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Culturally Competent Nursing
This order require medical field, preferable. A egistered Nurse case management experiences, a Doctor, ODE: I requesting a 5 pages, paper written DOUBLE SPACED, APA format, excluding Title eference Page make total 7 pages.
Culturally competent transcultural nursing:
Case management when dealing with Mexican-Americans
The concept of case management in nursing is used to "monitor the utilization and quality of health-care services and intervene as necessary" (Case management, 2012, Medi-Smart). A nurse case manager can be defined in three different ways: as a utilization review manager who reviews "charts for the use of interdependent hospital systems, timeliness of service as well as safe and appropriate 'utilization' of service;" a quality manager who "is accountable for the overall quality of care being delivered" and as a discharge planner who "coordinates all the facets of a patient's admission/discharge" (Case management, 2012, Medi-Smart). In all three capacities, the concept of…
Case management. (2012). Medi-Smart. Retrieved:
Jirwe, M., Gerrish, K., & Emami, A. (2010). Student nurses' experiences of communication in cross-cultural care encounters. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 24(3), 436-444. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2009.00733.x
Maier-Lorentz, M. (2008). Transcultural nursing: its importance in nursing practice. Journal Of
[Narayan, (2010)]. The review also showed that patients from culture might feel disinclined to take opioid medications due to cultural ban. For instance, in a study conducted by Sandy Lowering (2006) in a multicultural clinical setting in a Saudi Arabia, including patients form Irish, African, Asian, Filipino and Tswana, it was found that the use of narcotics was unacceptable for African, Saudi Arabian and Tswana patients due to cultural taboo on the use of sedatives and addictive substances. [Sandy Lovering, (2006)]
In these cases it is incumbent upon the nurses to establish good rapport and help the patients shed the cultural patterns that are hindering effective pain management. y skillful explanations and effective culturally sensitive communication the nurse should explain that the traditional beliefs should be abandoned in cases where they tend to compromise care. This could only be achieved by establishing culturally competent communication with the patient and educating…
1) HHS, (2001), ' National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care', retrieved Sep 28th 2010, from, http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/assets/pdf/checked/executive.pdf
2) Philip Martin & Elizabeth Midgley,(2010), 'Population Bulletin Update: Immigration in American 2010', retrieved Sep 28th 2010, from, http://www.prb.org/Publications/PopulationBulletins/2010/immigrationupdate1.aspx
3) Narayan & Mary Curry MSN, RN, (2010), 'Cultures Effect on Pain Assessment and Management', American Journal of Nursing, Volume 110 - Issue 4 - pp 38-47, Available Online at, http://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/Fulltext/2010/04000/Culture_s_Effects_on_Pain_Assessment_and.29.aspx?WT.mc_id=HPxADx20100319xMP
4) Sandy Lovering, BscN, RN (2006), 'Cultural Attitudes and Beliefs about Pain', Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 17: 389, SAGE Publications.
This is reflected in the article under critique- Culturally competent psychiatric nursing care by Wilson (2010).As a consequence, the ever growing body of literature in this context is now extensively used in influencing the healthcare policy at both the local and national levels.
Qualitative researches are noted by Bowling (2002) to be necessary within the primary healthcare whenever researchers need to ask important questions concerning why patients as well as healthcare professionals act in particular way as well as to focus on the feelings, experiences as well as meanings of the participants.
In Wilson's (2010) work, qualitative research was used in providing an accurate description of the characteristics of the culturally competent psychiatric nursing care provided to African-Americans from the viewpoints of the client and the nurse. It is worth noting that the intensive scrutiny that qualitative research has been subjected to has also subjected it to necessary criticism. Isbister…
Bowling, a. (2002) Research Methods in Health: Investigating Health and Health Services (2nd ed). Buckingham: Open University Press.
Bryman, a. (2001) Social Research Methods.Oxford: University Press.
Campinha-Bacote J. (2003) the Process of Cultural Competency in the Delivery of Healthcare Services: A Culturally Competent Model of Care. Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates, Cincinnati, OH.
Campinha-Bacote J. (1994).Cultural competence in psychiatric mental health nursing. A conceptual model. Nurs Clin North Am. 1994 Mar;29(1):1-8.
Culturally Competent Nursing Care -- Asian Pacific
Culturally Competent Nursing Care for Asian Pacific Culture
Nurses and other healthcare professionals providing services to Asians / Pacific Islanders should understand that there are "…several important cultural beliefs" that should be respected. This paper reviews those cultural traditions so that culturally competent nursing care (values, beliefs, and practices) can be provided to this particular population.
Culturally Competent Care for the Asian Pacific Culture
In the first place, when it comes to healthcare for cultures other than the dominant culture, there are "transcultural nursing principles" to take into consideration (Lundy, et al., 2001). Nurses should use "humanistic and scientific cultural care knowledge" -- which means doing the research on the specific cultural values of the patient before treating that patient (Lundy, 224). The analysis of the "cultural needs of the people" the nurse then can implement a "culturally congruent plan of care," Lundy…
Euro Media. (2002). How culture influences health beliefs. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.euromedinfo.eu .
Lundy, K.S., and Janes, S. (2001). Community Health Nursing: Caring for the Public's Health.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Wergowske, G., and Blanchette, P.L. (2002). Health and Health Care of Elders from Native
Mexican-Americans' Perceptions of Culturally Competent Care:"
If one of the most important goals of any health care provider is providing the best quality of care possible for one's patients, then the health care researcher is no less responsible for ensuring their work is of the best possible integrity. To insure this, the health care researcher must follow stringent protocols in gathering and presenting their information, as well as in extrapolating meaning from that information. Indeed, it is of significant consequence if published mainstream research is competently preformed in all of its aspects. Not only does this insure researcher, institution, and publication credibility, but it insures that the actual "field" application of the conclusions drawn from research work are beneficial to patient care.
One of the best ways to evaluate the credibility of any work of research literature is to investigate several key questions pertaining to the methods and information…
Warda, Maria R. (2000). "Mexican-Americans' Perceptions of Culturally Competent Care." Western Journal of Nursing Research. 22(2), 203-224.
Culturally relevant pedagogy takes into account the kind of teaching that incorporates the background knowledge of the student and preceding home and community experiences into the curriculum and the teaching and education that goes on in the classroom. As pointed out by Woolfolk (2016), culturally relevant pedagogy is employed to delineate teaching that hinges on three propositions. First, it is imperative for students to experience accomplishment academically. Irrespective of the prevailing social inequalities and intimidating classroom settings, students have to grow and enhance their academic skills. There are different means for developing such skills. However, it is key to note that all the students necessitate numeracy, literacy, social, technological, and political skills so as to actively take part in a democracy (Ladson-Billings, 1995).
The second proposition that culturally relevant pedagogy depends on is that students have to cultivate as well as sustain their cultural capability and proficiency as they grow…
Culturally Competent Teaching in Healthcare
As patients want to adjust back into some sense of normalcy after a hospital visit, patient education becomes crucial in empowering them within the context of their own recovery. In modern healthcare practice, patient education is crucial out of the necessity for effective learning strategies and interventions as a method to promote the best quality of care and optimal health outcomes. Providing the best level of support to patients through the most effective patient education strategies is one of the most difficult objectives of the modern nurse, because of the unique individual nature of each particular patient.
In this particular case, the nurse must educate a first generation Latino male on how to irrigate his own colostomy. The patient is approximately 19 years of age. As a young adult, he is a much stronger problem solving and analytical thinking skills when compared to…
Krames Patient Education. (2012). Discharge instructions: Irrigating you colostomy. Krames StayWell. Palms of Pasadena Hospital. Web. http://krames.palmspasadena.com/HealthSheets/3,S,86536
Culturally Competent Trauma Care
Allen, B., Wilson, K., & Armstrong, N. (2014). Changing clinicians' beliefs about treatment for children experiencing trauma: the impact of intensive training in evidence-based, trauma-focused treatment. Psychological Trauma: Theory, esearch, Practice, and Policy, 6(4), 384-389.
Despite a recent push towards more structured treatment protocols, many clinicians have taken an unstructured approach to the treatment of trauma in children, based upon a belief that children may be unable to verbalize or otherwise express their feelings about a trauma. This study focuses on whether training can change a clinician's approach in practice and suggests that intensive training can influence clinicians in their choice of therapeutic approach and guide them to use evidence-based therapies (EBT) that are highly structured. This research fails to discuss the impact that cultural upbringing may have on the willingness or ability of children to discuss trauma early in the treatment process. As a result,…
Allen, B., Wilson, K., & Armstrong, N. (2014). Changing clinicians' beliefs about treatment for children experiencing trauma: the impact of intensive training in evidence-based, trauma-focused treatment. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(4), 384-389.
Bernal, G., Jimenez-Chafey, M. & Domenech Rodriguez, M. (2009). Cultural adaptations of treatments: a resource for considering culture in evidence-based practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(4), 361-368.
Brady, K. & Back, S. (2012). Childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol dependence. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 34(4), 408-413.
Couineau, A. & Forbes, D. (2011). Using predictive models of behavior change to promote evidence-based treatment for PTSD. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3(3), 266-275.
Standards of Cultural Competent Care
Emerging Standards of Cultural Competent
This research paper is established to explore upon the emerging trends of culturally competent care in general organizational settings. However, the scope of this care will be narrowed down specifically to health care organization I am working with. All the bits and bytes allied with the phenomenon of cultural competent care have been included in this paper, including the overview of what this trend is all about, what are the standards being followed in this particular domain and how those standards are applicable within my workplace premises. All in all, this paper will serve as a primer for the culturally competent care that is required to be promoted within different workplace environments.
An Overview of Culturally Competent Care
As a matter of fact, United States has appeared to be one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world. esearchers…
Callister, L.C. (2005). What has the literature taught us about culturally competent care of women and children? MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 30(6), 380-388.
Giddings, L.S. (2005). A theoretical model of social consciousness. Advances in Nursing
Science, 28(3), 224-239.
International Council of Nurses (1998). Nurses and Human Rights. Retrieved September 2, 2012, from http://www.icn.ch/pshumrights.htm .
" (National Association of School Psychologists, 2004) the integrity of treatment will be "maximized if the intervention's goals and plan are developed in a culturally sensitive and cooperative manner." (National Association of School Psychologists, 2004) it is stated that implementation problems "...may be linked to unidentified variables." (National Association of School Psychologists, 2004) if this should be the case, it is necessary to explore openly potential barriers. In the evaluation of the intervention, the parents should not be under a negative judgment when goals are failed in being met but instead the goals should be acknowledged as unmet and then barriers to treatment success should be collectively reviewed then designed and implemented.
II. GENDER SENSITIVE INTERVENTIONS
The 10th Annual Conference "Aggression and Suicide Among Children and Youth: Focus on Gender Differences" relates that increasing evidence exists that boys and girls "differ in the development, expression and consequences of aggressive behavior…
Aggression and Suicide Among Children and Youth: Focus on Gender Differences (2006) Melissa Institute. Online available at http://www.melissainstitute.org/documents/May2006Conference.pdf
Culturally Competent Consultation in Schools: Information for School Psychologists and School Personnel. National Association of School Psychologists. Online available at http://www.nasponline.org/resources/culturalcompetence/cc_consultation.aspx
Sheridan, S.M. (2000). Considerations of multiculturalism and diversity in behavioral consultation with parents and teachers. School Psychology Review, 29, 389-400.
Tarver Behring, S., & Ingraham, C.L. (1998). Culture as a central component to consultation: A call to the field. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 9, 57-72.
First, they can avoid cultural stereotyping simply by becoming aware of the issue in principle. Generally, the mere awareness of the issue and of its importance is likely to reduce any practitioner's tendency to succumb to cultural stereotyping. econd, nurses and other healthcare professionals can avoid cultural stereotyping by committing themselves to learning about different cultures and corresponding cultural sensibilities and expectations that are functions of cultural differences. In principle, professional practitioners who make that commitment tend to learn the most about different cultures and make the most conscientious effort to apply that knowledge in their everyday nursing responsibilities and practice.
Mixer, .J. "Use of the culture care theory and ethnonursing method to discover how nursing faculty teach culture care." Contemporary Nurse, Vol. 28 (April 2008).
Taylor, C., Lillis, C., and LeMone, P. (2005). Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and cience of Nursing Care. Philadelphia, PA:…
Mixer, S.J. "Use of the culture care theory and ethnonursing method to discover how nursing faculty teach culture care." Contemporary Nurse, Vol. 28 (April 2008).
Taylor, C., Lillis, C., and LeMone, P. (2005). Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.
Standards of Care/Mental Health/Cultural Competence
EMEGING STANDADS OF CAE/MENTAL HEALTH/CULTUAL
Sometime in 1999, the Surgeon General released Mental Health: A eport of the Surgeon General. Inside this report, it acknowledged that not every Americans, particularly minorities, are getting the equal mental health treatment, a discovery that provoked the Surgeon General to give out a supplemental report on differences in mental health care for individuals of color (Donini-Lenhoff, 2006). The addition, which was available in 2001, sends out one obvious message: culture does actually count. Cultural competency is considered to be one the vital ingredients in closing the differences hole in health care. It is looked as the way patients and doctors are able to come together and then talk about health issues without cultural differences stopping the conversation, nonetheless improving it. Fairly simply, health care services that are deferential of and receptive to the health beliefs, practices and cultural and…
Choi, H.M. (2006). ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENTS' MENTAL DISTRESS, SOCIAL STRESS, AND RESOURCES. Adolescence, 41(126), 263-83.
Donini-Lenhoff, F. (2006). HEALTH: Cultural competence in the health professions; insuring a juniform standard of care. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 65(45), 45.
Furler, J. & . (2012). Mental health: Cultural competence. Australian Family Physician, 39(5), 206-8.
Sawrikar, P. & . (2013). The relationship between mental health, cultural identity and cultural values in non-english speaking background (NESB) australian adolescents. Behaviour Change, 21(3), 97-113.
Supervisee should have a clear view on what to expect during the supervision process.
Supervisor: Are there any courses or resources that would develop your standards in relation to services delivery?
Supervisee: Learning provides room for improvement, and that would be no different to my scenario. I would attend to relevant courses to boost my confidence and expertise level in dealing with clients on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis. Structural coaching on relevant issues would enhance my development to tackling therapeutic problems in the clinical field of study. The structural coaching would supplement the pertinent information from this and the previous supervision programs. Much exposure such as working in large organizations would improve the level of standards in dealing with cultural problems among different clients.
Supervisor: What are the six dimensions of multicultural competencies supervision?
Supervisee: The first dimension is the Supervisor-Focused Personal Development that reflects examination of the…
Ancis, J.R., & Marshall, D.S. (2010). Using a multicultural framework to assess supervisees'
perceptions of culturally competent supervision. Journal of Counseling & Development,
88, 277 -284.
Ancis, J.R., & Landany, N. (2010). A multicultural framework for counselor supervision. In N.
As the saying goes, 'two heads are better than one' so teams working together can find solutions better than a person working alone. Collective wisdom is important in business and as such, given the diversity in the workforce, professionals are required to be adaptable and willing to evaluate the way they conduct business. According to the Anti-Defamation League diversity has a direct impact on the marketplace, talent, and organizational effectiveness.
Moreover, according to them, when companies value diversity and effectively manage it, they can build better relationships, improve decision-making, stimulate effective team building, expand the ability to change problems into opportunities, provide employees with skills that promote organizational effectiveness, increase employee initiative, camaraderie and morale, and reduce conflict among many other benefits. In today's economy, successful organizations "recognize that managing diversity is an opportunity to increase productivity and create effective business strategies." (Anti-Defamation League, 2003).
Anti-Defamation League. (2003).…
Anti-Defamation League. (2003). The Business Case for Diversity. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/education/edu_awod/anti-Bias_in_workplace.pdf
Kelly, E., Young, A., Clark, L. (1993). Sex Stereotyping in the Workplace: A Manager's Guide -- Women in Business. Business Horizons, March-April. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n2_v36/ai_13815063/?tag=content;col1
Taggart, A. (2007). Beyond Diversity: Becoming a Culturally Competent Organization. Ivey Business Journal, September-October. Retrieved from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/article.asp?intArticle_ID=712
Workman, D. (2008). International Trade Communication: Smart Business Negotiators Adapt to Audience Cultural Styles. Retrieved from http://internationalbusiness.suite101.com/article.cfm/international_trade_communication
Another factor that impacts the level of community resources offered is that many of the schools do not offer intramural activities for elementary school students. Participation in these group activities are most often children from middle to middle upper class families; due in part to cost and accessibility.
Those representing the lower socioeconomic strata tend to take greater advantage of the social services available within the community. Social services purported to be available including both state funded and privately funded organizations that offer basic services including food, clothing and shelter, as well as public welfare such as Temporary Assistance to Need Families, Social Security benefits, Medicaid and Medicare. The Department of Family and Children Services is a large provided of social services and serves as the gatekeeper to many of the private agencies that offer foster care, domestic violence counseling services, child welfare services, as well as many levels of…
Burt, J., Ortlieb, E., & Cheek, E. (2009). An investigation of the impact of racially diverse teachers on the reading skills of fourth-grade students in a one race school. Reading Improvement, 46(1), 35-45.
Keengwe, J. (2010). Fostering cross cultural competence in preservice teachers through
Multicultural education experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, 38(3),
While this is an important first step, the overall bureaucracy of the hospital could pose problem over the long-term. To mitigate this situation, the hospital could implement a program of randomly monitoring the various departments that score poorly on different surveys. Where, the administration is seeking out ways to quickly identify when the overall levels of care will decrease. This is important, because as a part of the Department of Defense, it easy for the staff to fall into an attitude of complacence. Once this occurs, is when the obvious weaknesses in the various departments become more severe and could require years, to effectively correct the various problems. As a result, the surveys are good first start, but must have an effective mechanism of identifying the problem early. When you have random spot checks of those departments that are scoring poorly on the survey, you are making the organization more…
About Fort Jackson. (n.d.). Retrieved June 15, 2010 from U.S. Army website: http://www.jackson.army.mil/Area/aboutFtJ.htm
Barido, G. (2008). The Effects of Customer Service Initiative. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from Storming Media website: http://www.stormingmedia.us/42/4263/A426394.html
Bonn, K. (2005). Social and Family Matters. Army Officers Guide, (pg. 423). Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole.
Gaal, J. (1995). Improving Access to Primary Care. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from U.S. Army Baylor University Graduate Program in Health Care website: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA313797&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
A dominant healthcare practice for many Mexican-Americans is the hot and cold theory of food selection, where illness or trauma may require adjustments in the hot and cold balance of foods to restore body equilibrium. In lower socioeconomic groups is a wide-scale deficiency of vitamin a and iron, as well as lactose intolerance.
Mexican-American birth rates are 3.45 per household compared to 2.6 per household among other minority groups (Chapa & Valencia, 1993 as cited in Purnell & Paulanka, 1998). Multiple births are common, particularly in the economically disadvantaged groups. Men see a larger number of children as evidence of their virility. If a woman does not conceive by the age of 24, it may be considered too late. Given their predominant Catholic beliefs, the tendency is only to use acceptable forms of birth control, although many will use other unacceptable forms. Abortion is morally wrong. Family planning is an…
Lopez, P. (2003) Mexican-American Health Issues for the 21st Century. Californian Journal of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000) Health Disparities: Bridging the Gap. Washington: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Purnell, L, & Paulanka, B. (1998). Transcultural Healthcare. Philadelphia: Davis Company.
Purnell, L. & Paulanka, B. (1998a) Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. in
Nava, G. (director) Quintanilla, a. (executive producer) (1997) Selena. Q Productions.
, 2010). It is perfectly conceivable that this nurse leader would welcome more collaborative or shared leadership responsibilities, particularly since the setting for empirical clinical research on this very issue was, in fact, an ICU (osengren, Bondas, Nordholm, et al., 2010).
Finally, it appears from this interview subject's input into this project that she is a competent and effective nursing leader, largely by virtue of her description of her supervisory and administrative style and inclination. However, her input lacked any substantial data on the basis of which a reviewer could evaluate her effectiveness as a clinical leader more specifically. Those particular skill sets may occur in combination but they undoubtedly also occur individually within different leaders (Stanley & Sherratt, 2010). A review of historical literature (such as in connection with Florence Nightingale) clearly demonstrates that good nursing leaders may or may not necessarily also be equally good clinical leaders (Stanley…
Armstrong, P.W. "A time for transformative leadership in academic health sciences."
Clinical & Investigative Medicine, 30(3); 2007: E127-132.
Davidson, S.J. "Complex responsive processes: a new lens for leadership in twenty-first-
century health care." Nursing Forum, 45(2); 2010: 108-117.
Racial Diversity in Rural Nursing
Describe the problems associated with Racial Difference in rural health care nursing and what successful strategies can be made where racial and cultural differences are apparent factors. What rational to supported their behaviors? What could be done differently today?
Why? And with these difference how can one incorporate strategy for providing culturally competent care?
In rural communities that once lacked a long-standing tradition of racial diversity, but that have now become increasingly diverse, it can be difficult to broach issues of health and wellness if the nurse feels that there are strong tensions within the larger environment between his or her own ethnic group and the ethnic group of his or her patient. But regardless of the cultural divide that exists between patient and nurse, the hospital must improve upon rather than simply reflect society.
True, quite often, a nurse may experience difficulty discussing a…
cultural characteristics chinesse korean heritage, assigned cultural groups, discuss factors considered provide a culturally competent environment care patients cultural groups. 2)Among cultural groups, traditional folk health healing practices, including persons native USA.
The Chinese are very different from the South Koreans when considering general attitudes promoted in these two cultures and the way that people think and behave.
A primary issue involving Chinese and Korean patients regards the way that they are likely to react to treatment. The former group is probable to employ more hostile behaviors and to be less willing to cooperate with doctors. In contrast, the latter group is typically supportive toward treatment strategies they are provided with.
Religion is also an important concept when considering Korean and Chinese patients. The fact that numerous individuals in South Korea are Buddhist means that they might see death as being perfectly normal. The same thing applies when considering Chinese…
Bebchuk, Lucian, "Unblocking Corporate Governance Reform," Retrieved April 13, 2014, from http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/unblocking-corporate-governance-reform
Bihari, Michael, "Managed Care -- Understanding Managed Care HMOs, PPOs, and POS Plans," Retrieved April 13, 2014, from http://healthinsurance.about.com/od/understandingmanagedcare/a/managed_care_overview.htm
"BHAISHAJYA KALPANA & RASA SHASTRA," Retrieved April 13, 2014, from http://sscasrh.org/sri-sri-ayurveda-college/index.php/widgetkit/bhaishajya-kalpana-a-rasa-shastra#.U0rEvfl5PJk
"Communicating with Your Chinese Patient," Retrieved April 13, 2014, from http://depts.washington.edu/pfes/PDFs/ChineseCultureClue.pdf
For the past several decades, nursing theory has evolved with considerable considerations towards transcultural care. The concept of culture was derived from anthropology and the concept of care was derived from nursing. When one understands the derivative of nursing knowledge and the basis for cultural sensitivity, one may tailor and provide the best nursing care for diverse groups. Each group may have specific needs that may help or hinder healthcare delivery. Hence, if one fully understands the meanings, patterns, and processes, one can explain and predict health and well-being. Although many nursing theories exist, a closer evaluation will be given to Cultural Care Diversity & Universality and Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.
Cultural Competence & Influence
Cultural competence is deemed as essential component in providing healthcare today. Healthcare professionals in healthcare organizations are addressing multicultural diversity and ethnic disparities in health (Wilson, 2004). To better serve…
Kim-Godwin, Y.S., Clarke, P.N. And Barton, L. (2001), A model for the delivery of culturally competent community care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35: 918 -- 925. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01929.x
Maier-Lorentz, M. (2008). Transcultural nursing: its importance in nursing practice. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 15(1), 37-43.
Nelson, J. (2006). Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory: The Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. International Journal For Human Caring, 10(4), 50.
SNJourney. (2007). Purnell's model of cultural competence. Retrieved from http://www.snjourney.com/ClinicalInfo/Select%20Topics/Transcultural/PurnellModel2.pdf
Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.
When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…
Cannon, E.P. (2008). "Promoting moral reasoning and multicultural competence during internship." Journal of Moral Education, 37(4), 503-518.
Crethar, Hugh C. And Ratts, Manivong J. (2008). "Why Social Justice is a Counseling Concern?"
Gilbert, Jane. (2002). "Cross-cultural issues in counseling skillstraining: lessons from Lesotho."
Journal of Social Development in Africa. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
CUBAN CASE STUDY Mrs. Demetilla Hernandez a 63-year- Cuban woman seeks consultation Liberty health-maintenance organization (HMO) clinic weakness, lethargy, fatigue experienced 2 months. A week ago, cooking dinner daughter, Mariana's house, momentarily lost balance slipped kitchen floor.
CUBAN CASE STUDY
As a health-care provider, what are the typical Cuban communication patterns you need to be aware of in dealing with Mrs. Hernandez?
Latino families are often multigenerational in their composition. As the grandmother, Mrs. Hernandez assumes control over the family meals. This is a very important part of her identity. ather than communicating directly, food is love and emotions and feelings are communicated through food.
Q2. Describe the traditional Cuban food patterns. How would you assist Mrs. Hernandez
in developing a plan for a 1500-calorie diet and regular exercise?
People who have grown up in poor, food-insecure settings often develop patterns of eating high-calorie, high-carbohydrate comfort foods and many Latino…
Ortiz, B. (et al. 2007). Complementary and alternative medicine use among Hispanics in the United States. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 41(6):994-1004.
Dura-Vila, Gloria, and Matthew Hodes. (2011). Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among
Spanish nationals and Hispanic-American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1-11. Retrieved: http://www-ncbi-nlm-gov.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/pubmed/22270268 .
Coss Cultual Moes and Values: Middle-Easten Ameicans, South Asian-Ameicans and Native Ameicans
No longe a melting pot but moe like a salad bowl, the United States has always been a land of immigants and its divese demogaphic composition today is a eflection of this pocess. In fact, just one goup, Native Ameicans, can be egaded as being the oiginal inhabitants, but anthopologists ague that even these people likely migated fom othe continents tens of thousands of yeas ago, making them immigants in a sense as well. Thee goups in paticula stand out in the Ameican demogaphic mix as being in need of thoughtful attention in coss-cultual counseling situations, namely Middle-Easten Ameicans, South Asian-Ameicans and Native Ameicans. To detemine what counselos need to know in ode to develop effective inteventions fo membes fom these thee goups, this pape povides a eview of the liteatue, followed by a summay of the eseach…
A study of Lumbee undergraduates. Journal of College Counseling, 9(1), 47-55.
South Asia countries. (2014). World Bank. Retrieved from http://web.worldbank.org/ .
They cannot ignore the socioeconomic issues of adversity so often present and, where necessary, need to act as advocates, mediators and social brokers (Compton, Galaway, & Curnoyer, 2005).
The concern is that the issue of healthcare for culturally diverse individuals is so complex, there are no exact rights and wrongs. For example, in Fadiman's book, no person(s) can be said to be ultimately correct or incorrect in his/her behavior or actions; everyone did what he/she thought was right. In order to help others who have different cultural backgrounds and experiences, as the Hmong, it is essential to be 1) proactive. That is, to forecast the transforming demographics in the U.S. over the coming decades and put plans into place that will best serve these individuals and 2) collaborative. The best results occur when professionals from different backgrounds and expertise share best practices and learn from each other. What could have…
Compton, B., Galaway, B., & Curnoyer, B.R. (1994). Social work processes (7th ed.).
Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Fadiman, Anne (1997) the Spirit Catches You, and You Fall Down. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Gladwell, M. (2002). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. Boston: Little Brown
cultural bias and/or culturally appropriate interventions.
Burnett, J.A., Hamel, D., & Long, L.L. (2004). Service learning in graduate counselor education: Developing multicultural counseling competency. Journal of Multicultural
Counseling and Development, 32(3), 180-191.
Even the most enthusiastic counseling students are initially limited by their cultural worldview. This article examines ways to enhance the education of graduate students in the field with service-based learning. Service learning integrates classroom learning with community service. The approach merges academic concepts with real-world, hands-on experience early on in the students' career to show the link between theory and practice. Everyone benefits: the student, the persons receiving the service, and the clients of the eventual graduates. The article involves a qualitative study of a single group of students who volunteered at four service agencies serving African-American low-income communities. Although assessing the ultimate effect on the students' practice was not conclusive (the study was not longitudinal…
teach students who first language is not English continues to be one of the most contested and misunderstood issues facing educators in the U.S. today. wo main educational philosophies and lines of research prevail. Proponents of dual language education assert that the long-term education of students benefits from a bilingual approach primarily because it facilitates cognitive development and is, thereby, a better method to address an achievement gap (Jost, 2009). he opposing educational camp argues that students whose first language is not English should be given support in their first language through bilingual education, but only for a short time (Jost, 2009). he watershed for these two approaches appears to be a long-term focus vs. A short-term focus (Jost, 2009).
he policy problem associated with English as second a language academic programs is fundamentally two-fold: o address the need for acceleration of the development of English language skills and linguistic…
The tendency is to think of bilingual education as focusing on Hispanic students, but this is decidedly a limited perspective (Haas, 2009). Students who need to learn English in order to fully participate in the schools they attend cross all grade levels (Haas, 2009). Moreover, the number of foreign languages represented in any given school can be quite large (Haas, 2009). During the time of the public brouhaha of the Umz Initiative, one teacher reported that, "I have had 32 different languages spoken in my classroom over a 25-year period. Eighty-four languages are spoken in our district" (Anonymous, 1998). With this level of diversity, teachers who are frustrated by the bureaucracy of educational institutions and the lag of simply choose to "just teach in the way that you know is effective" (Anonymous, 1998). Essentially, that means to many teachers that they must reach out to their students in whatever language makes them want to learn and be able to study (Haas, 2009).
Assimilation is a focus for proponents of immersion programs in which students receive instruction only in English. This movement is supported by demonstrations
Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
Contemporary Approaches Used for Assessment and Diagnosis
The Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health relates screening tools used for screening for bipolar disorder to include the 'Mood Disorder Questionnaire' (MDQ); the 'Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ipolar Disorder Screening Scale'; Differential Diagnosis of ipolar Disorder I & II vs. Major Depressive Disorders; and Obtaining a Family History Through the Use of a Genogram. The MDQ is designed for use as a tool to aid in screening for present and past incidences of mania and hypomania and includes 13 questions related to the symptoms of bipolar disorder in addition to items that assess the clustering of symptoms as well as any functional impairment. (CQAIMH, 2014, paraphrased) The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) ipolar Disorder Screening Scale' can be used to make accurate identification of "both threshold and sub-threshold bipolar disorder." (CQAIMH, 2014, p. 1)…
Bipolar Disorder (2014) Mayo clinic. Diseases. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20027544
Bipolar Disorder (2014) University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved from: http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/bipolar-disorder
Bipolar Disorder Screening (2014) Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health (CQAIHM). Retrieved from: http://www.cqaimh.org/tool_bipolar.html
Bipolar Disorder Treatment (2014) NHS. Retrieved from: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Bipolar-disorder/Pages/Treatment.aspx
(Feldman & Geenbeg, 2005, p. 67) Staffing coodinatos, often nuse leades must seek to give pioity to educational needs as a eason fo adjusting and/o making schedules fo staff, including offeing incentives to staff not cuently seeking educational goals fo assisting in this pioity egadless of the implementation of a tuition eimbusement pogam. (Feldman & Geenbeg, 2005, p. 233)
Nuse Leades as Academic Theoists
The fact that many nuse leades seve as the fundamental souces fo new and emeging nusing paadigms and theoies cannot be ignoed in this eview. The theoies associated with nusing ae as divese as nuses themselves and seve seveal puposes. With egad to nuse ecuitment and the ole that nusing theoy and paadigm plays in it, nuse leades seve to espouse theoy though mentoship and taining that helps individuals see thei futue intinsic ole in nusing. To explain this ole a bief discussion of nusing theoy…
references and Affirmative Action in Making Admissions Decisions at a Predominantly White University. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31(4), 269.
Burgener, S.C., & Moore S.J. (May-June, 2002) The role of advanced practice nurses in community settings. Nursing Economics 20 (3) 102-108.
Cimini, M.H., & Muhl, C.J. (1995). Twin Cities Nurses Reach Accord. Monthly Labor Review, 118(8), 74.
Cleary, B. & Rice, R. (Eds.). (2005). Nursing Workforce Development: Strategic State Initiatives. New York: Springer.
Daly, J., Speedy, S., Jackson, D., Lambert., V.A., & Lambert, C.E. (Eds.). (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts, Issues, and Challenges. New York: Springer.
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
The future of professional psychology:
The influence of special populations on the field of professional psychology
According to the American Board of Professional Psychology: "It is expected that clinical psychologists will demonstrate sensitivity to and skills in dealing with multicultural/diverse populations....Individual and cultural diversity recognizes the broad scope of such factors as race, ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, gender, age, disability, class status, education, religion/spiritual orientation, and other cultural dimension" (Clinical psychology, 2012, ABPP). In other words, the special needs of specific population groups must be taken into consideration when offering care, to ensure that treatment is commensurate and sensitive to the population's needs. The reason for this emphasis on culturally-appropriate care reflects a greater awareness of how not all forms of treatment are appropriate for all population groups within the field, and the degree to which special population needs have and continues to shape the point-of-view…
Asian-Americans need culturally competent mental health care. (2012). APA.
Clinical psychology. (2012). American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). Retrieved:
The Foundation called specific attention to the prospect of institutional and policy-level strategies to increase the participation of under-represented minorities in the health professions. In response, the Institute Committee on Institutional and Policy-Level Strategies for Increasing the Diversity of the U.S. Healthcare Workforce came out with a report, entitled "In the Nation's Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Health Care Workforce." The Committee consisted mostly of academicians, two of whom represented the nursing profession.
In its report, the Committee recognized the importance of increasing racial diversity among health professionals in order to improve access to care, greater patient choice and satisfaction and better educational experiences for practitioners, among other benefits. It also recognized the lack of strategies in reducing institutional and policy-level barriers among health profession educational institutions or HPEIs. In response to the lack, the Committee recommended that health professions education make a clear stand and mission on the…
AHRQ (2007). The national healthcare disparities report, 2006. Agency for Healthcare
Quality and Research, Medscape. Retrieved on June 18, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/552271
Alabama Nurse (2004). ANA Review: Institute of Medicine report on workforce diversity,
Cultural competence: What does this really mean to health care professionals?
Cultural Competency is a significant issue that faces health care providers today. It is important for organizations to have and utilize polices, trained and skilled employees and resources to foresee, distinguish and respond to a variety of expectations in language, cultural and religion of members and health care providers. Health literacy takes place when there is shared understanding between healthcare providers or anyone communicating health information and patients. Joint understanding is not just good medicine; it is also a right and responsibility (Health Literacy and Cultural Competency Provider Tool Kit, 2008).
Addressing disparities in health care and health results is more and more becoming a main concern on national and state levels. The Department of Health is dedicated to generating health justness and devoted to endorsing cultural competency among health care providers, to enhance affirmative results for all…
Cultural Competence. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.culturediversity.org/cultcomp.htm
Cultural Competency in Health Services and Care. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.doh.wa.gov/hsqa/professions/Publications/documents/CulturalComp.pdf
Health Literacy and Cultural Competency Provider Tool Kit. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.bcbst.com/providers/08-538CulturalCompProvToolKit.pdf
EDUCING ISKY BEHAVIO FO African-American TEENS
An Intervention for educing isky Behavior Among African-American Female Adolescents: Provider Cultural Competency Training
The Office of Minority Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2013) quotes Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. As a way to introduce the topic of updating and enhancing the National CLAS (Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services) Standards. The quote is "Of all forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane" (p. 14). Long recognized as a significant problem in the United States, health inequity along social, economic, racial, and ethnic boundaries has become a central focus of health care policy in this country. Although health care providers have little control over the historical determinants of discrimination in the U.S. they can work towards eliminating health disparities that exist through cultural competency. In addition to the ethical and moral rationale for attaining…
Aronowitz, T. & Agbeshie, E. (2012). Nature of communication: Voices of 11- to 14-year-old African-American girls and their mothers in regard to talking about sex. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 35(2), 75-89.
Aronowitz, T. & Eche, I. (2013). Parenting strategies African-American mothers employ to decrease sexual risk behaviors in their early adolescent daughters. Public Health Nursing, 30(4), 279-87.
CDC. (2012). HIV and AIDS among African-American youth. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
CDC. (2013). HIV among African-Americans: Fast facts. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
Cultural bias implies an emphasized distinction or preferential status that indicates a predilection for one culture, over another. It is often discriminative, and is characterized by an absence of integration in a group, in terms of social principles, codes of conduct, and beliefs. Cultural partisanship introduces the accepted behaviors of one group as superior, and more valued, than those of another lesser-respected cultural group. In my surroundings, most of the residents, and hence, patients are white, making us (Afro-Americans and Asians) minorities, feel different if not isolated. Such deferential factors are responsible for establishing where specific individuals live, and what opportunities are available to them, in the healthcare and educational context (Sue et al., 2009)
The presence of cultural bias within the context of healthcare-related recommendations and decision-making gives rise to significant challenges. Well-documented inequalities in health status of different racial and ethnic communities, in addition to nationally-publicized…
Resources and Services Administration (http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/)
American Psychiatric Association's Steering Committee to Reduce Disparities in Access to Psychiatric Care (2004) (Natl. Assoc. Social Workers 2007).
These and many more substantive readings from research are listed by the author for assimilating culture-centric education. (Sue, Zane, Nagayama Hall, & Berger, 2009)
As a Counselor, I will need to be aware that being culturally aware implies delivering services in a manner consistent with the recipient's culture, through regards to linguistic variation and cultural discussion. I would seek to be more sensitive to unaccultured ethnic minority clients. In addition, I would use discretion in cases where patients of a particular community or ethnicity are prone to certain clinical problems (for which I would study the ethnic group and its history in more depth) and if certain ethnic groups respond poorly to EBT (Evidence-based Treatment). (Sue et al., 2009)
Culural Competence |
Cultural Competence in the Criminal Justice System
Culture determines people's experiences of their world. It is important in the reception and delivery of services. Cultural competence starts with knowing your cultural practices and beliefs, and recognizing the different practices and values of people from different cultures. This goes beyond speaking a different language, or just acknowledging a different group's cultural icons. Cultural competence involves changing your biases or prejudgments on a different people's cultural traditions or beliefs (Continuing Education Online, 2002-2016).
Cultural competence, therefore, can be described as a group of attitudes and behavior within a culture. These attitudes and behavior are incorporated into the methods of practice of an agency, system or its experts, and helps them work productively under cross-cultural circumstances. To successfully achieve cultural competency, knowledge about groups and individuals must be incorporated and translated into certain practices and rules applied in suitable cultural…
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1998). Case Management for Clients With Special Needs. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from National Center for Biotechnology Information: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Continuing Education Online. (2002-2016). Cultural Competency and Diversity. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from Continuing Education Online: http://www.getceusnow.com
Otu, N. (2015). Decoding Nonverbal Communication In Law Enforcement. Salus Journal, Issue 3, No. 2, 1-16. Retrieved from Salus Journal: http://www.salusjournal.com
Patel, S. (2016). Cultural Competency Training: Preparing Law Students for Practice in Our Multicultural World. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from UCLA Law Review: http://www.uclalawreview.org
LAY PUNELL'S MODEL FO CULTUAL COMPETENCE
It is true that sociologists and anthropologists have many definitions of culture. Purnell defines it as totality of behaviors, arts, custom, ways of life, beliefs, and values that are transmitted from one society to another. He looks at it as the product of human work that is believed to guide the way people view the world and how they make decisions. These patterns may be explicit or implicit but are learned and transmitted from family and could be shared by members of a particular culture. It could include emergent phenomena, which changes in response to the global phenomena. People learn about their culture in the family, community, school and social organizations such as the church (Purnell, 2003, p. 3).
Chose a Cultural Group That Is Different from Yours
In this case we choose Hispanic/Latino population. These are the people of Latin America, or Iberian…
Colby, S. E. (n.d.). Multicultural Food Perspectives: Strategies for Health Care Providers. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 7(1), 13-19.
Escarce, J. J., Morales, L. S., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2006). The Health Status and Health Behaviors of Hispanics. In T. M, & M. F (Eds.), Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington (DC): National Academies Press.
Nevaer, L. E. (2016). "Hispanic" versus "Latino" versus "Latin." Retrieved from Hispanic Economics: http://hispaniceconomics.com/overviewofushispanics/hispaniclatinolatin.html
Peterson-Iyer, K. (2008, July 1). Culturally competent care for latino patients: An introduction. Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/medical/culturally - competent-care/hispanic.html
Nursing: Cultural Competence, Sensitivity and Empowerment
Cultural Competence, Sensitivity and Empowerment: Nursing
The changing demographics of the modern-day multicultural world are increasingly challenging healthcare professionals to consider cultural diversity as a priority in the health sector. Being able to deliver effective care to patients from diverse backgrounds begins with understanding the values, beliefs, and customs associated with different cultures. This text summarizes the writer's experience in a Native American powwow, and explores the effect of the Native American culture on the nursing profession.
Nursing: Cultural Competence, Sensitivity and Empowerment
Diversity is a word that perhaps means something different to each and every individual (Campinha-Bacote, 2003). What is for sure, however, is that the changing demographics of the modern-day multicultural world have, and continue to challenge healthcare professionals to consider cultural diversity as a fundamental concern in the health sector. The U.S. population is projected to reach 400 million by 2050,…
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2003). Many Faces: Addressing Diversity in Healthcare. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 8 (1), Manuscript 1. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume82003/No1Jan2003/AddressingDiversityinHealthCare.aspx
Cooper, M. (2012, December 12). Census Officials, Citing Increasing Diversity, Say U.S. will be a Plurality Nation. The New York Times, p. A20.
Grandbois, D. M. (2012). The Impact of History and Culture on Nursing Care of Native American Elders. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 38(1), 3-5.
McCluskey, M. (2009). Indian Education for All: Your Guide to Understanding and Enjoying Powwows. Montana Office of Public Instruction. Retrieved from http://www.opi.mt.gov/Pdf/IndianEd/Resources/PowWows.pdf
Australia, indigenous people recognize themselves as belonging to Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander or by descent, and also identified as the same by the society. A resistance has been observed in them to access hospitals for healthcare. Therefore, healthcare professionals need to plan, implement and maintain appropriate policies for their treatment. Also, cross-cultural awareness training should be given to paediatric hospital staff. (Munns & Shields, 2013, p. 22)
How would you support ianna and her family in this situation?
The poor health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is well documented, and has been the subject of official policy and program attention for many years. The mainstream health system has responded to increased funding and clear portfolio responsibility, with increasing attention to the burden of illness that Aboriginal people experience and the need for effective health care (Dwyer et al., 2014). I would thus make arrangement for proper…
Ansuya. (2012). Transcultural Nursing: Cultural Competence in Nurses. International Journal of Nursing Education, Volume 4(1), pp. 5-7.
Durey, A, Wynaden, D, Thompson, SC, Davidson, PM, Bessarab, D & Katzenellenbogen, JM. (2012). Owning Solutions: A Collaborative Model to Improve Quality in Hospital Care for Aboriginal Australians. Nursing Inquiry, Volume 19(2), pp. 144-152.
Dwyer, J, Willis, E & Kelly, J. (2014). Hospitals Caring for Rural Aboriginal Patients: Holding Response and Denial. Australian Health Review, Volume 38(5), pp. 546-551.
Kelly, J & Willis, E. (2014). Travelling to the City for Hospital Care: Access Factors in Country Aboriginal Patient Journeys. Australian Journal of Rural Health, Volume 22(3), pp. 109-113.
Among the most important aspects to the health promotion plan will be the benefits associated with a care manager, who can ensure that all six core elements of CCM are implemented fully. If this is accomplished, there should be a significant reduction in health disparities for patient and caregiver outcomes across generations.
AHQ. (2012). National Healthcare Disparities eport, 2011. No. 12-0006. ockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare esearch and Quality. etrieved 16 Apr. 2014 from http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr11/nhdr11.pdf.
Braveman, P.A., Kumanyika, S., Fielding, J., Laveist, T., Borrell, L.N., Manderscheid, . et al. (2011). Health disparities and health equity: The issue is justice. American Journal of Public Health, 101(Suppl. 1), S149-55.
Brodaty, H. & Donkin, M. (2009). Family caregivers of people with dementia. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11, 217-28.
Castro, A. & uiz, E. (2009). The effects of nurse practitioner cultural competence on Latina patient satisfaction. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse…
AHRQ. (2012). National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2011. No. 12-0006. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved 16 Apr. 2014 from http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr11/nhdr11.pdf .
Braveman, P.A., Kumanyika, S., Fielding, J., Laveist, T., Borrell, L.N., Manderscheid, R. et al. (2011). Health disparities and health equity: The issue is justice. American Journal of Public Health, 101(Suppl. 1), S149-55.
Brodaty, H. & Donkin, M. (2009). Family caregivers of people with dementia. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11, 217-28.
Castro, A. & Ruiz, E. (2009). The effects of nurse practitioner cultural competence on Latina patient satisfaction. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21(5), 278-86.
Culture Care Universality and Diversity
Leininger conceptualized the theory of care was developed in the 1950s and provided a way to bridge a culture and nursing care. "Leininger theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality" (Garmon 2011 p 1) is derived from the understanding the fields of culture and anthropology and is credited for her contribution to the nursing theory by establishing the transcultural concept in the nursing care. Typically, culture care is a holistic method of understanding, interpreting, explaining, and predicting care for the nursing practice. According to Leininger, culturally congruent care had been missing in the nursing practice and knowledge. Thus, a creative process of reformulation and integration of cultural practice is very critical for the development of nursing practice and knowledge. Leininger holds that a cultural care provides the most important and broadest means to explain, study and predict the nursing care practice. To discover patterns, and…
Department of Commerce (2010). U.S. Census 2010. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Fitzpatrick, J.J & Kazer, M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research, Third Edition. Springer Publishing Company.
Garmon B. S. (2011). Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. In J. Fitzpatrick, Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Leininger, M. (1988). Leininger's Theory of Nursing: Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Nurs Sci Q.1 (4): 152-160
cultural diversity issues and its impact on nursing professionals' practice. It assesses a client hailing from a different culture, and employs information derived from the assessment determining and reflecting on health practices and beliefs of the client's culture. Lastly, nurses' role in the care of patients hailing from diverse backgrounds care is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn.
Client Interview Data
Client's health beliefs in relation to cultural diversity
The client comes from a family-focused background, in which she plays the role of chief household organizer and attends to her family and their needs. She believes one ought to lead a life of a good and virtuous individual, and support one's family, particularly in times of need. In her opinion, sickness must be tended to, for preserving life. She believes in healthcare professionals and services they offer, for leading a healthy life. She is comfortable having healthcare professionals take care…
American Nurses Association. (1998). Discrimination and Racism in Health Care. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.
Anderson, L. (2012, October 10). Cultural Competence in the Nursing Practice. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://www.nursetogether.com/cultural-competence-nursing-practice
Coe, S. (2013, January 15). Cultural Competency in the Nursing Profession. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://www.nursetogether.com/cultural-competency-nursing-profession
Graue, M., Dunning, T., Hausken, M. F., & Rokne, B. (2013). Challenges in managing elderly people with diabetes in primary care settings in Norway. Scand J Prim Health Care, 31(4), 241-247.
Improving Customer Service on a Medical Surgical Nursing Unit
Quality Improvment Project-Customer service on the nursing unit
The hospital medical-surgical nursing unit is usually referred to as the "catch-all" department for different types of patients. This is because it includes renal patients, cancer patients, cardiac and surgical patient. It also includes other patients who do not particularly fall into any of these specialized units. The medical-surgical nursing unit is a conglomeration of all kinds of adults with all sorts of health problems and thus the nurses in this unit need to be dynamic, quick to respond and are almost on their toes at all times. Patients in the medical-surgical nursing unit are likely to develop changes in their condition quite rapidly and therefore they become more unstable even though they may have been admitted in a stable condition. This is because most patients in the medical-surgical nursing unit have unpredictable…
Amba-Rao, S.C. (1994). Human Resource Management Practices in India: An Exploratory Study. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 30(2), 190-202.
Dirks, K.T., & Ferrin, D.L. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 611-628.
Glickman, S.W., Baggett, K.A., Krubert, C.G., Peterson, E.D., & Schulman, K.A. (2007). Promoting quality: the health-care organization from a management perspective. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 19(6), 341-348. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzm047
Judge, T.A., & Piccolo, R.F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 755-768.
Culture on Substance Use Among Adolescents
Cultural values do have a significant impact on most adolescents' attitudes towards drug abuse. It should be noted that what is regarded "illicit" varies from culture to culture. In that regard, therefore, one social group could be appreciative and encourage the use of a substance that is considered illicit in another cultural setting or social grouping. This text concerns itself with the influence culture has on substance use among adolescents. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, highlight the various dimensions of culture that have an impact on adolescent treatment and prevention of substance use disorders, and focus on the kinds of cultural groups that adolescents could belong to that have some influence on their behavior and attitudes towards substance abuse and attitudes.
The relevance of culture when it comes to the formation of an individual's expectations on the negative impact of…
Abbott P.J. & Trujillo M. (1996). Alcohol and drug abuse among Hispanics. In: Kinney J, ed. Clinical Manual of Substance Abuse. 2:197- 207.
Marin G. & Marin B. (1991). Research with Hispanic populations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Robin R.W., Saremi A., Albaugh B., et al. (2004). Validity of the SMAST in two American Indian tribal populations. Subst Use Misuse. 39:601-624.
4, Privacy Information, Limits of Confidentiality
16. Does the site have a waiver that clients must electronically sign or mail in before beginning counseling that specifically states the limits of ensuring confidentiality over the Internet?
Confidentiality: a.4., Limits of Confidentiality; Confidentiality: c., Client Waiver
Source: Shaw & Shaw, 2006, p. 42
Other changes that will undoubtedly influence the types of codes of ethical conduct mandated for counselor in the future will be the enormous demographic shifts taking place in the United States. Indeed, Pack-Brown et al. conclude that nowhere is the change more evident than in the need for cross-cultural awareness on the part of counselors today. According to these authorities, "The recent changes in the professional ethics of American Counseling Association, American Psychological Association, and National Association of Social Workers reflect a growing sensitivity and moral-ethical respectability for the diverse cultural constructions of terms such as mental health and…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics quoted in Pack-Brown et al. At Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Blocher, DH (2000). Counseling: A developmental approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Code of ethics of the American Mental Health Counselors Association. (2001). Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23(1), 2.
Corey, G., William, G.T. & Moline, M.E. (1995). Ethical and legal issues in group counseling.
At the professional level, it is necessary to be prepared and equipped with the proper training on basic business practices and etiquette in Chinese business culture. Chinese society is generally a highly collective group, but respects a degree of power distance between each other. For them, individuals must know his or her place in the organization, and his/her actions must be based from this stature. Thus, they are used to working together as a group, but they maintain a degree of respect to individuals who are either senior or have more superior positions in the organization, or both. Thus, foreign staff members must learn to respect, and more often, adhere to this practice in the society. Since values are greatly respected in Chinese business culture, this is a mandatory practice that must not be forgotten especially when in the presence of Chinese affiliates with crucial roles in the success of…
Erbacher, D. (2006). "Expatriate success in China: impact of personal and situational factors." The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, Vol. 9.
Gleb, C. And D. Chen. (2004). "Going West: A progress report." The China Business Review.
Powers, P. (2005). "What a difference a decade makes." The China Business Review.
Varner, I. (2000). "The theoretical foundation for intercultural business communication: a conceptual model." The Journal Business of Communication.
The second session had camera instruction. The third session had each participant given a camera and they were instructed to "(t)ake pictures of the challenges and solution in addressing HIV and AIDS" (Mitchell et al., 2005). The fourth session saw the photos developed and asked small groups to compare and contrast their pictures by creating posters. The authors draw on previous research on photo-voice techniques, as well as memory and photography and self-representation through photography.
In the end, the authors' qualitative research concluded that although many projects use photography to give voice to participants, it is especially significant in the giving a voice to community health workers and teachers in rural South African communities. In these remote areas, the communities do not have to wait for researchers to provide them answers, instead they are able to take action themselves and give a visible face to the HIV and AIDS plight…
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…
Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html
Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512
Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
Jones relates that statement of Corrigan: "Our work suggests that the biggest factor changing stigma is contact between people with mental illness and the rest of the population. The public needs to understand that many people with mental illness are functioning, fully contributing members of society." (Jones, 2006) Jones states that "the social cost of stigma associated with mental illness is high because it translates into huge numbers of people with treatable mental illness not getting help." Jones relates the fact that the National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI) is a group of advocates that works toward fighting the "inaccurate, hurtful representations of mental illness" that are found in the media. Jang (2002) states that the National Health Law Program has a priority to access of healthcare. In fact, the Executive Order (EO 13166) was focused toward the implementation of guidelines in overcoming the language barriers. Jang states that LEP…
Anderson, S.K. & Middleton, V.A.
Explorations in privilege, oppression and DiversityBrooks Cole 2005. ISBN0-534-51742-0
Barber, J.G. (1995). Politically progressive casework. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 76(1), 30-37.
Children Who Can't Pay Attention/ADHD (2004) Facts for Families. Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Online available at http://www.aacap.org/page.ww?section=Facts+for+Families&name=Children+Who+Can%27t+Pay+Attention%2FADHD
Counseling: Determining a Model of Effective Cross Cultural Counseling
The purpose of this research paper is to investigate cross culturing counseling. The field of psychology has increasingly recognized the need for more effective cross-cultural practices. While the need for effective cross-cultural counseling techniques has been acknowledged by practitioners, few have actually identified the best methods for approaching the cross-cultural relationship in an effective manner (Bogo, George & Tsang, 2003).
This study investigated which methods of counseling are most effective at enabling the counselor to build rapport and trust in a cross-cultural context. In addition the researcher examines the following hypothesis: The most effective method of counseling from a cross cultural perspective is a model that requires that the counselor consider culture as an aspect of a clients identity, and incorporates that portion of identity into the counseling relationship.
The results of the study suggest that considering culture as a part…
Bentancourt, H. & Lopez, S.R. (1993). "The study of culture, ethnicity and race in American psychology." American Psychologist, 48, 629-637
Bogo, M., George, U. & Tsang, A.K.T. (2003). "Critical issues in cross cultural counseling research: Case example of an ongoing project." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 31(1): 63
Carter, R.T. (2003). "Becoming racially and culturally competent: The racial-cultural counseling laboratory." Journal of Multicultural Counseling, 31(1): 20
Carter, R.T. (2001). "Back to the future in cultural competence training." The Counseling
Ethics and Culture
Ethical and Cultural Competency
Vanaki, Z., Memarian, A. (2009). Professional ethics: beyond the clinical competency. Journal of Professional Nursing, 25 (5), 285 -- 291
The author found that the professional ethics are the core determinants to perform a better duty at the workplace. The behavior of a person at work place helps in making relationship and bonds with the team members, responsibilities, the patients, the staff and helps in better understanding of workplace strategies that are termed as professional ethics. The researchers found that the personality of a person depends a lot on the expression of compassion, love, care and attention. The survey was done on the nurses working in the hospital where they explained that despite the cultural differences, if they make a bond or a relationship of care with the patients. That helps a lot in maintaining the confidence of the patient and…
Siegel, C., Haugland, G., Rose, L.R., Reid, L., Hopper, K. (2011). Components of Cultural Competence in Three Mental Health Programs. Psychiatric services, 62 (6).
Vanaki, Z., Memarian, A. (2009). Professional ethics: beyond the clinical competency.
Journal of Professional Nursing, 25 (5), 285 -- 291
Hispanic Culture & Healthcare
The Hispanic culture has barriers to receiving adequate healthcare (Swanson, 2012). Language has been a huge barrier in respects to the practitioner's ability to speak Spanish that has created communication barriers. Long wait times, staff taking adequate time in a caring manner, and the physical environment, whether friendly and facilitates interactions, can develop perceptions of the lack of caring. Some Hispanics believe they receive poor quality of care because of financial limitations, race or ethnicity, or the accent in the way they communicate in English (Livingston, 2008).
The Hispanic culture is community oriented with a high value placed on family input (Swanson, 2012). The family encounters provide a huge amount of support for the Hispanic patient. Members who speak Spanish and English are heavily relied on for support in healthcare decision making. Gender roles are especially appreciated as women do caregiving, even in hospital, and men…
The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), the co-beneficiary of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947, was established in Philadelphia by individuals from the Religious Society of Friends (i.e., the Quakers) in Spring 1917. The link between AFSC and the Religious Society of Friends was always tenuous as the activism of the organization was something universal that many non-Quakers around the world could celebrate, while the actual tenets of Quakerism were not nearly as popular as the peace movement that the Religious Society of Friends took part in. Initially, the goals of the committee were limited; however, over the 20th century, AFSC epitomized the pacifist convictions and social-change driving forces of Philadelphia’s Quaker-led world-class fight for peace (Ingle, 2016). The AFSC essentially helped to support and come to the aid of the victims of war, whether they were Jewish, Russian, European, African, etc. (Frost, 1992). This paper will discuss the…
Vaughn et al. (2003) report that the identification of LD students has increased upwards of 200% since 1977, with explanations ranging from a likely outcome of the growing knowledge field, to LD as a field serving as a sink for the failures of general education to meet the needs of students of varying abilities. The study investigators find that not only is the heterogeneity of the identified students quite wide, they also find that many students are overrepresented (misidentified) or underrepresented (unidentified). One large problem is the use of IQ tests to identify those students as learning disabled. Using standardized tests fails to accurately identify those students who either have reading difficulties or those students whose first language is not English. More emphasis is needed on response to instruction type models of assessment and intervention to replace ineffective normalized standards for identifying students at risk and properly placing students for…
Aaron, P. (1997). The Impending Demise of the Discrepancy Formula. Review of Educational Research, 461-502.
Abedi, J. (2008). Psychometric Issues in the ELL Assessment and Special Education Eligibility. Teachers College Record, 2282-2303.
Ang, S., Van Dynne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K., Templar, K., Tay, C., et al. (2007). Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance. Management and Organization Review, 335-371.
August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C., & Snow, C. (2005). The Critical Role of Vocabulary Development for English Language Learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 50-57.
Hawaiian elde cae pofessionals impove patient eldecae sevices to Japanese nationals, taking into consideation Japanese cultual noms and expectations
Caegiving fo eldely paents in Japan
Japan has witnessed a significant gowth in its elde population. In the yea 1950, 4.9% of the Japanese population was aged 65 yeas and above. This figue inceased to 14.8% (1995). By 2025, it is estimated to gow to 25.8% (Yamamoto & Wallhagen, 1997). Japan's 'vey old' population goup (aged 85 and above) is swiftly inceasing in numbe. It has been pojected that by 2025, the nation's 'vey old' population will account fo 4.3% of its total population -- a five-fold ise in thee decades. Futhemoe, it was pojected that as many as 2.62 million Japanese would be suffeing fom senile dementia by the yea 2015; the 1990 estimate fo senile dementia was about one million individuals (11WSA 1996).
Change in the pecentage of Japan's…
references, and Arrangement of End-of-life Care and Decision-Making among Japanese-American Older Adults, ProQuest LLC.
National Asian Pacific Center on Aging. (1998). Growing APA elderly population adds urgency to improving health services. Asian Pacific Affairs, 6 (Dr. 2-3.
SALDOV, M., KAKAI, H., McLAUGHLIN, L. & THOMAS, A. (1998). Cultural barriers in oncology: Issues in obtaining medical informed consent from Japanese-American elders in Hawaii, Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 13: 265-279.
Sato, S. (2015). THE IMPACT OF GENDER AND CULTURAL FACTORS ON THE PATTERNS OF ELDER CARE SERVICE UTILIZATION AMONG FAMILY CAREGIVERS OF JAPANESE ANCESTRY IN THE STATE OF HAWAII, ProQuest LLC
SOROCCO, K.H. (1998). BECOMING A HEALTH ACTIVE OLDER ADULT: THE EFFECTS OF A WORKSHOP FOR JAPANESE-American OLDER ADULTS. ProQuest Information and Learning
The public will also be presented with information from the experiential view of someone who in the past failed to have their child immunized. Evaluation will be conducted by distributing surveys/questionnaires about access to immunizations in the previous 12 months. The model will be modified by identifying weak points in the efforts to inform the public.
(2) providing information to the public about cancer screening: the public will be given written and verbal information about cancer screening for their family and about how to access cancer screening in the community of providers. A special speaker will provide information about how cancer screening helped save their life. Evaluation will be conducted by distributing surveys/questionnaires about access to cancer screenings in the previous 12 months. The model will be modified by identifying weak points in the efforts to inform the public.
(3) Providing information about safe sex: the public will be given…
Clement, JJ and Rea-Ramirez, MA (2008) Model-Based Learning and Instruction in Science. Springer 2008. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=dc_14UNzOlYC&dq=GEM+model+for+learning&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Cultural Competence Education for Students in Medicine and Public Health Report of an Expert Panel (2012) Joint Expert Panel and the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Association of the Public Schools of Health. July. Retrieved from: https://members.aamc.org/eweb/upload/Cultural%20Competence%20Education_revisedl.pdf
Health education: theoretical concepts, effective strategies and core competencies (2012) World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://applications.emro.who.int/dsaf/EMRPUB_2012_EN_1362.pdf
Kulbok, PA (2012) Evolving Public Health Nursing Roles: Focus on Community Participatory Health Promotion and Prevention. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17. No. 2 May. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Evolving-Public-Health-Nursing-Roles.html
Timothy, and Brown, Sandra A. (2006). Adolescent Self-Selection of Service Formats:
Implications for Secondary Interventions Targeting Alcohol Use. The American Journal on Addictions, ol. 15, 58-66.
The authors employed three formats of intervention (individual, group, and website) on youth in four schools over a four-year window of time. The results of this survey (which involved "Project Options") of 1,147 students is that minority teens who willingly sought alcohol services preferred to receive interventions in a private context rather than in group therapy.
Gil, Andres G., Wagner, Eric F., and Tubman, Jonathan G. (2004). Culturally sensitive substance abuse intervention for Hispanic and African-American adolescents: empirical examples from the Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents in Need (ATTAIN) Project. Addiction,
This article offers a strategy that (in this case) significantly reduced use of marijuana and alcohol in all ethnic groups involved in the project. Some 213 juvenile offenders participated in…
Von Wormer, Katherine, and McKinney, Robin. (2003). What Schools Can do To Help Gay/
Lesbian/Bisexual Youth: A Harm Reduction Approach. Adolescence, 38(151), 409-420.
Von Wormer asserts through this article that because adjusting to heterosexual environment in public schools -- and dealing with the bias that often is in evidence -- is difficult, it is a "major cause of psychological problems" which leads these minorities to alcohol and drug abuse issues.
Role of a Counselor in Marital Therapy
Handling Ethical Issues
Professional organizations such as APA and others have rules and guidelines regarding how their members should handle certain situations. However, these are not usually the only guidelines that counselors and other professionals have to follow; i.e. they often have to stick to the rules laid out by government regulatory authorities. Therefore, there exist situations in which counselors end up receiving contradictory information on what to do in certain situations. One such situation is on what to do if the client refuses to divulge a secret. One side of the argument is that counselors ought to stop offering therapy sessions to a couple if they refuse to not be open enough with them, while the other side argues that counselors ought to use their professional judgment when deciding whether or not they should terminate their therapy if the clients keep certain…
Ahmed, S., Wilson, K., Jr., R. H. & Jones, J. W., 2011. What Does It Mean to Be a Culturally-Competent Counselor?. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 3(1), pp. 17-28.
Boss, B. A. & Quiimbry, J. L., 2006. Addressing Secrets in Couples Counseling: An Alternative Approach to Informed Consent. The Family Journal, 14(1), pp. 77-80.
Dishongh, E. M., 2009. APPRECIATIVE CHRISTIAN THERAPY: A Theological Paradigm to Facilitate Positive Change in Couples. Montgomery, Amridge University.
Richards, S. & Bergin, A. E., 2005. A Theistic Spiritual Strategy: What Good Is It?. In: A Spiritual Strategy for Counseling and Psychotherapy. Washington DC: American Psychological Association, p. 422.
Attracting, developing and retaining leadership talent will define a new competitive battleground where the stakes include survival." (Petro and Petty, 2007)
It is important to note that the stated challenges for the Human Resources Executive are to "establish leadership development as a core competency." (Petro and Petty, 2007) These authors report that an interview process was conducted and information derived from over 1,000 responses include those as follows:
The identification and development of new, first-time leaders is often ad hoc with no formal structure or approach to improve success and weed out potentially poor choices. Additionally, early-career leaders often report a lack of mentoring and support during their start-up phase - a point in time where they clearly would benefit from appropriate support.
Formal career planning as a means of developing and retaining talent is not widely practiced.
The general perception of early career professionals is that leadership is a…
The War for Talent (2007) Iran International. 2007 March. No. 43. Online available at http://www.iraninternationalmagazine.com/text/the%20war%20for%20talent.htm.
Kelly, Claudia; Marquez, Manolo, Russell, Simon (2006) Preparing the Next Battle in the War for Talent. 2006. Online available at http://www.spencerstuart.com/research/pov/article/1020/ .
The Battle for Brainpower (2006) the Economist. 5th October 2006. Online available at http://www.economist.com/surveys/displayStory.cfm?story_id=7961894 .
Petro, Rich; and Petty, Art (2007) the Looming Leadership Talent Wars and What Organizations Need to Do to Secure Their Future. Business Intelligence Network - the Vision for VI and Beyond. Online available at http://www.b-eye-network.com/view/4448 .
For instance, "some speakers may engage in overlap, speaking while someone else is taking a turn-at-talk. For some linguistic groups, this discourse behavior can be interpreted as a signal of engagement and involvement; however, other speakers may view it as an interruption and imposition on their speaking rights. Teachers can use the Record-View-Transcribe-Analyze technique to study cross-cultural interactions in their classrooms, helping students identify different communication strategies and their potential for miscommunication." (Demo, 2001)
According to the work "Vernacular Dialects in U.S. Schools," "Children from different backgrounds come to school speaking a wide variety of dialects." (Christian, 1997) the problem according to Christian (1997) is in the fact that, "One central issue in this controversy is whether mastery and use of a standard dialect should be required in schools. Some people consider such a requirement to be discriminatory, because it places an extra burden on certain students. Others argue that…
Literacy, Education and Social Development, (1997) Confintea, Hamburg 1997 UNESCO Institute for Education Fifth International Conference on adult Education (CONFINTEA V) held 3in Hamburg, 1997. 3c Social Development
Park, Eunjin and King, Kendall CAL Digest: Cultural Diversity and Language Socialization in the Early Years (2003) December EDO-FL-03-13
Demo, Douglas a. (2001) Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers CAL Journal September 2001
Schiffrin, D. (1994). Approaches to discourse. Oxford: Blackwell.