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The increase in the harvesting of ice and exportation across countries therefore meant the shift in the traditional method of food preservation. Traditionally, the most common methods were salting and drying as well as smoking particularly applied to meat and other animal products. There was shift of preservation from these traditional modes to the use of ice in the ice rooms or cooler boxes to keep meat fresh for longer.
The use of ice in ice rooms to preserve food until the arrival of the domestic refrigerator using the ice box. This was wooden box with appropriate insulation with a block of ice placed at the top hence keeping the refrigerator cool. This was one of the most efficient ways of keeping food fresh. The domestic refrigerator allowed people to now preserve food at home without having to necessarily rely on food from the ice rooms. This innovation meant family…
Barbara K, (2012). The Impact of Refrigeration. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http://www.history-magazine.com/refrig.html
Keep it Cool Inc. (2005). The History of the Refrigerator. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http://www.keepitcool.com/history_of_the_refrigerator2.htm
Kharagpur, (nd). History of Refrigeration. Version 1. Pp3. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT%20Kharagpur/Ref%20and%20Air%20Cond/pdf/RAC%20%20Lecture%201.pdf
Semiotically, however, the term evolved in the region to symbolize a characteristic aspect of shared cultural attitudes related very directly to the motivation for the murder of the civil rights activists.
Finally, the 1970s counterculture heavily emphasized illicit recreational drug use:
The birds flew off with the fallout shelter Eight miles high and falling fast Again linking the 1950s with the 1970s, the semiotic relevance of high very likely corresponds to the so-called high of hallucinogenic experiences associated with LSD use whereas the fallout shelter evokes a symbol quite unique to American society of the Cold War era of paranoia of unprovoked Communist attack. EFEENCES
Gerrig, , Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Macionis, J.J. (2003) Sociology 9th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
O'Brien, P. (1999) American Pie: The analysis…
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Macionis, J.J. (2003) Sociology 9th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
The people like Davis, who must assign some kind of social meaning to jeans, may be the very people who do not wear them, making their opinions a bit more lopsided and questionable.
It is also quite arguable that most people who put on a pair of jeans every day do not give a single thought to their representation of "democracy" and "equality" Davis associates with blue jeans. He writes, (in pedantic fashion), "Democratic, egalitarian sentiments notwithstanding, social status still counts for too much in Western society to permanently suffer the proletarianization that an unmodified blue-jean declaration of equality and fraternity projected" (Davis 103). Here, Davis simply sounds like a pompous snob, using his theories to fulfill his own arguments about jeans and who wears them. For most people, getting dressed every morning is a ritual leading to a long day of work and toil, whether it is in an…
Davis, Fred. "Blue Jeans." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 101- 108
God Grew Tired of Us. Dir. Christopher Quinn. Perf. John Bul Dau, Panther Bior, Daniel Pach. Newmarket Films, 2006.
This historian continues, "A sugar-loaf could weigh anything between one pound and 20 pounds, but whatever it weighed it was worth that weight in silver" (Toussaint-Samat 555). By the sixteenth century, it was discovered that sugar cane grew amazingly well in the New World Christopher Columbus had discovered, especially in the Caribbean areas. Toussaint-Samat notes, "in 1506 one Pedro d'Arrance took sugar cane to Hispaniola, now the Dominican epublic. It grew there so profusely that by 1518 the island had eight sugar plantations" (Toussaint-Samat 556). Sugar grew in popularity as it became more readily available, and it also began to drop in price, so the middle class could afford it. As early as 1600, one early historian notes, "That which was once a remedy now serves us as food'" (Toussaint-Samat 557). Sugar cane became another form of currency, and entire economies were built on it before it dropped in price…
Kurlansky, Mark. Salt: A World History. New York: Walker and Company, 2002.
Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne. History of Food Anthea Bell, trans. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1992.
Wilson, Bee. "Perhaps if We Hated Sugar Less Vehemently, We Wouldn't Eat So Much of it." New Statesman 9 Dec. 2002: 56.
Socker Mad: Bee Wilson on the Swedish Obsession with Mixing Salt and Sugar." New Statesman 28 Jan. 2002: 48.
Khadi Amongst Western Design Students
The ancient hand-woven cotton fabric has been described not only as a fabric but a philosophy and movement. The political leader Mahatma Gandhi viewed the use of khadi as a political act. By establishing the use of home-spun fabric in India, versus foreign textiles, he hoped to free India of foreign dependence on imports, which had been fostered during the colonial era (Selin, 1997, p. 961). Since these early origins, khadi has become embraced outside of India because of its unique texture and appearance as well as its association with traditional culture. Khadi became synonymous with self-sufficiency for Indians and a proud example of how they might embrace their culture through the use of traditional handicrafts. This proposed qualitative study of Western design students is designed to assess their uses of khadi and their perceptions of incorporating it into their work. Its central…
Fernandez, C. (2015). The good, the bad and the offensive: A look back at the year in fashion cultural appropriation. Fashionista. Retrieved from:
Nittle, N. (2016). What is cultural appropriation and why is it wrong? About.com. Retrieved from: http://racerelations.about.com/od/diversitymatters/fl/What-Is-Cultural-Appropriation-and-Why-Is-It-Wrong.htm
Peralta, E. (2015). Theft and artistry: Coldplay, Beyonce in India spark discussion on appropriation. NPR. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/2016/02/06/465622102/theft-and-artistry-coldplay-beyonc-in-india-spark-discussion-on-appropriation
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…
Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf
Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading
Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf
Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)
Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…
Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.
Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm
Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.
Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
Cultural in the United States
Compare and contrast what Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present as the flaws in our culture's pursuit of material self-interest.
Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present the society in postmodern consumer where the masculine identity is lost: the gray-collar male personnel and the satisfaction socially created by the society focused in materialism. Technology is the baseline for Berman's argument. The argument goes well-known to Neil Postman, and McLuhan Marshal it is not normal, not only does it change the way we connect with the rest of the world, but it also gets our brains wired (Berman 21). A normal brain of a person who has been print raised differs with a big margin from that of a person who, most of his time is corrupted by the internet.
However, the significance of the internet is making a reduction to our understanding…
Berman, Morris. Why America Failed: The Roots of Imperial Decline. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012. Print.
Frank, Capra. It's a Wonderful Life: A Play in Two Acts. Woodstock, Ill: Dramatic Pub, 2008.
Finchers, David. "fight Club." Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2007. Internet resource.
Since weddings are meant to bring families together the unity of the community as a whole is catered for and this can be advantageous. This culture will also ensure that the customs and traditions are retained and covered from erosion by other cultures, this is because the arrangements will ensure that only individuals with similar backgrounds are brought together and no new cultures are incorporated. To someone who does not admire the African culture this may not sound positive but I am sure to the owners of the culture this is a very big boost to them.
Now looking at the Australian cultural wedding very little seems strange but is totally different to the African ceremony. I feel that the Australian cultural wedding is more 'liberal' in nature as compared to the African wedding. This is because the weddings are based on love and agreement between two individuals. This gives…
Africaguide.com (2011). Africa people & culture, accessed on November 25, 2011 from http://www.africaguide.com/culture/weddings.htm
Euroevents & Travel (2004). Wedding Traditions and Customs around the World Bridal
Customs in different Countries accessed on November 25, 2011 from http://www.worldweddingtraditions.com/
Gardner, H. (1985). The mind's new science. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.
Effect of Cultural Diversity on…
Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.
The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…
Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…
1. Cultural Environment
Atrisgerinko, V.A. Origins of the Romanesque. London: Lund, 2005. Print.
Benson, R.E. Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982. Print.
Benson, Robert L. et al. (eds). Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Medieval Academy of America, 1991.
Crusaders were able to implement feudal states throughout their travels during this period of warfare, many of which have been termed Crusader states and which were erected throughout the Holy Land and in parts of Asia Minor as well as Greece. The most famous of these, of course, was the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which took place in 1099 and reigned until its fall in 1291.
Kingdom of Jerusalem
It should be remembered that for the vast duration of the reign of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, European settlers were widely outnumbered by Franks and Muslims, and only comprised approximately 15 to 25% of the entire population (Kedar 148). The Europeans lived in areas which were both rural as well as urban, and despite attempts to integrate with the surrounding foreigners, they did not infiltrate areas which were predominantly Muslim and which had never had many Christian dwellers (Ellenblu…
Cultural Attitudes Towards Animals in India
India has long held the cow to be a sacred animal (hence the famous phrase 'sacred cow'). But the attitude of Hindus towards cows has often been described as perplexing and irrational by esterners, particularly given the high rates of poverty in the nation. It is not uncommon to see cows wandering through the streets while starving people beg, causing observers from other ethnicities and faiths to wonder why Indians do not slaughter the cows for food. Even an Indian anthropologist, M.N. Srinivas, an Indian stated: "Orthodox Hindu opinion regards the killing of cattle with abhorrence, even though the refusal to kill the vast number of useless cattle which exists in India today is detrimental to the nation...the large animal population is more a liability than an asset in view of our land resources" (Harris 1)
According to Orthodox Hindu doctrine: "the cow is…
"Animals in Indian culture." Sri.Venkateswara Zoological Park [24 Apr 2012]
Harris, Marvin. "India's sacred cow." Sociology 101. [24 Apr 2012]
"(Schneider, 396) it was certainly Evita's dedication to the poor which promoted her as a cultural icon in the first place. This idea is openly available in her writings, where she emphasizes her view on social justice and her indignation when confronted with social discrimination between the different classes of people: "I have discovered a fundamental feeling in my heart which completely governs my spirit and my life. That feeling is my indignation when confronted with injustice."(Peron)
According to Evita's own confession, her first realization of the idea of social injustice was shocking to her, as she perceived openly the difference between the poor and the rich: "I admit I learned it almost at one blow, and that I learned it though suffering; and I declare that it never seemed to me either logical or natural."(Peron) Evita's confessed natural repulsion towards injustice was perhaps her greatest trait of character and…
Adams, Jerome K. Liberators and Patriots of Latin America. Jefferson: McFarland, 1991
Crassweller, Robert D. Peron and the Enigmas of Argentina. New York W.W. Norton, 1987.
Peron, Eva. "Excerpts from Evita's own story: 'La raz n de mi vida' or 'The Reason for my Life' by Eva Duarte Per n in her own words." http://web.archive.org/web/20030611194904/my.execpc.com/~reva/html7n.htm
The History of Peronism. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1951evaperon.html
The artistic authenticity of a particular object is determined, in part, by the objects provenance -- its history that helps us to understand the significance and original cultural context of the object. ithout this context it becomes complicated to identify certain tribal cultural artifacts as artwork or not.
But let's imagine that there exists an institutional framework or bureaucratic organization with the resources to undertake such a monumental task of artistic identification. There would still be additional problems to consider. In Indonesia, for instance, there are numerous political and cultural obstacles facing the emerging push for preservation. Communication in the nation is lackluster. Identifying and controlling all potential tribal art among the indigenous people is a task best left to the imagination. The infrastructure simply does not yet exist to properly compensate indigenous artists and craftsmen, let alone stem the tide of black-market deals and random destruction. Yet this is…
Barbier, Jean-Paul. "The Responsible and the Irresponsible: Observations on the Destruction and Preservation of Indonesian Art."
Duffon, Denis. "Authenticity in Art." In the Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics. Ed. Jerrold Levinson. (NY: Oxford University Press, 2003). 18 Dec. 2006 http://www.denisdutton.com/authenticity.htm .
Hamlin, Jesse. "How de Young Is Handling New Guinea Art Question." San Francisco Chronicle (4 May 2006): E1. 18 Dec. 2006 http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/05/04/DDGJMIJFVO1.DTL .
Lehmann, Karl and Lehmann, Andrew. "Tribal Art of Papua New Guinea." Lost World Arts. (Maui, Hawaii: 2004). 18 Dec. 2006 http://www.lostworldarts.com/new_page_2.htm .
It is thought that the class could go to see the neighborhoods where Chinese, ussian and African people live and they could converse with the neighborhood people. The learners are probable to find dissimilarities and resemblances within their individual culture. Another teacher could ask a guest speaker to aid an art class to reconstruct some of their culture's art (Jones, n.d.).
esearch done by many scholars such as Neugebauer (1992) has shown that children become aware of gender, race, ethnicity, and disabilities at an early age. They also begin to soak up both the affirmative outlooks and pessimistic prejudices joined to these facets of individuality by family members and other important adults in their lives during their school years. In order to promote healthy self-esteem, children must be taught how to intermingle reasonably and effectively with dissimilar kinds of people, and the best place for this to be done is…
Borkar, Rujuta. (2010). Cultural Diversity in the Classroom. Retrieved January 11, 2011, from Buzzle Web site: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/cultural-diversity-in-the-classroom.html
Jones, Stephen. (n.d.). Incorporating Cultural Diversity in the Classroom. Retrieved January 11,
2011, from Teachers of Color Web site:
Australia, indigenous people recognize themselves as belonging to Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander or by descent, and also identified as the same by the society. A resistance has been observed in them to access hospitals for healthcare. Therefore, healthcare professionals need to plan, implement and maintain appropriate policies for their treatment. Also, cross-cultural awareness training should be given to paediatric hospital staff. (Munns & Shields, 2013, p. 22)
How would you support ianna and her family in this situation?
The poor health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is well documented, and has been the subject of official policy and program attention for many years. The mainstream health system has responded to increased funding and clear portfolio responsibility, with increasing attention to the burden of illness that Aboriginal people experience and the need for effective health care (Dwyer et al., 2014). I would thus make arrangement for proper…
Ansuya. (2012). Transcultural Nursing: Cultural Competence in Nurses. International Journal of Nursing Education, Volume 4(1), pp. 5-7.
Durey, A, Wynaden, D, Thompson, SC, Davidson, PM, Bessarab, D & Katzenellenbogen, JM. (2012). Owning Solutions: A Collaborative Model to Improve Quality in Hospital Care for Aboriginal Australians. Nursing Inquiry, Volume 19(2), pp. 144-152.
Dwyer, J, Willis, E & Kelly, J. (2014). Hospitals Caring for Rural Aboriginal Patients: Holding Response and Denial. Australian Health Review, Volume 38(5), pp. 546-551.
Kelly, J & Willis, E. (2014). Travelling to the City for Hospital Care: Access Factors in Country Aboriginal Patient Journeys. Australian Journal of Rural Health, Volume 22(3), pp. 109-113.
Clothing is a very important concept in India and a person is likely to focus on adopting a certain dress style according to the circumstances he or she comes across. Factors like ethnicity, geography, climate, and cultural background are essential in determining the attitudes that a person is likely to take on with regard to dress style. Dressing styles have evolved from Langotas and loincloths to more elaborate costumes that Indians are probable to wear when they attend festivities. hile most people would like to adopt a superficial attitude when regarding what they want to wear, conditions are different in several Indian communities, taking into account that dress styles are treated with a form of intellectual seriousness there.
The Sari is the most popular form of dress for Indian women and is typically wrapped around the lower part of the body with one of its ends and taken over the…
Bruzzi, Stella, and Church Gibson, Pamela, "Fashion Cultures: Theories, Explorations, and Analysis," (Routledge, 2000)
Cultural Diversity in the United States
The United States is one of the most multi-culturally diverse nations in the world. It has often been described as a melting point in which diverse cultures converge. The country is filled with people drawn from different cultures such as Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Europeans. This study focuses on the concept and importance of cultural diversity in the U.S. I believe that cultural diversity is desirable in the United States because it fosters harmonious interaction of people: it should be encouraged because it makes American Citizen's appreciate and respect each other's culture.
Culture refers to an integrated system of learned conduct or behavior patterns that are distinct with members of a given society. As such, culture refers to a people's way of thinking or living. It incorporates people's traditions, religions, mode of dressing, language, values, and beliefs. Language allows people to establish a sense…
Pojman, L. (1999). Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong, 3rd edition. Belmont, CA:
Cultural bias implies an emphasized distinction or preferential status that indicates a predilection for one culture, over another. It is often discriminative, and is characterized by an absence of integration in a group, in terms of social principles, codes of conduct, and beliefs. Cultural partisanship introduces the accepted behaviors of one group as superior, and more valued, than those of another lesser-respected cultural group. In my surroundings, most of the residents, and hence, patients are white, making us (Afro-Americans and Asians) minorities, feel different if not isolated. Such deferential factors are responsible for establishing where specific individuals live, and what opportunities are available to them, in the healthcare and educational context (Sue et al., 2009)
The presence of cultural bias within the context of healthcare-related recommendations and decision-making gives rise to significant challenges. Well-documented inequalities in health status of different racial and ethnic communities, in addition to nationally-publicized…
Resources and Services Administration (http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/)
American Psychiatric Association's Steering Committee to Reduce Disparities in Access to Psychiatric Care (2004) (Natl. Assoc. Social Workers 2007).
These and many more substantive readings from research are listed by the author for assimilating culture-centric education. (Sue, Zane, Nagayama Hall, & Berger, 2009)
As a Counselor, I will need to be aware that being culturally aware implies delivering services in a manner consistent with the recipient's culture, through regards to linguistic variation and cultural discussion. I would seek to be more sensitive to unaccultured ethnic minority clients. In addition, I would use discretion in cases where patients of a particular community or ethnicity are prone to certain clinical problems (for which I would study the ethnic group and its history in more depth) and if certain ethnic groups respond poorly to EBT (Evidence-based Treatment). (Sue et al., 2009)
Cultural Diversity in the Professions
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is global investment banking, securities and investment management firm that provides a wide range of financial services geared towards a substantial and diversified clientele, which comprises of firms, financial organizations, governments as well as high-net-worth people (Forbes, 2015). This paper would focus on the company's cultural diversity that is reflected in its content, design and graphics of the website.
Accessibility of the Diversity-elated Material on the Website
There is a link for "Careers" on the website, in which there is a sub-section for "Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action" (Goldman Sachs, n.d.). Also, the homepage has a link "Who Are We" in which there is another link leading to "Diversity and Inclusion." By typing the word "diversity" in the search bar of the webpage, the results yield "Our commitment to diversity" and the company's culture that has an in-built inclination…
Forbes. (2015). America's best employers: #352 Goldman Sachs Group. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/companies/goldman-sachs-group/
Goldman Sachs. (n.d.). Home. Retrieved from http://www.goldmansachs.com/index.html
Hispanic Association on Corporate Responsibility HACR. (n.d.). About us. Retrieved from http://www.hacr.org/about/
NASSCOM. (n.d.). Introduction. Retrieved from http://www.nasscom.in/diversity-and-inclusion - awards-2016
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
The impact of social pressures and cultural influences on human development are not fully know. Only pieces of information are available for us to understand as there is much to be learned and gathered from this subject. The purpose of this essay is to examine two distinct articles directly related to socio-cultural influences on the development of the human species. This essay will first review and summarize each article on its own merits before offering new conclusions about the feasibility, practicality and overall usefulness of these two arguments presented.
Bakermans-Kranenburg et al. (2004) article about attachment security and minority children helped to expose some important information about the ways culture has a direct and sometimes profound impact on human development. Through statistical analysis gathered from qualitative means, certain patterns of relationships were identified through this study. The study eventually found that there are significant differences in the way…
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. et al. (2004). Differences in attachment security between African- American and white children; ethnicity or socio-economic status? Infant Behavior & Development,27 (2004) 417-433.
Varela, R. et al. (2009). Parenting strategies and socio-cultural influences in childhood anxiety; Mexican, Latin American descent, and European-American families. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 2009, 609-616.
Roberto Rossellini's movie Paisan and its significance and importance, combining and analysis of its visual/literary/conceptual dimensions with post-war Italian culture and history (1946)
Roberto Rossellini's movie Paisan and its significance
Following the Second orld ar, extremely harsh period encompassed the economic and social development of many nations. Italy in this period was no exception as leading forces continued to challenge the development of the country. The post war period saw varied challenges mitigating their way into the society, expected to introduce a new era of fascism, which was already on paper as Mussolini had already put it in place. It is within the ensuing decade that Roberto Rossellini continued to foster his career in the film industry, establishing the production of the movie Paisan. Paisan is uniquely different from its predecessors, such as Open City by Roberto in all its aspects, except the fact that it retains the evident attractiveness…
Andall, Jacqueline. Italian Colonialism: Legacy and Memory. Oxford [u.a.: Lang, 2005. Print.
Bertellini, Giorgio. The Cinema of Italy. London [u.a.: Wallflower Press, 2004. Print.
By, Alexander S. "Paisans." New York Times (1923-Current file): 1. Feb 07
1999. ProQuest. Web. 9 Nov. 2013 .
Business transactions between independent business entities require the thoughtful integration of it systems, for example, as well as between a company and its customers, suppliers, or other business partners, such as co-producers and banks (Luftman). Consequently, effective system integration is important for both economic and strategic business reasons. In this regard, Luftman reports that, "External systems integration involves many technologies and business arrangements with different pros and cons, but they can be grouped in two broad categories: one-to-one or one-to-many approaches that link an individual company with its business partners and hub-and-spoke approaches that provide the possibility of many-to-many connections" (Luftman, p. 252).
Since the introduction of computers several decades ago, the increasing computerization of business organizations has experienced a sequence of transformations as a result of the rapid development in information technology and increasingly complex business needs (Yang & Lu, 2005). As these authors point out, "The continuous e-revolution…
Abdelraheem, a.Y. (2005). Integrating instructional technology with information technology and its implications for designing electronic learning systems. International Journal of Instructional Media, 32(2), 125.
Earl, M.J. (2003). Integrating business and it strategy: Reframing the applications development portfolio. In Luftman at p. 51.
Luftman, J.N. (2003). Competing in the information age: Align in the sand. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mcginn, D., Kudyba, S. & Diwan, R. (2002). Information technology, corporate productivity and the new economy. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…
Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)
" (Pettersson, 2006) Oral and written verbal art languages are both used for the purpose of information communication as well as information presentation with the reader and listener receiving an invitation to consider the information.
The Narrative & the Symbolic
The work of Abiola Irele (2001) entitled: "The African Imagination: Literature in Africa & the lack Diaspora" states that Hampate a "...incorporates the essential feature of the oral narrative at significant points in his work in order to reflect their appropriateness to situations and for special effects. Their conjunction with the narrative procedures sanctioned by the Western model thus enlarges their scope and give them an unusual resonance. At the same time, although he writes with conscious reference to this Western model, he does not feel so constrained by the framework of its conventions that he is unable to go beyond its limitations. His departures from the established codes of…
Aggarwal, Kusum. Amadou Hampate Ba et l'africanisme. De la recherche anthropologique a l'exercice de la fonction auctoriale. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1999.
Dielika Diallo "Hampate Ba: the great conciliator." UNESCO Courier. FindArticles.com. 30 Sep, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1992_Jan/ai_11921818/ . UNESCO 1992. Online available at:
In instances such as this, an employee may make decisions that are totally foreign to their normal character.
It is these corporate ethical values that typically have the most impact on the decision-making process. Organizational ethical contexts are comprised of the moral ideologies adopted by the members of the organization, as well as the institutionalized philosophies regarding the principled conduct and the ethics codes that shape corporate strategy and action. When organizational ethical values are positively aligned with personal values, a more positive person-organization fit is acquired. Again, this fit is central in effective and efficient decision-making (Valentine, Godkin & Lucero, 2002).
The development of ethical codes, which are merely a formalized statement of the corporate ethical values, have a positive effect on reducing the number of unethical decisions that are made by employees. Employees that are members of an organization with an imposed code of ethics were found to…
Finegan, J.E. (Jun 2000). The impact of person and organizational values on organizational commitment. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 73(2). Retrieved November 10, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database.
Myers, C.R. (1997). The core values. Airpower Journal, 11(1). Retrieved November 10, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database.
Valentine, S., Godkin, L., & Lucero, M. (Dec 2002). Ethical context, organizational commitment, and person-organization fit. Journal of Business Ethics, 41(4). Retrieved November 10, 2004, from ProQuest database.
How Personal, Organizational and Cultural Values Affect the Decision-Making Process
social cultural effects money. Use concrete examples readings; addition
The social and cultural effects of money are quite considerable. However, they must be viewed within the proper sociological and, indeed, anthropological context for their effects to truly be appreciated. Money, regardless of the denomination or type of currency, is a capital means of procuring essential needs. Its value is strictly related to its ability to procure essential goods which are those pertaining to the basic elements that humans need to exist such as food, clothing and shelter. Therefore, the social and cultural effects of money are more accurately described as those relating to the things that money can afford or provide. Viewed from this perspective, there are several discernible ramifications that money engenders within contemporary and previous societies, all of which are related to the provisioning of essential elements of human existence.
Elucidated within the point-of-view of the preceding thesis,…
herefore, the standpoint of social embeddedness is a tool that offers to provide a clear picture if one wants to comprehend the contribution of the relational factors in the success of outsourced IS projects (Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009).
If one is to increase his/her comprehension and develop an insight about how to monitor and control outsourced IS projects, Johns' (2006 as cited in Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009) suggestions come in useful. He recommended that the theory be contextualized by assessing the effect of characteristics of social framework in the setting of outsourced IS projects. It should be assessed how the adopted cultural features of the project affect its success and performance.
Later, the social embeddedness standpoint needs to be contextualized to the setting of the outsourcing of IS projects and a cultural variation framework should be applied to assess mutual principles and standards for those projects that are…
Trent, R.J. And R.M. Monczka (2003). "International purchasing and global sourcing -- what are the differences?" Journal of Supply Chain Management 39(4): 26-37. Taken from: Mittal, R. (2010). CULTURAL CONGRUENCE in CROSS-BORDER ALLIANCES: A MULTI-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of Business RESEARCH, Volume 10, Number 3.
Uzzi, B. 1997. "Social Structure and Competition in Interfirm Networks: The Paradox of Embeddedness," Administrative Science Quarterly (42), pp. 35-67. Taken from: Rai, a., Maruping, L.M. And Venkatesh, V. (2009). OFFSHORE INFORMATION SYSTEMS PROJECT SUCCESS: THE ROLE of SOCIAL EMBEDDEDNESS and CULTURALCHARACTERISTICS. MIS Quarterly Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 617-641.
Werner, S. (2002). "Recent Developments in International Management Research: A Review of 20 Top Management Journals." Journal of Management 28(3): 277-305. Taken from: Mittal, R. (2010). CULTURAL CONGRUENCE in CROSS-BORDER ALLIANCES: A MULTI-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of Business RESEARCH, Volume 10, Number 3.
Standards of Cultural Competent Care
Emerging Standards of Cultural Competent
This research paper is established to explore upon the emerging trends of culturally competent care in general organizational settings. However, the scope of this care will be narrowed down specifically to health care organization I am working with. All the bits and bytes allied with the phenomenon of cultural competent care have been included in this paper, including the overview of what this trend is all about, what are the standards being followed in this particular domain and how those standards are applicable within my workplace premises. All in all, this paper will serve as a primer for the culturally competent care that is required to be promoted within different workplace environments.
An Overview of Culturally Competent Care
As a matter of fact, United States has appeared to be one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world. esearchers…
Callister, L.C. (2005). What has the literature taught us about culturally competent care of women and children? MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 30(6), 380-388.
Giddings, L.S. (2005). A theoretical model of social consciousness. Advances in Nursing
Science, 28(3), 224-239.
International Council of Nurses (1998). Nurses and Human Rights. Retrieved September 2, 2012, from http://www.icn.ch/pshumrights.htm .
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…
Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.
Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.
The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…
Baird, C.H., and Parasnis, G., (2011). From Social Media to Social Customer Relationship Management, Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp. 30 -- 37.
Rosa Diaz, I.M. (2013). Price assessments by consumers: Influence of purchase context and price structure. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(1), 13-20.
Hollenbeck, C.R., & Kaikati, A.M. (2012). Consumers' use of brands to reflect their actual and ideal selves on Facebook. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 395.
Kim, S., & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers' trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318.
Cross-cultural comparison on work value between U.S. And China
A value is "what a person consciously or subconsciously desires, wants, or seeks to attain" (Locke, 1983). Peterson and Gonzalez (2005) say values "are motivational forces," and "influence the role work plays in people's lives." Dawis (2005) asserts that each person (P) has requirements that need to be met, most through their environments (E). In fact, Dawis claims that "Many of P's needs in adulthood can be met at work." The ones that matter most to P. are E's ability to deliver rein forcers (e.g., pay, prestige, and working conditions) that satisfy P's needs. Similarly, E has parallel and complementary requirements that can be met by P. And make P. A satisfactory worker. Thus, understanding work values has a benefit for both individuals (as they look for work environments that support their values), and also for organizations (if they…
Bernstein, Paul. (1997). American Work Values: Their Origin and Development. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Cappelli, P., Bassi, L., Katz, H., Knoke, D., Osterman, P. And Useem, M. (1997). Change at Work. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dawis, R.V. (2005). The Minnesota theory of work adjustment. In Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. (Eds.) Career development and counselling: putting theory and research to work. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Farber, Henry S. (1997). "Changing Face of Job Loss in the United States, 1981-1995." Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1: Microeconomics: 55-128.
One of the most brilliant contributions of the Byzantium is its contribution to modern music and the development of what the world has come to appreciate as the foundations of classical music. The Byzantine "medieval" (Lang, 1997), in fact, the Byzantium influence is considered to be critical to the development of the Greek music and the relative genius behind Greek music (Lang, 1997)
The quoted sovereign melody (Lang, 1997) is the oft punctuated contribution to the sovereign nature of today's music throughout the world. The Byzantium facilitated the sovereign method of music ostensibly from what would be the earlier influences to the Byzantine Empire. Lang continues to point to such influence as having its origins in the Orient (Lang, 1997).
Sports were a major part of the Byzantine Empire and are representative of the development of competition within the Roman Empire and subsequently to the importance of sporting events within…
Cross Cultural Education
The information gathered was mostly from my grandparents and my parents. From the interviews conducted, I found out that my ancestors came to the United States in 1850. The main reason why they came to the United States is due to famine. According to information obtained, at the time, Ireland was facing a severe famine, owing to upsetting crop disasters. Due to lack of food for lengthy periods, my ancestors were left with no other option but to move to the United States. However, there are quite a number of challenges they faced upon arrival. To begin with, they had no expertise and no preceding experience in becoming accustomed to a new nation. In addition, they also faced the challenge of having no cash, minimal clothes and lack of education. Another distinctive challenge that they faced upon arrival to the United States was a great…
Colin, M., O'Dea, M. (2006). The Feckin' Book of Everything Irish. New York, Barnes & Noble.
Derderian-Aghajanian, A., & Wang, C. C. (2012). How culture affects on English language learners'(ELL's) outcomes, with Chinese and Middle Eastern Immigrant Students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(5).
Frontline. (n.d). A Class Divided. PBS. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/class-divided/
McDonald, K. E., Keys, C. B., & Balcazar, F. E. (2007). Disability, race/ethnicity and gender: themes of cultural oppression, acts of individual resistance. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39(1-2), 145-161.
Madeleine Leineger's Cultural Care Theory
Theories are made of interrelated ideas that systematically give a systematic view about a certain phenomenon (an event or fact that is observable) that can, then, be predicted, and explained. Theories entail definitions, concepts, propositionspropositions, and models. Theories are created on the basis of assumptions. There are two ways in which theories are derived; inductive and deductive reasoning. The theory of nursing is meant to describe, explainexplain, and predict the nursing phenomenon.
It should give the bases of the nursing practice a strong foundation, thereby assisting in further creation of knowledge and show the future direction that for nursing should take. Theory is of great significance as it guides us in our decisions of what we already know as well as what we ought to know. Theory describes the nursing practice, hence giving us the foundation of nursing. The merits of a definite theory body…
Current Nursing. (2012, January 28). Application of Theory in Nursing Process. Retrieved from Current Nursing: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application_nursing_theories.html
McFarland, M., & Eipperle, M. (2008). Culture Care Theory: a proposed practice theory guide for nurse practitioners in primary care settings. Contemp Nurse, 28(1-2), 48-63.
Raudonis, B., & Acton, G. (1997). Theory-based nursing practice. J Adv Nurs, 26(1), 138-45.
Wayne, G. (2014, August 26). Madeleine Leininger's Transcultural Nursing Theory. Retrieved from Nurse Labs: http://nurseslabs.com/madeleine-leininger-transcultural-nursing-theory/
Examining Cultural Influences of Behavioral Nutrition: The Traditional and Nutritional Values of the Chinese Cultural Diet
It is a general belief that adequate nutrition equals healthy living. From time immemorial, human beings have understandably placed a premium on diets. Rightly so as lives have been saved or lost through food. However, while nutrients will always be a significant factor which decides what people eat or do not eat, there are other as worthy elements that influence human eating behavior. One of those other several factors that determine people's choice of food is cultural influences. This explains why food is one of the crucial elements that define people's way of life. People’s culture cannot be holistically discussed without good attention to their diets. One of the world's cultural groups that are very popular for their diet culture are the Chinese people. Of several other components of the Chinese, food is a…
As our nation becomes increasingly more diverse we will be presented with the challenge of understanding our cultural differences. The purpose of this paper is to develop and design a learning project that compares cultural differences of two ethnic/cultural groups. For the purposes of this project we will compare the differences between Asian and Western cultures. The project will be based on the cultural impact of performance in workforce, production, sales, customer services, etc.
efore we can create a learning project we must first understand the cultural backgrounds of both groups.
The economic boom seen in various Asian countries during the 90's called into question the work ethic and cultural values that made these nations successful. One of the most definitive explanations for the work values that are prevalent in Asia, especially China, has been attributed to the concept of Confucianism. Confucianism is the…
Marcus, George E. "Meanings of the Market: The Free Market in Western Culture." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 4.4 (1998): 804.
Marglin, Stephen A. "Development as poison: rethinking the Western model of modernity." Harvard International Review 25.1 (2003): 70+.
Just as in the U.S. economy, where individuals have been economically left behind, such will be, and is, the case in the emerging global economy (p. 10). Ayres says that the impression, or the turning of society's blind eye towards the chaos of the economically disenfranchised, tends to cause the more affluent amongst us to believe that the term "global" means everybody will be a part of the emerging global economics, and this will produce an economic benefit that will be enjoyed by everyone (p. 10). That is not accurate, and, moreover, those people who presume to take a comfort in the economic globalization are not just turning a blind eye to the disenfranchised, but may find their selves vulnerable in a way that serves to be their light, much like Hank's in Monster's Ball. On this point Ayres says:
There is a popular impression, among the affluent and…
Ayres, Ed. "The Expanding Shadow Economy." World Watch July-Aug. 1996: 10+. Questia. 3 Mar. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000388341 .
Boin, Arjen. Crafting Public Institutions: Leadership in Two Prison Systems. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2001. Questia. 3 Mar. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105966245 .
Therefore, Americans seeking to do business with Saudi nationals would be well advised to research their prospective Saudi counterparts thoroughly but to make preparations to travel to Saudi Arabia first before actually initiating contact with Saudi business people. Doing so and calling after arriving in Saudi Arabia instead of initiating contact from abroad demonstrates awareness of and respect for Saudi business customs right off the bat and in a way that should be noticed by Saudis, especially those who might be familiar with the fact that the norm in the U.S. is simply to call first or email to arrange the first meeting.
Saudis seeking to do business with American firms should understand that in the U.S., it might be inappropriate to travel to the location of a business first and then make initial contact expecting that the meeting will necessarily be planned during their stay. That is because in…
Harris, P., Moran, R. (2007). Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership
Strategies for the 21st Century
Hughes, R., Chesters, G. (2003). Living and Working in Gulf States & Saudi Arabia.
Survival Books: London
Society and Culture
The heirloom of the sixties era has been significant and decidedly pivotal for the advancement of culture and society in nations, an aspect that is referred to as civilization. These changes and modifications that the society went through made the 1960s decade to be one of the fundamental and vital periods of the twentieth century and a landmark that is forever etched. The 1960s era can be revered and given admiration as revolutionary. These changes had a major influence on not only nations in South America and Africa that were developing, but it also had a great influence in civilized nations and we choose to concentrate on Belgium (MacDonald, 2007).
The changes that the society experienced and went through at that time made the 1960s one of the fundamental transition periods of the twentieth century and significant to how culture had fashioned society to what we see…
Donnelly, M. (2014). Sixties Britain: culture, society and politics. Routledge.
Gammond, P. (1993). The Oxford Companion to Popular Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grossberg, L. (1984). Another boring day in paradise: Rock and roll and the empowerment of everyday life. Popular Music, 4, 225-258.
Helc, R. (2006). The Beatles and Their Influence on Culture. Brno: Masaryk University.
The view, for example, of criminal behavior from a labeling perspective tends to focus on the social and cultural background from which the criminal emerges; and Rational Choice theory stresses individual decision-making and culpability in crime. However, both theories are important in that they provide a basis from which to understand, intercept and prosecute criminal behavior.
In conclusion, the importance of crime analysis lies in the fact that information and intelligence about crime enables the law enforcement authorities to conduct a comprehensive crime combating program and develop suitable policies for crime prevention. Understanding the social and culture milieu or context from which crime develops can for instance be an essential tool in dealing with various types of crimes.
These theories and analyses also benefit from computer and Internet technology, where tendencies in crime can be more easily discerned by the patterns that remerge from the collation of data…
Bruce C.W. Crime Analysis. 16 October 2007. http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:Rv5FYusFZ4gJ:www.iaca.net/ExploringCA/exploringca_chapter1.pdf+importance+of+analysis+of+crime&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=ukFundamentalsof
Keel, R. (2004) Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory.
Retrieved October 17, 2007. from the University of Missouri. Web site. http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/ratchoc.html
Overview of Labelling Theories. October 16, 2007. http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/crime/labeling.htm
Dead Sea Scrolls
There are approximately 930 texts that comprise the Dead Sea Scrolls, which would make uniformity in purpose or structure between them immensely difficult. Moreover, their authorship is disputed, which certainly gives rise to the possibility of multiple authors and, by extension, agendas. Nonetheless, a careful examination of some of the pivotal factors pertaining to these scrolls and their very existence -- historical knowledge of the community surrounding these scrolls, archaeological evidence, and passages from the Scrolls themselves -- attests to a similarity of purpose that transcends all of these writings. From a microcosm perspective, then, the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls enabled a more profound understanding of life during the period of the second temple, as well as of the evolution of the bible. At a more granular level, however, the function of the scrolls can be stratified into three components that all point to a…
Geza Vermes, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. London: Penguin, 2004.
Lawrence H. Schiffman, Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls: The History of Judaism, the ?Background of Christianity, the Lost Library of Qumran. Garden City: Doubleday, 1995. James C. VanderKam and Peter Flint, The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls: The ?Significance for Understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity. San ?Francisco: Harper, 2002.
People Like Us," writes about diversity in the U.S. The world has always perceived the U.S. as a place teeming with diverse people. This statement can be considered true in a way: the U.S. is home to individuals from innumerable different races, ethnic backgrounds, religions, political views, interests, personalities, income levels, etc. However, all these substantially diverse inhabitants of the country do not tend to unite; rather, they strive hard to only connect with those who are essentially like themselves. The essay's author writes that Americans seek places in which they are at ease and believe they can prosper. This trend does nothing to foster diversity -- instead, it has a totally opposite effect. The tendency of Americans to be drawn to people they are comfortable around, (and before whom they can reveal their true selves) leads to formation of clusters, based on religion, ethnicity, social class, etc. Americans aren't…
Binchy, Chris. People Like Us. London: Pan, 2005. Print.
Brooks, David. "People Like Us." 68-69 (2003): Web.
Gentleman. Diversity. S.l.: VP Records, 2011. Print.
Marquis, Jefferson P. Managing Diversity in Corporate America: An Exploratory Analysis. Santa Monica: RAND, 2007. Print.
Parents who are predisposed to limit children's exposure to violence will do so as a matter of course. Parents who don't feel that way, will not. Therefore, if parents can't be relied upon to police their children, then society must- because what social order wants to have violence-overloaded children heaving their criminal behavior upon it?
In the mid-1950's a Senate sub-committee began to investigate the "sources of the moral rot at the core of an otherwise flourishing postwar America," (Knox, 4). This committee looked at the comic book industry, movies, and particularly at television. While these efforts did little to nothing to curb interest in subjects considered to be anti-American, or "immoral," it does show the depth of time and effort that has been spent on this issue - at every level. However, over the course of time, television has become more liberal rather than less. So, in response, the…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2007). Children and TV Violence. Online. Internet. Avail:
http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_tv_violence.Acc : 12 Oct, 2007.
Duncan, P. (2006). Attractions to Violence and the Limits of Education. The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 40:4; 21-38.
Hornaday, a. (Aug 6, 2006) Parents Fret About Children's Entertainment. The Washington Post. Sunday Arts, N01.
Psychodynamic Approach Survey
This is approach to leadership is based on personality study and change by the leader and those who are under leadership. According to Psychodynamic Approach Survey, a leader is a person who is supposed to learn from analyzing and realizing the personality and reaction of the people who are being led so that he or she can know how best to handle them. A leader who has borrowed from the Psychodynamic Approach Survey is not worried of how the followers perceive him and understand him. He is not interested in how to change his personality so that he or she can appeal to the people. Nonetheless, such a leader is focused on observing the behaviors and the personalities of the followers, making sure that he captures the way they react, think, interact, and do everything, as a basis for influencing them to act in a…
McIntosh, G. L. & Rima, S. D. (2007). Overcoming the Dark Side of Leadership: The Paradox of Personal Dysfunction. New York. Baker Books
Nohria, N. & Khurana, R. (2013). Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice: An HBS Centennial Colloquium on Advancing Leadership. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press
Northouse, P. G. (2012). Leadership: Theory and Practice. New York: SAGE Publications
" (Coates, et al., 2003) Solutions that are know to be effective are "co-management approaches in the fishery sector which are already in use and highly effective on a local basis.
There are 1200 known species of fish and it is thought that there are as many as 1700 living in the Mekong River Basin. High diversity is present due to plant groups and other aquatic animal groups. The Mekong's ecosystem is one of complexity with variations in climate, geology, terrain and water flow." (Coates, et al. 2003) the results of these variations are a rich habitat that is said to 'rival that found on tropical coral reefs. The pictures below show the impact of the flooding of the Mekong.
Figure 2.0 Figure 2.1
Source: (Coates, et al., 2003)
III. Cultural Significance of the River
Diversity is important for the following reasons:
Direct Use Value: biodiversity is used directly as…
Coates D. et al. (2003) Biodiversity and Fisheries in the Mekong River Basin Mekong River Commission, Mekong Development Series No.2, 2003 June
Coates, D. (2001) Biodiversity and Fisheries Management Opportunities in the Mekong River Basin "Blue millennium-managing global fisheries for biodiversity. GEF-IDRC 3-7 July 2001. World Fisheries Trust, Victoria, Canada CD Rom.
Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin Online available at http://www.mrcmekong.org/pdf/95%20Agreement.pdf
Mekong River Basin
The Das family is self-centered and quite unmoved by the things they see around them - they are typical "ugly" Americans who have no interest in their background or culture. They seem bored by the tour, and by each other, and the reader has to wonder why they bothered to take the trip in the first place. They seem to think they are "superior" to their surroundings, somehow, simply because they are from America and have more opportunities and a different lifestyle. The author uses the symbols of the Chandrabhaga River and the Temple of the Sun as symbols of a culture that is slowly dying because people like the Das family do not keep it alive. This is actually a sad story because it illustrates how few ties most immigrants keep with their home countries, and how Americanized and selfish they become. The Das family really learns nothing from…
Other competitive events are held in which competitors demonstrate accuracy and throwing distance. Skilled freestyle players can keep a Frisbee spinning continuously on a fingertip almost indefinitely and throw it in excess of 100 yards with accuracy.
Canine Frisbee competitions involve teams consisting of a person and a dog who compete against other teams in skill competitions in which the dogs chase after long throws and also demonstrate their joint coordination and skill in executing intricate tricks, sometimes using a dozen Frisbee disks or more in high-speed series of throws by the person and catches by the dog. Frisbee Golf is a game of accuracy played by individuals and teams in which players attempt to hit marked targets in a manner similar to the traditional game of golf in which players hit holes with golf balls. Finally, one of the most aggressive games played with Frisbees is called "Guts," a…
The Paleolithic arts and culture assumes its significance from more studies conducted on the issue. Shea, John (441-450) argued that recently found stone artifacts of Middle Paleolithic occupations of Kebara Cave (Mount Carmel, Israel) depict that the Middle Paleolithic populations used technology-assisted hunting as the artifacts had clear representation and meanings regarding the use of tools and this use of tools was not limited to hominids. This suggests that the paintings, artifacts, and the cultural significance of carvings is more than usually thought by some researchers. The way of life that was prevalent in that era clearly impacted the artifacts. Further the cognitive development of human is also represented in the artifacts as these were drawn, carved, and developed by using same tools and technology materials used by those people.
The Paleolithic era people have produced many artifacts that have provoked an archeological controversy in the academic and research-based…
Halverson, John, et al. "Art for Art's Sake in the Paleolithic [and Comments and Reply]." Current Anthropology 28.1 (1987): 63-89.
Leroi-Gourhan, Andre. "The evolution of Paleolithic art." Scientific American 218 (1968): 58-70.
Lewis-Williams, J. David, et al. "The Signs of All Times: Entoptic Phenomena in Upper Paleolithic Art [and Comments and Reply]." Current Anthropology 29.2 (1988): 201-245.
Pfeiffer, J.E. (1985). The emergence of humankind (p. 38). New York: Harper & Row.
idolatry: How some object or text discovered by archeologists, or some other type of cultural or literary parallel, enhances our understanding of something in Exodus
dolatry in the ancient Near East -- a non-Exodus Perspective
Over the course of the past several decades in modernity, numerous objects as well as the actual substances of texts discovered by archaeologists, have contributed to the modern understanding of the characterization of so-called 'idol worship' in Exodus as well as other Hebrew texts, texts that have come to have been canonized as 'The Hebrew Bible," as referred to by members of the Jewish religion, or 'The Old Testament,' as such books are frequently referred to by members of the Christian faith.
Up until this point in time, the way that ancient sraelites perceived idol worship held dominance how the people who worshipped idols saw idol worship. However, the Bible frequently mischaracterizes these other…
In Exodus 15:11, the song sung by the Israelites, asking who of "our Lord" is better" among the Gods" suggests a sense that there are other gods present in the world, albeit not superior to their own, liberating force. (Anderson, 273) "Although it does not rule out the theoretical possibility that other gods might exist, it asserts as a practical orientation the fact that only one god can be worshipped," (Anderson 276) and that god is to be worshipped in a special fashion. In stories of Baal, a storm-like God of the Canaanites who defeats the chaos of that eventually gives birth to humanity, some scholars believe that Psalm 29 was originally a hymn to that God that was later adapted by Israelites, changing the name of the god to their own. (Anderson, 274). This sense of closeness of other faiths and possible competition intensified the need to reject other religions of 'idolatry.'
At all times, "the study of Israelite religion should be distinguished from Biblical theology." (Anderson, 1993, 272). In other words, the history of Biblical Israel differs from the study of the Bible as a canonical text today. The intensity of the rejection of other religions should not be read as a condemnation of Israeli temple Judaism. Rather, it is an acknowledgement of the creative religious dynamic that existed at the time. The Israeli religion was to replace the sacred space of the idolized body with the body of the temple, and the ritual rhythms of investing the material substance of idols with the sacred space and temporal, seasonal rituals of sacrifice and the replacement of sacrifice with animal, rather than human offerings, is often taken to be the essential narrative of the Abraham myth.
Sacrifice has also provided, in a highly public manner, the ability to dramatize the service of a people to God. Perhaps, in contrast to such mouth-opening ceremonies, where the act of accessing the divine was willed, the sacrifice that the ancient Hebrews eventually adopted was a way of dramatizing subservience rather than dominance.
71). Because of this, with few exceptions, the Japanese eat nearly everything with chopsticks. Many Japanese do not want to eat sandwiches with their hands, and in Japan, sandwiches are cut into small pieces and served with toothpicks (Grew, p. 266). Chopsticks play an important role from a child's earliest days in Japan to teach the importance of not eating with the hands. Around 100 days after its birth, a small ceremony is held where the child is introduced to solid food. Soft food suitable for a small baby is prepared and placed in front of the child. The mother uses never-before-used chopsticks to give the baby morsels of the solid food (endry, p. 36).
But while the Japanese culture was using chopsticks as part of a cultural interest in cleanliness, in China, chopsticks became a symbol of their cultural value on belonging to a group rather than standing out…
Hendry, Joy. Becoming Japanese: The World of the Pre-School Child. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1986.
Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. "Rice as Self: Japanese Identities through Time." Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Shih, Chih-Yu. Negotiating Ethnicity in China: Citizenship as a Response to the State. Oxford, England: Routledge, 2002.
Vats, Madho Sarup. The Gupta Temple at Deogarh. New Delhi, India:
of India, 2000. 56 pgs.
In this heavily researched work, Madho Sarup Vats, one of modern
India's best scholars on Indian archeology, discusses in great depth the
Vishnu Temple at Deogarh and includes chapters on its history,
construction, design and cultural significance to the people of the Gupta
Period. Vats also includes several archeological diagrams which shows the
Vishnu Temple from numerous perspectives and what the current Indian
government is doing to preserve this temple form the ravages of time.
Vidula, Jayaswal. Royal Temples of the Gupta Period. New Delhi, India:
International, 2001. 213 pgs.
Much like Vat's The Gupta Temple at Deogarh, this elaborately
illustrated book discusses a number of Hindu temples designed and
constructed during the Gupta Period, such as the rock-cut temple at
Mahabalipuram of the 7th century A.D., the Muktesvar Temple…
To define what it means to 'play,' I first turned to the dictionary. Immediately, when I looked at the entry for "play" given by freedictonary.com, I was confronted with a seemingly limitless list of different definitions of the word "play." To play can mean to act in "jest or sport," or "to occupy oneself in amusement, sport, or other recreation." The noun "play" can also mean a drama or comedy on the stage, and the verb to play can mean to play a part a work of theater. A play can mean to employ a particular maneuver during a game, or to play a particular position in a sport. These definitions suggest responsibility rather than the apparently free and discursive nature of play.
As someone who has played football in college, I appreciate the sense that 'play' can be both fun and serious work. I began…
Archaeological artifacts repatriation: should the artifacts go back to their homeland?
The word repatriation came from a Latin transformation of patria which means fatherland. (William, 2008). epatriation of cultural objects involves mainly returning historical artifacts to their original culture that obtained and owned by museums and institutions that collect culture materials. This term repatriation was originally created for the Native Americans who wished to restore their cultural object from modern museums. This term was later broadened to a wider range that fits the global repatriation actions. (William, 2008) It is generally known that great museums collect great treasures of foreign arts, and cultural objects. I have been to the largest four museums. The deepest impression on my first visit to the British Museum was that how a museum could keep so many artifacts that does not in fact found in their country. I still remember they have half of the…
Barkan, Elazar 2002. Amending Historical Injustices: The Restitution of Cultural Property - An Overview. In E. Barkan & R. Bush (eds.) Claiming the Stones. Naming the Bones. Cultural Property and the Negotiation of National and Ethnic Identity. Los Angeles: Getty Publications, pp. 16-46.
Bilefsky, D (September 30, 2012) Seeking Return of Art, Turkey Jolts Museums The NY Times http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/01/arts/design/turkeys-efforts-to-repatriate-art-alarm-museums.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Halle, J. (2006) Exchanging the inalienable: The politics and practice of repatriating human remains from Museum and Maori tribal perspectives. Univ. Of Copenhagen
The fight itself was beautifully orchestrated by Ali through the study of Foreman's technique, movement, strength, and weaknesses. hile preparing for the fight, Ali focused training on his weaknesses, and on Foreman's strengths as a fighter. Ali also took advantage of the public's support and encouragement and used it to build up his esteem, mentally and amongst the African peoples. Foreman, on the other hand, stayed out of the public eye and was reluctant to take part of the cheering for or against his opponent. Foreman was rather laconic during his stay, saying little and staying out of the spotlight. Ali took advantage of the publicity that the fight was receiving and was constantly in front of the camera, whether he was boasting his great skill, advocating his political views, or trying to psych Foreman out. Ali boasts include his great ability to be able to manipulate Foreman's actions stating,…
D'Silva, Roy. "History of Boxing." Buzzle.com. 2011. Web. 3 February 2011.
Gast, Leon. When We Were Kings. Gramercy Pictures, 1996. Film.
Graham, Gordon. Philosophy of the Arts: An Introduction to Aesthetics. New York:
Routledge, 2005. Print.
" (2000) There are other factors associated with change that enhance the ability for the independent hotels to compete as there is a segment of customers with the desire to discover for themselves what best satisfies their taste. The independent hotels offer guests "the option of maintaining their differentiation while affiliating with 'soft' brands, which reflect a defined product and offer similar service support as franchisers or chains." (Swig, 2000) Swig additionally reports that Rob Cornell of Preferred Hotels believes that "global distribution brands have evolved today to provide the independent hotel owner; manager access to the latest in reservation distribution and marketing technology, partner relationships, quality stands, volume purchasing and sales infrastructure. " (2000) Technology is said to be the "new vehicle" that enables equal access..." (Swig, 2000) Finally, Swig states that "membership or affiliate organizations have matured and gained credibility with consumers. At the same time these groups…
Bibliography & References
Hotel Augustin: Bergen, Norway (2007) (2007) Scandinavian Travel Specialists Since 1967 Online available at http://www.scantours.com/augustin_hotel.htm.
Augustin Hotel - C. Sundts Gate, Bergen, Norway (2007) hotelgenie.com located online available at http://www.hotelgenie.com/bergen/augustin.shtml.
Swig, Rick (2000) Independent Hotels: The New Brand Alternative. RSBA & Associates: Hospitality Consulting Services. Ideas and Trends. June 2000.
Verret, Carol (2005) Independent Hotels & Resorts: Ride the Wave or Float with the Tide. Carol Verret Consulting and Training. Ideas and Trends Hotel Online. 2005 March. Online available at http://www.hotel-online.com/News/PR2005_1st/Mar05_RisingTide.html .
Traditional Spanish Culture
hile the cafe's of Paris may have captured the romantic imagination of estern visitors to the Old Continent, and London's blend of medieval and modern architecture attracts the historically minded, the ancient city of Madrid is home to countless cultural sites, museums, and monuments which are definitely worth exploring. The capital city of Spain and the historical seat of the Spanish monarchy, Madrid is a sprawling metropolitan center located on the banks of the Manzanares River that serves as the economic, political, and cultural heart of the country. Home to approximately 3.3 million residents in Madrid proper, and over 6.5 million within the greater metropolitan area including suburbs and surrounding communities, the city is considered to be the third-largest urban center in the European Union, behind London and Berlin (UN Data, 2013). From the 16th through 18th centuries, when the Spanish empire's naval dominance allowed the nation's…
Azcona, Jose M. "Puerta de Alcala." GoMadrid. GoMadrid.com, 09 Sep 2012. Web. 23 Feb 2013. .
Gobierno de Espana. Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. National Archaeological Museum. Madrid, Spain. 2013. Web. .
Riding, Alan. "The Prado Embarks On Plans to Expand Into a Complex." New York Times 01 May 1995. Print. .
United Nations. UN Data. Spain: Summary and Statistics. New York, NY: UN Data, 2013. Web. .