Culture Shock Essays (Examples)

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Culture on Brand Building in

Words: 2082 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75271713

As a result, not only are foreign markets changing to adapt to the Chinese marketplace needs, the Chinese marketplace, and consumer, are likewise adapting and changing to meet the needs of the global market. For instance, the economic boom in China's urban areas is creating a new consumer culture where the consumer has more disposable income to work with. This itself has effected consumer preferences and patterns within the Chinese marketplace. The general result is that a more sophisticated Chinese consumer is emerging and foreign companies need to market to their sophisticated needs while at the same time marketing to the general population's needs.

Therefore, the most effective way for a company to build a strong brand name in the rapidly emerging Chinese market is to adapt itself to the rapidly changing Chinese culture. To do this, it is important that the foreign company create a local presence and thus…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Apadu, K., and Sevgin, E. (1991): "Success and Failure of Japanese Companies' Export Ventures in High-Tech Industries," International Marketing Review. Vol. 8, No. 2, p.p. 66-76.

Armstrong, E. (2002): "Communication's Starring Role and Standard Chartered Bank," Strategic Communication Management. Vol. 6, No. 4, p.p. 10-13.

Ayala, J. And Lain, R. (1996): "China's Consumer Market: A Huge Opportunity to Fail?," McKinsey Quarterly, No. 3, p.p. 56-72.

Ayala, J., Lai, R. Mok, B. et. al. (1996): "Winning China's Consumer Market in the 21st Century," McKinsey Quarterly, No. 2, p.p. 178-181.
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Culture and Health Disparities - Filipinos Personal

Words: 1665 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10414840

Culture and Health Disparities - Filipinos

PESONAL SOCIAL STATUS: In researching this project, I found a study prepared by the Canadian Nurses Association (2005). It reviewed the social determinants of health and how one's social status impacts their or their family health outcomes. The focus of this piece was on issues such as poverty, economic inequality, social isolation and social support systems and their impact on the health of minorities, many of the same categories and characteristics mentioned in the Journal of Transcultural Nursing (Andrews et al., 2010). While their study was more on a broad base of Canadian conditions, their findings seem to reflect the circumstances of many first and second generation Filipinos. First and later generations of Filipinos who move to new cultures do act differently, but for the most part there remain many family connections and networks that cannot be overlooked.

My social status is mostly a…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Andrews, M. et al. (2010). Theoretical Basis for Transcultural Care. Section II. Foundations of Transcultural Nursing and Health Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing. Vol. 21. DOI: 10.1177/1043659610374321.

Canadian Nursing Association (2005). Social Determinants of Health and Nursing: A summary of Issues. Canadian Nursing Association. Viewable at http://www.cna-aiic.ca/CNA/documents/pdf/publications/BG8_Social_Determinants_e.pdf.

Castillo, M.V. (nd). Caring in the Diaspora: Filipino Immigrants, Health Care, Healing, and Religion. Religious Healing in Boston. Viewable at http://www.hds.harvard.edu/cswr/resources/print/rhb/reports/13.Castillo.pdf.

McBride, M. (nd). Health and Health Care of Filipino Elders. Stanford Geriatric Education Center. Viewable at http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/filipino.html.
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Culture Clashes With a Culture

Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8513866

"Fish becomes the leitmotif in the story. Mrs. Sen's existence as also her survival in an alien land revolves around and depends upon this food item. hen she gets it she is happy, and when it is absent from her kitchen for a long time, she sulks like a child. For Mrs. Sen fish becomes her home, her state, her neighborhood, her friend and her family. Fish gives her a sense of proximity to her people. The arrival of a tasty halibut gives her pleasure as nothing else does" (Choubey 2001). But when Mrs. Sen is rebuked for the smell of her prized fish, even this source of connection with home, however, tenuous, becomes perverted.

Some of the characters of the Interpreter of Maladies learn to negotiate their new identities and cultural terrains and bridge the cultural gaps that exist between themselves and their fellow Indians, as well as with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Choubey, Asha. "Food as Metaphor in Jhumpa Lahiri's Interpreter of Maladies."

The Literature and Culture of the Indian Subcontinent on the Postcolonial Web. Last modified 2001. [8 Dec 2007.]

http://www.usp.nus.edu.sg/post/india/literature/lahiri/choubey1.html

Lahiri, Jhumpa Interpreter of Maladies and other stories. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
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International Students Coping With Culture

Words: 2514 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2151347

g. culture shock, potential solutions and/or considerations to better overcome potential negative consequences are examined during the proposed literature review.

Research Questions to Guide Exploration

The research questions proposed for this study, presented in the previous chapter will help ensure sources remain in tune with proposed aims and objectives.

1. hat challenges/scrutinizes currently confront Middle Eastern Students attending George Mason University, located in the heart of Northern

Virginia?

2. How did 911 impact policies related to Arabian students?

3. Do Arabian students and/or the U.S. gain any intrinsic value(s) from time invested to study in the U.S.

Along with answering these research questions, additional consideration will be invested in culture shock, George Mason University; U.S. government policies following the 911 disaster; positive counters to culture shock and other relevant current concerns.

2.2: In the U.S.A.

U.S. Government Policies Following the 911 Disaster

George Mason University actively promotes positive cultural interactions.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arensberg, Conrad M. (1964). Introducing Social Change. Aldine Publishing Company. Chicago, IL

Campus Blues. Campus Center. (2001) Some Facts Psychologists Know About Foreign Student' Adjustments. Retrieved (7/16/02) at  http://www.campusblues.com 

CNN Law Center. (May 2002). INS Aims to Better Track Foreign Students in the U.S. Retrieved (7/19/02) at http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/ins.students

Cushner, Kenneth. (1996) Intercultural Interactions: A Practical Guide.
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Reframing Pilgrimage Cultures in Motion

Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19773478

Reframing Pilgrimage: Cultures in Motion by Simon Coleman and John Ead is a book that challenges the notion that sacred travel is a form of 21st century, modern, cultural mobility. The authors attempt to analyze the meanings behind Christian, Hindu, Mormon, Sufi, and Islamic pilgrimage through interpretation of traditions including pilgrimage in secular contexts. In doing so, they generate a new theory of pilgrimage and define it as a form of voluntary displacement. The newly formed meaning of voluntary displacement assists in establishing cultural meaning in an otherwise fast pace world.

Pilgrimage works on a global and individual economic scale and is recognized as a highly politically and creatively charged force intrinsically encircled in cultural and economic systems. Many works have stated how pilgrimage revolves around culture and movement and in itself represents an aspect of culture that otherwise would go unnoticed if it did not religious connotations attached to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Badone, Ellen, and Sharon R. Roseman. Intersecting Journeys The Anthropology of Pilgrimage and Tourism. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.

Coleman, Simon, and John Eade. Reframing Pilgrimage: Cultures in Motion. London: Routledge, 2004.

Hyndman-Rizk, Nelia. "The pilgrim church in Vienna: mobile memories at the 1912 International Eucharistic Congress." In Pilgrimage in the Age of Globalisation Constructions of the Sacred and Secular in Late Modernity, 38-55. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012.

Peat, Alexandra. Travel and Modernist Literature Sacred and Ethical Journeys. New York: Routledge, 2011.
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Father Culture Clash -- a

Words: 1049 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13382530



According to anthropologist Lalervo Oberg, culture shock arises when suddenly one's sense of certainty is destroyed when one enters a foreign environment. A person undergoing culture shock experiences it as a series of "upsets -- breaks in reality because people behave differently" in a new culture and because the shocked individual finds him or herself in unfamiliar circumstances (Oberg, 2007). Yet the extraordinary clash of "The Father" does not result suddenly, even though the news is sudden -- the daughter's schema of values has been changing over time, only the father has ignored it, or not wished to see this change. Oberg says the clash occurs because "families and friends are far away," but in this case, the family member is close by, yet changed by her upbringing in a new culture.

Babli feels far away to her father. Her father experiences all of the "discontent, impatience, anger, sadness, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Guanipa, Carmen. "Culture Shock." San Diego University. 17 Mar 1998. 2 Jul 2007. http://edweb.sdsu.edu/people/CGuanipa/cultshok.htm

Mukherjee, Bharati "The Father." From Literature and the Writing Process.

Elizabeth McMahan, Susan X Day, & Robert Funk (Eds.). New York Prentice

Hall, 2007.
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National Culture on Project Control Emirates Project

Words: 5403 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85894337

national cultue on poject contol: emiates poject manage in *xyz company case study

This wok addesses effects of national and intenational cultue upon business, using a copoate oganization in the UAE as an example. Theoetical aspects of cultue ae discussed and a detailed eseach pogam is outlined, with data fom a Pilot Study being pesented, as a basis to plan and delineate the best appoach to the oveall eseach potocols.

Intent

The goals of this manuscipt ae to evaluate the XYZ oganization in the UAE in tems of the effects of national and intenational cultue upon a business.

Appoach/Methodology/Design

The vaious aspects of a given national cultue ae used to develop theoetical hypotheses concening the manne in which cultue influences copoate actions.

Value/Oiginality

This wok offes a contibution to the field though data-povision and analysis focusing on common pesumptions that copoate actions ae modified accoding to the 'home county' cultual…… [Read More]

references

Adler, NJ (1991). International dimensions of organizational behavior. 2.ed. Boston: Kent Publishing.

Ali, A.J. (1990). Management theory in a transitional society: the Arabs' experience. International Studies of Management and Organization. 20, 7-35.

Al-Rasheed, A (1994). Traditional Arab management: evidence from empirical comparative research. In Proceedings of Arab Management Conference, Bradford: 89-114.

Atkinson, R (1999). Project management: cost, time and quality, two best guesses and a phenomenon, its time to accept other success criteria. International Journal of Project Management. 17(6). 337-42.
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Business Organizational Culture Refers to

Words: 362 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79404284



Some of the unique cultural aspects of the business at hand are the value placed on flexibility, family and employee independence. All of these cultural values are heavily focused on the people factor. Any changes to these values will have to take into account the effect it will have on the employee's moral and thus productivity. Many of our employees are successful because their values are in line with the business' values and therefore there is no "culture shock" so to say. In order to prevent any changes from alientating the company's strong employee base, any changes to these three values should be slight. For example, one recommendation would be to focuse on changing one aspect while strengthening the other two. In terms of changing the dispersion of the employees, employees could be required to work on site for a specific number of days per week or month.… [Read More]

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Elvis' Impact on Popular Music Culture

Words: 1327 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64555517

Elvis Presley's Impact On Popular Music Culture

From the time Elvis recorded "That's All Right Mamma" for Sun Records in 1953, to his subsequent and astonishing rise to fame, he reinvented the concept of rock star and has made a bigger impact on popular music culture than any other act. That is saying a lot considering that the Beatles and Rolling Stones and others like Elton John have been huge superstars. But looking at Elvis's impact, as this paper does, one can clearly see that he influenced all of those acts. John Lennon said that "Before Elvis there was nothing…" and the Rolling Stones have indicated that they were hugely influenced by Elvis.

hen Elvis Started Out -- Launching his Career as a Musical Rebel and Icon

An article in the Public Broadcasting Service (KCET) website ("Culture Shock / Music and Dance) traces Elvis's early beginnings in terms of how…… [Read More]

Works Cited

History Today. (2007). Elvis: Rock 'n' Roll's reluctant rebel. Retrieved December 24, 2013,]

From  http://www.historytoday.com .

Kemp, M. (2001). Elvis Presley Biography. Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 24, 2013, from  http://www.rollingstone.com .

Public Broadcast Service. (1956). Elvis Presley, 1956. KCET. Retrieved December 24, 2013,
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Impact of Culture on International Business

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59620934

International Accounting Culture

Changing something as important and far-reaching as the accounting standards followed by a business can be a massive undertaking. However, this sort of complex change can be made all the more complicated when there are intense or complicated social and international factors in play. The case study studied for this report describes exactly such a situation in Egypt. That study will be reviewed in this report and other sources covering the same general topic will also be explored.

Case & esearch Analysis

As for the case study itself, it is quickly noted that Egypt is a developing country but they are most certainly transitioning to a market-based economy on par with more developed parts of the world like North America and western Europe. Egypt, like much of the world, was under colonial control and that was not ceded until the revolution that occurred in the 1950's. The…… [Read More]

References

Carlo, A.M. (2006). "Overseas Adjustment," Home Channel News. New York: October

2006, Volume 32, Issue 13, Pages 26-28

Dahawy, K., Shehata, N., & Ransopher, T. (2011). The state of accounting in Egypt: A

case. Journal of Business Cases & Applications, 3, 68-79.
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Flamhotlz Eric and Yvonne Randle Corporate Culture

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14918673

Flamhotlz, Eric, and Yvonne, Randle, "Corporate Culture: he Ultimate Strategic Asset," (Stanford University Press, 08.04.2011)

his book provides a complex definition of the idea of organizational culture and emphasizes why it is essential for most companies in the present to use this concept as a means to become more appealing to their targeted public. his book is focused on the idea of culture and on its relationship with society: it attempts to demonstrate that people are obsessed with the idea of culture and that it would thus be essential for someone to concentrate on it in order to avoid coming across significant problems.

Msoroka, Mohamed, "Organizational Culture: Its Implications to Educational Institutions," (GRIN Verlag, 2012)

Msoroka goes more in-depth when considering organizational culture and tries to explain how it can play an important role in environments that are traditionally unlikely to consider it. he essay creates a series of parallels…… [Read More]

This study is important because it provides examples concerning organizational culture and how it proved to play an essential role in a series of business deals. Many corporate mergers and acquisitions fail to achieve the success the goals they are expected to meet and by taking into account how organizational culture can affect such enterprises one is more likely to understand how he or she can effectively use the concept.

Hierling, Marco, Yeh, Yu-Chen, and Tai, Chloe S.Y., "Organizational Culture and the Case of Google," (GRIN Verlag, 2008)

This paper points out that sociology can be used to explain a series of ideas in the business environment. By emphasizing that individuals have the tendency to look at matters from different perspectives, the essay goes at showing the importance of organizational culture. By discussing with regard to Google and to the changes that the company experienced during recent years, one is more likely to observe how organizational culture works and that there is actually a strong connection between culture and proficiency.
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Cultures Work That What Is

Words: 2258 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21038446

e. according to American norms and conventions. Part of this, incidentally, was due too to the fault of government itself that failed to provide them with the land, which the Hmong could have fertilized.

I realized that even thoguh America has gone a long way in attempting to appreciate other cultures and in refraining from foisting their own way of life on cultures other than they; they still do so to a certain extent.

I also wonder why people found it so hard to understand that others coming from lives so different than they would need time to acclimate and learn their 'language'.

Most of all I was impressed with the steadfastness, courage, and resilience of the Lees to resolutely cling to her traditions and way of life despite recrimination and hardship.

There are some things that are better in the Hmong culture than in the Western culture, such as…… [Read More]

Reference

Fadiman, A. The spirit catches you and you fall down. Farrar & co., 1997
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Jeremiah Johnson & Culture the

Words: 881 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37520129

Jeremiah has a wedding that symbolizes the union of American and American Indian customs; a mix of the two very different peoples. After settling down and creating an ideal life, Jeremiah is forced into the U.S. Army, and leaves his cottage in order to do what the 'authority' wants. Against his wishes, the Calvary goes through sacred Blackfoot land, and as a result, Jeremiah's family is killed.

This scene is very shocking, but should not have been surprising to Jeremiah. He chose to forget his lessons of mountainhood that he had learned, and he did not respect the local people. As a result of this, and his attachment to the possessions that he had brought to the land, he was unable to conquer the rugged territory that he had first faced at the beginning of the movie, bringing about the lessons of life and hardship in the American West.

Jeremiah…… [Read More]

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Assembling Culture Archives Documents Exhibitions

Words: 6890 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25075072

Assembling Culture

Assembling Southern Appalachian Belief Culture from the Foxfire Archive

This project looks at the belief structure of people in the Southern Appalachian mountains as recognized through the Foxfire archival project, documentary evidence and artistic interpretation. Through an examination of belief systems it is believed that unique cultural aspects of this isolated group of people can be determined. The Foxfire project is an archive that documents how the people lived prior to the mass introduction of outside influences that happened concurrent to the ability of residents to electrify their houses which occurred from approximately 1935 and into the 1950's. Prior to this time the residents of these southeastern mountains were isolated due to the remoteness of villages, and they were able to remain relatively self-contained even though some sections were being encroached by industry. The belief systems in this examination include religion and healing, but mainly relate to how…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Breton, Andre. Nadja. New York: Grove Press, 1960. Print.

Cheek, Angie, and Lacy Hunter Nix. The Foxfire 40th Anniversary Book: Faith, Family, and the Land. New York: Anchor Books, 2006. Print.

Cohen, Margaret. Profane Illumination: Walter Benjamin and the Paris of Surreal Revolution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995. Print.

De Caro, Frank. The Folklore Muse: Poetry, Fiction, and Other Reflections by Folklorists, Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2008. Print.
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Dutch Culture

Words: 3736 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46326726

Dutch Culture

Introduction to Cultural Differences

It is obvious that differences in cultures are very important, though these differences are difficult to handle. The failure to understand and appreciate that differences in cultures bring variety to lifestyles leads to embarrassment, uneasy relationships, and failed businesses. Culture permeates both life and death. Take, for instance, the high rate of plane crashes in Korea from the year 1970 to 2000. The discovery made from the analysis of the black boxes from the crashed planes show that the flight engineers and the co-pilots in the cockpits carry out actions only in deference to the captains. Even at the wake of the possibility of a crash, the flight engineers and the co-pilots rarely made suggestions that would go against the good judgment of the captains.

In this presentation, culture is seen as a shared system of values, beliefs, assumptions and projections which are imbibed…… [Read More]

References

Agar, M. (1994). Language Shock: Understanding the Culture of Conversation. New York: Quill.

Aggarwal, R., Kearney, C. And Lucey, B. (2009). Gravity as a cultural arteface: Culture and distance in foreign portfolio investment.

Argentina mental health (2009). Its GDP Is Depressed, but Argentina Leads World in Shrinks Per Capita. Wall Street Journal. Accessed from: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125563769653488249.html

Benassy-Quere, A., Coupet, M. And Mayer, T. (2005). Institutional Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment. CEPII Working Paper No. 2005-05.
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Unintentional Appropriation in Cultures

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24261436

Unintentional Appropriation in Cultures

The cultural appropriation concept of using another culture's symbol, genres, artifacts, rituals, or technologies, as per Rogers is just inescapable when two of them had to meet at a certain point of time. This includes both the virtual as well as the representational contacts. Such appropriations involve in exploiting the marginalized and colonized cultures and help in the survival of subordinated cultures. Their resistance to dominant cultures is also quite visible. According Rogers, the definition of cultural appropriation is the association of one culture to another and ends their own culture. This imitation or borrow tactic might have been done unintentionally to deconstruct or distort one's culture and this is a form of appropriation. [footnoteRef:1] [1:. Ibid., 476]

We can even say that the Cultural appropriation as an active process that represents the meaning as 'taking'. However, cultural appropriation does not include the mere exposures to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Finley, Taryn. 10 Times Black Culture Was Appropriated In 2015. December 16, 2015. Accessed November 18, 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/10-times-black-culture-was-appropriated-in-2015_us_566ee11de4b011b83a6bd660.

McLeod, L. Poppy. Nice Day for a 'White' Wedding: The Problem With Whiteness in Bridal Magazines. July 23, 2016. Accessed November 18, 2016. http://www.theroot.com/articles/culture/2016/07/nice-day-for-a-white-wedding-the-problem-with-whiteness-in-bridal-magazines.

Nittle, K. Nadra. What Is Cultural Appropriation and Why Is It Wrong? November 14, 2016. Accessed November 18, 2016. http://racerelations.about.com/od/diversitymatters/fl/What-Is-Cultural-Appropriation-and-Why-Is-It-Wrong.htm.

Rogers, Richard A. "From Cultural Exchange to Transculturation: A Review and Reconceptualization of Cultural Appropriation." Communication Theory, Vol 16, Issue 4 (November 2006): 474 -- 503. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2006.00277.
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New Nurses and Reality Shock

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77569790

eality Shock Nursing

One of the biggest challenges for modern nursing is the challenge that newly graduated nurse's face once they leave school and enter a full-time health care facility. Colloquially known as "reality shock," this is the view that despite years of training, time in the clinical setting, and even prior experience, the stress of the new nurse is that they are unprepared for the pace, attitude, culture and expectations within their new career. The new nurse is now expected to have not only clinical knowledge but already know the hospital or facility logistically, be able to juggle multiple horizontal priorities, and even get to know colleagues and patients. This reality shock often causes new nurses to doubt their abilities, question their career choice, or, as a last resort, leave the profession entirely. For most nurses, reality shock is then the result of the emotional and psychological conflict between…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bonis, S. (2009). Knowing in Nursing: A Concept Analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(6), 1328-41. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648

Kajander, S., et al. (2013, August). Self-Assessed level of competence of graduating nursing students and factors relating to it. Retrieved from Nurseeducationtoday.com: http://www.nurseeducationtoday.com/article/S0260-6917(13)00300-6/abstract

MacIntyre, A. (2006). A Short History of Ethics. New York: Routledge.

Marquis, B., et al. (2009). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
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Managing Across Cultures 70

Words: 3211 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93114531

Managing Across Cultures

Internationalization of the economy has influenced companies to operate their business globally. The global operation has impact managers with several challenges. Market, product, and production plans must be coordinated on a worldwide basis. The global operation necessitates organization structure to balance centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy. As companies have started their business operation on the international front, the number of their employees has increased. Increase in the employee's abroad management is faced with new global challenges. The three broad international business management challenges were identified by the management gurus as follows (obert, Kossek & Ozeki, 1998):

a) Deployment: To get the right skills where it is required in an organization regardless of the geographical location.

b) Knowledge and creativity distribution: Spreading the knowledge and practices throughout the organization regardless of where they have actually originated.

c) Talent identification and development on global basis: To identify…… [Read More]

References

Drucker, P. (1988) The Coming of the New Organization. Harvard Business Review issue

January-February 1988

Fadel, J. & Petti, M (1997). International HR policy basics.

Global workforce issue April 1997, pp. 29-30
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Adapting to a New Culture

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16097655

For example, Americans might face difficulty in Middle Eastern countries because of their negative image of America, Chinese may find themselves ill at ease in the western countries because of the nerdy Asian image and Indians may find people ridiculing their accent. In all honesty, moving to a new country is something that most people would want to avoid if they had a choice. Students moving to other countries do so because their own countries do not offer the same quality of education that they are likely to get abroad.

Apart from language, food and stereotyping, a person may also feel immensely homesick in a new country. While initially everything about the host country appears charming, the honey-moon period doesn't last very long. One a person comes to see the real problems and difficulties associated with living abroad, he is likely to miss home and then everything about one's native…… [Read More]

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Globalization and Food Culture in Hong Kong

Words: 2127 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56424967

Hong Kong Food Culture

Unlike many other cities, Hong Kong offers a unique case study in the effects of globalization on local economies and cultures due to its premier status as a nexus between China and the West. Over the years, and even through British rule, Hong Kong maintained its own distinctly Chinese culture even in the face of relentless influence from other countries and explicit attempts to manipulate Hong Kong culture. However, globalization has caught up with Hong Kong, greatly undermining the traditional Chinese culture, a fact seen most clearly in the case of Hong Kong food culture. Nonetheless, Hong Kong retains its Chinese cultural importance, such that one examining the decline of Hong Kong food culture cannot help but see the areas in which the process has been inverted as well, with Hong Kong culture serving to integrate certain foods or drinks into Chinese society. Thus, as globalization…… [Read More]

References

Elsey, B., & Tse, R.C. (2007). Changing the behaviour of traditional bakers in a chinese multi-

family owned food company through workplace action learning in hong kong. Journal of Workplace Learning, 19(8), 511-525.

Furnham, A., & Li, J. (2008). Gender portrayal in food and beverage advertisements in hong

kong: A content analytic study. Young Consumers, 9(4), 297-307.
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Virgin's Organizational Culture Model of the Organization

Words: 2336 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50159039

Virgin's Organizational Culture

Model of the organization

Organizational culture is built around three aspects: (1) complexity, (2) formalization, and (3) centralization.

Complexity: Complexity depends on the hierarchical structure of the organization, the larger it is generally the more complex it is. Complexity, then, is reduced to three tiers: vertical, horizontal, and geographical.

Vertical: The larger the depth of layer the more 'vertical' the organization is. A complex and broad organization, therefore, would generally have more layers than one less complex (Bartol, Twein, Matthews, & Martin, 2007). Branson was an exception to this. Though leader of exceedingly broad and complex operations, he managed to reduce the structure of verticality by splitting Virgin Groups up into multiple small companies. Branson believed that employees preferred to work under small companies than under large impersonal corporations. By the late 1980s, for instance, he had fragmented his collection of companies into more than 100 loosely…… [Read More]

Sources

Bartol, K., Twein, M., Matthews, G., & Martin, D. 2007, Management: A Pacific Rim Focus, Prentice-Hall, Sydney.

Burns, T. & Stalker, G.M., 1961, The Management of Innovation, Tavistock, London.

Cherrington, D.J. Orgnizational Behavior, 1994. USA: Alleyn & Bacon

Cooperrider, D.L., & Godwin, L. 2010. 'Positive Organization Development: Innovation-inspired Change in an Economy and Ecology of Strengths'. Appreciative Inquiry Commons. http://appreciativeinquiry.case.edu/intro/comment.cfm
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Barbados Culture Gender Roles and Working Life

Words: 3839 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36207302

Barbados Culture

Barbados was once called the Little England due to its landscape of rolling terrain, as well as its customs of tea drinking and cricket, the Anglican Church, parliamentary democracy and the conservatism of its rural culture. It has a well-developed airport, electrical supply and road system, especially after independence in 1966 when the tourist industry became the most important sector of the economy. Of course, it also inherited a racial caste system from its three hundred years of slavery, and until very recent times, the white minority had almost all the political and economic power. Today, only about 5% of the population is white, 20% of mixed race background and the remaining 75% descended from African slaves. As with most of the Caribbean islands, the indigenous Arawak and Carib populations were devastated by disease in the fifty years after first contact with Europeans in 1492. Although there were…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Beckles, Hilary McD.. Natural Rebels: A Social History of Enslaved Black Women in Barbados. Rutgers University Press, 1989.

Beckles, Hilary McD. "The Slave-Drivers' War: Bussa and the 1816 Barbados Slave Rebellion" in Howe, Glenford H. And Don D. Marshall (Eds) The Empowering Impulse: The Nationalist Tradition of Barbados. Kingston, Jamaica: canoe Press, 2001: 1-33.

Breslaw, Elaine G. Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies. New York University Press, 1996.

Browne, David V.C. "The 1937 Disturbances and Barbadian Nationalism" in Howe and Marshall: 149-63.
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Post-Soviet Culture the Union of

Words: 1315 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19577733

Ethnic nationality comes when a "consciousness of a shared identity within a group, rooted in a shared culture and a belief in common ancestry. Ethno-nationalism is a term that refers to nationalism based on this consciousness of ethnic nationality, as opposed to civic nationality" ("Week 1"). This is in direct contrast to civic nationality.

Civic nationality centers on the shared territory of the group of people. It matters little what each individual's ancestry is, as long as the person was born or is permanently residing within a geographic area ("Week 1"). For the Ukraine, it mattered little that the ussians were permanent residents, or that many had been born within the Ukrainian borders, what mattered was the shared culture of the Ukrainian people, and their ancestry.

It should have been little surprise that ethnic nationalism took hold over civic nationalism. Civic nationalism usually occurs in well-institutionalized democracies ("Week 1"). However,…… [Read More]

References

Developments in Selected Non-Member Economies: The Russian Federation." OECD Economic Outlook (Dec 2001). June 7, 2005 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4456/is_2001_Dec/ai_83566086.

History of Post-Soviet Russia. 25 May 2005. Wikipedia.org. June 7, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_post-Soviet_Russia.

Ringo, Ringvee. "Religious Freedom and Legislation in Post-Soviet Estonia." Brigham Young University Law Review (2001). June 7, 2005 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3736/is_200101/ai_n8947384/pg_2.

Russia. 4 Jun 2005. Wikipedia.org. June 7, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia.
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Reality Shock Is a Fact

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41238254

Adaptability means survival, much like it does in nature. For a business to be adaptable, its workforce must concomitantly be able to adapt to change in the marketplace and customer demand. A company is only as strong as the ability of all its employees to meet its customers' expectations. This is particularly so when a company needs to make changes to its operations in order to accommodate a changing market.

Change creates worker stress for a number of reasons. It could for example create insecurity, as workers are not sure whether their jobs will survive the change, particularly in the current economic climate. Indeed, the economic climate has forced many companies to downsize, and any type of change may be construed as an attempt to follow suit. Secondly, change automatically creates uncertainty, as human beings tend to react badly to any removal from their "comfort" zone. In order to ensure…… [Read More]

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JC Penney Kohl's and organizational culture

Words: 1880 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27204835

Kohl's Culture

Kohl's has a central corporate culture. What this means is that head office sets the overall corporate culture. The reason for this is that the roles within the company do not change much from one store to another, and from one warehouse to another. Thus, geography matters little. Thus, it is possible to create a centralized corporate culture that can be transmitted from head office around the country. It remains the role of the different store managers to implement the corporate culture on the basis of what head office mandates, and there is limited physical oversight so in that sense there is some regional variation in terms of culture as implemented by different managers. But on the whole, the culture is set at the head office level and then implemented further down, within specific parameters.

A key element of Kohl's culture is the focus on the associates, who…… [Read More]

References

Bhasin, K. (2013). Why JC Penney's new corporate culture is failing. Business Insider. Retrieved February 22,2017 from  http://www.businessinsider.com/jcpenney-corporate-culture-2013-3 

Kohl's (2017) Our Culture. Kohl's. Retrieved February 22, 2017 from  http://kohlscareers.com/our-culture/ 

McNulty, E. (2007) Changing culture fast. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 22, 2017 from  https://hbr.org/2007/06/changing-culture-fast-1
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Chinese American Culture Misrepresented in Media

Words: 1054 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73879723

MEDIA (MIS) EPSENTATIONS OF CHINESE-AmericanS

Culture

Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans

Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans

In the west, representations of people who are outside of the standard or norm, (white, middle & upper class, male) are not represented with accuracy. Chinese-Americans are one such group that doese not often receive an accurate or dynamically real representation of the spectrum of the culture or the people within it. Media representations in the west of Chinese-Americans are limited to a few stereotypes, generally. Some of those stereotypes include that all Chinese people practice and have mastered martial arts, and that all Chinese have exceptional intelligence in mathematics, sciences, and technology. Another media stereotype of the Chinese is that they are all short of stature, particularly poking fun at short men. Chinese men are often stereotypically represented as geeks or nerds -- exceptionally "book smart," but lacking in coolness and social skills.…… [Read More]

References:

Cheng, J., Hsieh, C., Talgo, S. (2012). Media Representations of Asians. University of Michigan, Web, Available from: http://sitemaker.umich.edu/psy457_tizzle/home. 2013 March 04.

Kwak, A. (2004). Asian-Americans in the Television Media: Creating Incentive for Change. Boston College Third World Journal, 24(2), 395 -- 420.

Wo, E. (2012). Beyond the Color Line: Asian-American Representations in the Media. Claremont Colleges Scripps Senior Thesis, Paper 114, Available from: http://scholarship.claremont.edu/scripps_theses/114. 2013 March 06.
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Politics and Culture

Words: 1869 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84114084

Language, Cultural Narrative, Symbols, and Myths Used for Political Purposes in the "ar on Terrorism" Today

In the initial years of the 21st century, the United States has entered a new heyday of manipulative language use, especially by high-level post 9-11 politicians and political operators. Increasingly, for example, metaphor, myth, cultural narrative and storytelling (for often distracting, obfuscating, or even downright nefarious purposes) by high-level politicians and their associates, is used to construct politically advantageous "truths," usually out of thin air. Moreover, in post-9-11 America, these sometimes even humorously hyperbolic, supposedly patriotically-inspired phrases and slogans are remarkably successful, in their aim convincing many Americans to think, act and believe in particular "appropriate" or "patriotic" ways. In fact, it increasingly seems that manipulative metaphorical or hyperbolic language is employed, with frequent effectiveness, to draw verbal distinctions between supposedly "patriotic" Americans (those who still favor the war with Iraq) and "unpatriotic" ones…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Drew, and Lisa Fadel. "U.S. General's Remarks Contradict Cheney on Strength of Insurgency. Knight Ridder Newspapers. Jun. 23, 2005.

Retrieved August 15, 2005, from:
.jsp.html>.

'Bush Administration Orwellian Logic." Center for Media and Democracy. March 23, 2005. Retrieved August 14, 2005, from: www.sourcewatch.org/index.php
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Individuals Across Cultures Are Diagnosed With All

Words: 844 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73067667

Individuals across cultures are diagnosed with all different types of sexual disorders. A sexual disorder is classified as a disorder that involves sexual functioning, desires, or performance (Mosby 2009). These disorders have a huge affect on people because they can affect their own personal social lives. There are many sexual disorders and dysfunctions that individuals suffer from. Along with these disorders, there are many different factors and many treatments that have been used to help these individuals. A man by the name of obert Kelly has a particular sexual disorder in which he has reoccurring sexual fantasies that usually involve a nonliving object. It is no surprise that he suffers from this disorder because both his parents are diagnosed with it. Coming from a low income background where the family is living from paycheck to paycheck, treatment has not been given to Mr. Kelly due to low income. Since he…… [Read More]

References

Fallon, L. Fleming. "Fetishism." Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. 2003. Retrieved

December 5, 2012 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3405700159.html

Fetishism . (2010). Encyclopedia of mental disorders. Retrieved (2012, Dec. 5) from http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-Fi/Fetishism.html

Heffner, C. (2002, September 23). All Psych Online. Retrieved Dec. 5, 2012 from  http://allpsych.com/
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Little Women and Popular Culture

Words: 2704 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75762140

Little Women, Louisa May Alcott's defining work, which brought her much fame in her time, is a biographical account of her family. In the book, her father Amos ronson is Mr. March and her mother Abigail May is Marmee, while her older sister Anna is Meg and younger sisters Lizzie and May are eth and Amy, respectively. And Louisa May is the lead character, Josephine or Jo March, the second daughter. The novel, published in 1868-1869, made Alcott a major author of her era.

The March family is poor all throughout, and the women are always doing routine housework, which bores and frustrates them. Mr. March serves as a Union chaplain in the Civil War, which then rages, and he writes his family to inspire them to be more tolerant of their poverty and hardships. The girls wake up on Christmas morning to find copies of books under their pillows,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. SparkNotes.com. (accessed 12:03:03)

 http://www.sparknotes.com 

Microsoft Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia 2003. (accessed 12:03:03). http://encarta.msn.Microsoft Corporation 2003

Schafer, Nancy Imelda. Life and Works of Louisa May Alcott. Camden County Free Library. (accessed 12:03:03). http://www.rsf.k12.ca.us/~dwebber/LouisaMayAlcott.htm
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Harlem 1920-1960 Culture of the

Words: 9936 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29403060

Their main arguments are based on historical assumptions and on facts which have represented turning points for the evolution of the African-American society throughout the decades, and especially during the evolutionary War and the Civil War. In this regard, the Old Negro, and the one considered to be the traditional presence in the Harlem, is the result of history, and not of recent or contemporary events.

From the point-of-view of historical preconceptions and stereotypes, it would unwise to consider Harlem as being indeed a cancer in the heart of a city, taking into account the fact that there is no objective comparison being made. Locke points out the fact that the Negro of today be seen through other than the dusty spectacles of past controversy. The day of "aunties," "uncles" and "mammies" is equally gone. Uncle Tom and Sambo have passed on, and even the "Colonel" and "George" play barnstorm…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Karen Tucker. "Last Hired, First Fired: Black Women Workers during World War II" in the Journal of American History, Vol. 69, No. 1. (Jun., 1982), pp. 82-97.

Barnes, Albert C. Negro Art and America. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/BarNegrF.html

Brown, Claude. Manchild in the Promised Land. New York: Touchstone, 1999.

Charles S. Johnson. Black Workers and the City. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/JohWorkF.html
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Pacific Culture

Words: 5739 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22622659

Sing with the Pigs is Human

According to the dictionary, 'anthropology' is the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings. The Kaulong peoples of Papua New Guinea devote their lives to moving from the lowest status to political "big men" and "big women," by displaying their accumulation of knowledge at all-night singing competitions ending in pig sacrifice and feasting. In the course of her fieldwork with the Kaulong, who live on the island of New Britain in Papua New Guinea, Jane Goodale discovered and catalogued that everything of importance to them - every event, relationship, and transaction - was rooted in their constant quest for recognition as human beings. Goodale takes considerable time to determine both the Kaulong definition of 'human' and catalogue the tribal rituals and relationships that build into the Kaulong definition.

Her book is the result of her field work, living with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goodale, Jane. To Sing with the Pigs is Human. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1995
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Society and Culture -- Music

Words: 1732 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1194585

However, it is already clear that the music industry had been irrevocably changed as the revenue potential shifts from traditional sources to those corresponding to the way music is typically enjoyed and shared by youthful consumers today (Halbert & Ingulli, 2007).

Conclusion

egardless of the many ways that modern technology and societies have changed the way music is produced, in many respects, music still provides many of the same functions as it always has. Music continues to be featured prominently in cultural and religious expression and it continues to be an important part of adolescent development and self-expression. Ultimately, music will likely always continue to change in superficial ways and in the manner in which it is produced and disseminated, but in its most fundamental character, it remains unchanged in it significance to human society and culture..

eferences

Brownlee S. "Baby Talk" U.S. News & World eport; June 15, 1998:48-55.…… [Read More]

References

Brownlee S. "Baby Talk" U.S. News & World Report; June 15, 1998:48-55.

Dennet D. (1997). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Pearson.
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Effects of Outsourcing in Today's Economy

Words: 3115 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48438653

Outsourcing Its Impact

The effects of outsourcing in today's economy

Effects on People

Being an expatriate

Breaking the language barrier

Culture Shock

Outsourcing and people dynamics: Impact on company

Effects on Economy

Capital flows

Impact on technology

Global management and outsourcing

The effects of outsourcing in today's economy

Outsourcing has become an increasingly popular business strategy for transnational organizations. Many of the U.S. corporations started outsourcing their manufacturing operations since late 1980s. This was due to the potential advantages, both from an economic as well as regulatory perspective that business operations in foreign lands provided to these businesses. Initially, the U.S. firms running in financial troubles chose to set their cost intensive operations abroad such as manufacturing and call centers in low cost countries. Gradually, when the cost benefits were realized, other companies from various industrial sectors also strengthened this trend of outsourcing. Pharmaceutical industry was the first to witness…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bartel, Ann, Saul Lach, and Nachum Sicherman. Outsourcing and technological change. No. w11158. National Bureau of Economic Research, (2005): 1-41.

Caligiuri, Paula, and Victoria Di Santo. "Global competence: what is it, and can it be developed through global assignments?" Human Resource Planning 24.3 (2001): 27-35.

Drezner, Daniel W. "Outsourcing Bogeyman, The." Foreign Aff. 83 (2004): 22.

Dunleavy, Patrick, and Christopher Hood. "From old public administration to new public management." Public money & management 14.3 (1994): 9-16.
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Cultural Intelligence in Today's Increasingly Culturally Diverse

Words: 1242 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90887850

Cultural Intelligence

In today's increasingly culturally diverse world, cultural competence, or what has become known as "cultural intelligence (CQ)" has received increasing research attention. Several authors, with various purposes and audiences, have developed assessment instruments to help individuals and groups understand their level of cultural intelligence. Included among these is the instrument developed by Earley and Mosakowski (2004), under the title "Diagnosing Your Cultural Intelligence."

Earley and Mosakowski's instrument addresses three areas of CQ: The cognitive, the physical, and the emotional/motivational. The cognitive component can be regarded as the "head" of cultural competence. On a cognitive level, this areas focuses on an individual's understanding of differences between cultures. This involves asking questions and investigations to identify any differences that might exist among cultures. Being aware of these on a cognitive level can greatly enhance a person's ability to understand and interact with foreign cultures.

The physical component focuses on a…… [Read More]

References

Earley, P.C. & Mosakowski, E. 2004. 'Cultural intelligence', Harvard Business Review, 82 (10), October, pp.139-146 [Online]

Mendenhall, Mark. 2007. Global Leadership: Research, Practice and Development. Routledge.
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Human Resources What Is Most

Words: 397 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19190218

For any expatriate manager to be effective they must
immerse themselves at a very visceral level, and become fully integrated
into the new environment. This is also especially true for the managers'
family, with his wife needing to find a role for herself yet also connect
with the other women in ther8i neighborhood. The societal norms and values
are more easily learned by spouses however, as they intermingle with other
wives and mothers who are busy teaching these values to their children as
well. Women find it generally easier to become polycentric as they are
more apt to ask for assistance and less apt to feel their authority is
somehow undermined by asking for assistance. The critical point of all
this is that any new expatriate assignment needs to be taken on within a
sense of duty to the staff there and a willingness to move quickly out of
an…… [Read More]

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Warsaw Cultural Dimensions and Barriers

Words: 1933 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28295777

Importantly, there is a certain structure and decorum involved in business negotiations. For example, the atmosphere is usually relaxed and contemplative and "…periods of silence are not uncommon and are an essential part of negotiating" (Doing usiness in Poland | Polish Social and usiness Culture). Consequently, small talk is not seen as part of the negotiating situation. However, before a business meeting casual conversation is usually part of the process.

5. Conclusion: Recommendations

In terms of the above analysis a number of central aspects emerge. The most significant is the Polish respect for authority and hierarchy which must be balanced against their strong sense of individuality. Small points of etiquette, such as shaking hands and addressing people formally at first, are also important to remember.

In the final analysis, the most important aspect of interacting with someone for Warsaw is to not only be aware of their customs but also…… [Read More]

Bibliography

About Poland, viewed 15 December, 2011,

Batorska-Miller, K 2007, Understanding communication and body language of polish people, viewed 15 December, 2011, http://www.helium.com/items/550690-understanding-communication-and-body-language-of-polish-people.

Corruption through our Culture (based on Geert Hofstede Analysis 2011, viewed 15 December, 2011, <  http://imsingh1999-mannu.blogspot.com/2011/05/corruption-through-our-culture.html >.

Cross Cultural Business. Doing Business with Poland: Do They Know It's Lunchtime?, viewed 15 December, 2011, .
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Nature of Organizations and the Contemporary Environment

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12697237

Nature of Organizations and the Contemporary Environment

Cultural norms play an important part in interpersonal relationships and mechanisms at work. Culture is the collective mental programming of an individual's mind, which distinguishes one person from another. Individuals have defined sets of beliefs and about the society: nature works and the standards of behavior derived from these values. This shows that culture greatly affects social norms and economic behaviors like the propensity to innovate or save and other economic decisions, including investment in education, willingness to contribute to the society, fertility choices, and charitable contributions. This study shows how one's environment and culture affect organizations and management approaches as seen in the case of Myers. The adoption of Hofstede's dimensions of culture to compare American and Korean assumptions about interpersonal management and relationships will be critical in this study. The study also offers recommendations that Myers could have made in her…… [Read More]

Reference

Green, S. (2011). The would-be pioneer. Harvard Business Review. 89(4), 124-126
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American Influence Abroad

Words: 1017 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50243552

American Culture

riters such as Pico Iyer, Richard Pells, and Joseph Nye are in fact correct that the world culture has not and will not be Americanized. These writers are correct in asserting that American culture is ever forceful, but still America remains just one influence in a multicultural world: a manifestation of globalization. ith such a supreme focus on America, it can seem like America is the dominant force; however, this is just a result of a skewed perspective. It is true that other cultures have also spread outwards and that local cultures cannot and will not be destroyed.

The phenomenon of culture shock is direct evidence of the fact that American culture is not as pervasive as many people would like to assert that it is. As centers for study abroad programs in various universities explain, culture shock is a logical reaction to the body and mind in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Balko, R. (2014). Globalization & Culture. Retrieved from globalpolicy.org: http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/162/27607.html

Chapman.edu. (2013). Culture Shock. Retrieved from Chapman.edu:  http://www.chapman.edu/international-studies/center-for-global-education/study-abroad-programs/accepted-students/culture-shock.aspx 

Kitamura, H. (2010). Screening Enlightenment. NewYork: Cornell University Press.
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Business Preparation for Communication Diversity

Words: 1412 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26138778

communications in business. Specifically it will discuss communication in business in Japan, including intercultural interactions and successful communications. Often we don't think about the culture and etiquette of doing business in another country, and that's a giant mistake. For example, communication with Japanese clients can be very different that communication with clients here in America. Here are some tips on how to communicate effectively while you're working with Japanese clients.

When we do business in Japan, we must be aware of differing cultural values, language, etiquette, and business customs that can be very different from our own. To ensure that we don't offend or anger our Japanese business partners, we need to ensure that we act and communicate according to their customs, to ensure our success. We also want our staff to feel comfortable while they're working in Japan, and suffer from as little culture shock as possible, so business…… [Read More]

References

Abrahams, M. (2009). Doing business in Japan. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the TopMBA.com Web site: http://www.topmba.com/articles/careers/same-difference-doing-business-japan.

Editors. (2009). Japanese business etiquette. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Texas at Dallas Web site:  http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/japan.htm .

Fashol, G. (2009). Japanese business etiquette. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Eurotechnology.com Web site:

http://eurotechnology.com/doing-business-in-japan/06_japanese_business_etiquette.shtml.
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Workplace Environment Exist Within Different

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4270455

One of the most important themes is about the tension that can oftentimes exist between a business and its surrounding community. In this particular story the tension occurs between the bank, as represented by its bank officer, and one of its customers, as represented by the fourteen-year-old schoolboy. The tension comes about when the bank refuses to allow the boy to withdraw money from his account due to his underage status.

This tension in turn is caused by the bank officer's choice to behave ethically towards the customer as opposed to behaving in a selfish manner. This conflict between ethical and self -interest is another theme touched upon by the story when it is shown that the bank officer, in refusing to allow the boy to withdraw money from his account, was behaving ethically by indirectly protecting the boy from a bully who was stealing his money. If the officer…… [Read More]

References

Chichester, R. (1991). Corporate culture shock. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix Press.
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Global HR Global Human Resources

Words: 1058 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24666032

I would have preferred to continue with the initial plans.

5. It is difficult to develop international careers in the case of dual careers couples. I think it depends mostly on the type of careers of the people in the couple. Technical jobs are the most flexible types of careers. Technicians can adapt professionally in any country. But jobs that depend on countries' cultures are less flexible. These can be jobs in marketing, certain types of management, jobs in culture, education, advertising, and others. Therefore it is important to determine the flexibility of the job, the differences between the same job in different countries, and the importance of these differences (Brislin, 2008).

6. Companies can significantly influence the success of their employees' jobs in different countries. This is because their success relies on the conditions they have there. Companies should provide the resources necessary in the case of these employees…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Marx, E. (2001). Breaking Through Culture Shock. Nicholas Brealey Publishing. Retrieved March 11, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=I14RCjT3XAgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=culture+shock&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=we1cT-H1IYXHsgba5KCEDA&ved=0CEYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=culture%20shock&f=false.

2. Cultural Dimensions Theory (2011). Value-Based Management. Retrieved March 11, 2012 from  http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_hofstede.html .

3. Brislin, R. (2008). Working with Cultural Differences. Retrieved March 11, 2012 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=wLFls4bED1QC&printsec=frontcover&dq=cultural+differences&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=oBddT_GfBtDgtQaq5KSPDA&ved=0CEEQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=cultural%20differences&f=false.
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Hensley and Mankiller

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19420408

Fifty Miles Tomorrow, terms

After one becomes familiar with all of the relevant primary source autobiographies that exist for Wilma Mankiller, William Hensley, and Geronimo, it greatly appears that in terms of culture shock, Hensley had more in common with Mankiller than with Geronimo. There are a number of salient reasons as to why this assertion is true. The first of these pertains to the time period in which these individuals lived. Hensley and Mankiller were both born at the midway point of the 20th century. Geronimo, however, was born in the early part of the 19th century. Although Hensley was born in Alaska and Mankiller was born in the continental U.S., the two both lived through and experienced the same zeitgeist. The thoughts, actions and sentiments of the time period in which Geronimo was born, however, was much different than those factors as they applied to the other pair…… [Read More]

References

Hensley, W. (2008). 50 Miles from Tomorrow. 2008. New York: Sarah Crichton Books.
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Navigating Cultural Differences Between East

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89219118

A loud burp in one setting can be a high compliment, but in others it will be considered enormously offensive. Confronting law enforcement figures over perceived transgressions of their authority is a highly prized tradition in the West, but these confrontations are actively avoided in the East. Likewise, standing for women entering a room is de rigueur in Western cultures, but such practices would be viewed as incongruent with the cultures of many Eastern countries. Then there is the matter of which hand to use and when, because these issues are significant in the East where the right hand is used for contact with others and the left hand reserved for other purposes, but such considerations never enter the minds of people in the West because this practice is not followed.

Despite these fundamental differences in religion, language, worldviews and cultural practices, it is possible to navigate these differences if…… [Read More]

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Personal Portrait the Course of

Words: 2852 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14401293



According to the Kohlberg theory, the post-conventional level is when a person develops social contract orientation and becomes principled. I believe I felt that I owed society an obligation to work and try to make it better, so I sought public welfare work (Fowler, p. 56).

Eventually, a better job opportunity came to me in the form of a state job in the Department of Youth and Family Services, so I decided to leave the school system. I transferred from my city job and was able work in my chosen field. Between working there and at Families Matter, New Jersey, I learned quite a bit. I would spend hours with parents who did not have the skills to help themselves and children who were in crisis. This motivated me even more to finish my bachelor's degree. This experience made me realize how lucky I was to have supportive family and…… [Read More]

References

Colby, a and Kohlberg, L. (1987). The Measurement of Moral Judgment, Vol 2. Standard Issue Scoring Manual. Cambridge University Press.

Fowler, J.T., Hennesey, T. (ed.) (1976) "Stages in faith: the structural developmental approach," Values and Moral Development. New York: Paulist Press.

Harder, a.F. (2002). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online.com. Retrieved August 8, 2007 at http://www.learningplaceonline.com/stages/organize/Erikson.htm.

Kohlberg, Lawrence (1973). "The claim to moral adequacy of a highest stage of moral judgment." Journal of Philosophy. 70: 630-646.
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Globalization Was Just Coming Into

Words: 3561 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33566947

g., Hofstede, five different cultural dimensions), and the other one is the Cultural Standards Model (e.g., lexander Thomas):

1. In a general sense, cultures and differences among cultures can be described and measured along cultural dimensions (Hall, 1990, 2000; Hofstede, 1980, 1993, 2001; House et al., 2004; Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1961; Rokeach, 1973; Schwartz, 1992 and Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1997).

2. In a more detailed and more descriptive sense, the cultural standard method deals with differences in the kinds of perceiving, norms of sensing, thinking, judging, and acting that can cause critical incidents in cross-cultural encounters (Thomas, 1996; Fink & Meierewert,

2001).

Due to significant developments in this field and the available range of value dimension studies, it is better to understand the possible impact of similarities and differences among cultures. Dimensions, which are quantitatively measured, can be used in statistical models (regression analysis) as well as to help explain…… [Read More]

Also, in the justification section, you use the terms "physical" and "relational" proximity. These are not terms that are used in the proposal. Either define them above or use terms that are defined. Once again, you may want to explain how this benefit compares to what is derived from Hofstede's approach. There are numerous studies on why Hofstede's approach does not work. You could address some of these studies and demonstrate why your methodology would prove better.

As you see, I have also noted areas that need sources and moved paragraphs around as well as added some copy. Make sure that every statement of fact that you present is backed up with a source, unless it is your own thought.

Hofstede, Geert. Culture's Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, 2001
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Indians & Europeans Encounters Between

Words: 1489 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96555240

The underlying beliefs from which their entire cultures were based on stemmed from the exact same teachings of religious hierarchy, explanations about an unfamiliar world, and beliefs that brought social order to their respective societies.

Family life was an aspect that both united and differentiated the Indians from the Europeans. Early on it was evident to the Europeans that family life was vastly essential to the Indians who valued their family more than anything. To the Indians, outsiders were just that: outsiders. As Kupperman stated, "whereas in England most children left home in early adolescence, Indian parents kept them at home until they were adults" (Kupperman a. 153). This notion was viewed as something novel to the English who saw their own family unit and respect as deteriorating (Kupperman b. 133). The Indians depended on one another for virtually everything. Indian parents cared for their children in such a way…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

DuVal, Kathleen. The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2006. Print.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Indians and English: Facing off in Early America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2000. Print.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Major Problems in American Colonial History: Documents and Essays. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. The Atlantic in World History. New York: Oxford UP, 2012. Print.
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Vietnamese Americans Neither American nor

Words: 3898 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95505060

Stresses associated with migration itself, discrimination against racial minorities in this country, poverty, unemployment, and crowded living conditions heighten the chance that a husband will become abusive" (p. 1402). From the Vietnamese-American perspective, these issues are even more pronounced and they are discussed further below.

a. Male dominance. One of the most powerful forces affecting Vietnamese families at home and abroad today is Confucian ideology, an ideology that is predicated on the dominance of men over women (Kibria, 1993). According to Lowe and her colleagues (2003), some gender socialization influences on Vietnamese men are similar to those that are typically experienced by men in other Asian cultures. "Similarities in gender role socialization that Vietnamese men share with other Asian men arising from shared influences of Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist philosophies include messages about appropriate family roles, emotional expressiveness, and the role of assertive behavior" (Lowe et al., p. 246). For…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, M.J. (1993). A license to abuse: The impact of conditional status on female immigrants. Yale Law Journal, 102(6), 1401.

Daniel, A.M., & Yi, J.K. (2001). Substance use among Vietnamese American college students. College Student Journal, 35(1), 13.

Do, H.D. (1999). The Vietnamese Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Doan, J.H.D., Huer, M.B., & Saenz, T.I. (2001). Understanding the Vietnamese American community: Implications for training educational personnel providing services to children with disabilities. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 23(1), 27.
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Father Figures Arabic Asian Literature

Words: 3208 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62648094

Father Figures Arabian Asian Literature

Father Figures: Arabic / Asian Literature

Father figures all across the world embody a phenomenon which encompasses all attributes of a role model. They are meant to stand for discipline, caution, protection, guidance, and of course, love. The perfect amalgamation of all these can be found in the patriarch of any household, or any culture, for that matter. As such, the perfect patriarchal example is nothing short of a literary archetype. From Austen's "Pride and Prejudice" to Puzo's "The Godfather" we can find numerous examples of father figures establishing the age-old belief in fatherly conduct.

It is true, that the general conception of father figures is more or less the same in all areas of literature. However, one must pay heed to the fact that just like miscellaneous traditions; the perception towards father figures varies from culture to culture. Needless to say, the significance of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kanafani, Ghassan. "A Hand in the Grave." Roberta Rubenstein, Charles R. Larson. A World of Fiction. 2002. 427.

Mukherjee, Bharati. "A Father." Robert Rubenstein, Charles R. Larson. A World of Fiction. 2002. 660.

Ramanujan, A.K. "Self-Portrait."
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Expatriate Training Please Transfer This Order to

Words: 3243 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32712881

Expatriate Training

please transfer this order to "heatherk13." THANKS.. It a research paper regard H DEVELOPMENT. Subject: Expatriate training. -> You mention; -Cultural issues -Social issues -Family issues expatriate training.

Expatriate training

Expatriates face many challenges when they move to a foreign country. They need to be prepared both psychologically and mentally to ensure they will manage to handle the challenges they will encounter on their foreign assignment. Many employers nowadays will provide some form of training to their expatriates to inform and prepare them on what to expect in regards to culture, social, and environment.

esearch conducted on expatriates has shown that cultural issues affect expatriates the most. Some cultural issues discussed in the paper include male dominated societies for female expatriates, media restrictions, social life restrictions and language barriers. These issues are dependent on the country an expatriate is posted.

There are also social issues that expatriates are…… [Read More]

References

http://www.germanculture.com.ua/library/facts/bl_business_culture.htmGerman Culture. (n.d). Culture of German Management, from Julia Brandl & Anne-Katrin Neyer. (2009). APPLYING COGNITIVE ADJUSTMENT THEORY TO CROSS-CULTURAL TRAINING FOR GLOBAL VIRTUAL TEAMS, from http://www.shrm.org/education/hreducation/documents/48-3%20brandl%20et%20al.pdf

Rabotin, M.B. (2011). RESPECT IN THE CROSS-CULTURAL CONTEXT, from http://www.astd.org/Publications/Newsletters/ASTD-Links/ASTD-Links-Articles/2011/06/Respect-in-the-Cross-Cultural-Context

Tung, R.L. (1998). American expatriates abroad: From neophytes to cosmopolitans. Journal of World Business, 33(32), 125 -- 144.
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Acculturative Stress and Psychological Wellbeing of African Missionary Nuns Working in the USA

Words: 6281 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41172358

acculturative stress of African Catholic Missionary Nuns (ACMN) serving in the United States. This chapter is divided into five parts. The first part explains the meaning of acculturation and adaptation experiences specific to missionaries. This part emphasizes (1) different perspectives from social and behavioral scientists examining the phenomenon of acculturation (2) different theoretical models describing the stages of acculturation (3) dissimilarities between immigrants and missionary immigrants and what makes the two unique. The second part of this chapter examines the emotional and psychological distress missionaries experience as a result of acculturative stress. The third part focuses on coping strategies and resilience of missionaries. The fourth part introduces the existing literature in the area of acculturative stress of missionaries, emphasizing on limited empirical research in this subject and the necessity for further research in this area of study.

Part One: Background and Overview

Different Social and Behavioral Scientific Perspectives Concerning Acculturation.…… [Read More]

References

Akomolafe, F. (2011, July). The sad tale of African immigrants in Europe. New African, 508, 94-

99.

Andrews, L. (1999). Spiritual, family, and ministry satisfaction among missionaries. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 27(2), 107-118.

Arthur, L.B. (1999). Religion, dress and the body. New York: Berg.
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Expatriate Repatriation Commitment and Retention

Words: 6518 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35320454

Expatriate epatriation

Employees that are sent on assignment overseas for a specified period of time often experience difficulties upon their return to the United States in readjusting to the culture that they once closely identified with. As a result, it has been established that employees often leave their organization within two years of returning from an assignment overseas. This complicates matters for the employee that must find new employment as well as the employer that has lost a significant intellectual knowledge asset in addition to wasting extensive financial resources on expatriation and repatriation processes. Organizations with successful repatriation programs have identified various requirements and employee needs that result in employee retention for an extended period of time. The following study will provide an in-depth analysis of the process of expatriate repatriation, commitment and retention in today's U.S. organizations. The discussion will define the importance of retaining repatriated employees within a…… [Read More]

References

Baruch, Y., and Altman, Y. (2002). Expatriation and repatriation in MNCs: a taxonomy. Human Resource

Management, 41(2), 239-259.

Gregersen, H., and Black, J.S. (1996). Multiple commitments upon repatriation: the Japanese experience. Journal of Management, 22(2), 209-229.

Gross-Klaff, L. (2002). The right way to bring expats home.
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International Assistant Imagine What it

Words: 1329 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43845618

It is very difficult understanding the class assignments. Sometimes they are very complex and I get worried that I will not be able to do my assignments. I do not know if I would have made it without the international assistant and would have to go home again.

When I met my international assistant and the world was much brighter. The student was there to guide me and teach all the things you need when first arriving at a college, such as getting my dorm room in place, helping me get a new cell phone, and showing me how to get around Boston. This student also answered my many questions about Americans. I wanted to fit in as best I could, but it is difficult when you look and act differently than a lot of the other people. I learned how I was both similar and different to the Americans…… [Read More]

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Communication Diversity This Is the

Words: 1935 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83120658



17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.

I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.

18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?

The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…… [Read More]

References

Australian Indigenous HealthInfo.net (2008). Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at  http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/ 

Department of Education and Training (2005). "Racism No Way." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/cultural/

Indigenous Peoples of Australia: Health." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.ldb.org/oz_h.htm
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Motivation in a Highly Multicultural

Words: 5601 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62421736

... led me to suggest, as an alternative to assimilation, the value of being asimilao.

IV. eminders to Help

Kim & Lyons (2003) report that games can be successfully used to instill and enhance individuals' abilities to succeed in a multicultural firm. Game playing possesses numerous characteristics which could enhance the learning of competencies areas of skills, attitudes and beliefs, and knowledge. Games which include low-risk potential can increase a sense of safety, reduce vulnerable feelings, while also, and enhancing multicultural awareness.

For example, the use of games can balance out the inherent hierarchy between the trainees and the instructor (i.e., it levels the playing field) and potentially lead to an increased sense of safety on the part of the trainees" (Kim & Lyons, 2003). Increasing an individual's sense of safety can work tom eliminate prejudices and allow students and trainees to more readily examine their personal norms; cultural values;…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108786083

Chang, C.Y. (2003). Chapter 5 Counseling Asian-Americans. In Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners, Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.) (pp. 73-92). New York: Brunner-Routledge. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91054568

Cunningham, M.J. (2001). B2B: How to Build a Profitable E-Commerce Strategy. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000786585

Diversity or Diversion? Experts Express Their Views about the Effectiveness of Diversity Programs and Offer Suggestions on How to Improve Them. (2002, July). Black Enterprise, 32, 82+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14677163
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Foreign Immigrant Groups California Share Similar Struggles

Words: 1749 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99403578

foreign immigrant groups California share similar struggles quest American citizens

Following the development of western countries in the nineteenth century, there emerged a prolonged immigration of Asian communities into the American society. Iran had a shock in their culture. Individual personality such as language proficiency, learning level, and job skill influences their ability to adapt. Immigration is a key life challenge, although well thought-out to be stressful, particularly for women coming from environments with observance to traditional gender roles, through the exposure, organizations of these societies disintegrate.

Shared struggles of Iranian & Mexican immigrants

Economic factors like financial resources, loses and gains in social status intimidates the immigrants. The attitude of the host country with the level of similarity of the two cultures is also an influential factor. Individual factors such as character strength, decision-making skills, declaration of feeling of loss, and the ability to endure uncertainty about gender roles…… [Read More]

Work cited

Massey, Douglas S, Jorge Durand, and Nolan J. Malone. Beyond Smoke and Mirrors: Mexican

Immigration in an Era of Economic Integration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation,

2003. Print.

Borjas, George J. Mexican Immigration to the United States. Chicago [u.a.: Univ. Of Chicago
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Analysis Cross-Cultural Tourist Research

Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43756105

Cross-Cultural Tourist esearch

Cross-Cultural Interactions

From the onset, it would be prudent to offer a concise definition of two of the terms that will be variously used in this text, i.e. cross-cultural interactions and culture. Culture, according to Hofstede (as cited in Bowe and Martin, 2007, p. 80), is "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another." It, hence, has got to do with that cumulative deposit of roles, societal hierarchies, as well as values and beliefs adopted by a group of people over a long period of time. In that regard, therefore, cross-cultural interactions are in line with the ability of an individual or group of persons to not only form but also foster and enhance relationships with those who may not be members of their own culture. On this front, successful cross-cultural interactions are essentially based on…… [Read More]

References

Bowe, H. & Martin, K. (2007). Communication across Cultures: Mutual Understanding in a Global World. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hong, J.K. & Lee, Y. (2014). The Influence of National Culture on Customers' Cross-Buying Intentions in Asian Banking Services: Evidence from Korea and Taiwan. New York, NY: Routledge.

Mueller, B. (2008). Communicating with the Multicultural Consumer: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.

Reisinger, Y. & Turner, L. (2012). Cross-Cultural Behavior in Tourism. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
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International Students There Is Never a Time

Words: 1168 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87070278

International Students

"There is never a time when I miss home the most than when I look outside and I see feet of snow on the ground. I don't think I will actually get used to the weather in the U.S.A. I always seem to forget to bring heavy coats and buy myself thick useful boots. I do have come to really enjoy the snow. Who would have said that about me just two years ago? No one! For me, and I bet for many Mexicans, living through this cold is just not something in our plans," writes Laura Herrejon, an international student in the U.S. from Mexico (Herrejon). The experiences of international students in the U.S. are in the eyes of students in the U.S. quite incredible; but, through the lens of the international students, there are many struggles that people are unaware of. It is important for students…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chuan, Lin. "Support for International Students during their First Year of College." Vanderbilt University, n.d. Web. 2 Jul 2011. .

Gao, Fangfang. "International Students." Academic Difficulties for International Students. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jul 2011. .

Herrejon, Laura. "Winter Time...." Study in the U.S.A.: Student Blog. 09 Feb 2011. Web. 1 Jul 2011. .

Velinova, Mila. "Counseling and Wellness Services." Possible Adjustment Issues for International Students. Wright Counseling, n.d. Web. 2 Jul 2011. .
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Home-Based Companies Are Slowly Shifting Their Business

Words: 3553 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35239455

home-based companies are slowly shifting their business operations to foreign companies to ensure they have an impact in the global business world. Given the current modern changes in international business developments, the number of expatriates is increasing for both long-term and short-term durations. For these organizations, sending employees overseas is an opportunity undertaken to improve business activities but without the right preparation, it is a challenging initiative to any organization. In this regard, companies are constantly training employees on international work issues to ensure their success in the global marketplace (Kontrimas, 2006). However, businesses face several challenges relating to hiring employees for their American-based business or expatriating employees to work in remote facilities, open new plants, and work with international clientele. As is the case H2O, mentoring future corporate leaders to successfully manage operations on a worldwide scale is a welcome step to ensure their operations are not limited to…… [Read More]

References

Ajami, R., & Goddard, J. (2006). International Business: Theory and Practice. M.E Sharpe Inc.

Brock, D.M., Shenkar, O., Shoham, A., & Siscovick, I.C. (2008). National Culture and Expatriate Deployment. Journal of International Business Studies, 39 (8), 1293-1309.

Delios, A., & Bjorkman, I. (2000). Expatriate Staffing in Foreign Subsidiaries of Japanese Multinational Corporations in the PRC and the United States. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11 (2), 278-293.

Fang, Y., Jiang, G.-L. F., Makino, S., & Beamish, P.W. (2009). Multinational Firm Knowledge, Use of Expatriates, and Foreign Subsidiary Performance. Journal of Management Studies, 47(1), 27-54.