). For example, I have drawn the conclusion that martial art is a significant cultural practice in the Chinese culture. This conclusion is informed by the several Chinese films that I have watched that have largely been characterized by Martial Arts. This predominance of martial arts in these films informed the conclusion I have drawn from the Chinese culture.
UNIT 4 DISCUSSION
I am visiting a new country within a different culture…
cultural diversity issue of non-American employees communicating frequently in their own native language creating an environment of sensitivity and bias amongst the non-Hispanic community.
Handling Diversity in an Organization
The contents of this paper focus on the cultural diversity involving Films ecovery Systems, an American company located at the heart of Chicago, Illinois. The paper takes an insight into the issue and also proposes solutions that can resolve the problem. The most important aspect of the paper is that it takes into account the material we find and read in books and compares to what degree the literature is actually applicable in real life situations.
The study of public administration includes a spectrum of many disciplines, which include psychology, sociology, philosophy and also management sciences. Even though, the nature of public administration does not conveniently classify its elements into components, public administration is primarily categorized to highlight the…
Leaders are Learned Optimists - The CLEMMER Group Management
Consulting, available at http://www.clemmer.net/excerpts/leaders_learned.shtml accessed on: March 31, 2004
Robert Bacal, Conflict Prevention In The Workplace, available at http://www.work911.com/products/i-coop.htm , accessed on March 31, 2004
QSM Consulting - Leadership Driving Change, available at http://www.qsmconsulting.com/lds/index.shtml, accessed on: March 31, 2004
Starbucks wants to enter South Africa, the "ainbow Nation," and learn about doing business in Africa for future expansion across the continent. It has the conditions for success, but critical will be managing a multicultural team of employees in every store. There are 11 major languages in South Africa, highlighting the diversity of the country, and it has also become a magnet for immigrants from other African countries as well. Starbucks needs to implement programs such as employee groups in charge of multicultural initiatives and it should track the demographics of its workforce to ensure that they are diverse. Management teams should also be diverse. The company should have a multicultural management training program as one of its major controls.
The corporation to be discussed in this paper is Starbucks, and they wish to enter the South African market. Starbucks operates in dozens of countries worldwide.…
BBC. (2013). South Africa profile. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094760
Japan Today. (2013). Starbucks on track to open 1000th store in Japan. Japan Today. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from http://www.japantoday.com/category/business/view/starbucks-on-track-to-open-1000th-store-in-japan
Luthans, F., Doh, J. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior. McGraw-Hill.
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…
Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf
Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading
Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf
Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
Cultural diversity refers to the diverse varieties of human cultures that exist in a certain region, society or in the world as a whole. The characteristics of diversity may include ethnicity, traditions, geographic background, language spoken, religious beliefs, race or physical features. This term is also based on the idea that different cultures should respect each other's differences. With the global integration, the need for communication in accordance with other person's cultural awareness has intensified. Many times, any gesture that is considered offensive in one culture is completely accepted in the other culture. Hence, people sometimes develop misunderstandings when communicating with someone from a different culture. Therefore, it is essential that differences are appreciated for an effective communication.
I am a Christian man who is originally from Ukraine. My mother tongue is Ukrainian and I came to United States some 10 years ago. I am very moderate in my religious…
Newsom, D., Turk, J.V., and Kruckeberg, D. (2004). This is PR: The Realities of Public Relations. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Rosener, J.B. (1990) "Ways Women Lead," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68, No. 6, pp. 119-25
Cultural Distance: How Is it Measured, And How it Impact on Global Marketing Operations
The persistence of cultural distances is relevant for the global multinational marketing operations exposed to multiple cultures in their everyday activities. This indicates that marketing across border introduces complexities because it forces global marketers to tailor their approaches and practices to each cultural context they carry out their business activities. As a result, this paper will discuss concepts applicable to different aspects of cross-border operations. The primary focus of the paper is on multinational business corporations (Baumann, 2007).
This study shows how Hofstede's model is still the most relevant piece of reference for a successive cross-cultural analysis despite it being a widely criticized. The paper compares and contrasts Hofstede's famous concepts with Turner and Schwartz, Trompenaars and Hampden's valued inventory. It will attempt to provide empirical evidence of how cultural diversity influences the global markets by…
Baumann, A. (2007). Influences of culture on the style of business behavior between Western and Arab managers. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Baumu-ller, M. (2007). Managing cultural diversity: An empirical examination of cultural networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations. Bern: Lang.
Cavusgil, T. & Ghauri, P.N. (2009). New challenges to international marketing. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Curry, J.E. (2009). A short course in international marketing: Approaching and penetrating the global marketplace. Petaluma, CA: World Trade Press.
In any culture, the way someone dresses will have an impact in identifying who they are and the traditions which are embraced. The Indian civilization has their own form of dress that is holding onto various social customs in the form of the sari. To fully understand how this is impacting society requires carefully examining the cultural context of the dress ensemble, providing a description of it and discussing various influences (such as: somatotypes). Together, these elements will highlight the impact of these styles on different segments of society. (Katiyar, 2009)
Briefly describe the cultural context of the dress practice or ensemble.
The Indian sari is a strip of indistinct cloth which is worn by women. It is from four to nine yards in length and is draped over the body in various styles. The outfit is worn based upon historical traditions which are dating back to the…
The Classification System of Dress. (2013).
The Three Somatotypes. (2013). University of Houston. Retrieved from: http://www.uh.edu/fitness/comm_educators/3_somatotypesNEW.htm
Eicher, J. (2008). The Visible Self: Global Perspectives on Dress, Culture, and Society. New York, NY: Fairchild Books.
Katiyar, V. (2009). Indian Saris. New Delhi: Wisdom Tree.
Cultural Blending That Occurred hen the British Colonized India
Throughout the course of history, the British were known as the world's conquerors. This is because they established a series of colonies around the globe that supported the nation and its self-interest. During their occupation of India, there was focus on blending different cultures to create a unique society. (Bingham)
This transformed India from being a backward region to one that was able to improve its standard of living and make steps towards joining the modern world. The result is that a new social identify was developed. To fully understand the way that this occurred requires examining cultural blending, how it shaped their identity, if it was permanent, what caused it to change and if it was beneficial. These different factors will illustrate the way this occurred and the impact it had on India's development. (Bingham)
The British first arrived…
Bingham, Jane. Indian Art and Culture. Hoboken: Wiley, 2005. Print.
Kasbekar, Asha. Pop Culture in India. Oxford: ABC CLIO, 2006. Print.
Cultural Competency in Nursing
The basic knowledge in nursing or medical studies needs substantial facilitation in order to be effective and appropriate towards addressing the needs and preferences of the patients. Watson notes the need to integrate humanistic aspect into the career or nursing profession. He also believes on the need for the establishment of the caring relationship between the patients and nurses thus demonstration of unconditional acceptance of the patients in any condition. Nurses should integrate holistic and positive treatment with the aim of promoting health through knowledge and interventions thus elimination of interruptions during treatments or 'caring moments'. Modern patients have diverse problems and issues because of the cultural differences, races, and ethnicity thus the need to enhance the operations of the nurses. There is need to ensure that the nurses obtain cultural competencies with the aim of enhancing their ability to address diverse issues and problems faced…
Anderson, N.L.R., Calvillo, E.R., & Fongwa, M.N. (2007). Community-based approaches to strengthen cultural competency in nursing education and practice. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(1), 49S-59S.
Beach, M.C. (2005). Cultural competency: A systematic review of health care provider educational interventions. Cultural Competency, 43(4), 356-373.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A model of care. The Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), 181-185.
Rosswurm and Larrabee, (1999). A Model for Change to Evidence-Based
Cultural Briefing Document Zurich Switzerland
The LJ Products Co. is proud to announce that one of our executive staff will be joining our staff in Zurich Switzerland in January of 2012. Mr. Didier Burkhalter will be joining our Zurich staff as chief financial officer. Mr. Burkhalter will report directly to the CEO and other members of the board. To make Mr. Burkhalter feel welcome in his new position it is requested that all staff members read the following briefing prior to his arrival and that they become familiar with the customs of Mr. Burkhalter's country of origin. All staff members should extend Mr. Burkhalter a warm welcome by familiarizing themselves with his customs. The following summarizes many of the customs of Swiss society, using American culture as a reference point.
Hofstede's cultural dimensions is the most widely used system for developing a framework that assesses national cultures and…
COMMUNICAID GROUP LTD. 2009. Doing Busineass in Switzerland: Swiss Social and Business Culture. [online] Available from: http://www.communicaid.com/access/pdf/library/culture/doing-business-in/Doing%20Business%20in%20Switzerland.pdf [accessed to December 2011}.
EDIPLOMAT. 2011. Switzerland. [online] Available from: http://www.ediplomat.com/np/cultural_etiquette/ce_ch.htm [accessed to December 2011}.
EXPATICA. 2011. Management Culture in Switzerland. Expatica.com. [online] Available from: http://www.expatica.com/ch/employment/employment_information/Management-culture-in-Switzerland_13331.html [accessed to December 2011}.
HOFSTEDE, G. 2001. Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
" Taking into consideration these three stages, I would position myself in the second stage - that of cultural identity search. I am aware of my cultural background and I always have been, but the fact that I live in the multicultural American society made it hard for me to fully embrace my cultural heritage. I am at a stage in my life when I feel the need to understand my culture in order to better understand who I am. The fact that I am aware of my cultural appurtenance does not mean that I completely embrace my cultural identity. Learning about my cultural heritage is the path towards better understanding who I am and identifying myself with the cultural group that I belong to.
Culture of Pakistan, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan;
Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;
Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.
Chapter 6, Cultural…
Culture of Pakistan, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan ;
Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;
Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.
Chapter 6, Cultural Identity, Cultural Biases, and Intercultural Contact.
(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)
Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…
Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.
Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm
Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.
Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
While in high school, she worked as a waitress at a local diner. Most of the population was black, therefore there was little contact with white customers or employees. Margaret feels that she was socially isolated until the 1950s. She was not exposed to white culture; it was foreign to her. She was only exposed to black culture of the time. They were not allowed in certain stores, restaurants, or other places of business. She remembers "white only" restrooms and "black only" fountains. This cultural isolation was oppressive.
Margaret feels that the oppressive attitudes and discrimination that she experienced as a child determined much of how her life proceeded in adulthood. The idea that she could only go so far was ingrained as a child. She never really broke free of this feeling. In her 40s, she moved to upstate New York. Here, she found that many women had succeeded…
Diller, D. (1999). Opening the dialogue: Using culture as a tool in teaching young African
American children. Reading Teacher, 52(8), 820-828. [Available electronically through ERIC/EBSCOhost]
Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching:
using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31 (2), 132-141.
Cultural Observation of Dress
Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.
Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)
f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.
People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…
Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)
Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.
Miner's article is discussing the appearance
At the same time, it considerably increased the number of books that would reach the masses, allowing them to see outside the teachings of the Church or of the religious preachers. Moreover, the printing machine offered the possibility for those opposing the rule of the Catholic Church to spread their beliefs and convictions. Thus, Gutenberg's invention was the main tool for what would later be called the Reformation, the religious movement which is often associated with the Renaissance and which influenced the artistic movement in the same manner as the Renaissance affected the emergence of the reformist churches.
The hallmarks of the previous era were rather obvious and contrasted to the ones the Renaissance promoted. They manifested themselves at all the levels of the society. Thus, during the middle Ages, the Church represented the highest institution of the state which had as its subjects all political and land owners (Berstein…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses, 1998
Culture-Epoch Theory: The fact of Ceaseless Change. N.d. 20 May 2008 http://iws.ccccd.edu/mbailey/culture_epoch_theory.htm
Hispanic Society. Paintings from the Middle Ages. 2006. 20 May 2008 http://www.hispanicsociety.org/hispanic/paintings_medieval.htm
Since weddings are meant to bring families together the unity of the community as a whole is catered for and this can be advantageous. This culture will also ensure that the customs and traditions are retained and covered from erosion by other cultures, this is because the arrangements will ensure that only individuals with similar backgrounds are brought together and no new cultures are incorporated. To someone who does not admire the African culture this may not sound positive but I am sure to the owners of the culture this is a very big boost to them.
Now looking at the Australian cultural wedding very little seems strange but is totally different to the African ceremony. I feel that the Australian cultural wedding is more 'liberal' in nature as compared to the African wedding. This is because the weddings are based on love and agreement between two individuals. This gives…
Africaguide.com (2011). Africa people & culture, accessed on November 25, 2011 from http://www.africaguide.com/culture/weddings.htm
Euroevents & Travel (2004). Wedding Traditions and Customs around the World Bridal
Customs in different Countries accessed on November 25, 2011 from http://www.worldweddingtraditions.com/
Gardner, H. (1985). The mind's new science. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Each customer's predictive score informs actions to be taken with that customer. usiness intelligence just doesn't get more actionable than that." (Siegel, 2009)
Predictive analytics involves: (1) a focus on actions; (2) rapid deployment; and (3) engagement of business and IT. (Siegel, 2009) Decision management is characterized by: (1) a focus on decisions; (2) the combination of business rules with analytics; and (3) putting predictive analytics to work. (Siegel, 2009) Irwin Speizer writes that there is a "new generation of workforce-planning tools" that offer great promise through the use of "sophisticated software and data-rich predictive-modeling techniques..." (Speizer, 2006) It is stated that the study of "internal staffing history and skill sets, external and internal business trends, demographic data and other variables" that the HR leader can "predict a company's talent-related needs years into the future." (Speizer, 2006)
V. Summary & Conclusion
Starbucks did manage to negotiate their way successfully through…
Kaczmarczyk, Pawel and Lewicki, Mikolaj (2007) "Lost In Transformation."
Cultural Encounters In Multinational Corporations Investing In Central And Eastern Europe. DIOSCURI Final Conference, Institute for Human Sciences, Vienna. 20-22 April. 20007. Online available at:
Fellner, Kim (2008) Private Sector: Starbucks Leaner, Meaner. 8 Jul 2008. Post-Gazette.com Business. Online available at: http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/08190/895381-28.stm
O'Neill, Brendan (2009) Israel, Starbucks and the New Irrationalism. 14 Jan 2009. War In Gaza. SPIKED.com. online available at: http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/site/article/6103/
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…
Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.
Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
scu.edu).Andre goes on to say some critics see Hirsch's efforts to bring culture into the classroom are not so much "cultural literacy" but more like "cultural indoctrination." Not only is the Hirsch strategy and methodology seen as flawed, Andre and Velasquez continue, the "content" he prescribes is subject to criticism. For example, the question of "Whose form of knowledge, culture, vision, history and authority will prevail as the national culture?" should be asked, and Hirsch knows that is an issue. "Will they, like Hirsch, be white, middle-class males?" Andre wonders, and will they be elitist?
Hirsch meanwhile answers these accusations in his Core Knowledge Web site, saying that the contend must arise from "a broad consensus of diverse groups and interests." That consensus should include the parents, teachers, scientists, "professional curriculum organizations, and experts on America's multicultural traditions." The "central motivation behind" his core knowledge initiative is "to guarantee equal…
Booklist. "Reference Books Bulletin: The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." (2003): 1702.
In the first edition of Hirsch's book, the author was criticized as being "elitist," but the Subsequent editions add "tools for assessing cultural literacy" that makes sense and Now it does "keep up with changes in American culture."
Chylinski, Manya S. "Hirsch, E.D. Jr., & others. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know." Library Journal, 127.18 (2002): 78-80. Chylinski writes that the book has been given "an exciting update" - "sorely needed"...for those "who like to have a great reference work..."
Giddings, Louise R. "Beyond E.D. Hirsch and Cultural Literacy: Thinking Skills for Cultural
But most important, Geert Hofstede will give you the 'edge of understanding' which translates to more successful results" (Geert Hofstede's Website, 2003).
If Steven Kafka conducted an analysis of the Czech market through the lens of cultural features, there is an increased likelihood for the results to indicate major discrepancies. This should not however disappoint him, as different does not implicitly mean worse.
A d) in its desire to adhere to the great economic powers of the globe, driven by its sense of innovation and its adaptability to the forces in the macro and micro environments, the Czech epublic has managed to remove most of its trade barriers. These measures were due mostly to its adherence to the European Union and other international trade organizations. "The Czech market has no trade barriers to food and agricultural product imports, except for the usual import duties and tariff rate quotas permitted under…
Briffett, C., August 28, 2008, Observing the Czech Republic through the U.S. Lens, Czech Business Weekly
Fennesz-Berka, a., November 1996, Czech Republic and Slovenia Offer Opportunities for U.S. Consumer Foods, AgExporter
2007, Differences between the Czech Republic and the U.S., Associated Content
http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/392236/differences_between_the_czech_republic.html?page=2&cat=16last accessed on September 9, 2008
"9.8% in urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas; an official Chinese journal estimated overall unemployment (including rural areas) for 2003 at 20% (2004 est.)" (CIA orld Factbook "China") the occupation breakdown for the nation is also rather simplistic, with a large protion of the population still being engaged in agricultural industries: "agriculture 49%, industry 22%, services 29% (2003 est.)" (CIA orld Factbook "China")
Cultural habits of China are relatively universal as the nation has relatively few national minorities and limited immigration from other nations due to its communist legacy. The majority ethnic group Han Chinese constitutes 91.9% of the total population with the significant minorities including Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities, constituting only a total of 8.1%. There is though a significant social and cultural disparity between urban and rural populations. Urban China is relatively modern, with many conveniences…
CIA World Factbook "China" at http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact2005/geos/ch.html
Goldberg, Jonah. "10 Million Missing Girls." National Review 30 Jan. 2006: 8.
When planning a health promotion program, we should consider the positive (empowerment process) and the negative behaviors. As we begin to understand our intended audience we can assure the most culturally-appropriate educational intervention. In doing so, we are more likely to create partnerships that help people successfully achieve lasting change and truly promote health.
One of the most common issues that are not discussed in the armed forces is military sexual trauma (MST). This is when an individual will face unnecessary amounts of sexual pain from others they are serving with. A few most common forms include: unwanted sexual touching / grabbing, threating / offensive remarks about someone's body / sexual activities and unwarranted sexual advances. This has begun to occur so frequently that the Veteran Administration conducted a study, where they found that the total amounts of MST affected: 1 in every 5 women and 1 in…
Coping Skills for Trauma. (2004). Ibiblio.org. Retrieved from: http://www.ibiblio.org/rcip/copingskills.html
Military Sexual Trauma. (2011). VA. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/military-sexual-trauma-general.asp
Robins, A. (1992). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
Film and Culture
The Grimm brothers began collecting folktales around 1807 and began a legacy that has been ingrained in popular culture. Although the tales that they collected were representative of the culture at the time, the brothers worked to canonize some of the archetypes that were present in their day. Instead of seeing them as just random works of literature, the brothers were able to identify various themes which served as the main focuses on their fairy and folk tale. These themes seemed to be generally available in the stories that the two individuals documented just as they are also present today. These archetypical characters which formed can make one wonder whether it is the culture that shapes the story or whether it is the stories that shape the culture.
Very few Grimm's Fairy Tales deviate from the stereotypes of the hero, villain, and damsel in distress…
Cultural Comparisons and Management Functions
This paper examines cultural comparisons and discusses how an American manager carries out management functions in the process of supervising German employees. With respect to individualism vs. collectivism, both Germany and the U.S. score high in individualism, that is, the degree to which individuals further their own interests. However, according to Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions, Germany's score of 67 ranks far enough below the U.S. score of 91 that the manager should expect differences in their approaches to working together in teams for instance. German employees would have only a moderate amount of group cohesion, with only a moderate amount of interpersonal connection and sharing of responsibility.
For the American manager, the two country's respective scores indicate that the manager should expect his or her German employees to be less individualistic than their manager. The manager should place a relatively high value on people's…
In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.
Effect of Cultural Diversity on…
A woman can be neither a political leader nor a judge; she must only appear in public modestly dressed, and her natural and sacred task is to keep the household smoothly functioning and to raise and instruct her children to be good Muslims. Men, for their part, must shoulder the burden of providing for the family in material ways. Liberation for a woman does not mean being like a male, or taking up male tasks, but rather being herself and fulfilling the destiny Allah created for her. (Waines, 1995, P. 255)
Feminine education is therefore one of the most extreme of all issues with regard to the influence of the Islamic culture on education, and as has been stated earlier there is significant diversity in the educational role inclusion of women. (Weil, 2004, p. 142) for many one of the biggest reasons for immigration is the offer of greater educational…
Bin Talal, E.H. (2004). Musa Ibn Maymun and the Arab-Islamic Education. European Judaism, 37(2), 5.
Buetow, H.A. (1991). Religion in Personal Development: An Analysis and a Prescription. New York: Peter Lang.
Collins, D. (2006). Culture, Religion and Curriculum Lessons from the 'Three Books' Controversy in Surrey BC. The Canadian Geographer, 50(3), 342.
Elnour, a., & Bashir-Ali, K. (2003). Teaching Muslim Girls in American Schools. Social Education, 67(1), 62.
The other feature of American politics is the private ownership of property and laws that protect private ownership of property.
The Chinese political system is different in that it is a communist system. The communist party controls the government. While there are opposition parties in china, they are not officially recognized and are often persecuted. The people of china do not have any real democratic options and every feature of the country is controlled through a centralized government structure. This means that even the economy is centrally controlled and there is no capitalist system like the United States. While China has made reforms in recent times, the system may be better considered as a managed economy with limited capitalist elements on the fringes. It should be noted that in China protest action is often met with a violent and hostile response from the government. The government does not encourage free…
Anderson, M.L., & Taylor H.F. (2010). Sociology the essentials. United States: Wadsworth
Chang K.C. (2010) Food in Chinese Culture Retrieved from http://asiasociety.org/style-living/food-recipes/food/meats/food-chinese-culture
Cobb, R.W., & Elder, C.D. (1972). Participation in American politics: The dynamics of agenda-
Cultural evaluation Japan describe identify ways arguments a presentation arguments changed result cultural differences
Rose Cohen. Out of the Shadow: A Russian Jewish Girlhood on the Lower East Side, with an Introduction by Thomas Dublin. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995). Pp. vii-313. Paper: $19.95. ISBN: 978-0-8014-8268-7.
Rose Cohen was born in Russia at the end of the 19th century and immigrated to the United States of America in the early part of the 20th century. The circumstances she encountered while transitioning from one "Old orld" culture to a "New orld" one primarily constitute the source material she uses in Out of the Shadow. There appears to be a great deal of difference between the daily life and cultures encountered by a young Jewish girl/woman in Russia and one in America. These differences more than likely pertain to both cultures as well as to simply daily life and expectations for…
Dublin, Tom. "Rose Cohen Critical Essay." Jewish Women's Archive. No date. Web. http://jwa.org/discover/inthepast/readingseries/cohen/criticalessay.html
Muir, Lisa. "Rose Cohen and Bella Spewack: The Ethnic Child Speaks to Who You Never Were." www.highbeam.com. 2002. Web. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-92042295.html
com, 2003). Fitting into the system of France is very important, and creating a good French citizen is one of the goals of the educational system. Students in France, for example, cannot wear religious clothing or other affiliations with national, non-French institutions of identity.
As in France and Japan, in the United Kingdom, education is free and compulsory until age sixteen, as an educated workforce is highly valued. There is also a great deal of respect and deference given to the role of the teacher. "Teachers in primary schools (4- to 11-year-olds) are always addressed by their surname by parents and pupils alike, always Mr., Mrs. Or Miss Smith
In secondary schools (11-16 years), teachers are always addressed as Miss or Sir" ("Introduction to School Life," oodlands Junior School, 2007). Students in the United Kingdom must wear a uniform, which enforces a certain sense of national and school cohesion, although…
French state education - an introduction." FrenchEntree.com. 2003. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.frenchentree.com/fe-education/DisplayArticle.asp?ID=70
Introduction to School Life." Woodlands Junior School. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/education/index.html
Primary and Secondary Education." Country Studies: Japan. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.country-studies.com/japan/primary-and-secondary-education.html
Samovar, Larry a., Porter, Richard, E. And McDaniel, Edward R.
Judging others excessively does create societal pollution and creates more conflict, discontent, and pain than is necessary. The fact is that judging others in their age, sex, race or nationality is like seeing only with the portion of a single eye; the remainder of what is truly in front of us is not seen; bigotry and racism blinds us from connecting with and enriching others. In that enriching of others, we enrich ourselves. So in the throwing off of stereotypes, however difficult that may be, we actually strengthen ourselves. In the service of others and in striving to understand them, we in effect broaden our own perceptive and become stronger for it. So in spite of bigotry, racism and the cruelty those aspects of human behavior deliver, if a person can rise above them through actually befriending the people they judge, they become stronger, more adept at re-ordering their own…
What Defines Us as a Global Population - our Differences or Similarities?
Analysis of "Imagine" by John Lennon
History is littered with wars and global divisions as a result of Man's search for self-definition. Man's differences appear to drive us apart but it is also conceivable that these differences bring us together. The song "Imagine" by John Lennon speaks of a 'utopia' where there are no differences that can potentially divide Man. However, the song only speaks of the differences that instigate violence and alienation. It is Man's varied cultures, religions, and beliefs that allow for our varied strengths, talents and advancements that bring us together and define us as a species.
In the song "Imagine," Lennon refers to a world devoid of heaven and hell, religion, countries, personal possessions, greed and hunger (Lennon, 1995, 1). He sings of a "brother hood of man... living for today" (Lennon,…
Lennon, John. (1995) Imagine. www.plumbingsupply.com/greatsong.html
Schwartz Values -- Conformity
Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence
Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.
Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.
Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Metropolitan University. Cited in:
Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…
Hodgetts, R., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. Retrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Before Anglos came to dominate the land, Cabeza de Baca portrays a kind of paradise-like environment, where even the sheepherders were like "musicians and poets" and "the troubadours of old," and every person had a story (Cabeza de Baca 11). This has been called a method of "preserving the culture" against the dominant discourse of Anglos: Cabeza de Baca, along with other writers of her generation are portrayed as trying to "get it [their culture] right" in an effort to transcend the overwhelming discourse of the Anglo "other" (Cabeza de Baca xx). Using Hispanic phrases and names, blurring historiography and biography, and the view of the past as a kind of lost "Eden" are all aspects of the authors 'agenda' (Cabeza de Baca xx). Cabeza de Baca deliberately uses English as a way of communicating with the Anglo reader and 'setting the record straight.'
Yet while Cabeza de Baca strives…
Cabeza de Baca, Fabiola. We fed them cactus. UNM Press, 1954.
socal and cultural mpacts of establshng an eco-Toursm enterprse n Joao Pessoa, Brazl. The man focus of the dssertaton s on the followng areas:
An analyss of eco-toursm development
An assessment of the opportuntes - regonal, domestc, nternatonal
An evaluaton of the projects feasblty
An examnaton of the socal-cultural mpact of the eco-toursm
Brazl has a sanctuary of the fnest natural resources ("fauna & flora") n the world, and therefore toursm s n ascendence, and demands for md-class hotels are on the ncrease. The development of eco-toursm n specfc areas s antcpated due to partnershp wth local bankng ntutons; local government nterest and regulatons; and a general growth of awareness of the tenson between the tourst dollar, the envronment and local cultures.
Prmary research (ntervews and questonnares) wll be conducted to analyze the feasblty of the project. Secondary research wll be carred out, n the form of a…
i) Adventurers set out to discover other lands (e.g., Captain Cook) ii) People traveled for scientific research (e.g., Darwin) iii) People traveled for business (trade) iv) People traveled in order to visit friends and family (social), v) People traveled for leisure (relaxation) vi) People travel as Eco-Travelers (learners).
The development of tourism has influenced people and society, and has created thousands of organizations, at many levels: national and international, governmental or non- governmental. Tourism has thus led to the creation of million of jobs worldwide, in what is today is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism has led people to confront different attitudes and to admire eclectic cultures. In addition, to be able to understand these cultures, society at large has had to adapt to the pluralism of cultures by learning languages other than their own, different types of gastronomy and music, and also by adopting a greater tolerance of different religions.
Accordingly to Kaluf (2001), the development of tourism has been worldwide, and has been sustaining a growth of 20% over last five years: 5% in mass tourism and an incredible 15% in
8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.
The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…
Baird, C.H., and Parasnis, G., (2011). From Social Media to Social Customer Relationship Management, Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp. 30 -- 37.
Rosa Diaz, I.M. (2013). Price assessments by consumers: Influence of purchase context and price structure. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(1), 13-20.
Hollenbeck, C.R., & Kaikati, A.M. (2012). Consumers' use of brands to reflect their actual and ideal selves on Facebook. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 395.
Kim, S., & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers' trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318.
This in turn will lead to a rift between civilizations, one that would encourage them to rediscover their own individual cultural identity. Therefore, the globalization of the world can mean the fragmentation of cultures and the possibility of new conflicts along civilization lines.
The theory of Samuel Huntington however has had several critics who argue that in fact the neo-liberal approach of world economics and politics will increase the financial resources of the world and thus foster the creation of a global culture based on similar moral values and norms. However, it is less likely for the neo-liberal practices to have this effect on the short-term because it is rather clear from the image of today's world that globalization has led, in a constant manner, to inequality. This consideration is rather simple and revolves around the issue of the distribution of resources. More precisely, the developed world has limited resources…
Ayres, J.M. (2004) "Framing Collective Action Against Neo-liberalism: The Case of the "Anti-Globalization" Movement." Journal of World- Systems Research.. 14 May 2008. http://jwsr.ucr.edu/archive/vol10/number1/pdf/jwsr-v10n1-ayres.pdf
Forum Barcelona. (2004) "Theme 2: Is There a Global Culture? The Globalization of Media and the Culture of Societies." Session summaries. 14 May 2008. http://www.barcelona2004.org/eng/banco_del_conocimiento/documentos/ficha.cfm?IdDoc=1676
Huntington, S.P. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster.
Modelski, G.(n.d.) the four dimensions of globalization. 14 May 2008 https://faculty.washington.edu/modelski/Global4.html. html
Policy Issues and Cultural Diversity
Culture constitutes one of the important national resources, and is the accrued capital of the nation's continued creativity and ingenuity. It forms the storehouse of human memory and achievement, and the wellspring of innovation and uniqueness. In today's knowledge-intensive global economy, cultural capital is becoming increasingly valuable and constitutes an important social foundation as individuals in the U.S. and across the globe endeavor to understand the identities of others, whilst preserving their own unique legacy (Center for Arts and Culture, 2001).
Cultural policy represents a process as well as a product, a basis for decision- and rule- making informed by values and social relationships. It connects to every major societal issue: economic stratification, international relations, education, technology, community development, and race relations (Atlas, n.d).
Need for Cultural Policy
Every society requires a powerful cultural life. By way of its capacity to inspire and…
Adams, D., & Goldbard, A. (1987). A new cultural policy for the United States. Retrieved November 2012 from http://www.wwcd.org/policy/U.S./proposals/US_policy.html.
Association of International Educators. (2007). An international education policy for U.S. leadership, competitiveness, and security. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from NAFSA.org. https://www.nafsa.org/_/File/_/neip_rev.pdf.
Atlas, C. (n.d.) Cultural policy: What is it, who makes it, why does it matter? Retrieved March 2012.
Bedoya, R. (2004). U.S. cultural policy: Its politics of participation, its creative potential. Retrieved November 2012 from http://npnweb.org/wp-content/content/files/CulturalPolicy.pdf
Globalization and Middle Eastern Culture
The term globalization has positive connotations in that it implies interaction and sharing through technology and suggests the improvement and development of less developed countries through connections with countries that are more economically wealthy. However, this is not always the way in which the term is interpreted by some countries and cultures. There has been a negative reaction throughout the world in recent years to the concept of globalization which is increasingly viewed as a means of domination and assimilation -- especially with regard to cultural aspects. A more formal definition of globalization is as follows:
Globalization can be conceived as a process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions, expressed in transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction and power (see Held and McGrew, et al., 1999).
In essence globalization is characterized…
Cheruiyot K. Our Languages Are Dying [article online] Available from http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2003/0224language.htm ; Internet: accessed December 1, 2004.
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Maisami Mona, Islam and Globalization. [essay online] Available from The foundation Magazine (August 2003) http://www.fountainmagazine.com/articles.php?SIN=5a952d9bae& ; k=33& 1677948306& show=part1; Internet: Accessed 1 December, 2004.
Moussalli Mohammed, Impact of Globalization ( Article online) Available form Daily Star ( August 25, 2003) http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2003/0826islam.htm ; Internet: accessed 5 December, 2004
Because these issues have become more pronounced in recent years, it is not surprising that efforts have been made to define these differences in an effort to measure them. In this regard, Hofstede (1980) identified five basic dimensions of culture as follows:
1. Power distance (focusing on the extent to which the less powerful expect and accept that power is distributed unequally);
2. Individualism-collectivism (focusing on the degree to which the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships -- highly individualist cultures believe individual is the most important unit, whereas highly collectivistic cultures believe group is the most important unit);
3. Uncertainly avoidance (focusing on the degree to which the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, uncertainty and ambiguity within the society)
4. Masculinity-femininity (focusing on the extent to which a society emphasizes achievement or nurturing -- masculinity emphasizes ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles, whereas…
Bardovi-Harlig, K. & Hartford, B.S. (2005). Interlanguage pragmatics: Exploring institutional talk. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mann, GA. (2006). A motive to serve: Public service motivation in human resource
management and the role of PSM in the nonprofit sector. Public Personnel Management
The ethics of using labor at rates far below what would be necessary in their own nations, with no requirement of paying healthcare, no workers' compensation insurance, no unemployment insurance, or even the threat of unionization sadly ensure this practice will continue. Yet when one considers this aspect of westernization it is clear that globalization in fact does not provide benefits to everyone in the long-run.
Towards a More Egalitarian Model of Globalization
Instead of blindly moving into a specific region or nation of the world and developing either one of several factory types as defined by Ferdows in much of his work on globalization of manufacturing, or attempting to create entirely new distribution channels to sell to residents, companies need instead to take a more egalitarian approach to global expansion. In their article the End of Corporate Imperialism, Prahalad & Lieberthal (et.al.) and in Dr. Prahalads' book the Fortune…
Bryan Caplan, Tyler Cowen. "Do We Underestimate the Benefits of Cultural Competition? " the American Economic Review 94.2 (2004): 402-407. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 28 Apr. 2008 www.proquest.com
Friedman, Thomas. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. 1. New York: Anchor Press, 1999.
Friedman, Thomas. The World Is Flat. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. New York, NY. 2005.
Geert Hofstede. "The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. " Journal of International Business Studies (pre-1986)
Therefore, in the light of these current developments, I envisage that the nurses will require much more comprehensive training in issues related to cultural diversity in the future. For example, the nurse will need to become more knowledgeable about the way that various cultures respond to conventional medicine and that alternative medicine and therapies play in the healing process.
The subject of alternative therapies illustrates the way that the role of nursing is changing. For example, it has been found that "…44% of Mexican-Americans had used alternative practitioners at least once in the previous year" and that "Mental or physical illness is seen by many Hispanics to be a consequence of behavior, or simply the result of fate" (Breeding, Harley, ogers & Crystal, 2005).
This means that in future the nurse will need to be trained in greater depth in order to understand the way that other cultures perceive…
Breeding, R.R., Harley, D.A., Rogers, J.B., & Crystal, R.M. (2005). The Kentucky Migrant Vocational Rehabilitation Program: A Demonstration Project for Working with Hispanic Farm Workers. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 71(1), 32+.
Business Case for Diversity. Retrieved June 7, 2009, from http://www.chubb.com/diversity/chubb4450.html
Kim, H.S. & Kollak, I. (Eds.). (2006). Nursing Theories: Conceptual and Philosophical Foundations (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.
Varcoe C. ( 2004) Advancing Nursing Scholarship in Diversity: Complexity and Equity. CJNR Editorial, 36 (4).
These, then, eventually die leaving the transfer of oxygen in your blood being absolutely limited and far below the point at which the flow of oxygen needs to be in a human body. The flow of blood and transfer of oxygen eventually slows down tremendously and can cause terrible pain as well as make the immune system to be vulnerable to a variety of different diseases. There are many medical procedures that can allow the individual to find a relief (Lozoff et al., 2003).
In our case study, we will mainly highlight how the mother's approach was tentative and skeptical and how the four points that have been mentioned initially (communication, social organization, spatial dynamics and locus of control) are impacted through her approach. The first important thing to note about the attitude of the mother is that she does seem very forthcoming to find out as much as she…
Black R. (2003) Micronutrient deficiency -- an underlying cause of morbidity and mortality. Bulletin of World Health Organization, 81:79.
Dr Izumi, S., (2008) Japanese Patients' Descriptions of 'The Good Nurse', accessed on February 28, 2009.
Kino*****a, J., & Palevsky, N. (1992) Gateway to Japan (Rev. ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha International.
Lozoff B, De Andraca I, Castillo M, Smith JB, Walter T, Pino P. (2003) Behavioral and developmental effects of preventing iron-deficiency anemia in healthy full-term infants. Pediatrics.112:846-854.
In the contemporary, globalization continues to increase rapidly and this has given rise to diversity within organizations. This has necessitated leaders to nurture and advance a cultural mindset that permits diversity to success devoid of risking the extent of productivity and output. Devoid of this, personnel can constantly be in conflict with each other, and this can give rise to inefficiency, increase in turnover and lower performance and productivity (Gupta and Govindarajan, 2002). The purpose of this paper is to address the development and carrying out of a cultural mindset amongst a diverse global group of employees.
Integrating Varied Perspectives in Dynamic Environments to Lead Successfully in a Culturally Diverse Society
In order to become a successful leader in a culturally diverse society, it is necessary to undertake the integration of varied perspectives in dynamic settings. One of the ways is acknowledging that indeed there exist differences in perspective and…
From WWMT.com comes the news story of Western Michigan University Bronson School of Nursing receiving $2 million in grant money for scholarships to students who are from different cultural backgrounds so that a more diverse culture of student nurses can be achieved (VanTimmeren, 2017). As Bryan (2014) points out, culture is very important in this day and age because it informs people’s perspectives and values about what is good and bad regarding others in society. If people have a very narrow and poorly conceived viewpoint or perspective on other cultures, there is going to be tension in the field. To discourage this tension, the Bronson School of Nursing is looking to bring a wider diversity to its student body with the aim being that the more diverse its student population is the more likely that population is to generate tolerant, accepting, respectful and understanding viewpoints of different cultures.
Cross Cultural Psychology
Comparing cross-cultural approaches to psychology:
An ecocultural vs. An integrated approach
The need to take into account different cultural perspectives when treating patients has become increasingly recognized within the profession of psychology. Cross-cultural psychology, in contrast to other branches of psychology, allows that the definition of what is psychologically 'normal' is often highly dependent upon one's cultural context. Two similar, but slightly different approaches to cross-cultural psychology include the ecocultural model and the integrative model.
The ecocultural model, posits "that the individual cannot be separated from his or her environmental context. People constantly exchange messages with the environment, thus transforming it and themselves" (Chapter 1 summary, n.d). Someone acculturated in a nation other than the U.S. will show different developmental features than someone acculturated in America. The United States' culture supports a particularly long adolescence, and leaving home and beginning a family is no longer…
Chapter 1 summary. (n.d). Retrieved:
Trommsdorff, G. (2002). An eco-cultural and interpersonal relations approach to development over the life span. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 6 (2).1-15 Retrieved from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=orpc
Although I believe that I have critically met the objectives for a master's degree in working in many ways (particularly academically), I can honestly state that the area in which I progressed the most was in dealing with cultural diversity. Prior to entering this program, I had extremely limited experience dealing with cultural diversity, especially in the workplace. Despite working as a nurse for the past 16 years, the most diversity I had ever experienced in my patient population was the occasional Spanish speaking client -- which would require me to utilize the language line for interpreting my directions and interacting with the patient. However, thanks to my involvement in this particular academic program, I am now much more acclimated with cultural diversity and believe that I have significantly improved my prowess in this aspect of my work as a professional nurse.
My experience with cultural diversity changed…
To resolve this conflict in the situation where demographic and experiential differences are found qualitative researchers, such as those studying different cultures, might employ guides, interpreters and/or other "native" individuals to introduce and help them assimilate into the culture, in order to observe it or in some cases they use time as their tool, immersing for longer periods of time with limited or no interruption to eliminate any bias that might occur in research results because of his or her presence. Even among researchers this is not seen as a perfect set up but it can help resolve some of the intrusion challenges associated with diversity.
One of the major problems, as qualitative researchers see it in historical research is the fact that the researcher has often been seen and thought of as holding a position of authority over the subjects being studied. This idea of "social capital" is pervasive,…
Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative Research in Practice: Stories from the Field/. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Finkleman, J.M. (2007) Discrimination, Harassment, and Retaliation: The Dysfunctional Side of Diversity. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59 (4) 254 -- 260
Pugh, S.D. Dietz, J. Brief, a.P. & Wiley, J.W. (2008) Looking Inside and Out: The Impact of Employee and Community Demographic Composition on Organizational Diversity Climate. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93 (6) 1422 -- 1428.
Merchant, B.M. & Willis, a.I. (Eds.). (2001). Multiple and Intersecting Identities in Qualitative Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
A gratefully accepted and began attending the family meetings regarding this upcoming event. Apparently there had been previous meetings but I was only made aware of the event as part of this project so I got to go to the final four meetings.
he first thing that happens during this event is that the girl renews her commitment to God and to the church before her family and friends and congregation members.
he ceremony is serious with bells ringing and music playing at the church which can be decorated for the event.
In the case of this family the church was decorated with white satin and ribbon and flowers. On addition when the church part was over there were a dozen white doves released into the sky as the girl made her way outside among the onlookers.
Following the church service the family throws a large party. It was explained…
This immersion project provided me with the opportunity to learn about Hispanic culture in a way that was much more enjoyable and interesting than reading it in a book. Through this project I got to live as a Hispanic for short times and really feel what they feel during various times of family life. Whether it was attending festivals, church or going to a young girl's coming out party I was surrounded with Hispanic family members that went out of their way to help me understand. I came away with the understanding that the Hispanic culture is about love, celebration and enjoyment of life, something I think many of us could learn from.
Good News from the Hispanic Church (Accessed 10-29-06) http://www.ctlibrary.com/bc/2004/julaug/9.18.html
Aborigines are Australia's original inhabitants and until the late 1700's -1800's the aborigine had little contact with Western civilization. Local dialects and the territorial nature of bands provided the different social groups their distinctive identity. The Mardudjara (Mardu) aborigines are part of the Western Desert cultural block in Australia (Tonkinson, 1978). The Mardu culture, societal system, etc. has never been recorded in its pristine state as anthropologic researchers did not study the group until well after alien influences had occurred. Nonetheless, the nomadic lifestyle of the Mardu was dictated by the harsh climate in which they live and they are an extremely interesting group. Nomadic groups like the Mardu often have a perception of gender or a cultural gender schema that fits in functionally with their lifestyle and is based on a division of labor and status that allows the group to maintain an identify, clearly defined roles, and survive…
Bird, R. (1999). Cooperation and conflict: The behavioral ecology of the sexual division of labor. Evolutionary Anthropology, 8 (2), 65-75.
Holmes, L.D., & Holmes, E.R. (1992) Samoan Village (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Tonkinson, R. (1978). The Mardudjara aborigines: Living the dream in Australia's desert. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Health -- Cultural Empowerment
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
Healthcare is not a black and white issue. That is, to understand the healthcare experience in a multicultural context, one must let go of extremes. The experience is not always straight-forward or simple. Often there are many details one must gather to render a context in which to understand the healthcare experience. The relationships between doctors and patients are important, yet they are also often superficial. Doctors, because of various demands, do not always have a deep enough understanding or awareness of their patients to provide optimal healthcare. Patients must take responsibility and follow the doctor's instructions as they are given. Patients must also not be afraid to ask questions, seek second opinions when they can, as well as consult doctors in regards to alternatives not previously brought up. This paper examines…
1297). Another study referenced by Correll in the article claims that female consultants are rated "less competent" when described as being "a mother" than women who have no children at home. In our culture, Correll continues, fathers are not discriminated against because "…understandings of what it means to be a good father are not seen in our culture as incompatible with…what it takes to be a good worker" (p. 1298). But when women are mothers, they are seen as less "committed" than women without children.
Brown, Alan S. "Study: Women Are Putting Family Before athematics." echanical
Engineering 131.5 (2009): 10-12.
In this article two Cornell University professors conducted a study by researching "400 studies and analyses of women in math-related professions"; the results of their research shows that twice as many women as men "drop out of math-intensive careers, including engineering" Brown, 2009). Why do women leave engineering and math-intensive…
Mason, Mary Ann, and Ekman, Eve Mason. Mothers on the Fast Track: How a New
Generation Can Balance Family and Careers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
In this book, the authors present -- in a positive light -- a wide swath of issues that face working mothers, but the sum and substance is that "Mothers who persist do remarkably well" (p. 53). In fact, mothers with children "under six" earned more "and were promoted more quickly than women without children." Indeed, "successful mothers get the workplace to work for them," the authors report (p. 54). They get the work done well and completely, but they do it in a different time frame than men. One reason female lawyers and corporate executives who are also mothers succeed, the book explains, is that they have "the ability to say no" (p. 54). They refuse evening meetings, and to stay strong mothers in corporate positions have "physical stamina, an ambitious nature, and just plain luck" (p. 53).
Cultural Diversity in Rural Settings for Nurses
On a continuum of cultural awareness to cultural relativity, how do you view yourself and your interactions with others?
As a nurse practitioner, it is easy to see the patient simply as a patient, as a sick person needing treatment, rather than a well person who perceives his or her body as only temporarily ill, but sees his or her person as permanently a part of a family and culture outside of the hospital. As Small and Dennis (2003) counsel, the increase in immigration has resulted in greater diversity of both patients and practitioners within the United States, rather than in traditional urban locations. Thus Small and Dennis remind the nurse that it is not simply enough to treat the patient, but the patient must also understand his or her illness in culturally comprehensible terms. A nurse must be able to communicate to…
Dennis, Betty Pierce & Ernestine B. Small. (Jan-Feb, 2003) "Incorporating cultural diversity in nursing care: an action plan" The ABNF Journal.
"New Position Statement Originated by: Council on Cultural Diversity in Nursing Practice, Congress of Nursing." (1996) Adopted by: ANA Board of Directors.