Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Concept of Culture and How it Assists Anthropologists in Their Study and Understanding of People and Societies
The concept of culture assists anthropologists in their understanding and study of people and societies.
The word culture is derived from the Latin word 'cultura' that is derived from the verb 'colo' that means, "to tend, to cultivate, and to till." (Sage Publishers, n.d., p.10) The expression of the word would be a reference to the "cultivation of the human character." (Sage Publishers, n.d., p.10)
Culture, to the cultural anthropologist is stated to be "neither secure, nor a residual. It is a social phenomenon that manifests itself quite clearly." (Sage Publishers, n.d., p.10) hite (2007) states that by culture, what is mean is "an extrasomatic, temporal continuum of things and events dependent upon symboling." (p. 3 cited in Sage Publishers, n.d., p.10) Kluckhohn (1951) is cited as stating as follows:…
Howell, N. (2010) Life Histories of the Dobe !Kung: Food, Fatness, and Well-Being Over the Life Span. University of California Press. 2010. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=L5rRpFTzz7wC&dq=Dobe+Kung+culture+and+giving+gifts&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Lee, RB (1978) Politics, Sexual and Non-Sexual In An Egalitarian Society. Human Societies and their Ecosystems. Retrieved from: http://www.peacefulsocieties.org/Archtext/Lee78.pdf
The famous Calvin Klein ad featuring Marky Mark took everyone by storm as it showed that men could be sexual and have feminine qualities to them. A current day example of metrosexual icons is David eckham. eckham has both commercial and psychological appeal. He has earned millions of dollars for sponsoring fashion accessories. His style has influenced millions of males around the world and encouraged them to aspire to the same level of corporate sponsored exhibitionism. According to Turner, people are bombarded with stereotypical images of attractive people in the media every day. This factor exposes them to body types which make sensitive beings more conscious about their bodies and compare themselves to unrealistic media images of thinness and muscularity. (Turner et al., 1997). (Lorenzen, Grieve, and Thomas).
The movement for Metrosexuality began in the late nineties when a trend emerged to portray men as sexual commodified bodies. This new…
Lorenzen, Lisa a., Frederick G. Grieve, and Adrian Thomas. "Exposure to Muscular Male Models Decreases Men's Body Satisfaction." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (2004): 743+.
Khanna, Parag. "The Metrosexual Superpower: The Stylish European Union Struts Past the Bumbling United States on the Catwalk of Global Diplomacy." Foreign Policy July-Aug. (2004): 66+
Crane, Diana. Fashion and its Social Agendas: Class, Gender, and Identity in Clothing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000
Simpson, Mark. Meet the Metrosexual. 22 July 2002. http://archive.salon.com/ent/feature/2002/07/22/metrosexual
Comparative and historical analysis are concepts that describe analyzing events in their historical context, by comparing them with other events that have occurred in the past. Events that occur today do not occur in a vacuum, but rather they always have context. The first chapter mentions the confusion in Britain when it was revealed that a suicide bomb attack on that country was carried out by Anglo-Jamaicans. The context made little sense, as this social group was not known for anything close to terrorism. The attackers, however, had converted to radical Islam, unusual perhaps for that group, but nevertheless this conversion shifted the context of those attacks entirely. Historically, and comparatively, the attacks made a lot more sense as radical Muslims use the suicide bomb style of attack and tend to be more prone towards terrorist attacks in general.
Envy, desire and belonging are powerful emotions, and these…
Hall, S. (1998). Notes on deconstructing the popular. Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Rojek, C. (no date). Cultural studies. Policy Short Introduction Series.
Sternburgh, A. (2014) All of the pleasure. None of the guilt. New York Times Magazine Retrieved March 5, 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/09/magazine/all-of-the-pleasure-none-of-the-guilt.html?_r=1
Williams, R. (no date). Culture is ordinary.
Culture is a vast field of study that often requires preparedness of the researchers. Exploration of culture is something that comes with value realization and addition to the people involved. It is a recommendation that appropriate research methods are used to assess the basic and fundamental aspects that play the critical role of knowing what entails a culture. From the text, it is negatively influential to neglect research methods that would have been essential in bringing out knowledge about a culture (Keightley, 2014).
Practicality is what entails any given form of culture. Practical methods, thus, have to be involved in the entire process of dealing with cultural studies. One of the methods worth considering is the multi-method approach. It is influential in knowing every aspect that assists one to gather enough and sufficient information concerning any form of cultural practice. With this, both qualitative and quantitative approaches have to be…
Keightley, E (2014). Research Methods in Memory Studies: Oral History, Intercalary, Trauma. In Pickering, M (Ed) Economy and Memory. University of Warwick
Keightley, E and Pickering, M (2015). Memory, Media and Methodological Footings. In Memory in a Mediated World Remembrance and Reconstruction. Palgrave Macmillan, pp.36-52
Keightley, E, Pickering, M, and Bisht, P. (2014). Intercalary and Memory Studies Methodology. In Making Sense of Memory and History. International Communication Association Pre-Conference sponsored by the ICA Communication History Division, Museum of Historyand Industry (MOHAI), Seattle
Set 2: United Kingdom Media
Across the ocean, Phillip French wrote a review in the United Kingdom-based newspaper, The Guardian on the 10th of October, 2004. The review did not flatter this particular movie in the least. French categorized the film as popular fare, keeping in vein with Chadha's earlier works, and still having nothing clever to offer.
"Chadha, as she has shown in her previous pictures - Bhaji on the Beach, What's Cooking? Bend It Like Beckham - is a crowd-pleaser, and the chief characteristics of her new film are populist cheek and cosmopolitan chic rather than subtle social observation." (The Guardian, 2004)
French's scathing review seems to almost call the film cheesy and overdone, it's overly geared to be popular and cosmopolitan that it completely misses the mark on being a film that can comment on social circumstances in a subtle manner and instead throws itself…
The European Security Strategy rests on a platform of multilateralism that includes roles for organizations like NATO, the United Nations, as well as other quasi-legal bodies like the World Trade Organization and International Criminal Court the implement international law. The ESS therefore seeks to foster peace through the use of consensus and international institutions. Where these different institutions have enjoyed the most success is when there is a common interest that can drive the desired consensus. In trade, there is usually a common interest in fostering economic growth, for example. In issues of security, however, there are challenges inherent in bringing about consensus because there is much less room for common ground. As Hyde-Price (2008) notes, different understandings of what is desirable arise from different cultures, and the process of reconciling the needs of different cultures are myriad. Overcoming those challenges cannot be done simply be creating ethnic and…
Clibbon, J. (2012). The euro crisis and the old monster of nationalism. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 16, 2013 from http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/the-euro-crisis-and-the-old-monster-of-nationalism-1.1166942
Grieco, J. (1988). Realist theory and the problem of international cooperation: Analysis with an amended prisoner's dilemma model. The Journal of Politics. Vol. 50 (3) 600-624.
Hyde-Price, A. (2008). A tragic actor? A realist perspective on ethical power in Europe. International Affairs. Vol. 84 (1) 29-44.
Porter, S. (2011). Ethnicity in Africa: A road to conflict or a path to peace? Africa Faith & Justice Network. Retrieved November 16, 2013 from http://www.afjn.org/focus-campaigns/other/other-continental-issues/80-democracy-and-governance/982-ethnicity-in-africa-a-road-to-conflict-or-a-path-to-peace-.html
Gender as a Dimension of Culture
Gender is certainly a dimension of culture because through the perception of gender roles the culture can be perceived. Patriarchal (like ancient Athens) or matriarchal societies (like ancient Sparta) each have their own culture and gender roles are strong characteristics of those cultures. For example, women played a very dominant role in the political and social life of Sparta and understanding the way the Spartans thought of gender is very instructive when it comes to understanding the ancient Spartan culture (Christesen, 2012; edfield, 1977). The Athenian culture was much more patriarchal and male and female roles in that society were more uniquely defined (Figueira, 2010). Even in modern times, the role that gender plays in society tells us much about the type of society we have and the culture that we live in. Gender-fluidity is becoming increasingly popular in our own culture, which can…
ACP. (2016). Gender Ideology Harms Children. Retrieved from https://www.acpeds.org/the-college-speaks/position-statements/gender-ideology-harms-children
Christesen, P. (2012). Athletics and Social Order in Sparta in the Classical Period.
Classical Antiquity, 31: 193-255.
Figueira, T. (2010). Gynecocracy: how women policed masculine behavior in Archaic
Unlike the culture of my interviewee, African-American isn't really broken into subgroups. I was born and raised in Buffalo, New York, which is very close to the Canadian Border and the "U.S. Peace Bridge." I grew up speaking English, and it is the only language I speak.
My religion is not typical of most African-Americans, who tend to be Baptist, Methodist, or Lutheran. I was raised as a Catholic and still practice that religion today. I'm not the only African-American I know who is Catholic, but it's not common in my subculture.
Like my interviewee, I think the media is generally doing a good job of representing African-Americans in the media. However, I still see instances when African-Americans seem to be portrayed as being ruthless and slovenly, which in my opinion makes all African-Americans appear to be the same way (association assimilation).
I believe that all cultures have something that…
2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.
An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…
references during the first half year of life: Evidence from German and French infants." Infant behavior and development 32(3), pp. 262-74.
Laroche, M.; Pons, F. & Richard, M. (2009). "The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: A multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation." Journal of social psychology 149(4), pp. 513-40.
Nguyen, T.; Ingrahm, C. & Pensalfini, J. (2008). "Prosodic transfer in Vietnamese acquisition of English contrastive stress patterns." Journal of phonetics 36(1), pp. 158.
Turk, a. & Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (2007). "Multiple targets of phrase-final lengthening in American English words." Journal of phonetics 35(4), pp. 445-72.
Wyatt, J. (2007). "Skinner 1, Chomsky 0." Behavior analysis digest 19(4), pp. 13-4.
Stranger Things is a television show on Netflix that recounts the story of a missing boy, a frantic mother, and three friends looking for an answer. The show is a pastiche of popular 80's movies and television shows that featured monsters like E.T. and telekinetic children like Charlie in Firestarter. While the show does not hit on anything original, it does manage to hit a nerve among fans and has swept the nation with its sweet whispers of nostalgia. The show perhaps invites people to reach for their own ideologies in life vicariously through the main characters. Althusser discusses ideologies in his piece, "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses" and Bell Hooks examines desire and resistance in "Eating the Other: Desire and Resistance" that can point towards a better understanding of such a fast-growing cultural phenomenon.
Althusser defines ideologies from a traditional standpoint as 'world outlooks. However, Althusser admits they do…
Cross Cultural Psychology
Comparing cross-cultural approaches to psychology:
An ecocultural vs. An integrated approach
The need to take into account different cultural perspectives when treating patients has become increasingly recognized within the profession of psychology. Cross-cultural psychology, in contrast to other branches of psychology, allows that the definition of what is psychologically 'normal' is often highly dependent upon one's cultural context. Two similar, but slightly different approaches to cross-cultural psychology include the ecocultural model and the integrative model.
The ecocultural model, posits "that the individual cannot be separated from his or her environmental context. People constantly exchange messages with the environment, thus transforming it and themselves" (Chapter 1 summary, n.d). Someone acculturated in a nation other than the U.S. will show different developmental features than someone acculturated in America. The United States' culture supports a particularly long adolescence, and leaving home and beginning a family is no longer…
Chapter 1 summary. (n.d). Retrieved:
Trommsdorff, G. (2002). An eco-cultural and interpersonal relations approach to development over the life span. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 6 (2).1-15 Retrieved from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=orpc
Two Cultural Groups
Contrasting Cultural Psychology between the East Asian and the Western Part of the World
The different fear level for the super-ordinates and ordinates in Westerns and East Asians
Globalization is considered to be the phenomenon that owns a positive tendency to tame the behaviors of the individuals dwelling in all parts of the world in an accord of productivity and peace. It is for this reason that the inclination of the global economy is tilting towards the studies of cross cultures and its implications is a result of progressive development of the world towards a multicultural and cosmopolitan state of behavior- in individuals as well as in the nations. But yet the fast fact paced technological advancements and the tamed behavior does not guarantee the homogeneity of psychology (Shweder, 1999). Psychology as a matter of fact is a complex framework of individuals' perceptions, cognitions, apprehensions…
L Berry, J.W. (2002). Cross-Cultural Psychology: Research and Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hui, C.H. (2000). Measurement in Cross-Cultural Psychology. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 19-32.
Jung, K.D. (1994). Is Culture Destiny? The Myth of Asia's Anti-Democratic Values, 4-8.
Lehman, D. (1995). Cultural variation in unrealistic optimism: Does the West feel more vulnerable than the East? . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 595-607.
Assumptions about truth can be dangerous in any research because they can lead to bias shaping the research: a researcher may suffer from confirmation bias, seeking only the type of answers that align with his assumptions (Nickerson, 1998). Objectivity and subjectivity, therefore, are important to consider when conducting research, just as deriving the correct interpretation of the meaning of collected data is important. Objectivity, subjectivity and meaning are interconnected, as both objectivity and subjectivity will feed in to how meaning is understood. Every person is capable of being both objective and of having a subjective experience at the same time. Being mindful of how one’s subjective experience can shape one’s perspective is critical to being as objective as possible.
Potential concerns for this study consist of the risk of researcher bias and confirmation bias intruding up on the methodology. Removing researcher bias and preventing confirmation bias are critical…
In any culture, the way someone dresses will have an impact in identifying who they are and the traditions which are embraced. The Indian civilization has their own form of dress that is holding onto various social customs in the form of the sari. To fully understand how this is impacting society requires carefully examining the cultural context of the dress ensemble, providing a description of it and discussing various influences (such as: somatotypes). Together, these elements will highlight the impact of these styles on different segments of society. (Katiyar, 2009)
Briefly describe the cultural context of the dress practice or ensemble.
The Indian sari is a strip of indistinct cloth which is worn by women. It is from four to nine yards in length and is draped over the body in various styles. The outfit is worn based upon historical traditions which are dating back to the…
The Classification System of Dress. (2013).
The Three Somatotypes. (2013). University of Houston. Retrieved from: http://www.uh.edu/fitness/comm_educators/3_somatotypesNEW.htm
Eicher, J. (2008). The Visible Self: Global Perspectives on Dress, Culture, and Society. New York, NY: Fairchild Books.
Katiyar, V. (2009). Indian Saris. New Delhi: Wisdom Tree.
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…
Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf
Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading
Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf
Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
Indeed the Germans, the French, and the rest looked back to an antiquity in which their ancestors had been subjugated by the legions. Nothing is more remarkable therefore than the rapid and irrevocable penetration of Italian ideas and practices among the "barbarians," as the Italian writers referred to them, some of whom were currently invading the peninsula." (Wiener, 124) it's also important to note that influence of antique classicism typical for Italian architecture of the 14-16th centuries is not observed in the north. Classical style of Italian cathedrals and churches, typical for Ancient Greek and oman pagan temples is usually not observed in buildings of enaissance epoch in Germany, Britain or France, where architecture was influenced by Gothic style, which got earlier spread in Europe.
eformation and Counter eformation
The spread of Protestantism over Europe, which is considered to be one of the most historically significant achievements of enaissance and…
Hileman, Tony Living on the Creative Edge of Our Culture available at www.americanhumanist.org/about/messageED1.php
Wiener, Philip P. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas available at http://etext.virginia.edu/DicHist/dict.html
Kohl, Benjamin G., and Witt, Ronald G., eds., the Earthly Republic: Italian Humanists on Government and Society (1978)
Cultural Competency in Nursing
The basic knowledge in nursing or medical studies needs substantial facilitation in order to be effective and appropriate towards addressing the needs and preferences of the patients. Watson notes the need to integrate humanistic aspect into the career or nursing profession. He also believes on the need for the establishment of the caring relationship between the patients and nurses thus demonstration of unconditional acceptance of the patients in any condition. Nurses should integrate holistic and positive treatment with the aim of promoting health through knowledge and interventions thus elimination of interruptions during treatments or 'caring moments'. Modern patients have diverse problems and issues because of the cultural differences, races, and ethnicity thus the need to enhance the operations of the nurses. There is need to ensure that the nurses obtain cultural competencies with the aim of enhancing their ability to address diverse issues and problems faced…
Anderson, N.L.R., Calvillo, E.R., & Fongwa, M.N. (2007). Community-based approaches to strengthen cultural competency in nursing education and practice. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(1), 49S-59S.
Beach, M.C. (2005). Cultural competency: A systematic review of health care provider educational interventions. Cultural Competency, 43(4), 356-373.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A model of care. The Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), 181-185.
Rosswurm and Larrabee, (1999). A Model for Change to Evidence-Based
Cultural Distance: How Is it Measured, And How it Impact on Global Marketing Operations
The persistence of cultural distances is relevant for the global multinational marketing operations exposed to multiple cultures in their everyday activities. This indicates that marketing across border introduces complexities because it forces global marketers to tailor their approaches and practices to each cultural context they carry out their business activities. As a result, this paper will discuss concepts applicable to different aspects of cross-border operations. The primary focus of the paper is on multinational business corporations (Baumann, 2007).
This study shows how Hofstede's model is still the most relevant piece of reference for a successive cross-cultural analysis despite it being a widely criticized. The paper compares and contrasts Hofstede's famous concepts with Turner and Schwartz, Trompenaars and Hampden's valued inventory. It will attempt to provide empirical evidence of how cultural diversity influences the global markets by…
Baumann, A. (2007). Influences of culture on the style of business behavior between Western and Arab managers. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Baumu-ller, M. (2007). Managing cultural diversity: An empirical examination of cultural networks and organizational structures as governance mechanisms in multinational corporations. Bern: Lang.
Cavusgil, T. & Ghauri, P.N. (2009). New challenges to international marketing. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Curry, J.E. (2009). A short course in international marketing: Approaching and penetrating the global marketplace. Petaluma, CA: World Trade Press.
The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.
In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…
Devine, P. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 56 (1) 5-18.
Geert Hofstede.com (2012). National culture. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved May 7, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com
Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 14 (Fall 1983) 75-89.
Mallol, C., Holtom, B. & Lee, T. (2007). Job embeddedness in a culturally diverse environment. Journal of Business Psychology. Vol. 22, 35-44.
Cultural Observation of Dress
Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.
Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)
f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.
People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…
Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)
Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.
Miner's article is discussing the appearance
Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.
When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…
Cannon, E.P. (2008). "Promoting moral reasoning and multicultural competence during internship." Journal of Moral Education, 37(4), 503-518.
Crethar, Hugh C. And Ratts, Manivong J. (2008). "Why Social Justice is a Counseling Concern?"
Gilbert, Jane. (2002). "Cross-cultural issues in counseling skillstraining: lessons from Lesotho."
Journal of Social Development in Africa. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
The Balinese seem to be coping with the tourist invasion as well as they have coped with others, that is they are taking what they want, but they are not allowing themselves to be any the less Balinese. This appears to have been the story throughout Bali's history, outside cultures came, perhaps as conquerors, perhaps only as visitors and traders, but Balinese society and culture have remained distinctive, accepting outward forms, but molding them to its own different purposes." (Pickard, 1996)
These insights are showing how the changes in tourism are having an effect on Bali by developing the industry. However, for most local residents, they are maintaining their basic cultural traditions. This is despite the fact that there are added pressures to continually adopt these practices (in spite of the transformations). (Pickard, 1996)
However, many local officials feel that an influx of tourism is having an adverse impact on…
Bali Weather and Climate. (2011). Indonesia Point. Retrieved from: http://www.indonesiapoint.com/tourist-attractions/bali/bali-weather.html
Botetar, R. (2012). The Beauty of Bali is under Pressure. ABC News. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-01-05/over-development-of-bali-feature/3760496
Fiegenbaum, E. (2012). The Impact of Tourism in Bali. E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/list_7195825_impact-tourism-bali.html
Hitchcock, M. (2009). Tourism in Southeast Asia. Copenhagen: NAIS.
Cultural Audit of St. Cloud State University: HR Analysis and Critique
To address the deficits highlighted the cultural audit, St. Cloud University has resolved to address issues of demographic isolation, namely the sense of students that they do not have a 'connection' to the university, and the persistent problems regarding minority tensions and institutional discrimination. Perhaps the most telling survey comment came from a student, criticizing the survey structure: "I think that this survey was bogus. I can't believe you wasted $50,000 on this thing. e already know that SCSU is a hub of institutional racism" as noted in the Qualitative Analysis Section of the report. Another telling detail was that some faculty, administration and staff felt there was a notable lack of African-American and Jewish faculty members on campus, and that some felt the presence of a 'glass ceiling" regarding promotions of women. Also, disability services were perceived as…
St. Cloud Cultural Audit." Nichols and Associates, Inc.. Washington, D.C. October 2002. 24 Mar 2008. http://www.stcloudstate.edu/documents/nichols/default.asp
Cultural Sensitivity and Language Use
Simply talking about culture can be like entering a minefield. Even the use of the word 'articulate' or praising an African-American's 'intelligence' can be questionable. The use of language is so powerful -- and so controversial -- because it can unintentionally unmask great deal about the speaker's unconscious attitudes towards race, as well as his or her conscious attitudes. "It's like weight loss. The last few pounds are the hardest to get rid of. It's the last vestiges of racism that are hard to get rid of," said one African-American comedian, despairing of how he is often called 'articulate' as if this is surprising and marvelous (Clementson 2007). Even in the upper echelons of power, at organizations such as Goldman Sachs, it is not uncommon for an African-American candidate to be labeled 'articulate' (as if that is a surprise, given the level of accomplishment one…
Clementson, Lynette. (2007). The racial politics of speaking well. The New York Times.
Three Rivers, Amoja. (1996). Cultural etiquette. Communities. Retrieved:
While in high school, she worked as a waitress at a local diner. Most of the population was black, therefore there was little contact with white customers or employees. Margaret feels that she was socially isolated until the 1950s. She was not exposed to white culture; it was foreign to her. She was only exposed to black culture of the time. They were not allowed in certain stores, restaurants, or other places of business. She remembers "white only" restrooms and "black only" fountains. This cultural isolation was oppressive.
Margaret feels that the oppressive attitudes and discrimination that she experienced as a child determined much of how her life proceeded in adulthood. The idea that she could only go so far was ingrained as a child. She never really broke free of this feeling. In her 40s, she moved to upstate New York. Here, she found that many women had succeeded…
Diller, D. (1999). Opening the dialogue: Using culture as a tool in teaching young African
American children. Reading Teacher, 52(8), 820-828. [Available electronically through ERIC/EBSCOhost]
Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching:
using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31 (2), 132-141.
(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)
Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…
Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.
Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm
Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.
Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
Sometimes in our internet age it seems that we don't ever need to leave our own homes to experience the world. Google can let us drive in a virtual way down nearly any street in the world. We can chat at any hour of the day with residents from any continent about any subject. We can even craft online selves that allow us to become more interesting, more educated, and more urbane than are our actual personas.
So why -- given the complexities, unavoidable drudgeries and occasional miseries and sometimes even outright dangers of travel -- should we ever venture any significant distance from our homes? Because there is still -- and surely there will never be -- anything comparable to travel to teach us about the varieties of the world. Without meaning to disparage the wonders of either online information acquisition or reading about other places and…
Cultural Event Report: Museum of Art Fort Lauderdale
Recently, I had the pleasure of visiting the Museum of Art at Fort Lauderdale. Surprisingly, I had never been to the museum before. It sits adjacent to Nova University, in a very beautiful and modern section of the city. The very moment I walked up to the doors, I was excited. The museum is a very interesting exterior composition, with the bright coat of abstract paint, which seems to drift down the side of one of the main exterior walls. From looking at pictures of its old facade, I am definitely impressed with how well they have grown and opened up to facilitating the true spirit behind modern art. Pictures from their website show a much different building, one that was much more drab and boring. The new facade that now stands is much more enlightening; a true testament to the modern…
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…
Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.
Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
scu.edu).Andre goes on to say some critics see Hirsch's efforts to bring culture into the classroom are not so much "cultural literacy" but more like "cultural indoctrination." Not only is the Hirsch strategy and methodology seen as flawed, Andre and Velasquez continue, the "content" he prescribes is subject to criticism. For example, the question of "Whose form of knowledge, culture, vision, history and authority will prevail as the national culture?" should be asked, and Hirsch knows that is an issue. "Will they, like Hirsch, be white, middle-class males?" Andre wonders, and will they be elitist?
Hirsch meanwhile answers these accusations in his Core Knowledge Web site, saying that the contend must arise from "a broad consensus of diverse groups and interests." That consensus should include the parents, teachers, scientists, "professional curriculum organizations, and experts on America's multicultural traditions." The "central motivation behind" his core knowledge initiative is "to guarantee equal…
Booklist. "Reference Books Bulletin: The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." (2003): 1702.
In the first edition of Hirsch's book, the author was criticized as being "elitist," but the Subsequent editions add "tools for assessing cultural literacy" that makes sense and Now it does "keep up with changes in American culture."
Chylinski, Manya S. "Hirsch, E.D. Jr., & others. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know." Library Journal, 127.18 (2002): 78-80. Chylinski writes that the book has been given "an exciting update" - "sorely needed"...for those "who like to have a great reference work..."
Giddings, Louise R. "Beyond E.D. Hirsch and Cultural Literacy: Thinking Skills for Cultural
There can be several reasons behind this enduring practice. Men and women feel that if parents have chosen someone for them, they would also support them through hard times. We understand that all marriages go through rough patches and some more than others. In these trying times, parents and other family members normally intervene to resolve problems. This is a common practice in India and all countries where arranged marriages are still in practice. However if a person chose to marry someone of their choice, it is very likely that during hard times, others would distance themselves saying; "didn't we already warn you." The fear of being left alone to ride out the tide might actually push some people in favor of arranged marriages.
The second reason is the ease and convenience that comes with having a partner chosen for you. In the western world, getting married doesn't come easy.…
Serena Nanda. Arranging a Marriage in India. From Stumbling Toward Truth: Anthropologists at Work, edited by Philip R. Devita, 2000, pp. 196 -- 204. Published by Waveland Press.
Jodi O'Brien in Robert Kupla edition. "Arranged marriages." Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. Volume 1, 2008
Each customer's predictive score informs actions to be taken with that customer. usiness intelligence just doesn't get more actionable than that." (Siegel, 2009)
Predictive analytics involves: (1) a focus on actions; (2) rapid deployment; and (3) engagement of business and IT. (Siegel, 2009) Decision management is characterized by: (1) a focus on decisions; (2) the combination of business rules with analytics; and (3) putting predictive analytics to work. (Siegel, 2009) Irwin Speizer writes that there is a "new generation of workforce-planning tools" that offer great promise through the use of "sophisticated software and data-rich predictive-modeling techniques..." (Speizer, 2006) It is stated that the study of "internal staffing history and skill sets, external and internal business trends, demographic data and other variables" that the HR leader can "predict a company's talent-related needs years into the future." (Speizer, 2006)
V. Summary & Conclusion
Starbucks did manage to negotiate their way successfully through…
Kaczmarczyk, Pawel and Lewicki, Mikolaj (2007) "Lost In Transformation."
Cultural Encounters In Multinational Corporations Investing In Central And Eastern Europe. DIOSCURI Final Conference, Institute for Human Sciences, Vienna. 20-22 April. 20007. Online available at:
Fellner, Kim (2008) Private Sector: Starbucks Leaner, Meaner. 8 Jul 2008. Post-Gazette.com Business. Online available at: http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/08190/895381-28.stm
O'Neill, Brendan (2009) Israel, Starbucks and the New Irrationalism. 14 Jan 2009. War In Gaza. SPIKED.com. online available at: http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/site/article/6103/
Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.
The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…
When planning a health promotion program, we should consider the positive (empowerment process) and the negative behaviors. As we begin to understand our intended audience we can assure the most culturally-appropriate educational intervention. In doing so, we are more likely to create partnerships that help people successfully achieve lasting change and truly promote health.
One of the most common issues that are not discussed in the armed forces is military sexual trauma (MST). This is when an individual will face unnecessary amounts of sexual pain from others they are serving with. A few most common forms include: unwanted sexual touching / grabbing, threating / offensive remarks about someone's body / sexual activities and unwarranted sexual advances. This has begun to occur so frequently that the Veteran Administration conducted a study, where they found that the total amounts of MST affected: 1 in every 5 women and 1 in…
Coping Skills for Trauma. (2004). Ibiblio.org. Retrieved from: http://www.ibiblio.org/rcip/copingskills.html
Military Sexual Trauma. (2011). VA. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/military-sexual-trauma-general.asp
Robins, A. (1992). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Particularly in the conflict between Gerstner and the IBM head in Europe, conflicts arise because of the different culture that Americans and Europeans have. There are several assumptions that can be considered to deduce why conflicts arise between Gerstner and IBM head in Europe. First, the action of directly sending emails to European employees may be offending to the head of IBM Europe. It may be a culture to Europeans to show respect to the organization heads by communicating with them first before any other employees. Second, it can also be assumed that the action committed by Gerstner may just really be a normal procedure to the culture he was brought in. That is, that his business culture is to be straight and direct to the point and that he did not really intend any harm to the IBM head in Europe. Thirdly, based on several researches on the European…
The Pitfalls of Cross-Cultural Business, in Risk Management, March 2004, Volume 51, Pages: 38-43, by Jared Wade
Business: A hyper market, The Economist, London, April7, 2001
Shah, Satish. Who Says Elephants Can't Dance. http://www.chally.com/enews/issue10/elephants.html
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
The Dallas Museum of Art has several temporary exhibitions on display now. One is called "Youth and Beauty: Art of the American Twenties." Another related but separate exhibition is called "Texas in the Twenties: Prints, Drawings, and Photographs from Lone Star Collections." Because both special exhibitions focus on a specific point in time in American and Texan history, it was helpful to view both together on the same day. I went on opening day of both exhibitions, which was on Sunday March 4, 2012. There was a small line to get in, but the space inside the museum was arranged so that it did not feel crowded. The museum published a brochure that explained each exhibition, why it was on display at that time at the museum, and what the exhibition meant in the context of modern American art.
The "Youth and Beauty: Art of the American Twenties"…
Dallas Museum of Art (2012). "Current Exhibitions." Retrieved onlie: http://dallasmuseumofart.org/View/CurrentExhibitions/index.htm
Cultural, Ethical, And Legal Factors in esearch
In research, there are cultural, ethical, and legal factors that have to be addressed, and that are highly significant to the quality and appropriateness of the research and its conclusions. These include IB approval and informed consent, along with whether the study participants were part of a population that was vulnerable. Three articles will be reviewed and addressed here, in order to see whether they were handled acceptably from cultural, ethical, and legal standpoints. Whether the populations that were used for the studies were treated correctly is highly significant when it comes to the safety of those populations and their use in future studies. When older research is used and compiled there are no serious worries about population safety, but when the researchers of a current study decide to conduct a survey or experiment, it is vital to be sure the participants are…
Bibbins-Domingo, K., Pletcher, M.J., Lin, F., Vittinghoff, E., Gardin, J.M., Arynchyn, A., Lewis, C.E., & Williams, O.D. (2009). Racial differences in incident heart failure among young adults. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360(12): 1179-1190.
Gottdiener, J.S., McClelland, R.L., Marshall, R., Shemanski, L., Furberg, C.D., Kitzman, D.W., Cushman, M., Polak, J., Gardin, J.M., Gersh, B.J., Aurigemma, G.P., & Manolio, T.A. (2002). Outcome of congestive heart failure in elderly persons: Influence of left ventricular systolic function. Annals of Internal Medicine, 137(8): 631-639.
Yancy, C.W., Fowler, M.B., Colucci, W.S., Gilbert, E.M., Bristow, M.R., Cohn, J.N., Lukas, M.A., Young, S.T., & Packer, M. (2001). Race and the response to adrenergic blockade with carvedilol in patients with chronic heart failure. The New England Journal of Medicine, 344(18): 1358-1365.
But most important, Geert Hofstede will give you the 'edge of understanding' which translates to more successful results" (Geert Hofstede's Website, 2003).
If Steven Kafka conducted an analysis of the Czech market through the lens of cultural features, there is an increased likelihood for the results to indicate major discrepancies. This should not however disappoint him, as different does not implicitly mean worse.
A d) in its desire to adhere to the great economic powers of the globe, driven by its sense of innovation and its adaptability to the forces in the macro and micro environments, the Czech epublic has managed to remove most of its trade barriers. These measures were due mostly to its adherence to the European Union and other international trade organizations. "The Czech market has no trade barriers to food and agricultural product imports, except for the usual import duties and tariff rate quotas permitted under…
Briffett, C., August 28, 2008, Observing the Czech Republic through the U.S. Lens, Czech Business Weekly
Fennesz-Berka, a., November 1996, Czech Republic and Slovenia Offer Opportunities for U.S. Consumer Foods, AgExporter
2007, Differences between the Czech Republic and the U.S., Associated Content
http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/392236/differences_between_the_czech_republic.html?page=2&cat=16last accessed on September 9, 2008
Consumers can shop the Internet while at work or at 12am in their pajamas. This constant accessibility increases the chance that consumers will engage in impulse buying. However, it also allows consumers to compare prices on different sites. This means that businesses must price their products more competitively, and offer a wider array of products so they will not see loyal customers shift to competitor sites with better (and more attractively displayed) selection. Businesses can also sell their product on websites such as Amazon.com that act as portals for a variety of enterprises.
Even smaller businesses have seen their lives transformed by the web. Once upon a time, certain small, local businesses sold only to the community. Now, an artisanal chocolate maker in Switzerland or a maple syrup producer in Vermont can use a website to sell their product to individuals all over the world, provided they have an attractive…
Judging others excessively does create societal pollution and creates more conflict, discontent, and pain than is necessary. The fact is that judging others in their age, sex, race or nationality is like seeing only with the portion of a single eye; the remainder of what is truly in front of us is not seen; bigotry and racism blinds us from connecting with and enriching others. In that enriching of others, we enrich ourselves. So in the throwing off of stereotypes, however difficult that may be, we actually strengthen ourselves. In the service of others and in striving to understand them, we in effect broaden our own perceptive and become stronger for it. So in spite of bigotry, racism and the cruelty those aspects of human behavior deliver, if a person can rise above them through actually befriending the people they judge, they become stronger, more adept at re-ordering their own…
Cultural in the United States
Compare and contrast what Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present as the flaws in our culture's pursuit of material self-interest.
Morris Berman, Frank Capra, and David Fincher present the society in postmodern consumer where the masculine identity is lost: the gray-collar male personnel and the satisfaction socially created by the society focused in materialism. Technology is the baseline for Berman's argument. The argument goes well-known to Neil Postman, and McLuhan Marshal it is not normal, not only does it change the way we connect with the rest of the world, but it also gets our brains wired (Berman 21). A normal brain of a person who has been print raised differs with a big margin from that of a person who, most of his time is corrupted by the internet.
However, the significance of the internet is making a reduction to our understanding…
Berman, Morris. Why America Failed: The Roots of Imperial Decline. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012. Print.
Frank, Capra. It's a Wonderful Life: A Play in Two Acts. Woodstock, Ill: Dramatic Pub, 2008.
Finchers, David. "fight Club." Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2007. Internet resource.
Schwartz Values -- Conformity
Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence
Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.
Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.
Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Metropolitan University. Cited in:
Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…
Hodgetts, R., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. Retrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
The study reveals the ways culture and religion intersect with gender, and in fact the authors base their research on the theory of intersectionality. White privilege, gender, and any other issue related to social justice and personal consciousness is situational. Each individual will experience race, class, gender, power, religion, and ethnicity in different ways.
When reading the three articles, I first note their similarities. All three articles address white privilege. The problem with white privilege is that it is built into the social institutions upon which societies are built. White privilege can also be extended to refer to gender privilege and patriarchy, which is why Greenwood & Christian (2008) note that women from whatever culture or religion tend to gloss over their differences to bond together in sisterhood. Sisterhood might trump experiences such as racial prejudice and bias. However, when faced with the problem of the hijab, women who are…
In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.
Effect of Cultural Diversity on…
Cultural school focuses on the culture of the individual entities that form the organization. Culture, it asserts, drives the organization's judgment and operational strategy resulting in differences such as between a Japanese and American organization.
In contradistinction to the power school that places the loci on the individual as well as the entrepreneurial school that does likewise (this time on the leader), the cultural school insists that individuals are a homogenized whole, their decision, beliefs, judgments, and actions formed by their specific culture. In this way, therefore, to understand an organization necessitates understanding its culture. Organization culture -- the premise of the cultural school -- is, oftentimes, understood as collective cognition since a deeply rooted culture produces closely interwoven interpretations and activities.
Content and Process.
Culture is ineradicably part of the individual's makeup. His or her perspective on the world is shaped by this culture, and since organizations are a…
Rieger, F. 1987. 'The influence of national culture on organizational structure…' Dissertation, McGill Univ., Montreal.
Roth, K. & Ricks, D.A. (1994). 'Goal configuration in a global society context.' Strategic Management Journal, 15, 103-140.
Wright, J.P. 1979. On a Clear Day you can see General Motors. Wright Enterprises: MI.
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica
Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.
Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.
In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…
Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)
Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.
(Adjaye 1994, 57)
Cultural evaluation Japan describe identify ways arguments a presentation arguments changed result cultural differences
Rose Cohen. Out of the Shadow: A Russian Jewish Girlhood on the Lower East Side, with an Introduction by Thomas Dublin. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995). Pp. vii-313. Paper: $19.95. ISBN: 978-0-8014-8268-7.
Rose Cohen was born in Russia at the end of the 19th century and immigrated to the United States of America in the early part of the 20th century. The circumstances she encountered while transitioning from one "Old orld" culture to a "New orld" one primarily constitute the source material she uses in Out of the Shadow. There appears to be a great deal of difference between the daily life and cultures encountered by a young Jewish girl/woman in Russia and one in America. These differences more than likely pertain to both cultures as well as to simply daily life and expectations for…
Dublin, Tom. "Rose Cohen Critical Essay." Jewish Women's Archive. No date. Web. http://jwa.org/discover/inthepast/readingseries/cohen/criticalessay.html
Muir, Lisa. "Rose Cohen and Bella Spewack: The Ethnic Child Speaks to Who You Never Were." www.highbeam.com. 2002. Web. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-92042295.html
Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…
1. Cultural Environment
Atrisgerinko, V.A. Origins of the Romanesque. London: Lund, 2005. Print.
Benson, R.E. Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982. Print.
Benson, Robert L. et al. (eds). Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Medieval Academy of America, 1991.
A woman can be neither a political leader nor a judge; she must only appear in public modestly dressed, and her natural and sacred task is to keep the household smoothly functioning and to raise and instruct her children to be good Muslims. Men, for their part, must shoulder the burden of providing for the family in material ways. Liberation for a woman does not mean being like a male, or taking up male tasks, but rather being herself and fulfilling the destiny Allah created for her. (Waines, 1995, P. 255)
Feminine education is therefore one of the most extreme of all issues with regard to the influence of the Islamic culture on education, and as has been stated earlier there is significant diversity in the educational role inclusion of women. (Weil, 2004, p. 142) for many one of the biggest reasons for immigration is the offer of greater educational…
Bin Talal, E.H. (2004). Musa Ibn Maymun and the Arab-Islamic Education. European Judaism, 37(2), 5.
Buetow, H.A. (1991). Religion in Personal Development: An Analysis and a Prescription. New York: Peter Lang.
Collins, D. (2006). Culture, Religion and Curriculum Lessons from the 'Three Books' Controversy in Surrey BC. The Canadian Geographer, 50(3), 342.
Elnour, a., & Bashir-Ali, K. (2003). Teaching Muslim Girls in American Schools. Social Education, 67(1), 62.
com, 2003). Fitting into the system of France is very important, and creating a good French citizen is one of the goals of the educational system. Students in France, for example, cannot wear religious clothing or other affiliations with national, non-French institutions of identity.
As in France and Japan, in the United Kingdom, education is free and compulsory until age sixteen, as an educated workforce is highly valued. There is also a great deal of respect and deference given to the role of the teacher. "Teachers in primary schools (4- to 11-year-olds) are always addressed by their surname by parents and pupils alike, always Mr., Mrs. Or Miss Smith
In secondary schools (11-16 years), teachers are always addressed as Miss or Sir" ("Introduction to School Life," oodlands Junior School, 2007). Students in the United Kingdom must wear a uniform, which enforces a certain sense of national and school cohesion, although…
French state education - an introduction." FrenchEntree.com. 2003. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.frenchentree.com/fe-education/DisplayArticle.asp?ID=70
Introduction to School Life." Woodlands Junior School. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/education/index.html
Primary and Secondary Education." Country Studies: Japan. 20 Oct 2007. http://www.country-studies.com/japan/primary-and-secondary-education.html
Samovar, Larry a., Porter, Richard, E. And McDaniel, Edward R.
We now have the means to study the evolution of the human genome more closely than ever in the past. One of the key ideas presented by the authors is the idea of transmission fidelity. This means that culture can act as an inheritance system, promoting the transmission of certain genetic traits in a predictable fashion. This type of cultural inheritance results in distinct societies that not only share the same cultural traits, but also share similar genetic traits as well. In the past, geography and proximity to others was a factor in this process as well. Richerson, oyd, and Henrich (2010) concluded that cultural evolution and biological evolution occur simultaneously. They also suggested that cultural evolution had a significant influence on biological evolution.
This research supports the supposition that cultural evolution has a significant effect on biological evolution. This research focused on cultural evolution, as opposed to placing the…
Bell, A. And Richard McElreath. Culture rather than genes provides greater scope for the evolution of large-scale human prosociality. PNAS 106 (2009): 17671-17674.
Boyd, R. And Peter Richerson," Gene-culture coevolution and the evolution of social institutions." In Better than Consciousness? Decision Making, The Human Mind, and Implications for Institutions. Edited by Christoph Engel and Wolf Singer. MIT
Press. 2008. pp. 305-323.
Some jammers still retain low-tech methods to spread their message utilizing nothing more than a magic marker.
The most important thing about cultural jamming is that it is a response demanded by the people. People are tired of being told what to wear, how to look, what to buy and they don't want to be classified into categories by corporations. Corporations have more influence on an individual's day-to-day than other major institution. They are the new creators of norms and values. Corporations tell what is beauty, what is fashionable or "cool," everything is being dictated to the people. The public on the other hand are lagging behind economically while big banks and corporations gain record breaking profits year after year. Jamming is the people's emotional response to corporate domination. It is an effort to be heard in a society that is increasingly finding it difficult to focus.
Jamming is not…
CUBAN CASE STUDY Mrs. Demetilla Hernandez a 63-year- Cuban woman seeks consultation Liberty health-maintenance organization (HMO) clinic weakness, lethargy, fatigue experienced 2 months. A week ago, cooking dinner daughter, Mariana's house, momentarily lost balance slipped kitchen floor.
CUBAN CASE STUDY
As a health-care provider, what are the typical Cuban communication patterns you need to be aware of in dealing with Mrs. Hernandez?
Latino families are often multigenerational in their composition. As the grandmother, Mrs. Hernandez assumes control over the family meals. This is a very important part of her identity. ather than communicating directly, food is love and emotions and feelings are communicated through food.
Q2. Describe the traditional Cuban food patterns. How would you assist Mrs. Hernandez
in developing a plan for a 1500-calorie diet and regular exercise?
People who have grown up in poor, food-insecure settings often develop patterns of eating high-calorie, high-carbohydrate comfort foods and many Latino…
Ortiz, B. (et al. 2007). Complementary and alternative medicine use among Hispanics in the United States. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 41(6):994-1004.
Dura-Vila, Gloria, and Matthew Hodes. (2011). Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among
Spanish nationals and Hispanic-American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1-11. Retrieved: http://www-ncbi-nlm-gov.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/pubmed/22270268 .
8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.
The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…
Baird, C.H., and Parasnis, G., (2011). From Social Media to Social Customer Relationship Management, Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp. 30 -- 37.
Rosa Diaz, I.M. (2013). Price assessments by consumers: Influence of purchase context and price structure. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(1), 13-20.
Hollenbeck, C.R., & Kaikati, A.M. (2012). Consumers' use of brands to reflect their actual and ideal selves on Facebook. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 395.
Kim, S., & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers' trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318.
Cross Cultural Theories Based on Bend it Like
COSS CULTUAL THEOIES BASED ON BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM
Cross cultural theories based on bend it like Beckham
Movies are one way in which different issues such as social and cultural backgrounds of different societies are filmed to educate or enlighten the community at large on different life styles as well as cultural diversity. Different films do have different numbers of characters, who act as family members, friends, and business personnel's in order to portray to the different issues to their viewers. With the help of a team comprising of the writer, producer and the directors, the characters are able to follow instructions so as to produce a film with the required themes. Bend it like Beckham, is a comedy-drama film in which the title is derived from a famous England football player David Beckham and his ability to score from…
Bates, D.G., & Plog, F. (1976). Cultural Anthropology, 3rd Ed., New York: McGraw-Hil
Baruth, L.G., & Manning, M.L. (2003). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: A lifespan perspective (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., and M.W. Feldman (1981), Cultural Transmission and Evolution.
Princeton: Princeton University Press
" (Fleming et al., 1994)
B. Genetic Factors
hile environmental factors are shown to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease there are also specific mutations linked to the development of PD in certain populations. For example it is reported that a study conducted on Parkinson's Disease and hereditary genetic risks of developing this disease states findings that researchers in the study "...found that ethnic Chinese individuals carrying a mutation they indentified in the LRRK2 gene are over two times more likely to develop the disease than non-carriers." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004) the study was conducted at Mayo Clinic in 2004. The research team not only discovered the LRRK2 gene and the role it plays in Parkinson's disease but as well discovered "...a number of mutations in LRRK2 a gene that codes for poorly understood protein, leucine-rich repeat kinase." (Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 2004)
One of the mutations 'G209S…
Wood-Kaczmar, a., Gandhi, S. And Wood, NW (2006) Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease Trends Mol Med. 2006 Nov;12(11):521-8. Epub 2006 Oct 5. Links
Understanding the molecular causes of Parkinson's disease.
Priyadarshi, a., Khuder, SA, Schaub, EA and Priyadarshi, SS (2001) Environmental risk factors and Parkinson's disease: a metaanalysis. Environe Res. 2001 Jun; 86(2):122-7.
How yeast is helping us to understand Parkinson's Disease (2009) Psysorg 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://www.physorg.com/news154950981.html
CULTURAL Characteristic FOUR: Hospitality. An essential part of the Uzbek cultural heritage is hospitality. The country is located at the crossroads where trade routes pass through opening up the door to Central Asia. Many villages had oasis facilities and so caravans passing through would stop and use the hospitality of people in small villages where there was water, shade and rest. The "Silk Road" runs right through Uzbekistan. The hospitality that was shown to these caravans was in the form of safety from the dangers of the road, a place to sleep, food and water for the camels, hot tea, food, and graciousness, according to Central Asian Cultures.
The route through Uzbekistan is called the Silk Road because on many of the "complex overland routes gained their name from the most famous of luxury items" to pass through -- and that was silk (www.centralasiacultures.com/silkroad). It was not just silk…
Adams, Laura L. (1999). Invention, Institutionalization and Renewal in Uzbekistan's National
Culture. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 2(3), 355-373.
Central Asia Cultures. (2010). Uzbekistan -- Uzbek Culture, Customs and Traditions. Retrieved June 4, 2010, from http://www.centralasiacultures.com/uzbekistan .
Djumaev, Alexander. (2005). Musical Heritage and National Identity in Uzbekistan.
The researchers found that the student's minimum performance rate correlated more closely with their IQ scores than any other single variable. High and low IQ scores were predicted on the basis of the worst performance (minimum recall) and the best performance (maximum recall). When compared, those that were predicted on the basis of the worst performance were more accurate, indicating that "worst performance reveals more about intelligence than best performance" (p. 9). The study was significant because it measured preparatory strategies which earlier research did not. It was also the first time the Worst Performance rule was tested on children rather than adults. The findings suggested "developmental invariance," that is, no difference between people of different ages. But this should be tested in a project that puts adults and children together and gives them the same task. The researcher points out that low-IQ participants sometimes do well, but they dip…
Coyle, T.R. (2001). IQ is related to the worst performance rule in a memory task involving children. Ablex Publishing Corporation, 29 (2), 117. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from Expanded Academic ASAP database via Gale.
Hogan, R. (2002). Might outdoor education help develop intelligence? Outdoor Council of Australia, 6 (2), 2. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from Expanded Academic ASAP database via Gale.
Holden, C. (2003). The practical benefits of general intelligence. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 299 (5604), 192. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from Expanded Academic ASAP database via Gale.
Nunley, M. (1995). "The bell curve" too smooth to be true, 39 (1), 74. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from General OneFile database via Gale.
.....leader is someone that has confidence, enthusiasm, and vision. Many leaders exist in the world. However, most leaders can only lead well at home. Global leaders transcend cultural diversity and differences and provide effective leadership behaviors within any context. This is because they are aware of the key differences cultures have and can group them in such a way that allows for easier understanding and successful strategy implementation. Because cultural style can dictate the ethical perception of a leader in terms of authority, power, and influence, this paper will focus on diversity and ethical decision-making and its influences on leadership models. Additionally, the paper will explore certain commonly accepted leadership traits and how servant leadership may be used as an effective tool for influencing organizational culture.
Followers see an inspirational leader as more beneficial than a transactional leader across any cultural setting. However certain behaviors leaders may perform within one…