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Darkness at Noon
It seems contradictory that the Russian state has people who disagree with state policies confess, then immediately execute them. The state could just execute the political prisoners and forge the prisoners' signatures on a confession statement. Even Rubashov, who has spent time in prison before, eventually confesses. "Darkness at Noon" by Arthur Koestler provides some insights into the logic of forcing confessions and staging legal trials even though the confessors will soon be executed. He shows how the state gains the confessions and how the state uses the confessions to undermine the cause of the dissidents. Further he shows how the authorities use mental and physical torture to get confessions from everyone including Rubashov. The state's goal in all of this is to eliminate anyone who does not speak in favor of the state and create fear among the rest of the population so anyone who might…
Koestler, Arthur. Darkness at Noon. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941.
William Styron is an award-winning literary author whose most famous book is ironically not one of his novels, but his memoir entitled Darkness Visible. Darkness Visible: A Memoir of Madness details the inner journey through the hell of depression. The book is a far cry from the dry, detached, and cold clinical accounts of depression in scholarly literature. A Memoir of Madness reads like a poetic narrative, but details many of the scientific underpinnings of depression. Styron researched his condition, and fuses an understanding of the clinical condition with the more important knowledge of what it is like to suffer from depression.
Styron never set out to publish a book about depression. He simply started lecturing on the subject and published an article about depression in the magazine Vanity Fair. The book is an extended version of the Vanity Fair article. The book begins with an anecdote in…
Boden, J.M. & Fergusson, D.M. (2011). Alcohol and depression. Addiction 106(5): 906-914.
Fried, E.I., Nesse, R.M., Zivin, K., Guille, C. & San, S. (2014). Depression is more than the sum score of its parts. Psychological Medicine 44(1): 2067-2076.
Leggett, A. et al. (2014). The impact of benzodiazepine use on depression outcomes among older adults beginning a new antidepressant treatment. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 22(3).
Link, B.G., et al. (2001). Sitgma as a barrier to recovery: The consequences of stigma for the self-esteem of people with mental illnesses. Psychiatric Services 52(12): 1621-1626.
Darkness and Decay ithin the alls: Poe's Architecture
Ligeia, The Fall of the House of Usher, and The Masque of the Red Death present a gothic setting, within which the action of the tale takes place. Each of the houses is not only decaying, but somewhat bizarre. As the tale unfolds, an unhealthy relationship between the structure and its inhabitants is revealed.
The story Ligeia takes place in two Gothic locations: first, the city on the Rhine ("dim and decaying") (p. 102) where he meets, marries and loses Ligeia, then the abbey in the "wildest and least frequented portions of fair England" (p. 102) which is in a state of "verdant decay" (p. 103). By mentioning the river Rhine, he sets the first part of his tale in Germany, the place of origin of the Gothic tradition; by making the city "large, old, decaying" (p. 97), he establishes an atmosphere…
Poe, Edgar Allan. Complete Stories and Poems. New York: Doubleday and Company.
Here we see a man teetering between the darkness and the light. He was left the land of the bright innocence but has unfortunately stepped into the path of darkness that is filled with traps and snares for him and they will be just as difficult for him as the first one was. This is significant with darkness and light because Adam is not dark like Satan but he can no longer stand in the light of God because he is marked.
John Milton utilizes images of light and dark in "Paradise Lost" in many different ways to help us understand the story he is presenting. He begins with establishing firm principles associated with images of light and dark. The image of God and the angels certainly represent the light of Heaven while Satan and his minions represent the darkness of Hell. These descriptions are powerful and prove the…
Milton, John. The English Poems of John Milton. London: Oxford University Press. 1926.
What would it take to hitch a ride on powerful winds raging against my window…
The winds that howl, roar, disturb the quiet / shake walls, calling to me… right now
"Girl, leave it all behind -- abandon shadowy ghosts in your consciousness
"Those doubts in your head…that fuming, welling up of evil intentions
"I see the stalactites of fear and stalagmites of loathing…in your mind's cavern…"
I pull the curtains apart / what wind is this that speaks to me?
What phantom rides so freely with the wind -- how can this be?
An invisible, gusty force perceives destructive demons damning my spirit?
"Speak now, vital gust, answer me, can you blow me away from this pain…
"If so, I'll forever ride with you, side with you, in the snow and in the rain…"
I pushed nose to window, watching the bold tempest tear limbs from the tree…
Physics and physiology say that such a feat is impossible, yet such accomplishments are documented on a regular basis.
Dr. Norman Vincent Peale's book the Power of Positive Thinking, defines and explains the ability to use the mind, program the brain, to achieve one's goals. This book has sold over seven million copies and is translated into fifteen languages. Many salespeople and marketing executives have this book in their office.
The Power of Positive Thinking upholds the concept of Beyond the darkness of the clouds lies the brightness of the sunlight. Dr. Peale embraces the concept that the basis of most problems is self-doubt. He also teaches that happiness and success are both habits that must be practiced until they are a part of the subconscious. They must be programmed into the brain.
This is the reason that I referred to my dad's quote as a fortuitous gift. The routine,…
Heart of Darkness
The Second to Last Paragraph of "Heart of Darkness"
The second to last paragraph of Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" delivers the ultimate irony of the novella -- that the so-called "civilized" world, represented by Kurtz's Intended, has no idea of the "horror" that lies at the heart of man, when he gives himself over to his savage impulses.
Marlowe travels to pay his respects to the Intended and she, in her naivete asks Marlowe about Kurtz and how he died. Marlowe expresses his opinion earlier in words to the effect that Kurtz got what he deserved -- but the full meaning and significance of this expression is lost on the Intended, who remembers Kurtz fondly. She would not recognize the man that Marlowe met deep in the heart of Africa.
She begs Marlowe to tell her Kurtz's last words. Those last words -- "The horror! The horror!"…
Left Hand of Darkness, by Ursula Le Guin. Specifically, it will look at the book with a critical feminist approach. The Gethenian society seems perfect at first, but the lack of warmth in this cold world is a sad statement about relationships, and the lack of them.
THE LEFT HAND OF DARKNESS
Ursula Le Guin's book, "The Left Hand of Darkness" won the Nebula and Hugo awards for science fiction, and many critics have praised the prose and sensuality of the book, which tells the tale of the planet Winter, and the Gethenians who populate the planet. The Gethenians are androgynous, and their sex lives are discussed quite frankly in the book. When they go into "kemmer," they can choose their sex and become sexually active, and during the rest of the month, they look human, rather than male or female. "Normal individuals have no predisposition to either sexual role…
Attebery, Brian. The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature: From Irving to Le Guin. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1980.
Le Guin, Ursula K. The Left Hand of Darkness. New York: Ace Books, 1969; reprint ed., with new introduction by the author, 2000.
Palumbo, Donald, ed. Erotic Universe: Sexuality and Fantastic Literature. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.
Spector, Judith. Erotic Universe: Sexuality and Fantastic Literature. Ed. Palumbo, Donald. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. 207-207.
Therefore, the investigator unwittingly admits that the Gethenian ambisexuality can create egalitarianism. The investigator also admits that some aspects of Gethenian socialization might be psychologically beneficial, such as the lack of Freudian-like psycho-sexual complexes and the lack of potential for rape. Most notably, the investigator observes one of the main themes of the Left Hand of Darkness: the limitations of a dualistic worldview. The division of the world into binary opposites, and ascribing those binary opposites to two halves of the human race, can lead to some negative consequences. Therefore, although Gethenian androgyny feels threatening or frightening at first, it is ultimately shown to be beneficial to the collective and individual consciousnesses.
Ong Tot Oppong cloaks her prejudices in scientific babble: "Their ambisexuality has little or no adaptive value," he states (89). Such an assumption is utterly laughable; not only do most biological functions have at least a tiny bit…
Images, and Metaphors of Lightness and Darkness within Michael Ondaatje's Novel in the Skin of a Lion.
Motifs of lightness vs. darkness, in physical and emotional as well as metaphorical respects, run throughout Canadian emigre author Michael Ondaatje's post-modernist novel set in Toronto, the 1920's, In the Skin of the Lion (1987). The frequent interplay of the motifs of lightness and darkness is intricately woven throughout the structurally fragmented text. Michael Ondaatje's central character within the story is a 21-year-old new arrival to Toronto from rural Ontario named Patrick Lewis, a young man who feels emotionally hollow and who is in search of himself. Simmons (1998) observes that Patrick describes himself, vis-a-vis other characters in the story, as 'nothing but a prism that refracted [the other characters'] lives' (157). Other descriptive uses of lightness and darkness, as motifs, images, or both, abound within the story as well. Later on, for…
Lowery, Glen. "The Representation of "Race" in Ondaatje's In the Skin of a Lion." In Thematic Issue: Comparative Cultural Studies and Michael
Ondaatje's Writing. Steven Totosy de Zepetnek (Ed.). [n.d.].
Retrieved August 4, 2005, from:
For example he often found himself wondering whether the Africans could not be considered humans equal to the whites since they experienced human emotions and issues too. At one point in the story, Marlow was surprised and curious as to why the cannibals accompanying him on the trip to see Kurtz never considered devouring him and the white pilgrims since they outnumbered the whites. This situation, as well as others throughout the story, often led him towards thinking deeply about these matters. Based on the novella, it is possible to describe Marlow in a few sentences. Basically, he could be described as a wandering seaman who loved to travel for its own sake and who often found himself thinking deeply about the peoples and places he visited. He was also an avid storyteller, who was able to vividly describe Africa's environment and peoples to a great extent.
Behavior of Two Main Characters From Two Different Books
There are both similarities and differences between the protagonists of the Novels 'Lord of the Flies" (Golding) and "Heart of Darkness" (Conrad). In each case we have the supposedly 'civilized' individual(s) degenerating into savagery. As well, other characters are involved and highly influenced by the protagonist(s). This report discusses these two books and what can be observed from comparing works of essentially different world perspectives -- one was published in 1902 and the other in 1954 -- and wholly different environments and situations. Just as a simple example, there were no airplanes in the time of Conrad's protagonist, vs. An airplane crash setting up the whole scenario for Golding's characters. This report analyses the character Kurtz from 'Heart of Darkness' by Joseph Conrad, comparing him to Jack, a character in William Golding's famed novel 'Lord of the Flies'.
'Heart of Darkness',…
Because of its strong ethical overtones and themes, Victor Hugo naturally gravitates towards imagery of light and darkness in Les Miserables. Light and darkness symbolize their respective moral poles, the binaries of good and evil, beneficence and maleficence, right and wrong. Drawing attention to ethical polarities helps the reader to better understand and appreciate moral ambiguity. The protagonist Jean Valjean epitomizes moral ambiguity, as the reader follows his journey from sin to salvation. Ultimately, Hugo shows the reader how formal systems of justice and institutions of law and order cannot accurately determine moral polarities; the human heart is far too complex. Using imagery of light and darkness, Hugo shows that most of life manifests in various shades of grey.
The Bishop is the first major symbol of light in Les Miserables, and is an overt representative of religious fortitude and spiritual salvation. “He gazed incessantly beyond this world through these…
The book is a reflection towards a packed society we live in these days where all human beings have turned a blind eye to the civil rights of the other people thinking that may be in one way or the other it can justify the current situation in the society (Silverberg 89).
The two books highlight human race living in the future. The authors have highlighted futuristic vision of a society that humans of the today's world imagine. Peace with no wars, sharing and prosperity, no gender biases, no gender differences and freedom of choosing partners for making families is what makes a perfect world to live in. In the case of Le Guin's 'The Left Hand of Darkness', this concept has been carved out on a futuristic planet of human beings with no sexes and sex changes when they reach peak of their life cycles. Peace and fulfillment…
Le Guin, K. Ursula. The Left Hand of Darkness. Edition 40. Little, Brown Book Group Limited, 2009.
Silverberg, Robert. The World Inside. Orion, 2011.
Heart of Darkness
It was written by Joseph Conrad. The story is set in London, but there is a large part of it that happened in Congo. The writer went to Congo in the year 1980, on June 12. The inspiration for his writing may have been derived from what Conrad experienced in Congo. At that time, Britain had the most influence and power in the world. The Britain Empire stretched throughout Africa, Asia and Europe. Joseph Conrad was born in 1857, in Ukraine. His original name was Jozef Konrad Teodor Korzeniowski. As the writer, Conrad was a foreigner who was looking out. He was neither of African nor British origin; hence he was an appropriate party for writing a story about Congo and Britain. After all, he had insight regarding both countries (Svensson).
According to Svensson, the novella clearly portrays the Imperialism of Europeans. The novella talks about…
Hawkins, Hunt. "Conrad's Critique of Imperialism in Heart of Darkness." Modern Language Association, Vol. 94, No. 2, 1979, pp. 286-299. http://www.jstor.org/stable/461892. Accessed 9 August 2016.
Prioti, Ishrat Jahan. "Hypocrisy Of Imperialism In Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness." ENH Community Journal, Vol. 1, Issue 2, 2014, pp. 1-6. https://www.academia.edu/9941564/ Accessed 9 August 2016.
Raskin, Jonah. "Imperialism: Conrad's Heart of Darkness." Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1967, pp. 113-131. http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/259954. Accessed 9 August 2016.
Svensson, Morgan. "Critical responses to Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness." 2010. Sodertons Hogskola. http://sh.diva-portal.org . Accessed 9 August 2016.
Knowledge and the ability to learn, to think, and to analyze are terrible gifts, this interpretation says, not because they are not useful or powerful but because their power is both so capable of destruction and so limited in comparison with the giver/creator of this knowledge and ability.
The clear religious elements of "The Tyger" also have bearing on this message of true knowledge and its fearsome un-attainability. The querying voice of the speaker and the progression of the poem creates something of a narrative quest for knowledge, and "natural imagery" in Blake's work "invariably serves a prophetic purpose," according to one scholar (Altizer, p. 31). In this instance, however, what the tiger (an unusual yet strong natural image) prophesizes is only the terror and the futility of advancing further in the quest to understand the tiger's maker, i.e. God. The continued bafflement of the speaker and the awe (in…
Altizer, Thomas J.J. The New Apocalypse: The Radical Christian Vision of William Blake. Aurora, CO: The Davies Group, Publishers, 2000.
Blake, William. "The Tyger." Accessed 2 October 2012. http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/~keith/poems/tyger.html
Damon, S. Foster. William Blake: His Philosophy and Symbols. London: Dawsons, 1969.
Privacy" Does Not Love an explores darkness lurking beneath dom
James Adcox's novel Love Does Not is many things; a dystopian fantasy, a biting satire, a tale about the perversity of love. Yet it is also a scathing social commentary about the state of privacy in the world today -- and in America in particular -- in the wake of the burgeoning ar on Terror. Beneath the undercurrent of sex, intrigue, and murder, lies a pervasive sense of espionage and an abandonment of the right of individuals to enjoy basic civil liberties such as privacy. hen interpreted with this perspective, the novel is one in which characters and scenes are carefully constructed to illustrate the gradual eroding of the very laws that were initially formed to guarantee autonomy and an egalitarian, republican state as envisioned by the Founding Fathers. There are a number of salient similarities between these characters and…
Adcox, James. Does Not Love. Chicago: Curbside Splendor Publishing. 2014. Print.
Jaeger, Paul T., McClure, Charles, R., Bertot, John Carlo, Snead, John T. The U.S.A. Patriot Act, The Foreign Intelligence Patriot Act, And Information Policy Research in Libraries: Issues, Impacts and Questions for Libraries and Researchers. The Library Quarterly. 74(2), 99-121.
Matz, Chris. Libraries and the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act: Values in Conflict. Journal of Library Administration. 47(3-4), 69-87. 2008. Print.
Joseph Conrads novella Heart of Darkness is a fictionalized account of real-life historical events that took place during the colonial era in Africa. The novel centers on the protagonist Charles Marlow, known throughout the book as Marlow. As Marlow travels deeper and deeper down the river on a mission for the Company, he becomes increasingly horrified and shocked by what he sees. Having witnessed first hand the insane cruelty of colonial oppression, Marlow completely reconsiders his own role in the world. Through Heart of Darkness, Conrad conveys anti-colonial sentiments, showing how racism and exploitation are detrimental to all human societies.
Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness is one of the most important works of literature you will be asked to encounter in your academic career. Because of this, you may need some tips on how to write about Heart of Darkness. At first, writing about famous novels like…
But it was from the difference between us, not from the affinities and likenesses, but from the difference, that love came: and it was itself the bridge, the only bridge, across what divided us" (Le Guin).
The "love" referred to in this quotation that arose between the female Estraven and Ai stemmed from distinctions of gender, since it originated due to the attractive nature of Estraven as a woman and of Ai as a man. However, this love actually transcends mere gender, which is evinced by the fact that the love is not sexually consummated in a physical form, but is rather consummated in an unconditional form of love that is the basis of the "friendship" that arose between Ai and Estraven. This love is perhaps the ultimate expression of the loyalty and fidelity that Estraven always demonstrated towards Ai, and which now is finally reciprocated by the latter. So…
Jordison, Sam. "Back to the Hugos: The Left Hand of Darkness by Usula K. Le Guin." The Guardian. 2010. Web. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/booksblog/2010/mar/25/left-hand-darkness-ursula-guin
LeFanu, Sarah. "The King is Pregnant." The Guardian. 2004. Web. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/jan/03/sciencefictionfantasyandhorror.ursulakleguin
Mahoney, Simon. "Le Guin, Left Hand of Darkness." The Future Fire. http://reviews.futurefire.net/2009/07/le-guin-left-hand-of-darkness-1969.html
Thea. "Book Review: The Left Hand of Darkness." The Book Smugglers. 2010. Web. http://thebooksmugglers.com/2010/01/book-review-the-left-hand-of-darkness-by-ursula-k-leguin.html
" In more general terms, Conrad uses Marlow to give his tale, neither the full close of the plot of earlier fiction, nor James' more limited completeness in the formal structure, but a radical and continuing exposure to the incompleteness of experience and the impossibility of fully understanding it." (Watt, 1978)
The strength of subjectivity as far as perception was concerned is another modern theme. It is safe to state that Conrad managed to prove the profound importance of the subjective dimension in a very complex manner. The stream of consciousness and first person technique which he applied had as a result a process through which the reader completely identified with the inner life of the character.
Naturally all certainty and objectivity is lost in the process and not only does the reader not know where he is going, but he embraces the upcoming transformations as exciting surprises. From this…
Conrad, J. Heart of Darkness. Norton Critical Edition. Norton and Company Press. 2006
Levenson, M. "The value of facts in the Heart of Darkness." Nineteenth century fiction, vol 40. no. 3. Dec, 1985. pp. 261-280. University of California Press.
Watt, I. "Marlow, Henry James, and "Heart of Darkness." Nineteenth century fiction, vol. 33, no.2, sep. 1978, pp.159-174. University of California Press
Watt, I. "Impressionism and symbolism in Heart of Darkness." Conrad in the nineteenth century. Berkeley. University of California Press. 1979
They are so shrouded in mental and spiritual darkness, say the oppressors that they require outside assistance in the form of religious missionaries and military personnel. Christianity and the armies that propagate it are here to help the "Persons Sitting in Darkness," to save them from themselves. Thus, Twain uses the printed word to demonstrate how American foreign policy is founded on principles of social Darwinism and thinly concealed racism.
Throughout "To the Person Sitting in Darkness," Twain concentrates on lambasting the notion that America stands for freedom, liberty, and Civilization. According to Twain, these concepts are "only for Export." Moreover, they are costly. Twain makes sure to bring up the financial motives for American political maneuvers: "The Actual Thing that the Customer Sitting in Darkness buys with his blood and tears and land and liberty." The word "Customer" drives home the point that money, not concern for the well…
Horror, the Horror:
Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness vs. Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now
I stood on this hillside, I foresaw that in the blinding sunshine of that land I would become acquainted with a flabby, pretending, weak-eyed devil of a rapacious and pitiless folly. How insidious he could be, too, I was only to find out several months later and a thousand miles farther -- Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness
The director Francis Ford Coppola's 1979 Vietnam epic entitled Apocalypse Now makes a direct analogy in its symbolism as well as its plot structure with Joseph Conrad's famous 1899 novella about colonialism in the Belgian Congo entitled Heart of Darkness. This is most notable in the character played by Marlon Brando: Colonel Kurtz, who is named after Conrad's Kurtz, an important figure in a fictional ivory trading company in the Congo. Both works present white men that have, for…
Apocalypse Now. Directed by Francis Ford Coppola, 1979.
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness, 1899. Available:
http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/ConDark.html [22 Oct 2012]
Diasporic Identities: In Othello and Heart of Darkness
The issue of Diaspora is often associated with only a single culture, that of the Jews who were challenged by the secular and Islamic leaders of their "homeland" to flee for their lives and believe that they are in constant wandering upon the earth. Yet the concept of Diaspora is much broader than that, as individuals and groups often feel disconnected from their homeland both figuratively and really in literature and life. In the two works, Shakespeare's Othello and Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness one can clearly see the literary expression of diasporic identities. This work will argue that each of these works, Othello and Heart of Darkness demonstrates the reality of the challenges one faces when one uproots him or herself from the origin culture and begins to wander the earth without a home and the feeling of security that the…
Conrad, Joseph. "Heart of Darkness: And the Congo Diary." Westminster, MD, USA: Modern Library, 2000.
Shakespeare, William. "Othello: The Moor of Venice." Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press: 2006.
Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad. Specifically it will discuss the self-discovery Marlow encounters on his journey through Africa. Marlow's journey from England to Africa and back to Europe is a journey of self-discovery and adventure. He encounters greed, savagery, and indifference along his journey, and he encounters prejudice, imperialism, and a new understanding of himself along the way, as well. In the end, he recognizes he is a changed man who no longer sees the world or himself in the same way.
Throughout the book, Marlow recognizes, as he looks back on his experiences, that he was on a journey of self-discovery on his trip to Africa. Literary critic Harold Bloom notes, "But Marlow reiterates often enough that he is recounting a spiritual voyage of self-discovery. He remarks casually but crucially that he did not know himself before setting out, and that he likes work for the chance it…
Ivan Ilych and Marlow share much in common in terms of their dutiful service to an external bureaucracy, feeling stymied by that bureaucracy, and desiring deeper more meaningful spiritual experiences. At the same time, though, Ilych remains far more traditional than Marlow, whose open-mindedness earns him Kurtz's trust. Ilych is open-minded in terms of his willingness to see through superficiality and social facades, but he rarely sees beyond the mundane until the illness sets in. In fact, Ilych remains completely caught up in the rat race that defines ussian government work to the extent that promotions and salary raises make him "completely happy." Marlow, on the other hand, stares death in the face each day. He also encounters the faces of African people who shock him out of his mundane existence: "I could see every rib, the joints of their limbs were like knots in a rope; each had…
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Retrieved May 14, 2008 at http://historyofideas.org/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=ConDark.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=1&division=div1
Tolstoy, Leo. The Death of Ivan Ilych. Retrieved May 14, 2008 at http://www.geocities.com/short_stories_page/tolstoydeath.html
Thus, as Kurtz approached his death, he came upon the realization of this possibility -- a possibility that came true upon his 'defeat' (death). This realization was embodied in his exclamation, "The horror! The horror!" As he neared his death. Explicit violence was, evidently, just a "mask" that colonizers used to cover up their fears of the potential power and control of the natives over them (colonizers).
In the same vein, violence was also portrayed in Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," although this was expressed implicitly through the inherent tendency of Africans to view women as the weaker and inferior sex. Okonkwo's behavior towards his wives and daughters showed this animosity between sexes in African culture. However, it was also implicitly shown in the novel how, despite their apparent submissiveness, the women in Okonkwo's life and in the Mbanta tribe showed strength of character and control over males more than the…
Achebe, C. (1994). Things Fall Apart. New York: First Anchor Books.
Conrad, J. E-text of "Heart of Darkness." Available at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=ConDark.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=all .
Here again, Conrad's latent racism is apparent.
The following passage also establishes Conrad's inherent racism: "I let him run on, this papier-mache' Mephistopheles, and it seemed to me that if I tried I could poke my forefinger through him, and would find nothing inside but a little loose dirt, maybe." (Conrad, 42) First, the narrator "lets" him run on, implying that the had a position of power over him: He was in a place where he could either "let" him run on or stop him from doing so. This immediately implies superiority.
Second, by using the condescending term, "Mephistopheles," Conrad contrasts the qualities of the black man with Mephistopheles'. Here again, in using caustic wit, Conrad betrays his own racism.
Finally, of course, Conrad depicts the "nigger" as being empty inside in that the narrator could poke his forefinger through his very frame and find nothing but loose dirt. Here,…
Book II: "The Queen of Air and Darkness,"
Morgause raises four boys. She is not a good mother, and she does not give her boys a sense of right and wrong. She often ignores them for days at a time and beats them when they displease her. She acts as if they were pets rather than human beings, to be loved or not at her convenience. But despite this common maltreatment, the boys turn out very differently. Gawaine is the oldest of the boys and in many ways the most normal. He becomes a knight in Arthur's court, fighting for him loyally. The way in which he is affected by his upbringing is his rages. When provoked Gawaine goes into a berserk rage in which he does things he would normally never do. The next child, Agravaine, is probably the least well-adjusted of the four. He…
The scene is full of hope and joy, and the use of light helps to illuminate this mood.
Once Laura crosses the road, the scene is described quite differently. At first it is "smoky and dark," however Laura does manage to see in some of the cottages flickers of light in the shadows. These flickers of light represent flickers of hope, but they are far less luminous than those which were presented during the garden party.
"The Indian Camp" also makes use of light and dark imagery as a means of signifying elements of the initiation process. Nick and his father start off their journey in the dark of night, which signifies the lack of knowledge that surrounds Nick, and his blindness to the events that are about to take place in the shanty in the Indian camp. Like Laura's experience in the village, Nick too is able to see…
Hemingway, Ernest. "Indian Camp." Stories of Initiation. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Sprachen GmbH, 2009. 7-12..
Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party." Stories of Initiation. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Sprachen GmbH, 2009. 46-64.
Mordecai, Marcus. "What is an Initiation Story?" Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Winter, 1960), pp. 221-228
If they can change the fundamental beliefs of the tribe, then they can control the natives more easily: "The white man is very clever. He came quietly and peaceably with his religion. e were amused at his foolishness and allowed him to stay. Now he has won our brothers, and our clan can no longer act like one. He has put a knife on the things that held us together and we have fallen apart" (Achebe 152). Confronted with change, individual members of Ibo society react differently. Those who stand to gain from change -- the outcasts, the oppressed -- welcome it. Those who have risen to positions of authority by following the old way -- Okonkwo, for example -- resist change. The battle between the old and the new is highlighted by the arrival of Christian missionaries and colonial authority. Okonkwo and Obierika recognize that many of their clansmen…
1. Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Anchor, 1994.
2. Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Dover Publications, 1990.
3. Plato. "Apology." The Collected Dialogues of Plato: Including the Letters. Princeton University Press, 2005.
4. Plato. "Crito." The Collected Dialogues of Plato: Including the Letters. Princeton University Press, 2005.
Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness refers to a common European name for Africa, the 'dark continent.' The continent was dark because of the skin of the people who lived there -- but also because it was assumed to be immoral, dark, and clouded in nature. To Europeans it was a cipher, and thus Conrad's decision to call his book Heart of Darkness also refers to the unknowing view of the colonists. Although Marlowe's view of the Africans he meets is troubling and often racist in nature, Conrad's title alerts the reader to the fact that Marlowe's view is inherently biased and subjective. The inability of people in the book to see one another clearly in a cross-cultural fashion is manifest in the African submission to Kurtz but also in Marlowe's disgust with Africa. Africa is impenetrable to the Europeans, and Europe is impenetrable and dark to Africans. The heart…
The central focus of the book is the search for self and identity and an attempt to answer the question of what happens when men leave the protective normative and restraining influence of society. The central figure of Kurtz is a man who has broken free of the constraints of a sick society. However the novel also questions whether Kurtz too has become evil and lost his own sense of direction. The question is posed questions whether the human "heart of darkness" is not the real problem. If one interprets the book from this perspective, as a work that states that human nature or the human heart is essentially flawed, then one could conclude that Heart of Darkness is in fact more gloomy or pessimistic then the Wasteland.
The Heart of Darkness is a complex work that can be interpreted on many different levels: psychological, sociological, ethical and political. The…
Bloom, Harold, ed. 1(986). T.S. Eliot's the Waste Land. New York: Chelsea House,
Conrad, Joseph. (1946) Youth: Heart of Darkness, the End of the Tether; Three Stories. London J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1946. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24227703
Eder, Doris L. (1984).Three Writers in Exile: Pound, Eliot & Joyce. Troy, NY: Whitston, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=75053211
British Imperialism Be Explained?
In the colonial period, Africa became the land of opportunity for Europeans who exploited the people and resources for profit. When Europeans went to Africa, home of black skinned people, they looked at the land as available to use as they wished. They never considered that this land belonged to its original inhabitants. Neither did they consider themselves thieves. They did not bother to think of black natives as human beings, but rather sought every way possible to use them to make money. Rather than openly admit their mercenary motives, whites assumed an attitude of superiority and declared that they were acting out of generosity to bring civilization and Christianity to primitive peoples. The thesis of this essay is that the colonial period in Africa was characterized by the arrogance of whites and atrocities committed against blacks. The focus will be on the British Empire and…
Paradox of Imperialism as Presented in Heart of Darkness
Beginning in the 1500's, European countries explored the world and claimed large parts of it as their own. This was the beginning of the Age of Exploration, as first the Portuguese and Spanish, then the British, Dutch, French, and other Europeans raced to discover and claim new areas of the world. By the 1800's the Age of Exploration had settled into a system of Imperialism which maintained huge Empires for the economic benefit of the home countries in Europe. While the stated goal of creating such Empires was to bring civilization to uncivilized parts of the world, the need for raw materials combined with a commercial greed created a system that cruelly exploited indigenous peoples and raped whole territories of natural resources. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, paralleled this ultimate paradox of Imperialism by describing how a good man named Kurtz,…
Bell, Fraser. "Joseph Conrad's moral journey." Queen's Quarterly 112.4 (2005): 491+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Apr. 2011.
Bowers, Terence. "Conrad's Aeneid: Heart of Darkness and the classical epic.(Critical essay)." Conradiana 38.2 (2006): 115+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Apr. 2011.
Goldblatt, Stephen, and M.H. Abrams. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006. Print.
Icoz, Nursel. "Conrad and ambiguity: social commitment and ideology in Heart of Darkness and Nostromo.(Critical essay)." Conradiana 37.3 (2005): 245+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Apr. 2011.
" (Gluck 2). She is comforted by the presence of her brother, yet something is askew. She cannot shake the memory and that fact will become the purpose of this poem. The nagging question, "hy do I not forget?" (Gluck 10), brings us to the crux of the problem. The experience was bad but she survived. hile she knows she should be grateful, she must realize she will never forget and the experience robbed her of her innocence.
Daniel Morris points out how "Gretel in Darkness" is a poem of survival. The poem reflects upon a "profound psychological wound that at times mirrors survivor testimony" (100). Gretel returns from the "edge of personal destruction" (Morris 101) with a new identity "marred by traumatic memory" (101). She is different and she will never be the same again. Gluck explores the relationship between narrative and trauma in "order to allow the recovery…
Clark, Patricia, Steele, "Louise Gluck." Critical Survey of Poetry. EBSCO Resource Database.
Information Retrieved March 11, 2010. Web
Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 280. Detroit: Gale. From Literature Resource Center. Gale Resource
Database. Information Retrieved March 11, 2010. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Daru is still trying to cling to a sense of morality; yet, the Arab himself shows how this will not work in a world of uncertainty because after he is set free, he goes to the police station himself.
James Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues" Topic 6
James Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues" is an interesting tale of a lost soul, who finds his solace and ability to express himself through the art of music. Sonny lost both of his parents, and his brother was not there for him during the times he needed him the most. Sonny's brother did not understand his suffering, and as a result he turned his back on Sonny during his times of darkness. Sonny was left alone in a world of darkness and he was not strong enough to deal with it in a healthier manner, as his brother did. Therefore, Baldwin writes "this life, whatever it was,…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues."
Camus, Albert. "The Guest."
Brook Thomas: Preserving and Keeping Order by Killing Time in Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness"
Brook Thomas is fairly more complex in redefining lies in Preserving and Keeping Order by Killing Time in Joseph Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness'," even though he himself does it in a paragraph. Thomas aims on leading his readers from a restatement of the hatred of lies that Marlow had to an affirmation that Marlow trounces that hatred and accepts the condition that produces lies.
hile defining the process, Thomas redefines both the issues: "lies" and the reason for Marlow's hatred of them. He writes early in the paragraph: "So long as truth cannot fully be represented, lies become part of the truth of the world." (250)
Evidently, Thomas initially uses truth to denote "internal reality"; that which Marlow is concerned with, and which cannot be fully represented by anyone. Thereafter, he redefines it in his…
Brook, Thomas. Preserving and Keeping Order by Killing Time in Heart of Darkness."Heart of Darkness: A Case Study in Contemporary Criticism." Ed. Ross C. Murfin. New York: St.
Martin's. 1989. 237-255.
Conrad Joseph. Heart of Darkness and Other Tales. Ed. C. Watts. Oxford University Press:
World's Classics, 1990. (First Edition - Muffin, London, 1902).
Everywhere there is the drumbeat of the natives, and the ominous reminder of the presence of untamed native life. Blackness is the dominant image of the Congo in Heart of Darkness -- whirls of black limbs, the black water -- all of which suggest that the environment is anathema and destructive to white civilization, as manifest in the persona of Kurtz. The natural beauty of the land, its colors, and the nuances of local cultures of tribes that would be perceptible to an Africa blur into a singular image of darkness in Conrad's prose.
Q4. Some critics argue that you can only fully understand a piece of literature if you understand the historical events that were ongoing when it was being written. Others argue that each piece of literature is independent of its historical context and you should not have to look for information outside the text to understand it.…
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…
" He also confirmed to himself that God was the origin of his thought, and therefore because his thoughts were real, God must also be real.
3. Descartes -- Senses and Knowledge
When we went outside as a class, part of Descartes ideas was visible in our observations. All the students had a different perception of the external world. Some focused on certain people and certain objects, which were not seen in the same exact way as another student. This shows that the human mind sees a unique version of what our senses tell us is reality. Reality, might however, escape the limitations of the human mind. For instance, a particular relation to a person and an object, this case a tree, might be seen as being a certain way in my mind but a much different way in another student's mind. Each person's unique experience, through the perception of…
imagery in the movies Chinatown and Blade unner and compare the film-noir type of imagery against the actual statistics available in the latest Census results from Los Angeles that characterize the complexion of Los Angeles in 2010. In all three arenas, we see a Los Angeles area that is multi-ethnic, grime and dirt included. In many ways, while the movie imagery is different, in many ways all three characterizations have more in common than have differences. In all three portraits, the dirty, gritty and repressive city scape has the potential to swallow up the inhabitants in the Los Angeles darkness that is almost as thick as palpable as the ninth Egyptian plague of darkness. The films accurately and effectively discuss the "feel" of the city and the city's neighborhoods. The author will provide examples from the films to illustrate this, as well as the similarities and differences.
U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Dept of Commerce. Los Angeles city, California QuickLinks. Washington,
D.C.: U.S.G.P.O., 2012. Web. .
In the 20th century, both of these tactics were utilized to successfully gain independence for a number of countries. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
However, Africans also helped European efforts. This was accomplished by many individuals becoming actively involved in: the political, economic and military structure. Over the course of time, these activities divided entire nations against one another. Once this took place, is when the European powers were able to exercise greater amounts of control over its colonies. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
hat was the impact of European colonialism (overseas acquisition up to approximately the mid-1700s) and imperialism (overseas acquisition from the mid-1700s) in Africa?
The impact European colonialism was to exercise direct control over entire regions. This was a part of an effort to increase their access to natural resources. Moreover, many of these colonies were established based upon…
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Hamondsworth: Penguine, 1975. Print.
Duiker, William. The Essential World History. Boston: Wadsworth Learning, 2011. Print.
Engels, Frederic. The Condition of the Working Class in England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.
Gainty, Denis. Sources of World Societies. Boston: St. Martins, 2009. Print.
Charles Simic's poem "My Mother Was a Braid of Black Smoke" appears in New and Selected Poems, 1962-2012. The poem is the story of the poet's genesis, and it is difficult for the reader to distinguish between what is actual memory and what is the impression or imagination of the speaker. The first stanza starts, "My mother was a braid of black smoke." The imagery in this stanza, with his mother's "swaddling," conveys the sense that Simic's childhood was not a wealthy or happy one. The cities were "burning cities," perhaps reference to the outbreak of war. When the speaker says "We met many others who were just like us," the reader gets the sense that they were outcasts. This imagery is in direct contradiction with the second stanza's imagery. For instance, the second stanza refers to gypsies, and distinguishes the speaker's family from the gypsies. "I was stolen…
There is the feeling that Rushdie is toying with the concept of freedom of speech in this story as well as destroying the concept of the East as mysterious. Rushdie uses English to tell his story, but he incorporates the Indian oral tradition without any kind of chronological structure to the story. He deconstruct the binary opposition of East and est. He himself is between the Orient and the Occident and he chooses to use both structures, combining Britain and India (Buran 10).
The factors of race and gender complicate the relations of class in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, ole Soyinka's "Telephone Conversation," and Jean Rhys "Let Them Call It Jazz" in various ways. In Heart of Darkness, the story is centered on the typical male experience, which tends to alienate the female reader from the very "mannish" story. There is some speculation that Marlow and Kurtz's sexist views…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Heinemann; Expanded edition, 1996.
Buran, Abdullah. Salman Rushdie's East, West: Deconstructing the Binary Division
Between Orient and Occident. Germany: Druck und Bindung: Books on Demand,
However, because of Gilgamesh's thought that he may be invincible, he is actually putting his friend's life at risk by going on his adventure. In his attempt to prove that he is brave and that he would rather die for a cause, he actually indirectly causes the death of Enkidu, who shows that he was the stronger of the two.
5) Defining Honor
Honor is a characteristic that few individuals posses. It is a special type of distinguishing factor, that although many attempt to have, very few actually embrace it to its full meaning. Honor entails pride and personal excellence. It is fully believing in an action or an entity that represents something very important to the self and to those around. To me, honor is being able to stand up for your beliefs despite the opinion of others.
Honor in society can actually be viewed in two ways, depending…
Myth of Marriage and Children
Joseph Campbell's The Power of Myth is a book that can potentially transform the reader's consciousness. Beyond being informative, Campbell's analysis of cultural myths is profound; it provokes genuine introspection. The author refers to the spiritual in whatever he speaks about, and yet he never lapses into religious diatribe or dogma. Subjects like marriage are elevated beyond the social to the psycho-spiritual. For example, he calls marriage "primarily a spiritual exercise, and the society is supposed to help us have the realization. Man should not be in service to society, society should be in the service of man," (8).
In light of modern society, Campbell's words hold new meaning. In America, we have few true rituals because we have turned our attention outward instead of inward. The wisdom of life is being denigrated through a preoccupation with technology and material goods. There is little…
Heart of Darkness
Conrad's themes embrace navigation, humanity and inspection
Descriptiveness, irony and imagery are also on board
The novel brings to light the "reverence and affection" (6)
Of an exalted character linked to the sea, but not a king or a lord
The novel also exposes the bigotry and bias of Marlow's kin
She wanted to "wean those millions from their horrid ways…" she said (9)
The aunt made Marlow "quite uncomfortable" -- her morality clearly wore thin
Later he saw"..black shapes crouched, lay, sat between the trees" all nearly dead
The sea, the darkness, the river and the mystery
The "foreign shores" and "foreign faces" that also "glide past" (9)
Fully illustrate the effectiveness of the novel's link to history
Because in this novel's time frame, colonialism was in its last gasp
Heart of Darkness explores endless days that seem more like night
It examines timeless concepts of…
As with the Gospel of Mark’s theme of impending darkness and suffering, what is the Good News? Is there a message of joy here? How do you talk to your parishioners about embracing the cross, even as we approach life with joy and hope?
Darkness and suffering are recurrent themes throughout the Bible. God’s love is offered as a resolution to the suffering endemic to human existence. The Gospel of Mark’s unique apocalyptic vision simultaneously presents the Good News to teach the truth about Jesus as the Son of Man. Depending on how the text is read and interpreted, there is certainly a message of joy embedded within the Gospel of Mark. I would therefore communicate the key themes related to the Son of Man, the identity of Jesus, and the means to salvation while disseminating the Good News to parishioners.
The beauty of the Gospel lies in its fantastic…
Your answer should be at least five sentences long.
The Legend of Arthur
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty
1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.
2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences
Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.
* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.
* Be sure to…
Those with issues to overcome are always more heroic. Hector also becomes a hero when, after at first running from Achilles, he eventually stands up to him and dies a heroic death.
The Iliad is primarily a war epic. In your opinion, is the Iliad condemnation of the it could easily be argued that the Illiad glorifies war, as much of the poem is spent portraying the warriors as brave and courageous, even as they go on killing rampages. Warriors are describes as "masters of the battle cry" and "warlike" in glowing epithets. When Achilles originally refused to fight, he is roundly condemned for it by all of the other Greek characters. Even the weapons of war, such as Achilles impenetrable shield, are glorified. But homer is more complicated than simple -- war also brings death, which he describes in great detail. Hector's death is perhaps the most graphic of…
Somehow this is an explanation of what love is, paradoxical. This paradox between the sublime relationship of sex to love and to procreation is all one in this small poem and is the true meaning the poet is conveying.
Fergus is at once the symbol and personification of this in the poem, "this blessing love gives again into our arms." (Meyers __) Referring to the love they have shared for each other and the love that is now their child. The meaning here is at once figurative and literal, here is a sense of spiritual love between them all, and the physical presence of their bodies, both at first as a couple making love and then experiencing their child between them as the symbolic and literal result of that love.
There is also a counter play between the innocence of a child and the experience of an adult. In the…
Meyer, Michael. Thinking and Writing About Literature: A Text and Anthology, Second Edition.
Publisher; Location, (Date)
Streng, Frederick J. "Three Approaches to Authentic Existence: Christian, Confucian, and Buddhist." Philosophy East & West 32.4 (1982): 371-392.
Diaz's Examination Of Culture: Clashes And Identities
Diaz's Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao is a combination of cultural experiences and influences that are as rich and imaginative as the stories the book contains. Within the main character, Oscar, lies the power to both transcend definition of culture and become victim or prey of a specific culture's stereotypes and norms. Oscar is an obese, alienated person within his own culture, but he is drawn out of his personal problems and violent existence within the Dominican dictatorship through his love of escapist literature and stories. Oscar even refers to himself as a "victim of fuku americanus," or the "Curse of the New World." (Diaz, 2007). This is an integral idea within the novel and helps to shape the cultural struggles that are contained within it.
Throughout this entire voyage through Oscar's life, author Diaz explores the mixture of cultures, languages, and ideas…
Celayo, Armando & Shook, David. "In Darkness We Meet: A Conversation with Junot Diaz."
Molossus, May 11, 2008. Accessed online May 9, 2011 at: http://www.molossus.co/fiction/in-darkness-we-meet-a-conversation-with-junot-diaz-test/.
Diaz, Juniot. The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. Riverhead: New York, NY. 2007.
Tehelka TV. "In Conversation with Juniot Diaz." Santo Domingo: Dominican Republic, March
In the future, this helps to give everyone a greater appreciation for the emotions and challenges that were endured. (Henry, n.d., pp. 522- 535) (Legett, n.d., pp. 802 -- 818) (Gray, n.d., pp. 678 -- 697)
In the Victorian Period, there is focus on showing the impact of the industrial revolution on society. In the poem Dover Beach, there is discussion about how this is creating vast disparities. Evidence of this can be seen with the passage that says, "Ah, love, let us be true
To one another! For the world, which seems. To lie before us like a land of dreams, So various, so beautiful) so new, Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light, nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain; and we are here as on a darkling plain. Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight, Where ignorant armies clash by night." (Arnold, n.d.) This…
Arnold, M. (n.d.). Dover Beach.
Arnold, M. (n.d.). To Marguerite-Continued.
Blake, W. (n.d.). London.
Blake, W. (n.d.). Chimney Sweeper.
Evening," Mohan Singh celebrates the mystery of erotic love. Mohan Singh communicates the themes of life and love using symbolism, diction, and imagery. There are two "characters" in Singh's "Evening," that of Evening, and that of the horse. The Evening has a female connotation, and the horse has a male connotation, as the horse is described with masculine pronouns like "his," whereas Evening is described with feminine pronouns like "her."
Singh uses sexual symbolism to explore the mysteries of erotic love as the union of male and female. Sexual imagery pervades the poem. For example, the first line introduces the horse as "panting" as he "reaches the shores of evening." The imagery suggests the heavy breathing, the panting, that occurs during sex, and the "shores of evening" symbolize the woman's moist sexuality. Imagery related to moistness continues, as the horse "throws red foam from his mouth," and "his vermillion mane"…
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…
Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html
Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.
Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
These Gods subjugated humans in a way that never happened in other primitive river-valley cultures yet seemed to follow a political will as the concept evolved. This finally culminates in the marriage between the God of Above, Nergal, lord of Summer, Growth and Heat; and the Goodness of the Below, Ereshkigal, queen of the underworld, inter, the Cold, and of Death. e now have opposites, attracted, and yet polarized in deed, action, and even interpretation (Messadie, 1996, 90-7).
This conception then seems to flow mythologically out of the Middle East into other cultures; we have the trickster, the shadow, the evil one, and even the unknown. However, considering the geographical location of the Abrahamic religions, it is logical that there would be a cross-over from the archetype that would manifest itself within these religious traditions.
Satan in Judaism -- in traditional Judaic thought, there is no conception of the Devil…
Jews Believe in the Satan, and Not in the Devil. (2003, March). Retrieved November 2010, from What Jews Believe: http://whatjewsbelieve.org/explanation7.html
Anderson, W. (2010). Dante the Maker. Brooklyn, NY: S4N Books.
Bowker, J. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Catchpool, D. (2002). The Koran vs. Genesis. Creation, 24(2), 46-51.
Judith Oster notes that the poem is of such a nature that it represents the real trauma that occurs after a tragic loss. She writes, "Home is only suffocating when the marriage is unhappy" (Oster 300) and that its subject matter is too dramatic and tragic too realistically ties to failure in human love to have poetic form as its principal subject" (300). Richard Poirier claims that this poem is one of Frost's "greatest dramatizations" of the theme of home, in which the husband and wife share the same "pressure" (Richard Poirier 123). Richard Thorton states that Frost's description of this home represents how "unending work distorts grief into callousness" (Thornton 257). The role of the husband is "ambiguous" (123) while he does his best to "comprehend the wife's difficulties, he is only partially able to do so" (124). "The very title of the poem means something about the couple…
Frost, Robert. "Home Burial." Robert Frost's Poems. New York: Pocket Books, 1916.
Oster, Judith. Toward Robert Frost: The Reader and the Poet. Athens: University of Georgia Press. 1994.
Parini, Jay. Robert Frost: A Life. New York: Macmillan. 2000.
Pack, Robert. Belief and Uncertainty in the Poetry of Robert Frost. Dartmouth: UPNE. 2004.
Unlike Frey, Arleo states: "it is the face that most intrigues and challenges me. During the twenty years that I've worked with the figure, the faces have moved steadily from vagueness toward increasing specificity and recognizability. The eyes, when I was starting out, were undefined; they have since evolved from being closed, to being downward turned, to being open and forthrightly gazing."(Arleo, 2006) Arleo's sculptures, often also in clay, are more human in their scope and their appearance, and invite a kind of intimacy between gazer and crafted work.
Arleo, Adrian. orksGalleryArtists Commentary by the artist. [28 Nov 2006] http://www.snyderman-works.com/works/artists/ceramics/arleo/arleo.html
Gilmore, Jonathan. "Viola Frey at Nancy Hoffman - ceramic figures at Nancy Hoffman Gallery, New York."Art in America. June 2002. [28 Nov 2006] http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_6_91/ai_102793137
Arleo, Adrian. WorksGalleryArtists Commentary by the artist. [28 Nov 2006] http://www.snyderman-works.com/works/artists/ceramics/arleo/arleo.html
Gilmore, Jonathan. "Viola Frey at Nancy Hoffman - ceramic figures at Nancy Hoffman Gallery, New York."Art in America. June 2002. [28 Nov 2006] http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_6_91/ai_102793137
Lars appears to have strong issues of the heart. He is emotionally closed off and distant at the current time with his fiancee, Jennifer. This may be due to his conservative upbringing. It will be important to find out what type of environment he grew up in and what his role in the family was. His ambivalence about his upcoming marriage and his withdrawal from Jennifer may be due to actual or perceived disapproval from his conservative Lutheran parents about marrying a woman who is divorced. This rift, whether true or not, would cause a great strain for Lars' heart well-being. It may also be Lars' own disapproval of his pending marriage to a divorced woman. If this is the case, he may or may not actively realize it at this time.
Lars appeared to function with relative ease and comfort in his relationship with…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Edition IV, Therapeutic Revision. (2000) New York: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. 4th Edition.
Forrey, Jeffrey F. A Biblical Response To Suicide. (2008) Publisher Unknown.
Holy Bible. New Living Translation. (1996) Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers.
Welch, Edward T. Depression: A Stubborn Darkness - A Light For the Path. (2004) New Growth Press.
By pointing straight up, it is emulating the church steeple, pointing perhaps to God, and Creator that has brought the stars and the moon and the clouds and the land to the people so they could build a village. In the village the lights are on in many of the houses, or are those bright windows merely reflecting the starry splendor from above?
In conclusion, Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night" received a great deal of exposure when Don McLean sang the song in 1970. Many listeners likely did not know at first the song was about Vincent Van Gogh, but a careful review of the lyrics clearly indicates that the song was an ode to the great expressionist. The painting will endure long after the song though. It will endure as long as humankind is still on the planet. And the planet is better for the fact that artists like…
Bahr, Herman. "Expressionism" From Art in Theory 1900-1990: An Anthology of Changing
Ideas. Eds. Charles Harrison and Paul Wood. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1992.
Hulsker, Jan. The Complete Van Gogh: Paintings, Drawings, Sketches. New York: Random