170+ documents containing “cultural relativism”.
Cultural relativism is a principal of regarding the values, beliefs and traits of a culture from the point-of-view of that culture. This is understanding other cultures and their beliefs. For instance what appears normal in one culture may seem quite offensive to another an example is in China dogs are eaten while in America dogs are kept as pets. Ethnocentrism on the other hand is the tendency of believing that one's culture or ethnic group is centrally important and that all other groups should be measured in relation to their own.it is the belief that ones culture is the best and other cultures are wrong (Ariwibowo, 2013).
Cultural relativism is a notion which supports and allows one to see the different traits, habits and values of a person in relevance of his or her own cultural values. All values, norms and traits can be seen in cultural relevance where it….
And in fact, a study of the textual scriptures will actually reveal a number of ways in which the Quran had come to break new ground in the establishment of social protection for women within the context of said family roles. The evidence to defend this perspective is couched in a cultural and textual understanding alien to most estern critics of the lifestyle. Abu-Lughod determines to "argue that rather than seeking to "save" others (with the superiority it implies and the violences it would entail) we might better think in terms of (1) working with them in situations that we recognize as always subject to historical transformation and (2) considering our own larger responsibilities to address the forms of global injustice that are powerful shapers of the worlds in which they find themselves." (Abu-Lughod, 783) This is a statement to the defense of cultural relativism which is designed to….
Abu-Lughod, L. (2004). Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and its Others. American Anthropologist, 104(3), 783-790.
Boland, L.A. (1970). Conventionalism and Economic Theory. University of Chicago Press.
Holmes, a.F. (1984). Ethics: Approaching Moral Decisions. Intervarsity Press.
IMF Staff. (April 12, 2000). Globalization: Threat or Opportunity? InternationalMonetary Fund. Online at http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/041200.htm
And what constitutes a 'successful' marriage or life partnership is also quite culturally relative. Jaza's culture defines stability and a lack of divorce as successful, and if these are the benchmarks of success, than traditional Mongolian society is superior. Sam and defenders of Western values, of course, would vehemently disagree and state that even if divorce is easier, and more mistakes are made in a society characterized by autonomy, this is innately 'better.' But even our own cultural critics bemoan the current state of the family, and measure its success based upon the divorce rate -- at least, if a family is poor. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, for example, in his essay "Defining Deviancy Down" automatically assumes that having a two-parent family is 'better' for children [at least, poor, minority children], as defined by certain standards of success and social factors, such as the prevalence of crime: "in 1965, having reached….
This ties in to the other side of Cultural Relativism mentioned in this passage, which is really the same as the first but more extreme. The author points out that under Cultural Relativism, nothing that is part of another culture could be considered immoral, as there would be no universal morality to judge it against. This passage specifically uses anti-Semitism to illustrate this point; we could not call it wrong for a society to try to destroy the Jews, and we could not even say "that a society tolerant of Jews is better than the anti-Semitic society" because it would imply some moral qualification. The idea that it could ever be considered right to slaughter other people is abhorrent, and I don't think any human philosophy that allows for this is worth practicing. It is also not rational, as such morality would be deemed immoral if the tables were turned….
Oh this insane sad beast man!"
This clearly demonstrates more than simply a sheer intolerance for the beliefs of other people but a profound disrespect which orbits around a sense of mockery and derision. Cultural relativism doesn't offer such criticism and profound judgement for other cultures such as this. hile certain cultural relativists might disagree with the beliefs or practices of members of other cultures, there absolutely wouldn't be this level of condemnation and ridicule.
Furthermore, it's not just Christianity that Nietzsche ridicules. Essentially, Nietzsche derides any culture that has belief systems which put a precedent on sacrifices and achievements. One could easily formulate an argument that some of the most successful societies were built fundamentally on those two elements exclusively. Rather, Nietzsche finds them intolerable and makes it abundantly clear that the notion of sacrificing oneself or seeking to form achievements as a result of some sort of notion….
n "Some Moral Minima," Lenn Goodman argues things simply wrong. Do Goodman ? Using specific examples, explore challenges Goodman presents relativism. Determine universal moral requirements, defend answer.
Moral minima: Goodman's arguments against relativism
Given the increasing globalization of modern society, combined with the influence of postmodernism, the philosophy of moral relativism has become increasingly popular and accepted within the academy. However, according to Lenn E. Goodman's essay "Some moral minima," some things are 'just wrong.' Goodman writes: "All living beings make claims to life" (Goodman 2010: 88). In other words, to protect the sanctity of human life, sometimes it is necessary to lay down certain absolute ground rules of morality that, regardless of cultural differences, must be obeyed. These include prohibiting: terrorism; hostage taking and child warriors; slavery, polygamy, and incest; and rape and female genital cutting (Goodman 2010: 88).
However, while these ideas may seem like 'no brainers' in terms of the….
elativism and Mortality
Goodman and elativism
For centuries, philosophers have debated the nature of our ethics and laws. Many have seen them as a relative concept, under the structure of relativism, where there is no universal foundation for the structure of ethics and law because individual societies differ so dramatically and should have their own ethical structures relative to their unique needs and structures. However, Lenn E. Goodman tends to disagree with this concept as seen in contemporary practice, stating that such a philosophy leaves the environment too open for interpretation and impractical for modern use, and as such some concepts within in relativism are simply off track.
elativism is a concept within philosophy and ethics that asserts there is no specific universal truth or need. ather, as each society varies, so do its own unique truths and needs. In this regard, the ethics, laws, and assertions within each society should vary in….
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica
Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.
Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.
In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are mixed systems of….
Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)
Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.
(Adjaye 1994, 57)
" (2009) Oguejiofor states that there is no understanding "exept if there is misunderstanding, a negativity that beomes the originative instane of hermeneutis…" (2009)
Oguejiofor writes that Senghor's onept of negritude is entered on the misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the Afrian and his heritage, a situation that has sine imposed enormous burden on all aspets of his life." (Oguejiofor, 2009) Oguejiofor states that negritude has been desribed "…as a philosophy of soial ation" and states additionally that in the view of Senghor "negritude was 'a weapon of defense and attak and inspiration." (2009) Speifially Senghor sates that negritude is the "sum total of the values of the ivilization of the Afrian world, it is not raialism, it is ulture." (Oguejiofor, 2009)
Oguejiofor writes that negritude as a philosophy "has the advantage of 'reognizing the situatedness of our lived historiity as the proper objet of refletion for Afrian philosophi thought. (Salhi as ited….
cited in Quest, 2005)
When Senghor was imprisoned for the already mentioned two years period he composed poetry, read the work of Goethe and delved into Western philosophical works and as well reestablished his link with his fellow Africans and songs and tales were shared from Africa and this resulted in the "fostering [of] an alternative understanding of humanism and society." (Quest, 2005)
The Quest Journal editorial states that it seems nice to think that the prison experiences of Senghor as well as Senghor's knowledge spanning the intellectual traditions of the Western world and his admiration for values, traditions and cultures of Africa together resulted in a "subjectivity that was transcultural and transnational in it sympathies, accomplishments and aspirations." (Quest, 2005) Senghor set the stage for "a post-anthropological humanism, one that truly points to the possibilities for a democratic and cosmopolitan world." (Quest, 2005)
5. Poetry as 'Key' Outlet for Combating Cultural Alienation in for Africans
The work of Nyathi (2005) states that the work of Senghor influenced many and in fact that poetry "became a key outlet for Africans to combat cultural alienation." The work of Baaz and Palmberg (2001) entitled: "Same and Other: Negotiating African Identity in Cultural Production" relates the writings of Leopold Sedar Senghor "on negritude and the ideas of negritude which are "above all associated with the writings of Senghor and Aime Cesaire, were developed by African, Afro-American and Caribbean intellectuals in Paris in the 1930s." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001) Negritude was defined by Senghor as "the sum of the cultural values of the black world." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001)
The closest thing to a universally-accepted definition of human rights comes from the United Nations High Commissioner for Human ights (OHCH). That body's definition is founded on the principle that human rights are inalienable and universal. That is, they apply to all human beings and that all are entitled to these rights without discrimination. The UN definition also holds that human rights are "interrelated, interdependent and indivisible" (OHCH, 2016). The OHCH cites such rights as the right to work, the right to self-determination, to social security and education, to equality before the law and to freedom of expression (OHCH, 2016). How these broad concepts are to be operationalized is not specified by the OHCH. Indeed, there are some inherent contradictions immediately apparent between the definition set forth by the OHCH and the Universal Declaration of Human ights, the foundational document for the modern neoliberal concept. As an example, Article….
Abu-Lughod, L. (2011). Do Muslim women really need saving? Anthropological reflections on cultural relativism and its others. Ethics Forum: September 11 and Ethnographic Responsibility. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://internationalhumanrightslaw.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Do-Muslim-Women-Really-Need-Saving-Anthropological-Reflections-on-Cultural-Relativism-and-Its-Others.pdf
Baghramanian, M. & Carter, J. (2015). Relativism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/relativism/#CoVarDef
Basnet, G. & Albalooshi, M. (2012). Human rights debate: Universalism versus relativism. Eurasia Review. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://www.eurasiareview.com/27062012-human-rights-debate-universalism-versus-relativism-oped/
Bernstein, R. (1983) Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science, hermeneutics and praxis. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.
One relativistic belief that I find that some people hold is regarding abortion. Some people say, “Well, I would never have one,” implying that there is something immoral or unjustified about the action (at least in their case), and then they will follow that up with a statement like, “But I don’t think other people should be denied the right to have one,” suggesting that there is in fact nothing immoral or unjustifiable about it. This appears to me to be a case of, “What’s not good for me is not necessarily bad for you.” While some philosophers, like Kant, might argue that relativism is part of understanding how morality must be viewed in individual cases, other philosophers will suggest that just as there is a subjective side to judgment there is also an objective side to judgment and that some actions can be judged objectively as immoral, even if….
film A Force More Powerful shows how nonviolent political protest has a universal component. Although the most famous nonviolent movements include those of Gandhi and King, there are many other lesser-known movements that have created meaningful and lasting change without the use of brute force, war, or weapons. These movements began with a commitment to human rights, and were inherently based on improving human rights in their respective locations. In so doing, nonviolent movements have radically altered political paradigms and points-of-view worldwide.
Nonviolent political movements have changed the discourse of human rights, allowing for a fusion of universalist and relativist approaches. For example, the Gandhi movement was unique to India and the needs of the subcontinent. ithout diverging from the fundamental tenets of Indian morality and worldview, Gandhi nevertheless created a universal movement based on the ultimate view that all human beings are equal and that colonialism is erroneously based….
Absolution vs. Relativism
Columnist illiam ineke points out that the real problem with relativism is that it gives no place to stop the slippery slide, no place to stand and say "no" (ineke pp). In other words, each step taken simply makes it easier to take the next step until, eventually, society finds no logical basis for saying "no" to anything (ineke pp). Yet, if the error of moral relativism is that it provides society with no real basis on which to say "no," then the error of objective morality is that it provides no real basis on which to say "yes" (ineke pp).
ineke uses the example of AIDS in Africa, citing Vatican ambassador to Zambia, Archbishop Orlando Antonini, who said "The use of condoms still constitutes a false solution to a real problem, although it is a burning issue in Africa" (ineke pp). However, ineke says, "millions of Africans are….
Cahill, Lisa Sowle. (2003 March 01). Moral Relativism, Moral Diversity, and Human
Relationships. Theological Studies. Retrieved August 06, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
The Changing Role of Moral Philosophy. Retrieved August 06, 2005 from:
Similarly, when a member of society becomes too feeble to contribute, leaving them in the snow is deemed the proper solution. Both practices are deemed proper, as they increase the survival chances of the tribe as a whole. Thus, while another society may cringe at the idea of infanticide and leaving the elderly to die, Eskimo societies see the survival of the tribe as the paramount concern.
There are many examples throughout history illustrating the difficulty of judging other cultures by one's own ethical yardstick. Thus, instead of being preoccupied with questions of whose society is superior, moral relativists believe that all actions should be judged within their cultural context. An action such as infanticide, no matter how abhorrent it may seem, may then be an ethical action in a society that values collective survival over the rights of one individual..
Particularism vs. Cultural Ecology
Franz oaz defined the concept in anthropology, which is known by the name of "Historical Particularism." oas was a champion of this theory, which, although it did not by any means totally ignore the greater theoretical framework that surrounded an event, focused directly on the event itself and attempted account for this event by tying it in some way to a theory that could explain the creation of the cultural variables in the event by tying it in with environmental and historical factors. oas gives his own account of this development:
The new historical view also comes into conflict with the generalizing method of science. It imposed upon the older view of nature in which the discovery of general laws was considered the ultimate aim of investigation. According to this view, laws may be exemplified by individual events, which, however, lose their specific interest once the laws….
Boaz, Franz. A Franz Boaz Reader. George W. Stocking Jr., ed. Chicago: U. Chicago
Cultural Ecology." Apr. 30, 2003. http://archaeology.about.com/library/glossary/bldef_culturalecology.htm
Marquette, Catherine. "Some Notes on the Development of Cultural Ecology.' Apr. 30, 2003. http://www.indiana.edu/~wanthro/eco.htm
Cultural elativism/Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism is a principal of regarding the values, beliefs and traits of a culture from the point-of-view of that culture. This is understanding other cultures and their…Read Full Paper ❯
And in fact, a study of the textual scriptures will actually reveal a number of ways in which the Quran had come to break new ground in the…Read Full Paper ❯
And what constitutes a 'successful' marriage or life partnership is also quite culturally relative. Jaza's culture defines stability and a lack of divorce as successful, and if these are…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
This ties in to the other side of Cultural Relativism mentioned in this passage, which is really the same as the first but more extreme. The author points out…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
Oh this insane sad beast man!" (Nietzsche, 1288). This clearly demonstrates more than simply a sheer intolerance for the beliefs of other people but a profound disrespect which orbits around…Read Full Paper ❯
elativism n "Some Moral Minima," Lenn Goodman argues things simply wrong. Do Goodman ? Using specific examples, explore challenges Goodman presents relativism. Determine universal moral requirements, defend answer. Moral minima: Goodman's…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
elativism and Mortality Goodman and elativism For centuries, philosophers have debated the nature of our ethics and laws. Many have seen them as a relative concept, under the structure of relativism,…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - African
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
" (2009) Oguejiofor states that there is no understanding "exept if there is misunderstanding, a negativity that beomes the originative instane of hermeneutis…" (2009) Oguejiofor writes that Senghor's onept of…Read Full Paper ❯
Human ights The closest thing to a universally-accepted definition of human rights comes from the United Nations High Commissioner for Human ights (OHCH). That body's definition is founded on the…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics / Morality
One relativistic belief that I find that some people hold is regarding abortion. Some people say, “Well, I would never have one,” implying that there is something immoral or…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics and Morality
film A Force More Powerful shows how nonviolent political protest has a universal component. Although the most famous nonviolent movements include those of Gandhi and King, there are…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Absolution vs. Relativism Columnist illiam ineke points out that the real problem with relativism is that it gives no place to stop the slippery slide, no place to stand and…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Similarly, when a member of society becomes too feeble to contribute, leaving them in the snow is deemed the proper solution. Both practices are deemed proper, as they…Read Full Paper ❯
Particularism vs. Cultural Ecology Franz oaz defined the concept in anthropology, which is known by the name of "Historical Particularism." oas was a champion of this theory, which, although…Read Full Paper ❯