Cultural Relativism Essays (Examples)

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Cultural Issues

Words: 2449 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42698935

CULTURAL ISSUES in four texts

Cultural issues usually surface in a multicultural society like that of America's because co-existence of people from various different ethnic backgrounds can lead to undesired and unexpected conflicts. But these issues have also become important for those not living in a multicultural society because of the fact that world is rapidly turning into a global village. The closer the people of the world come, the more cultural issues they are likely to encounter. For this reason, it is important to study the reasons why cultural clashes take place and find out how cultural differences affect our perceptions. The authors of the texts chosen for this paper have skillfully and appropriately highlighted these issues.

Though the stories presented in these sources differ still the one thing that connects them to each other is the fact that they all revolve around cultural clashes resulting from racial, ethnic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anne Fadiman, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1997.

Malidoma Patrice Some, The Healing Wisdom of Africa: Finding Life Purpose Through Nature, Ritual, and Community, J.P. Tarcher, 1999

Stanley Grenz, A Primer on Postmodernism, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.; February 1996

Remember the Titans, Movie, 2000
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Cultural Anthropology Otherwise Known as the Socio-Cultural

Words: 1245 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57777976

Cultural anthropology otherwise known as the socio-cultural anthropology or social anthropology is basically the study of culture and is mainly founded on ethnography. Ethnography is based on the methodology of collection of primary data and is purely a product of research where inductive method is used as well as a heavy reliance on the participant observers.

It is considered as the holistic and scientific study of humanity and majorly the branch that focuses on the study of human cultures, myths, practices, beliefs, values, economies, cognitive organizations and even technologies in the contemporary environment.

The significance of the participatory research is to help the individual place the rules of moral conduct, the cognitive structures and the social life patterns in their own socio-cultural context hence becoming very relevant and meaningful despite how 'strange' or 'bizarre' it might look to the persons from other cultures. The concept of cultural relativism goes against…… [Read More]

References

International Society for Quality in Health Care, (2011). Culture and quality: an anthropological perspective. Retrieved September 14, 2011 from  http://intqhc.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/5/345.full 

Stephen T. Bogg, (2011). Culture Change and the Personality of Ojibwa Children. National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved September 14, 2011 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/aa.1958.60.1.02a00060/pdf

University of Alabama, (2009). Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropologies. Retrieved September

14, 2011 from  http://anthropology.ua.edu/cultures/cultures.php?culture=Symbolic%20and%20Interpretive%20Anthropologies
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Relativism N Some Moral Minima Lenn Goodman

Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43552364

elativism

n "Some Moral Minima," Lenn Goodman argues things simply wrong. Do Goodman ? Using specific examples, explore challenges Goodman presents relativism. Determine universal moral requirements, defend answer.

Moral minima: Goodman's arguments against relativism

Given the increasing globalization of modern society, combined with the influence of postmodernism, the philosophy of moral relativism has become increasingly popular and accepted within the academy. However, according to Lenn E. Goodman's essay "Some moral minima," some things are 'just wrong.' Goodman writes: "All living beings make claims to life" (Goodman 2010: 88). In other words, to protect the sanctity of human life, sometimes it is necessary to lay down certain absolute ground rules of morality that, regardless of cultural differences, must be obeyed. These include prohibiting: terrorism; hostage taking and child warriors; slavery, polygamy, and incest; and rape and female genital cutting (Goodman 2010: 88).

However, while these ideas may seem like 'no brainers'…… [Read More]

References

Goodman, Lenn. (2010). Some moral minima. The Good Society, 19 (10): 87-94.
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Relativism and Morality

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63953560

elativism and Mortality

Goodman and elativism

For centuries, philosophers have debated the nature of our ethics and laws. Many have seen them as a relative concept, under the structure of relativism, where there is no universal foundation for the structure of ethics and law because individual societies differ so dramatically and should have their own ethical structures relative to their unique needs and structures. However, Lenn E. Goodman tends to disagree with this concept as seen in contemporary practice, stating that such a philosophy leaves the environment too open for interpretation and impractical for modern use, and as such some concepts within in relativism are simply off track.

elativism is a concept within philosophy and ethics that asserts there is no specific universal truth or need. ather, as each society varies, so do its own unique truths and needs. In this regard, the ethics, laws, and assertions within each society…… [Read More]

References

Goodman, Lenn E. (2010). Some moral minima. The Good Society, 19(1), 87-94.
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Cultural Perceptions of Time in Africa Time

Words: 6951 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52859355

Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica

Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.

Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.

In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…… [Read More]

Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)

Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.

(Adjaye 1994, 57)
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Senghor Cultural Religious and Political

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28346560

" (2009) Oguejiofor states that there is no understanding "exept if there is misunderstanding, a negativity that beomes the originative instane of hermeneutis…" (2009)

Oguejiofor writes that Senghor's onept of negritude is entered on the misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the Afrian and his heritage, a situation that has sine imposed enormous burden on all aspets of his life." (Oguejiofor, 2009) Oguejiofor states that negritude has been desribed "…as a philosophy of soial ation" and states additionally that in the view of Senghor "negritude was 'a weapon of defense and attak and inspiration." (2009) Speifially Senghor sates that negritude is the "sum total of the values of the ivilization of the Afrian world, it is not raialism, it is ulture." (Oguejiofor, 2009)

Oguejiofor writes that negritude as a philosophy "has the advantage of 'reognizing the situatedness of our lived historiity as the proper objet of refletion for Afrian philosophi thought. (Salhi…… [Read More]

cited in Quest, 2005)

When Senghor was imprisoned for the already mentioned two years period he composed poetry, read the work of Goethe and delved into Western philosophical works and as well reestablished his link with his fellow Africans and songs and tales were shared from Africa and this resulted in the "fostering [of] an alternative understanding of humanism and society." (Quest, 2005)

The Quest Journal editorial states that it seems nice to think that the prison experiences of Senghor as well as Senghor's knowledge spanning the intellectual traditions of the Western world and his admiration for values, traditions and cultures of Africa together resulted in a "subjectivity that was transcultural and transnational in it sympathies, accomplishments and aspirations." (Quest, 2005) Senghor set the stage for "a post-anthropological humanism, one that truly points to the possibilities for a democratic and cosmopolitan world." (Quest, 2005)

5. Poetry as 'Key' Outlet for Combating Cultural Alienation in for Africans

The work of Nyathi (2005) states that the work of Senghor influenced many and in fact that poetry "became a key outlet for Africans to combat cultural alienation." The work of Baaz and Palmberg (2001) entitled: "Same and Other: Negotiating African Identity in Cultural Production" relates the writings of Leopold Sedar Senghor "on negritude and the ideas of negritude which are "above all associated with the writings of Senghor and Aime Cesaire, were developed by African, Afro-American and Caribbean intellectuals in Paris in the 1930s." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001) Negritude was defined by Senghor as "the sum of the cultural values of the black world." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001)
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Universalism and Relativism in Human Rights

Words: 3628 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42525475

Human ights

The closest thing to a universally-accepted definition of human rights comes from the United Nations High Commissioner for Human ights (OHCH). That body's definition is founded on the principle that human rights are inalienable and universal. That is, they apply to all human beings and that all are entitled to these rights without discrimination. The UN definition also holds that human rights are "interrelated, interdependent and indivisible" (OHCH, 2016). The OHCH cites such rights as the right to work, the right to self-determination, to social security and education, to equality before the law and to freedom of expression (OHCH, 2016). How these broad concepts are to be operationalized is not specified by the OHCH. Indeed, there are some inherent contradictions immediately apparent between the definition set forth by the OHCH and the Universal Declaration of Human ights, the foundational document for the modern neoliberal concept. As an example,…… [Read More]

References

Abu-Lughod, L. (2011). Do Muslim women really need saving? Anthropological reflections on cultural relativism and its others. Ethics Forum: September 11 and Ethnographic Responsibility. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://internationalhumanrightslaw.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Do-Muslim-Women-Really-Need-Saving-Anthropological-Reflections-on-Cultural-Relativism-and-Its-Others.pdf

Baghramanian, M. & Carter, J. (2015). Relativism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/relativism/#CoVarDef

Basnet, G. & Albalooshi, M. (2012). Human rights debate: Universalism versus relativism. Eurasia Review. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://www.eurasiareview.com/27062012-human-rights-debate-universalism-versus-relativism-oped/

Bernstein, R. (1983) Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science, hermeneutics and praxis. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.
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The Sociology and Cross Cultural Perspective of Gender

Words: 1431 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58839922

Abu-Lughod (2002), focusing on superficial issues such as female dress codes in the Muslim world not only detracts from important underlying social and political issues. The notion that Muslim women need to be "saved" is a relic of a colonial past. Muslim women may have no trouble reconciling traditional garb like head scarves or even burkas with life in the modern world. Even when life in the modern world for Muslim women takes on a different appearance than it does for Western women, higher principles such as social justice need to prevail. It is inherently arrogant to assume that head coverings and veils are symbols of oppression, signs that all Muslim women are subservient. Some of the more extreme types of head cover such as the burka are sometimes viewed as signs of social status in a community, meaning that women who wear these types of garments do so proudly…… [Read More]

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Human Rights Universalism and Relativism

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76795277

film A Force More Powerful shows how nonviolent political protest has a universal component. Although the most famous nonviolent movements include those of Gandhi and King, there are many other lesser-known movements that have created meaningful and lasting change without the use of brute force, war, or weapons. These movements began with a commitment to human rights, and were inherently based on improving human rights in their respective locations. In so doing, nonviolent movements have radically altered political paradigms and points-of-view worldwide.

Nonviolent political movements have changed the discourse of human rights, allowing for a fusion of universalist and relativist approaches. For example, the Gandhi movement was unique to India and the needs of the subcontinent. ithout diverging from the fundamental tenets of Indian morality and worldview, Gandhi nevertheless created a universal movement based on the ultimate view that all human beings are equal and that colonialism is erroneously based…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A Force More Powerful. {Feature Film}

Campbell, Patricia J., MacKinnon, Aran, and Stevens, Christy R. An Introduction to Global Studies. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
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Absolution Versus Relativism

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82982563

Absolution vs. Relativism

Columnist illiam ineke points out that the real problem with relativism is that it gives no place to stop the slippery slide, no place to stand and say "no" (ineke pp). In other words, each step taken simply makes it easier to take the next step until, eventually, society finds no logical basis for saying "no" to anything (ineke pp). Yet, if the error of moral relativism is that it provides society with no real basis on which to say "no," then the error of objective morality is that it provides no real basis on which to say "yes" (ineke pp).

ineke uses the example of AIDS in Africa, citing Vatican ambassador to Zambia, Archbishop Orlando Antonini, who said "The use of condoms still constitutes a false solution to a real problem, although it is a burning issue in Africa" (ineke pp). However, ineke says, "millions of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. (2003 March 01). Moral Relativism, Moral Diversity, and Human

Relationships. Theological Studies. Retrieved August 06, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

The Changing Role of Moral Philosophy. Retrieved August 06, 2005 from:

http://home.gwu.edu/~jartz/alter/next/moral.html
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Moral Relativism - Imposing Universal

Words: 306 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69424978

Similarly, when a member of society becomes too feeble to contribute, leaving them in the snow is deemed the proper solution. Both practices are deemed proper, as they increase the survival chances of the tribe as a whole. Thus, while another society may cringe at the idea of infanticide and leaving the elderly to die, Eskimo societies see the survival of the tribe as the paramount concern.

There are many examples throughout history illustrating the difficulty of judging other cultures by one's own ethical yardstick. Thus, instead of being preoccupied with questions of whose society is superior, moral relativists believe that all actions should be judged within their cultural context. An action such as infanticide, no matter how abhorrent it may seem, may then be an ethical action in a society that values collective survival over the rights of one individual.… [Read More]

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Historical Particularism and Cultural Ecology

Words: 1302 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61289804

Particularism vs. Cultural Ecology

Franz oaz defined the concept in anthropology, which is known by the name of "Historical Particularism." oas was a champion of this theory, which, although it did not by any means totally ignore the greater theoretical framework that surrounded an event, focused directly on the event itself and attempted account for this event by tying it in some way to a theory that could explain the creation of the cultural variables in the event by tying it in with environmental and historical factors. oas gives his own account of this development:

The new historical view also comes into conflict with the generalizing method of science. It imposed upon the older view of nature in which the discovery of general laws was considered the ultimate aim of investigation. According to this view, laws may be exemplified by individual events, which, however, lose their specific interest once the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boaz, Franz. A Franz Boaz Reader. George W. Stocking Jr., ed. Chicago: U. Chicago

Press, 1974.

Cultural Ecology." Apr. 30, 2003. http://archaeology.about.com/library/glossary/bldef_culturalecology.htm

Marquette, Catherine. "Some Notes on the Development of Cultural Ecology.' Apr. 30, 2003.  http://www.indiana.edu/~wanthro/eco.htm
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Conventionalist Ethics Relativism and Subjectivism

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59755578

Even if we are vaguely aware the clerk may be charged -- it is his or her mistake, we say to ourselves. We think we have absolute ethical standards, but we function on a case-by-case basis when making decisions in reality. Does this mean, however, that absolute ethical standards are required to weigh against the negative consequences of relativism? Firstly, these examples highlight the difficulty of living by absolute standards, and how if standards are too inflexible, they may result in no standards at all. Even religions with strict universal standards often must have a lay and clergy distinction because it is so impossible to live by the standards of the faith, 'perfectly' according to their anti-materialist rules. Abstinence-only sexual education that does not acknowledge deviations from 'perfect' behavior might be the most ineffective pregnancy prevention program of all.

Acknowledging the subjective and relativistic nature of ethical schemas does not…… [Read More]

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Art the Question of Cultural

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91271472



However, on the other hand there is a concern that this theory remains as a force in art theory and that this suggests that it does have some value. Some critics are equally critical of the new pluralistic and non-hierarchical theories of art, and see these theories as "flattening out" or reducing cultural differences and achievement in a negative sense. They assert that the pluralistic and egalitarian view of art has a hidden danger it that it reduce standards and in fact threatens the very status of art. While one cannot agree with the biases and divisions that Cultural Hierarchy permits, there the possibility that this theory does hold some value. It is suggested that if the negative aspect of the theory of Cultural Hierarchy could be reduced or ameliorated, there may still be a place for it in art theory- albeit in a much altered way. The danger that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Atlas, Caron. Cultural Policy: In the board rooms and on the streets http://www.communityarts.net/readingroom/archivefiles/2002/08/cultural_policy.php (Accessed November 17, 2007).

Critique of Mass Culture Theory. http://www.blacks.veriovps.co.uk/content/2992.html (Accessed November 17, 2007).

Introduction: the quest for cultural legitimacy. http://216.239.59.104/search?q=cache:4K45iQTyF4MJ:assets.cambridge.org/97805218/01911/excerpt/9780521801911_excerpt.pdf+%22Cultural+Hierarchy%22+in+art&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=20&gl=zan (Accessed November 17, 2007).

Critique of Mass Culture Theory. http://www.blacks.veriovps.co.uk/content/2992.html (Accessed November 11, 2007).
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Culture and Morality In Other

Words: 5560 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92689784

Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).

If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).

The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Kerby. "Cultural Relativism." (2004):1-5.

Accessed 1 April 2012.

www.probe.org

"Argument by Morality: Axiological Argument." 2002. Accessed 7 April 2012.
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 1082 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

political, economical and social factors affect Human Rights and the perception of these rights as they reflect in different countries and ethnic groups. While the UN may have created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, but up until today, many countries (including prominent western countries) continue to infringe on a person's inalienable rights as a human being.

Of these human rights, those stated in Article 27 appear to be mostly infringed upon when cultures come together in a single community, or a country's population begins to consist of more and more cultures. This multi-culturalism should in actuality promote peace and understanding, and in many cases it does, nevertheless there are still cultural relativism issues within many communities in specifically Western countries.

Cultural Relativism is defined as the position where all points-of-view, and opinions are considered equally valid. What a person considers as truth is relative to that person's…… [Read More]

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Relativity of Moral Truth

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84156822

elativity of Moral Truth

The viewpoints on moral truth are varied within circles of philosophic thought. Moral ethics are, for the most part, relative, though on what grounds of relative truth is a subject of much discussion. Three positions will be discussed in this paper: the topic of the Divine Command Theory, uth Benedict's beliefs in cultural relativism, and Thomas Nagel's morality of rational consistency. Of the three, Nagel's relative moral philosophy outweighs the philosophies of the former positions; Nagel further examines the prospect of human nature as an individual, as opposed to the Divine Command Theory's reliance on metaphysical beliefs and Benedict's cultural thought with respects to a dubious collective "culture."

Divine Command Theory presupposes that ethical and moral truths have been brought upon by the demand of God. This belief has dated as far back as Socrates and Euthyphro in Ancient Greek philosophy, and is further strengthened by…… [Read More]

Resources

Austin, Michael W. (2006). Divine Command Theory. Internet encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from  http://www.iep.utm.edu/divine-c/ 

Blackburn, Simon. (2005). The oxford dictionary of philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Li, X. (2007). 7 A Cultural Critique of Cultural Relativism. American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 66(1), 151-171. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.2007.00502.x

Mulhall, S. (2007). Luck, Mystery and Supremacy D.Z. Phillips Reads Nagel and Williams on Morality. Philosophical Investigations, 30(3), 266-284. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9205.2007.00323.x
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Sociology Cooley and Mead's Theories on the

Words: 446 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51254203

Sociology

ooley and Mead's theories on the process of socialization as opposed to that of Freud

harles ooley and George Herbert Mead are proponents of a similar theory of socialization. ooley uses the metaphor of the looking glass to explain how a child uses others' perception of himself to understand himself and develop an identity. According to ooley, each of us closely monitors how others react to us and adjust our behavior to get the most desirable response -- like looking at ourselves in a mirror and adjusting our posture or expression.

Mead also explains the process of socialization in a similar manner by theorizing that children internalize the feelings of others while developing the "Self." He says that children imitate the behavior of others by role-playing in the Play Stage (ages 3-4), which helps them to define themselves. In the Game Stage (school going age) they are exposed to…… [Read More]

Conrad Kottack quoted in "Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural Relativism" available online at http://www2.eou.edu/~kdahl/ethnodef.html

Introduction to Cultural Anthropology." Available online at http://cas-courses.buffalo.edu/classes/apy/anab/apy106/handouts/relativism.htm

Sociology
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Is Congress Engaging in Moral and Ethical Practices

Words: 479 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81930456

Moral Community: A group in America that is clearly being marginalized politically and socially is the community of undocumented immigrants. An estimated 11.1 million immigrants are living and working in the United States, and notwithstanding that the U.S. Senate and the executive branch have passed a bill allowing undocumented immigrants a path to citizenship, the Republicans resist supporting this legislation. Cultural relativism helps to understand why 11.1 million people are being denied the right to work towards citizenship. Cultural relativism: the beliefs of one culture (in this case, those immigrants that are not yet citizens) should also be understood by others (in this case conservatives don't relate to the cultural beliefs of immigrants and vice-versa). A conservative "moral argument" is that there are a limited amount of goods and jobs in the U.S. And immigrants take these away from citizens here legally, but cultural bias and racism also certainly play…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Foley, E. (2014). GOP Reveals Immigration Reform Principles. HuffPost Politics. Retrieved June 18, 2014, from  http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
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Woman and Islam

Words: 1693 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43051773

Women and Islam

Do Muslim women eally need saving?

Stengths and weaknesses

Between hee and thee: feminist solidaity and Afghan women.

Stengths and weaknesses

Do Muslim women eally need saving? Anthopological eflections on cultual elativism and its othes.

Topic oveview and famewok

The aticle deals with the topic of 'Wa on Teoism', the wa claimed to have been launched fo libeating the Afghan women fom Taliban and an agument with anthopological pespective to deconstuct the essentially flawed epesentation of Afghan women that Wa on Teoism hetoic makes. The aticle is aimed at investigating the nuances of identity that ae essentially devoid of histoical constuction of ole of women in Afghan society. The aticle also aims to identify the pocess though which women's ole in Afghan society is not constucted on anthopological gounds but athe influenced by one's own cultue, identity, and standads of living. Thus, cultual bias is said to…… [Read More]

references: Constructions of gender in the Bush administration discourse on the attacks on Afghanistan post-9/11. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 8(1), 19-41.
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Afghan Women's Social Struggle Social

Words: 1727 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 737393

" In the rural areas, Afghan women "are still forced into marriages and denied a basic education" (Qazi, par. 2). It has been said that many school that cater to girls have been burned down and there were girls who "have even been poisoned to death for daring to go to school" (Qazi, par. 2). The struggle still continues up to this day. The Afghan women constitute half of the Afghan population and as such, they are important and should be made equal participants in the rebuilding of the Afghan society. The Afghan women should be empowered in order to do this. The Afghan women do not need to be saved. Instead, equal educational opportunity would help end the Afghan women's social struggle.

eferences

Abu-Lughod, Lila. "Do Muslim Women eally Need Saving? Anthropological eflections on Cultural elativism and Its Others." American Anthropologist September 2002: 783-790.

Burke, Barry. "Mary Wollstonecraft on…… [Read More]

References

Abu-Lughod, Lila. "Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and Its Others." American Anthropologist September 2002: 783-790.

Burke, Barry. "Mary Wollstonecraft on Education." (2004). The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. 21 April 2009 .

Dubriwny, Tasha. "First Ladies and Feminism: Laura Bush as Advocate for Women's and Children's Rights," Women's Studies in Communication 28.1 (2005), Questia, 20 Apr. 2009 .

Emadi, Hafizullah. Repression, Resistance, and Women in Afghanistan (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002) iii, Questia, 20 Apr. 2009.
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Elaine Graham's Transforming Practice Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty

Words: 4411 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75473831

Elaine Graham's

Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty

Major Schools of Thought and Actors

In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.

As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. hile providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Graham, Elaine L. Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty. London: Mowbray, 1996.
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Cross Culture Perspective

Words: 1398 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93053476

Global Organization Researching Cultural Issues -- Amnesty International

Cultural relativism is the contention that "…human values, far from being universal, vary a great deal according to different cultural perspectives," and that human rights -- though they must be protected whenever that is possible -- are often difficult to secure in a culturally diverse world (Ayton-Shenker, 1995). Every human being has the right to his or her culture, including, according to Ayton-Shenker, the right to "…enjoy and develop cultural life and identity"; however the right to one's culture is "limited at the point at which it infringes on another human right."

This paper delves into how Amnesty International approaches cultural issues -- the internationally recognized moral right every culture has to practice its political, religious, and social traditions -- through its interactions with many governments and cultures outside the United States.

Amnesty International -- Cultural Issues it Inquires Into

Amnesty International…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Amnesty International. (2013). A Life Lost in Pursuit of the Truth. Retrieved September 9, 2012,

from  http://www.amnestyusa.org .

Amnesty International. (2013). Our Work / Our Mission / About Us. Retrieved September 6,

2013, from
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Abnormal Psychology Is a Field in Psychology

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15792418

Abnormal psychology is a field in psychology that addresses dysfunctions in behavior which are determined abnormally by standards of behavior .These standards have been established by clinical professionals in the field such as medical doctors, psychiatrists and psychologists. Behaviors considered to be abnormal are; schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit disorder, eating disorder, sexual deviance, obsessive compulsive disorder and anti-social disorder (Cherry, 2012). These disordered function outside the normal parameters of the functional behaviors considered to be standard. The paper will look at the origins of abnormal psychology and challenges when it comes to the classification and definition of normal and abnormal behavior. It will also look at how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline. It will finally look at the theoretical models that have led to the advancement of understanding psychopathology.

Origins of Abnormal psychology

Abnormal psychology has been undergoing tremendous changes and progress. It is a very controversial…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, K. (2012).What is Abnormal Psychology? Retrieved May 10, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/abnormalpsychology/f/abnormal-psychology.htm

Crawford, O. (2010). Psychopathology Analysis: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives of Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from http://voices.yahoo.com/psychopathology-analysis-6147988.html
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Literature and History

Words: 8876 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51478975

tomorrow / Bright before us / Like a flame. (Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," 1925)

rom the 1920's Alain Leroy Locke has been known as a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.

The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…… [Read More]

Furthermore Locke's writings are lauded for their cultural and historical importance rather than their literary style. Being very prominent in educational and artistic circles I find this hard to believe. Certainly a man who has been educated in the highest of quality schools should be able to produce something of purely literary merit.

Despite these issues which are admittedly a matter of opinion, it is very significant that Locke's influence extends to modern literary circles in this way. Locke's influence in the areas of education, culture and empowerment also remain to this day in terms of recognized Black culture and the promotion of cultural pluralism. The ALLS has been officially recognized by the American Philosophical Association in a letter from Secretary-Treasurer, William Mann, on November 26, 1997.

Locke's influence thus reaches far beyond his lifespan in order to not only empower and inspire, but also to enlighten and to entertain. Locke was the epitome of the New Negro.
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Idea of Human Rights

Words: 1005 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54128087

Human Rights

hat is the biggest problem in constructing a theoretical justification for the idea of human rights? Be as precise as possible, and try to show how this problem plagues at least two theories. (These two theories would be relativism and universalism.)

Relativism vs. universalism. Since the very beginning of the idea of 'universal' organizations that transcended national borders came into being, this debate has plagued theorists of international human rights. Human rights have, in classical estern philosophy, been "held to be universal in the sense that all people have and should enjoy them, and to be independent in the sense that they exist and are available as standards of justification and criticism whether or not they are recognized and implemented by the legal system or officials of a country." (Nickel, 1992:561-2) Furthermore, the world is growing 'smaller,' or 'flatter' with the advent of the globalization of the world…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ayton-Shenker, Diana. (1995) "The Challenge of Human Rights and Cultural Diversity." United Nations Background Note. Published by the United Nations Department of Public Information. Retrieved 5 Jun 2005 at DPI/1627/HR -- March 1995  http://www.un.org /rights/dpi1627e.htm

Fagan, Andrew. (2004) "Human Rights." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 5 Jun 2005 at http://www.iep.utm.edu/h/hum-rts.htm#source

Nathan, Andrew J. (1997) "Cultural Values and Relativism:

The Example of Women's Rights." Viewpoints. Retrieved 5 Jun 2005 at http://www.aasianst.org/Viewpoints/Nathan.htm
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Divine Command Theory

Words: 1031 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31101690

Ethics

On the surface, both ethical relativism and ethical egotism are appealing theories. The ethical relativist avoids many of the problems that arise from encounters with different moral codes, and can help to eliminate some of the culture clashes and social problems inherent in the human condition. For example, when many esterners come into contact with Middle Eastern cultures such as that of Saudi Arabia, they are tempted to pass judgment on the status of women. However, ethical relativism holds that all moral systems are valid, that ethics cannot be absolute or imposed from without. Therefore, ethical relativism is closely connected with cultural relativism. Such a stance makes it easy for people to get along and to resist fighting. "Anything goes," and "live and let live" are in fact some of the basic hallmarks of a liberal democracy and to an extent ethical relativism should always be at least entertained.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Holt, Tim. "Divine Command Theory." Philosophy of Religion. 2005. Online at .

Weston, Anthony. A 21st Century Ethical Toolbox. Oxford University Press, 2001.
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Business - Ethics Business Ethics

Words: 856 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20662646



Whereas I try to respect the requirements of formal rules and procedures, I would prefer to violate those rules where their application would lead to an unintended result or undermine the effort to achieve the greatest benefit. In this respect, I would violate the requirements of rule utilitarianism where isolated violations provide a benefit without necessarily resulting in any diminution of the greatest possible good. For example, our office building prohibits coworkers from using their access passes to allow other employees to enter the facility without their own access cards. I recognize that, in the aggregate, the purpose of this rule is designed to preserve the safety of all of us by reducing the likelihood of access by unauthorized personnel. However, in the isolated circumstance where a coworker known to me forgets his credentials at home, I will violate the rule for the purpose of the good of that individual.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Daft, R. (2005) Management 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005)

Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Hursthouse, R. (1999) on Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Ethics and Social Responsibility in Business and Society

Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 533881

divergent decisions when it comes to acting according to business ethics. For instance, if on maintains that ethics are universal then he or she would make the same decision not taking into account the particularities of the culture that is affected by the decision. If a particular type of action is wrong in one place then it is wrong everywhere; therefore, rendering such a decision inappropriate regardless of where the decision is to be implemented.

On the other hand, somebody who subscribes to moral relativism will feel as though he or she should not interfere in the indigenous practices of the culture because it would be a form of cultural imperialism for the business manager to impose his or her ethical will, which is a reflection of the agent's own cultural background and prejudices, which he or she has been socialized to possess according to his own unique background, which…… [Read More]

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World Cultures Middle East

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77036999

Middle East comprises a diverse group of regions, countries, peoples, customs, and cultures. On the one hand, it is daunting to offer a semester-long course that treats all Middle Eastern issues with clarity and fairness. The risk of oversimplification, however, is outweighed by the risk of ignorance. This course will explore the Middle East with as much depth and breadth as possible, stimulating student thought on political, social, religious, historical, ethnographic, and economic issues related to the region. Included in the course rubric will be current events ranging from gender issues to terrorism. In between the heavier topics, lighter lessons on local customs, culture, music, and food will reveal the ordinariness of daily life in the part of the world we call the Middle East.

Islam will be covered from a multidisciplinary perspective, allowing for nuanced and rich class discussions about the unique interface between politics, religion, and social norms.…… [Read More]

Anderson, Lisa. "Demystifying the Arab Spring." PDF Available:  http://www.ssrresourcecentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Anderson-Demystifying-the-Arab-Spring.pdf 

Henry, Clement Moore and Springborg, Robert. Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Kuran, Timur. "The Islamic Commercial Crisis: Institutional Roots of Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East." The Journal of Economic History (2003), 63(2).
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Original Affluent Society

Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93989795

Affluent Society," Marshall Sahlins shows that hunter-gatherer societies are by nature affluent because "all the people's material wants were easily satisfied." Their low standard of living, and correspondingly few material needs, implies that the basic necessities of hunter-gatherers are usually met. Sahlins contrasts the hunter-gatherer concept of affluence with the capitalist notion of wealth: "modern capitalist societies, however richly endowed, dedicate themselves to the proposition of scarcity." People in industrialized nations work long hours and hoard large amounts of material goods for the fear of future scarcity. Hunter-gatherers, on the other hand, feast when they have food and move on to more lush surroundings when food supplies grow scarce.

Although the individuals living in hunter-gather societies have few possessions, they are not poor. Sahlins contrasts the meager but sufficient material possessions of the hunter-gatherer with the living conditions in the modern world, noting that "hunger increases relatively and absolutely with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sahlins, Marshall. "the Original Affluent Society." Online at <  http://www.eco-action.org/dt/affluent.html >.
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Parable of the Sadhu

Words: 1323 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30478536

Parable of the Sadhu

Bowen H. McCoy's 1983 Harvard Business Review article "The Parable of the Sadhu" describes the author's own experience of how he "literally walked through a classic moral dilemma without fully thinking through the consequences" (p.106). During a sightseeing junket to the peak of Everest, McCoy and his moralistic Quaker buddy Stephen have their travel interrupted by the discovery of a religious pilgrim -- a "sadhu" -- found basically naked and half-frozen on one of the high mountain passes. The weather is good and this high mountain pass is not invariably passable for tourists like McCoy, so the fact of the good weather means that all the parties present -- which include various tourists from Japan, Switzerland, and New Zealand -- are more concerned with getting over the pass than with a two-day trek back down the mountain to get the sadhu to a hospital or the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fletcher, Donna and Newell, Susan. (2007). "Tetra Tech EC and risk management." Harvard Business Review. 17 May 2007.

McCoy, Bowen. (1983). "The parable of the sadhu." Harvard Business Review. September-October 1983.

Taleb, N. Nicholas. (2007). The Black Swan: The impact of the highly improbable. New York: Random House.
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Leadership Anecdotes

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92164326

Leadership

Exercise 13-3.

I was walking around the store last week. I saw something that was somewhat familiar, but a little bit different. I won't go into the details for proprietary reasons, but this was a product that I had two thoughts about. The first was that I didn't have a need for it myself. The second is that I have a friend who might. He has a small business that he is trying to get off the ground and he is looking for additional merchandising opportunity to help raise funds. This product was actually a great fit for his business, but I knew he didn't have anything like it yet.

I thought I should get the information of the manufacturer and send that to my friend. He could find out what the price point on the product was, if he could get his logo on it, and all those…… [Read More]

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Public Corruption and Its Effect Including the

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53939292

public corruption and its effect, including the claim that public corruption in an unavoidable side effect of development. Corruption in public service can be an ongoing concern in many areas. Corruption can lead to disorder, lack of trust in police or other public entities, and to ongoing problems with morale and citizen support. There is an argument that in countries with high levels of corruption, it has some benefit, but that is difficult to accept, as corruption only benefits those who participate in it, and it definitely does not benefit the general population.

The Transparency International Web site defines corruption as "Corruption is operationally defined as the misuse of entrusted power for private gain" (Editors, 2009). They go on to state that public servants (including criminal justice professionals), have a duty to remain above corruption. They note, "It is the duty of civil servants, managers and trustees to act visibly,…… [Read More]

References

Editors. (2009). Corruption FAQs. Retrieved 10 August 2009 from the Transparency International Web site: http://www.transparency.org/news_room/faq/corruption_faq.

Myint, U. (2000). Corruption: causes, consequences, and cures. Asia-Pacific Development Journal. 7 (2). 33-58.

Spector, B.I. (Ed.). (2005). Fighting corruption in developing countries: Strategies and analysis. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
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Western History Looking Into the

Words: 549 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76697361

The growing dominance of the bourgeois class and the growing economic discontent in the society combined to create the atmosphere of dissatisfaction and conflict that eventually led to the development and declaration of the French Revolution.

King Louis XVI's passion for ballet dancing paved the way for ballet to thrive, develop and become rampant during his reign in the late 17th century. Under the leadership of Louis XVI's, ballet was institutionalized not only as an art form, but also as a profession. Moreover, during this period, ballet became a profession and art form no longer dominated by males, but also by females. It was also during this period that the comedie ballet became a popular form of ballet dance, particularly performed in Louis XVI's court ballet.

One of the most distinct characteristics of the Age of Enlightenment from other social and cultural movements that occurred in the history of humanity…… [Read More]

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Managing Organizational Culture

Words: 9860 Length: 34 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60831953

Human esources

Managing Organisational Culture

The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.

In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…… [Read More]

References

Background To Business in China. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at:  http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Business-Style.html  [Accessed 18 August 2012].

Campbell, B. 2010. [ONLINE]. How To Improve Your Corporate Culture. Available at: http://www.bcbusinessonline.ca/bcb/business-sense/2010/05/28/how-improve-your-corporate-culture [Accessed 15 August 2012].

Differences in Culture. n.d. [ONLINE]. Available at:  http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/cultural.htm  [Accessed 24 August 2012].

Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture. 2010. [ONLINE]. Available at:  http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=36  [Accessed 18 August 2012].
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Ethics the Divine Command Theory of Morality

Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56717823

Ethics

The Divine Command theory of morality is known as a nonconsequentialist theory because this particular theory of morality is one that is not in any way based on the consequences or outcomes of specific action, but rather holds that all actions have any intrinsic rightness or wrongness. In the case of Divine Command Theory, rightness or wrongness is decided based upon whether or not a specific action can be said to be in accordance with the dictates of God. Indeed, while there are advantages to this idea of morality, such as the more simple categorization of actions into a dichotomy of what is permitted, there are also many sever disadvantages, as well. These disadvantages can make the view difficult to entertain. For example, one of the main issues depends on the source of the divine command. If the divine moral commands come out of scripture, for example, how can…… [Read More]

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Gender Sexuality Economics and Sociology

Words: 2266 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85328477

Latin American woman who is interested in a cultural studies program. This has not changed, and in fact, this course has helped me to deepen my understanding of diversity and helped me to understand more about gender roles and norms from a cross-cultural perspective. I have learned that there are no universal constants, and that even within cultures there can be a great diversity of experience as we saw with Monday's Girls and the difference between Florence and Azikiye. Likewise, the differences between the rich and poor gay men in Manila shows how even within the same culture, there can be a great variety of experiences and points-of-view. The most difficult concept for me as I continue my studies will be cultural relativism or ethical relativism. It is difficult to withhold judgments, especially when we believe that a way of life or worldview is harmful. On the one hand, there…… [Read More]

References

Cairoli, M.L. "Factory as Home and Family."

"Gender and the Global Economy." Chapter 11.

Response One: Liam

It is true that capitalism has generally benefitted the "owners of the means of production," as Marx had put it. Since the age of imperialism, Western Europe has been exploitative. More specifically, the men in positions of power have exploited laborers. This is as true for men as for women. Capitalism has allowed for tremendous innovations and greater overall productivity, but it has resulted in anomie and a detachment between the labor and the finished product. Few workers have shareholding capacities in the companies they work for, creating a system in which the laborer who creates the product does not share in the fruits of the very work that he or she performs.
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Sociological Differences Amongst Cultures of

Words: 2246 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74741143

Many cultural studies state that the Qur'an provides for the mercy killing of women who have been failed to have been adequately protected and have, as a result thereof, been raped. In fact, Muslim countries have a disproportionate amount of honor killings; yet, this should be understood as a cultural phenomenon as the scripture and the practice of the Qur'an do not dictate or specifically set forth the proposition that women should die as a result of being assaulted (Quraishi,, 2000).

Conclusion and Commentary:

Importance of Cultural elativism and Understanding the Sociological Differences Between Women of the United States and Women of Islam

After September 11th and the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City by Osaama Bin Laden and his progeny, a cultural relativist approach which bases itself in understanding the Islamic worldview became under attack and, as a society, we have created less understanding,…… [Read More]

References

Ahmed, a.S. (1994). Living Islam: from Samarkand to Stornoway. New York: Facts on File.

Ashraf, S. (1998). Shattering Illusions: Western conceptions of Muslim women. Stanford Boothe Prize for Excellence in Writing. Retrieved from Questia.com.

Brandt, R. (2009, September 11). 10 Differences Between Christianity and Islam | Relijournal. Retrieved May 7, 2010, from http://relijournal.com/religion/10-differences-between-christianity-and-islam/

CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sociology of the Church. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04060a.htm
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Business Ethics China and Mexico This Work

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67536039

Business Ethics: China and Mexico

This work in writing will discuss the business ethics in view of countries that are foreign to one another and specifically the countries of ussia and China and Mexico. This work will contrast and compare the business ethics of these two countries toward providing a contribution to the global ethical perspective. The work of Ma (2010) states that business ethics "refer to the moral principles or values that govern a group of people. These principles and values distinguish right from wrong, good from evil, and thereby guide individuals in their personal and professional decision making." As noted in the work entitled "European Business and Economics Ethics: Diagnosis -- Dialogue -- Debate: Is There a European Business and Economic Ethics Approach?" presented at the Berlin September 2007 states that the economic reality in Europe today is increasingly determined by pan-European and global forces that transcend the…… [Read More]

References

Iwan, Lee (2006) How to do business in Mexico. Lee Iwan Accumulated Experience. Retrieved from: http://leeiwan.wordpress.com/how-to-do-business-in-mexico-parts-1-28/

Iwan, Lee (2010) Corruption, Bribes, Mordidas, tips." Lee Iwan Accumulated Experiences. Retrieved from: http://leeiwan.wordpress.com/2006/11/07/corruption-bribes-mordidas-tips-doing-business-in-mexico/

Ma, Zhenzhong (2010) The SINS in Business Negotiations: Explore the cross-Cultural Differences in Business Ethics Between Canada and China. Journal of Business Ethics 2010. Retrieved from: http://sixdegreemarketing.com/marketing/work%20images/MY%20FILES/FIT/paper/ZZ%20-%20ones%20that%20I%20have%20used/social/Explore%20the%20Cross-Cultural%20Differences%20in%20Business%20Ethics%20Between%20Canada%20and%20China.Full%20Text%20Available.pdf

MacDonald, Chris (2010) Business Ethics in China. The Business Ethics Blog. 30 Aug 2010. Retrieved from:  http://businessethicsblog.com/2010/08/30/business-ethics-in-china/
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Culture Concept and Overseas Subsidiaries

Words: 2919 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11683844

They wanted to know the best places to go after work, and expected him to help them in that regard.

Hanes finally told his Japanese trainers "he preferred not to mix business with pleasure." ithin a couple days, the group requested another instructor. The critical issue here, one can quickly discern, is that Hanes did not do his homework on the Japanese business culture; if he had, he would know the Japanese are intensely committed to their work, on duty and off duty.

The "Miscue No. 2" involves Ray Lopez, top salesperson for his company who was fluent in Spanish; he was sent to Buenos Aires to make a marketing pitch to a distribution firm there. He arrived and was picked up at the airport and surprised to learn that the meeting had been postponed for two days "...so that Ray could rest after the long trip" and also have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hult, G. Tomas M.; Cavusgil, S. Tamer; Deligonul, Seyda; Kiyak, Tunga; & Lagerstrom,

Katarina. (2007) What Drives Performance in Globally Focused Marketing Organizations? A Three-Country Study. Journal of International Marketing, 15(2), 58-85.

Keeley, Timothy Dean. 2001, International Human Resource Management in Japanese Firms: Their Greatest Challenge, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kim, Youngok, Gray, Sidney J. 2005, 'Strategic factors influencing international human resource management practices: an empirical study of Australian multinational corporations', International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 809-830.
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Western Ethical Theories

Words: 1246 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10008808

Western Ethical Theories

The objective of this work is to examine Western Ethical theories including teleological, deontological, natural law, and interest view and virtue ethics.

The work of Bennett-Woods (2005) states that while the words 'ethics' and 'morality' are "often used interchangeably, morality is more precisely used to refer to the customs, principles of conduct and moral codes of an individual, group or society." Ethics, is also stated to be termed "moral philosophy of the science of morals" and is the branch of philosophy that examines "morality through the critical examination of right and wrong in human action." (Bennett-Woods, 2005)

The study of ethics is generally characterized into three specific domains of study include those of: (1) metaethics which is related to the nature of right and wrong insofar as the where and how of the original of ethical judgments and what these judgments mean regarding the human nature and…… [Read More]

References

Virtue Ethics (2010) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/ 

Eric Wingrove-Haugland (1999) The Foundations of the Core Values in Western Ethical Theories. Retrieved from:  http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE99/Wingrove99.html 

Lovin, R.W. (2004) Moral Theories. Blackwell Publishing Company. Retrieved from:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/content/BPL_Images/Content_store/Sample_chapter/0631216340/Schweiker_sample%20chapter_A%20companion%20to%20religious%20ehtics.pdf 

Bennett-Woods, D. (2005 ) Ethics at a Glance. 2005 Regis University. Retrieved from:  http://rhchp.regis.edu/HCE/EthicsAtAGlance/EthicsAtAGlance.pdf
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Universality of the Western Interpretation

Words: 5955 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61470439

Schwartz (2006), many arguments are presented, most of which generally criticize the Western treatment of First Nations people or address women's rights issues. As an example, "Aboriginal Australia: Current Criminological Themes" by ick Sarre (2006) focuses on the affect of British colonialism in Australia on the Aborigines, connecting it to a vast overrepresentation of Aborigines in the Australian penal system. "The Left ealist Perspective on ace, Class, and Gender" by Walter S. DeKeseredy (2006) illustrates the fact that, in the United States, it cannot be said that there is 'justice for all;' "First Nations people and African-Americans are much more likely to be arrested, convicted and incarcerated than members of the dominant culture who commit the same crimes" (p. 49). Throughout most of the articles, different approaches to solving such attitudes are explored, such as the left realist theory and the postmodern perspective.

The Female Circumcision Controversy: an Anthropological Perspective…… [Read More]

References

Abu-Lughod, Lila (ed.). (1998). Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East.

Princeton: Princeton University Press.

An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed (ed.). (1992). Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A

Quest for Consensus. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
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What Is the Link Between Culture and Democratization in Underdeveloped Countries

Words: 3884 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20796215

Democratization, Culture and Underdeveloped Nations

This paper looks at the issue of culture and democratization in underdeveloped countries. The paper is based on research conducted through a systematic review of the current literature on the subject, from policy documents published by bodies such as the IMF and the World ank, to academic papers written by workers in this field, to online discussion forums (which can be an extremely valuable source for assessing 'grass roots' opinions regarding issues such as this).

The paper begins with a basic introduction to some key topics, through a discussion of questions such as 'What is democracy?', 'What is culture?', 'What is an underdeveloped country', and 'What does democracy mean at the present time for people in the United States, and the rest of the developed world, and for people in underdeveloped countries'?

What do we mean, as a citizen of the United States, when we…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abizedah, A. (2002). Does Liberal Democracy Presuppose a Cultural Nation? Four Arguments. American Political Science Review 96(3).

Adams, D. And Goldbard, A. (1995). Cultural Democracy: A Brief Introduction. Available at  http://www.wwcd.org/cd.html . Accessed 13th January 2003.

Elshtain, JB (1993). Democracy on Trial. Concrod, Ontario: Anansi.

Kasfir (2000) Democracy in Translation: Understanding Politics in an Unfamiliar Culture (Book Review). American Political Science Review September 2000.
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Analyzing Female Gender Mutilation

Words: 2208 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90870605

Female Gender Mutilation

Female Genital Mutilation

The procedures that constitute the removal of the external genitalia of the females, whether in part or wholly, is referred to as female genital mutilation or briefly as FGM. It also constitutes other forms of injury to such organs for non-medical reasons. The practice is usually carried out by traditional circumcisers who are recognized individuals in communities, and are often present at important functions such as child births. There are instances when health care providers carry out the procedures under the false assumption that it is safe to do it in controlled medical facilities (UNICEF 87). However, the world Health organization requests all medical professionals to refrain from carrying out such procedures. The practice has been recognized all over the world as a violation of the rights of women. It is a sign of major inequalities between males and females of the human species,…… [Read More]

References

Diallo, Khadi. "Taking the Dress." UNESCO Courier july 2001: 40.

Dorkenoo, Efua. Cutting the Rose: Female Genital Mutilation: The Practice and Its Prevention. London: Minority Rights Publishers, 1995.

England, Joseph. "Circumcision in America." The Objective Standard 10.1 (2015).

Kern, Soeren. UK: The Crisis of Female Genital Mutilation. 9 may 2013. 18 February 2016 .
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Gender a Society Is a

Words: 2484 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48723572

Likewise, woman in Saudi Arabia are still suppressed enough that they are not allowed to drive on the road. When recently one Saudi woman rebelled and was jailed and the foreign media raised the issue, the government of Saudi Arabia stood firm by their laws pertaining to female liberties in the face of the international media.

3. Provide an overview of hegemonic masculinity

The concept of hegemonic masculinity is a normative notion that promotes the idea of male dominance and power over the opposite gender in the society. Since the societies that adhere to patriarchal structure see gay men as 'weak' according to social norms, under the concept of hegemonic masculinity a normal 'strong' male member of the society is not only expected to have power over the females but also the 'weaker' males. In such social structures when male members cannot attain financial successes, they exercise their power by…… [Read More]

References

Connell, C. (2009). Gender. Cambridge. Polity Press.

Adler, L.L. (Ed.). (1993). International Handbook on Gender Roles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59441463

Enos, T. (1996). Gender Roles and Faculty Lives in Rhetoric and Composition. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=42471043

Mussap, A.J. (2008). Masculine Gender Role Stress and the Pursuit of Muscularity. International Journal of Men's Health, 7(1), 72+. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035170430
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Proposal for a Course as Part of the Core Curriculum

Words: 1809 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54705754

Curriculum:

"Expanding the limits of lived and written experience: Required Independent Study"

There are certain concepts and ways of presenting ideas that all educated human beings must know. This fundamental assertion about education seems to lie at the heart of the concept of requiring the completion of a core curriculum for all graduating undergraduate students. At very least, the existence of a common core belies the university's desire that all graduates of its institution are versed and knowledgeable in certain basic skills, such as writing a cohesive essay and understanding how to conduct an experiment according to the scientific method.

However, most institutions, including Columbia, also have some other 'agendas' in constructing a common core curriculum, namely that all students and graduates of the institution will be familiar with a certain canon of books and authors that have been quantified over time as 'great literature.' It is with this implicit,…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Bloom, Allen. The Closing of the American Mind. Originally Published by Simon and Schuster, 1987.
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reflections and'summaries on ethical theories

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33539473

Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical framework. The consequences of an action are more important than the motivations behind the action or the action itself. An action has "utility" if it serves the greatest good. The basic principle of utilitarianism is creating the greatest good for the greatest number of people, or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. The ethics of utilitarianism differ from ethical egoism in that the individual may make a sacrifice for the common good because it is the aggregate of happiness/goodness that matters, not maximizing individual happiness. Central to utilitarianism is the belief that all people are inherently equal and of equal consideration when making ethical decisions (p. 55). John Stuart Mill outlined the core tenets of utilitarianism, which became a fundamental component of Enlightenment political philosophy. Another utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, proposed a happiness calculus that can be used to more rigorously apply…… [Read More]

Works Cited

MacKinnon, Barbara and Fiala, Andrew. Ethics. 8th edition. Cengage.
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America as a Multinational Society

Words: 3513 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55099431

In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."

Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cruz, Barbara C. Multiethnic Teens and Cultural Identity: A Hot Issue. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.

Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Francis, Samuel. "The Other Face of Multiculturalism." Chronicles. April 1998.

Huggins, Nathan I. Revelations: American History, American Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
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Family Social Work and Therapy

Words: 1530 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13799151

Vingnettes

Psychology of marriage and family systems

Vignette Three

Considering the text reading assignments, what do you see going on with Phillip and his family?

Given that Phillip was born to a mother who abused alcohol in the past, it is possible that there are physical issues which are affecting his performance in school. Phillip should be screened for learning disabilities and other issues which could inhibit his progress. Phillip is also struggling with issues which make him 'different' from his peers, including the poverty of his household, the fact that he is being shipped from one home to another as the result of his parents' divorce, and the fact that he might receive negative attention because of his mother's LBGT status as well as the fact he is a Native American.

If Phillip is being sexually molested, however, this could be another source of his withdrawal and anxiety, given…… [Read More]

References

Lubell K.M., Lofton T, Singer H.H. (2008). Promoting healthy parenting practices across cultural groups: A CDC Research Brief. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2008.

http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/images/DVP/Healthy_Parenting_RIB_a.pdf

Lucero, S. (2007). Working with Indian families and child substance abuse challenges. NRC4

Tribes. Retrieved from:  http://www.nrc4tribes.org/files/Urban%20Indian%20guide.pdf
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Communications Dilemmas Post Response 1

Words: 1305 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40642866



Suggested Approach for Reconciliation and Resolution

The suggested approach to reconciliation and resolution would, as in the cases of Donnie and Mika also rely primarily on the process of educating the individuals involved to better understand certain information that they would need to understand to achieve their common objective. More specifically, Tyrrell should attempt to develop a method of helping the Bishops understand the positive elements of modern communications and information media and to overcome their existing reluctance based on ignorance and fear of something new.

Post Response #4 -- Cleveland

Dilemmas and Most Prominent Dimensions at Issue

The dilemma presented by this situation is that, on one hand, the United States Navy promotes, supports, and encourages all enlisted individuals to respect cultural diversity and individuality of all persons; but on the other hand, the U.S. Navy also maintains an extremely rigid set of formal organizational values and standards that…… [Read More]

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Intergenerational Relationships in Identity Construction

Words: 8675 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61602694

al. 11). In the same way that European colonialism itself depended on a limited view of the world that placed colonial subjects under the rule of their masters, European theory was based on a view of literature and identity that had no place for the identities and literature of colonized people. Postcolonial theory is the ideal basis for this study, because in many ways the process of developing a new, hybrid identity born out of the conflicting experiences of first and second-generation immigrants is analogous to the process of developing postcolonial theory in the first place.

In particular, this paper draws most heavily on the notion of hybrid identity, a complicated subject that has arisen within postcolonial studies. The term is difficult to define precisely due to the fact that hybridity itself suggests something complicated and heterogeneous, and at the same time, "if hybrid identity is seen as formed at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice

in Post-Colonial Literatures. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Ball, John. Satire and the Postcolonial Novel. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Bhabha, Homi. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge, 1990.
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Religion Is an Analysis of Seven Works

Words: 2509 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52446376

Religion is an analysis of seven works that the author, Daniel Pals, believes have shaped the understanding of religion in the past century. These theories represent seminal attempts to see religion in its social context as a system of values and beliefs, something that would be popularized by French structuralists and students of myth and semiotics in the last half of the 20th century. The theories reviewed put forth a 'scientific approach to religion' that 'first caught the imagination of serious scholars' in the 19th century. (pg. 10) These theories 'exercised a shaping influence not only on religion but on the whole intellectual culture of our century.' Some of the names put to us are familiar to us, such as Freud and Marx, whereas others are more obscure, such as Tylor and Frazer, Emile Durkheim, Mircea Eliade, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, and Clifford Geertz. The author picks what might be called the…… [Read More]

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Misunderstood Role of Women in

Words: 6335 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10368160

A view of this event captures an incredible sea of worshippers flowing like a human river in the footsteps of the prophet Mohammed, who it is said arrived at this spot some 1400 years ago to pay homage to Abraham.

The role of the woman as it is understood through the ritual reenactments are quite different from the unequal stance which is often assumed of Muslim women today, with Hagar and Ishmael given tribute as well. Exiled to the dessert valley that would become Mecca, Hagar would give birth to the numerous Arab peoples, and would be enabled to do so by the salvation of the angel Gabriel. In many ways, this story parallels the matriarchal role of the Madonna to Christianity, who was likewise guided by an angel in a time of crisis. Islam tells that Gabriel was sent down to bring water to Hagar in the desert in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AI. (1999).

Pakistan: Hounour Killings of Girls and Women. Amnesty International.Online at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA330181999

Al-Uthaimeen, S.M.A. (2006). How to perform the ritiuals of Hajj and Umrah. Princeton University. Online at  http://www.princeton.edu/~humcomp/hajjguide.html 

BBC. (June 2003). Pakistan's Sharia Law Is Criticized. BBC News. Online at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2958316.stm .
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Niger River Delta Tribe Anthropology of Gender

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81865084

Girls is an ethnographic documentary detailing a female rite of passage in a small island community in the Niger River delta in Africa. The film's purpose is primarily to illustrate the conflicts that emerge as cultures find themselves perched between two worlds: the world of old customs and traditions, and the world of globalized culture and its customs, values, and norms. However, Monday's Girls is also about gender issues, and how gender issues are at the forefront of every culture's ability to remain relevant. The film touches upon many related issues such as cultural relativism, and the filmmakers show that it is difficult to make a clear judgment for or against preserving traditions like those of the Waikiriki.

Rather than suggest a clear moral stance about the female rite of passage, the filmmakers illustrate the complexities and ambiguities involved in studying culture. Even within its own people, there are sometimes…… [Read More]