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Death and Dying
'My new body was weightless and extremely mobile, and I was fascinated by my new state of being. Although I had felt pain from the surgery only moments before, I now felt no discomfort at all. I was whole in every way -- perfect," (Eadie "Embraced" 30). In her groundbreaking book Embraced by the Light, Betty J. Eadie writes about her own near-death experience to help dispel the universal fear of dying. Eadie's body was clinically dead during a surgical procedure, but her consciousness remained vital and alive. Not only did Eadie live to tell the story, but her encounter with death was a spiritual awakening, an experience that positively changed her perspective on life. Personal accounts such as Eadie's abound in the literature, demonstrating that death and dying need not be the fearsome processes many would believe them to be. In the 1960s, author Elisabeth Kubler-Ross…
Byock, Ira. Dying Well. Riverhead, 1998.
Callanan, Maggie; Kelley, Patricia. Final Gifts. Bantam, 1997.
Eadie, Betty J. Embraced by the Light. Bantam, 1994.
Kessler, David. The Rights of the Dying. Perennial, 1998.
Death and Dying
Death is a pretty extreme event in someone's life; one that everyone must endure. We all know it is coming one day, but most of us take it for granted as we go about our daily lives. However, once in a while a person will be a part of another's death and get to experience the process from a close perspective. I have a personal experience regarding death and dying and the process that goes along with it with my grandmother. She spent her last few weeks in total care but even before that there was a long period in which the entire family knew that death was right around the corner. Some people die unexpectedly, while others well know well in advance that it death is coming in the near future.
My grandmother's case certainly represents the latter. I personally have mixed emotions about knowing that…
Death and Dying
This report aims to compare Sigmund Freud's hypothesis on the grieving cycle and Elisabeth Kubler-oss' stages of dying. All men, women and children on the face of this planet eventually lose a loved one and they will also come to a point where they realize their own demise; yet, grieving and death are still not fully understood. Both Freud and Kubler-oss made amicable attempts to solve the issues and concerns associated with this obvious dilemma. But, the reality is that each of us will have to come to terms with man's mortality in his or her unique way. Freud and Kubler-oss only provide a blueprint for us to understand the process that each of us utilize when the time comes. Grief therefore should be considered as a very personal progression of self preservation because everyone also has his own death in the back of his mind during…
Freud, Sigmund (1917). Mourning and Melancholia. Zeitschrift, BD IV.
Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth (1969). On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan.
If you need to type anything after the reference list then start it on this page
The last days of the dying person should be spent in the most peaceful manner possible.
Dying in one's home is also preferred in our culture because it gives the dying person a sense of warmth and familial bond. eflecting on this, I believe that dying in one's home is also a sign that the eventual death of a family member has already been accepted by the family. It gives the dying person some sense of assurance that everything is going to be well.
Understanding one's belief and practices about death and dying allows us to see the value not only of life but of our immediate social environment. Different practices emerge because of different beliefs regarding this subject-matter but at the end of the day, it all boils down to the objective of having a peaceful death and a better coping state for his/her grieving family.
Author, Initials. (Date). Title of the Book. Location: Publisher.
Another example would be the various religious views which stress reincarnation as a central part of the death and this again invalidates the first four of Kubler-Ross's stages and focuses more on the acceptance stage.
The Kubler-Ross stages have been extended by some theorists to include other aspect that are more in line with thinking where death is not seen in a negative light: for example, the view of death as transcendence.
There are many ways in which individual experiences of death and dying can extend or alter the five stages. For example, many people may view death as a reprieve from a serious illness. It is my opinion that the five stages of death are appropriate when viewed in the context of secular, industrialized society. In this sense it is an acceptable general view but it cannot account for the many cultural and individual variations that exist with regard…
While various types of medical/religious practice had long attempted to prolong life, the emphasis of these efforts beginning during this period was placed on forestalling death.
Views of Death in the Modern Era
The trends that began in the enaissance and Enlightenment periods continued into the modern era, and though the increased rationalism and emphasis on the scientific method and imperial fact served society well in many ways, this has not necessarily been the case when it comes to perspectives on death and dying. Increasing secularization and the general diminishment of spiritual influences on personal beliefs and decisions has led to an increasing view of death as the end of all personal meaning and achievement. Medicine and Science have improved the quality of life for many, but reduced the quality of death.
Throughout much of human history, as can be seen from the above descriptions, death and the dying process…
Angier, N. (2008). "About Death, Just Like Us or Pretty Much Unaware?." NY Times 1 September. Accessed 22 October 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/02/science/02angi.html
Aries, P. (1975). Western Attitudes Toward Death. Baltimore: John's Hopkins University Press.
Battacharya, S. (2005). "Elephants may pay homage to dead relatives." NewScientist 26 October. Accessed 22 October 2010. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn8209
Bernstein, F. (2000). Classical living: reconnecting with the rituals of ancient Rome. New York: Harper Collins.
But still, alker makes mention of the fact that control of the "various stages of disposing of a human corpse" has been (and is in some respects today) a tug-of-war between businessmen, clergy, and local health officials.
Annotation for Three ays to Arrange a Funeral
alker uses nearly 200 references (books, journal articles) in his bibliography, and so his is an article that spans centuries in its research on death and the way societies have responded to death. He also points out that as time has gone by, the usefulness of the Church as a place where the dead are consecrated has been usurped in many instances by the modern funeral parlor.
Abstract for Cremation: Desecration, Purification, or Convenience?
Michael C. Kearl points out that Americans "are increasingly likely" to turn to cremation as time goes on; and in fact, "more than 27%" of all the people who passed away…
Lynch, Thomas. (2004). Funerals-R-Us: From Funeral Home to Mega-Industry. Generations.
American Society on Aging. Summer 2004. 11-14.
Kearl, Michael C. (2004). Cremation: Desecration, Purification, or Convenience? Generations.
American Society on Aging. Summer 2004. 15-20.
Death and Dying in "Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night"
and "Because I Could Not Stop for Death"
Death is a common theme in poetry and has been written about and personified throughout history. Among some of the most recognizable poems that deal with the subject are "Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night," by Dylan Thomas (1951), and "Because I Could Not Stop for Death," by Emily Dickinson (1890). Thomas contends that Death is something that should be fought until a person can no longer resist it, while Dickinson is more accepting of the event and does not seek to fight the inevitable. Dylan Thomas and Emily Dickinson have different perspectives on death, yet both are able to demonstrate why the topic and theme are so commonly written about and how the subject impacts the writer.
Dylan Thomas was a elsh poet born on October 27,…
Alliteration. (n.d.). Accessed 22 April 2012 from, http://www.tnellen.com/cybereng/lit_terms/alliteration.html
Anaphora. (n.d.). Accessed 22 April 2012 from, http://rhetoric.byu.edu/figures/a/anaphora.htm
Dickinson, E. (1890) "Because I Could Not Stop For Death." Poets.org. Accessed 22 April 2012
Viewing -- the "viewing" is not exclusively a Catholic rite, but is more traditional with Catholic services. It is also called a reviewal or funeral visitation. This is the time in which friends and the family come to see the deceased after the body has been prepared by a funeral home. A viewing may take place at a funeral parlor, in a family home, or Church/Chapel prior to the actual funeral service. It is sometimes combined with the celebration of the deceased's life, called a wake. Typically, it makes it easier for some to accept the reality of death, experiencing the viewing of a body and saying goodbye instead of interpersonal notifications ("Questions About Funerals," n.d.).
ake -- a ake is a cultural feature, particularly Irish, sometimes Italian, and European. It is a ceremony associated with death, typically taking place at a home or meeting hall in which people can…
20th Century Democide. (2001, January). Retrieved December 2010, from MegaNu Statistics: http://www.mega.nu/ampp/rummel/20th.htm
Cathechism of the Catholic Church - Part 3 - Life in Christ. (2010, March). Retrieved December 2010, from the Vatican: http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p3s2c2a5.htm
Andrew, L. (2010, October 21). Depression and Suicide. Retrieved December 2010, from Emedicine - WebMD: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805459-overview
Bokenkotter, T. (2005). A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Image Press.
Deep tissue and bone pain typically need corticosteroids added to actually alleviate discomfort. Bisphosphonates may also be used when pain is not controlled by NSAIDs. When dealing with neuropathic pain, either continuous and constant burning sensations or sharp, stabbing and shooting pain, tricyclic antidepressants are often used, as well as local anesthetics depending on the severity and location. Most all of these do, however, have side-effects, and part of the nurse management paradigm is ensuring that the pain is managed but discomfort from other effects not magnified (McCaffrey and Pasero, 2000).
Unfortunately, the terminally ill often have special circumstances that require a specialized approach to pain management. Typically they have been on medications far longer, and are therefore subject to breakthrough pain or pain that is no longer manageable through standard doses or treatments, In this case, sustained release analgesics must be combined with immediate release at dosages about 25%…
Kubler-Ross, E. (2005). On Grief and Grieving: Finding the meaning of Grief Through the Five Stages of Loss. New York: Simon and Schuster.
McCaffrey, M. And Pasero, C. (2000). Pain Management: The Nurse's Active Role in Opiod
Administration. New York: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Miller, K., et.al. (2001). Challenges in Pain management at the End of Life. American Family
Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth. On Death and Dying. Scribner, 1997. A seminal work on the subject of death and dying, Kubler-Ross's book was initially published in the 1960s and remains relevant. On Death and Dying is a commentary on the views toward death and dying held by our culture and therefore illustrates the underlying moral and ideological principles that have guided public policy in the area of right-to-die ethics. Moreover, Kubler-Ross emphasizes the experience of dying from the patient's perspective, garnering information from case studies and interviews. Although offered primarily as a text to assist hospice, health care workers, friends, and family members in dealing with the difficulties of death and dying, Kubler-Ross's book is instrumental in painting a thorough picture of why our current laws exist and how they might be changed in the future. At the heart of On Death and Dying is the assertion that our culture does in…
8. Eadie, Betty J. Embraced by the Light. Bantam, 1994. Another classic in its field, Eadie's Embraced by the Light is an esoteric, new age view on death and dying. Focusing on the potential of the near-death experience, Eadie's book is nevertheless Christian in perspective and can therefore be used to illustrate to the American public that although death can be frightening to think about, that death and dying themselves need not be perceived as so negative as to mould public policy toward admonition against the right to die.
9. Ritchie, George. Return from Tomorrow. Revell, 1988. George Ritchie had a near-death experience. Like other books of its kind, Ritchie's encounters with the beyond and his renewed perspective on life can help reshape social norms in our culture and consequentially provide more compassionate laws regarding the right to die.
10. Kubler-Ross. Questions and Answers on Death and Dying. Scribner, 1997. A follow-up on her seminal On Death and Dying, Kubler-Ross here offers some updated advice for people dealing with their own or their loved ones' final moments. While Questions and Answers does not necessarily diverge significantly from Kubler-Ross's earlier work it can offer a focused perspective on some of the core issues surrounding the transition from life to death. Such illustrations can help change social norms and make for a political environment more open to right-to-die legislation.
My life has definitely changed since the accident. Besides not liking to drive, I am more protective of my friends and family. I never let them walk away without telling them that I care about them, because I have learned that you never know what the next second can bring. All it took was a second for my friend to be gone, so I know that is true. I want the people that I love to know it, and I am not afraid to tell them so. I did not tell her how much she meant to me before she died, and I still regret it.
Most of all, my life has gone in a different direction since my friend died. Before, I was drifting, and I was not really sure what I wanted to do with my life. I was not even sure that I wanted to go to…
Krauss, Lawrence M. Fear of Physics: A Guide for the Perplexed. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
The failure of authorities to follow up on those first reports are now considered breakdowns in aviation security that contributed to the success of those attacks. Since then, regulations of airport operations and all other aspects of aviation security have been greatly enhanced to prevent any repeat of terrorist attacks using commercial airliners or any other type of aircraft (Larsen, 2007).
United Flight 93 differed from the other three hijacked flights in that it was the only flight in which passengers had received information through cell phone calls informing them that the other hijacked flights had been used by the terrorists to crash into targets on the ground (Larsen, 2007; Longman, 2002). That information allowed several passengers, thought to have been led by Todd Beamer, to break into the cockpit and prevent the hijackers from reaching their intended targets in Washington.
Those heroic passengers apparently succeeded in overpowering the hijackers…
Associated Press (2002). Airport Renamed to Honor 9/11 Heroes; August 30, 2002. Retrieved October 28, 2008, at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/08/30/terror/main520326.shtml
Larsen, R. (2007). Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.
Longman, J. (2002). Among the Heroes: The Story of Flight 93 and the Passengers Who Fought Back. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Death and Dying
Human life is riddled with conflict and moral dilemmas. The process, journey or instantaneous moment of dying is by no means exempt from this. Many would agree that it's fair to say that most human beings harbor a fear of death. Nuland is correct in stating, "To most people, death remains a hidden secret, as eroticized as it is feared… Modern dying takes place in the modern hospital, where it can be hidden, cleansed of its organic blight, and finally packaged for modern burial. e can now deny the power of death but of nature itself" (Nuland, xv). This is indeed an accurate assessment with the current dynamic that most people have with death. Death is tucked away for the most part, in an institution where it is sanitized and compartmentalized and "controlled" as much as possible by other human beings. In attempting to get some "control"…
Kimsma, G. A doctor who SUPPORTS euthanasia. April 1997. http://www.newint.org/easier-english/right_to_die/favormd.html . 28 June 2012.
Nuland, Sherwin B. How We Die: Reflections on Life's Final Chapter. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.
The Sea Inside. Dir. Alejandro Amenabar. Perf. Javier Bardem. 2004. Film.
Tuesdays With Morrie
People react in unpredictable ways to death. If someone we love dies suddenly in an accident, we know what to do. We have to arrange for burial and mourn our loved one. But many people do not die suddenly. They get sick, go to the doctor, find out they have a fatal or potentially fatal disease, and often live for some time after that diagnosis. People aren't always as clear about what they should do or how they should behave under such circumstances, and the person who is dying has to find his or her way through a complex situation. People in such a situation have time to evaluate their lives and come to grips with their fates.
The book Tuesdays with Morrie: an Old Man, a Young Man, and Life's Greatest Lesson, by Mitch lbom, tells the story of lbom's visits with his former professor friend…
At the end of the book, Morrie does reveal that he has a regret: a friend with whom he has had a schism tries to repair the friendship several times, but Morrie declines. The friend dies of cancer before Morrie can forgive him and re-establish what was once an important friendship. Once again, Morrie has refused to sugar-coat either his life or his death. To the very end, Morrie insists on living life within reality as much as he can, and that means not hiding from tough issues.
Mitch and Morrie had 14 Tuesdays together before they died. Mitch Albom does not give us word-for-word transcriptions, and he avoids boiling Mitch's words down to brilliant insight and touching vignettes. He lets the readers see Morrie more intimately than that -- having his bottom wiped for him when he no longer can, and weeping because he could not find a way to forgive a friend who slighted him at an important time in his life. In the process, Albom paints the end of life three-dimensionally and gives real meaning and insight into the process of dying.
Albom, Mitch. Tuesdays with Morrie: an Old Man, a Young Man, and Life's Greatest Lesson. New York: Doubleday, 1997.
Denial in the Death and Dying Process
Identification of the Problem: Denial and Subsequent Lack of Communication of the Impending Death
Death is a natural phenomenon and has been there since the existence of mankind. In the past, people used to accept the death or impending death of a loved one easily because they knew that there was little that they could do about it. However, with the advancement in health care, when more and more cures and treatments of diseases have been found out, people have started denying the fact of death, which is inevitable. Attitude of medical personnel towards a dying patient has also changed. Not dealing face-to-face with the terminal patient, incongruities and discord between verbal and non-verbal communication and loss of affective empathy with the risk of therapeutic negligence, worsening the conditions of death. There are many costs involved with the denial of impending death for…
Bonanno, G.A. (2009). The other side of sadness: What the new science of bereavement tells us about life after loss. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Chochinov, HM (2006). Dying, Dignity, and New Horizons in Palliative End-of-Life Care. CA Cancer Journal of Clinicians, 56:84-103.
Hegedus K, Zana A', Szabo' G: (2008). Effect of end of life education on medical students' and health care workers' death attitude. Palliat Med;22:264 -- 269.
Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association. (2007). Spiritual Care. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing., 9 (1): 15-16.
During that time, I cannot recall mourning, but I cannot recall feeling much of anything else, either.
My grief returned more intensely than before at the graveside service.
Afterwards, I was exhausted by the emotional flood that I had experienced, but it is equally possible that the relief was more a function of all the energy that it had required not to release during the time between my father's death and his funeral. As powerful as the feelings of outright grief were some of the more unexpected feelings I began to experience in the next few weeks: feelings of anger at my father, anger at myself, shame, totally inexplicable feelings of hurt, and fear, and also relief.
A realized for the fist time, only weeks after my father's death, that I was angry at my father: angry that he'd refused the dialysis which could have prolonged his life; angry at…
Analysis of Attitudes towards Death and Dying
Death is an inevitable process that has to come with aging. As a person ages, they become more aware of this universal truth that he has to leave this world, and nothing would remain of him. He starts taking life from a different perspective and thinks of ways how he could be of benefit to others who he leaves behind. Some of the older people start thinking about their will, and some start preparing themselves for death if they are sick. This paper aims to reflect upon a person's ideas about grief, bereavement, and mourning from a psychological perspective and the difference of death anxiety with age and gender. In further sections, cultural and religious thoughts and their impact on a person's attitudes towards life would be discussed.
Difference between Bereavement, Grief, and Mourning in Psychological Terms
From a psychological perspective, bereavement refers…
Allen, J., Chavez, S., DeSimone, S., Howard, D. & Johnson, K. (2006). American's attitudes toward euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, 1936-2002. The Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 33(2), 5-23. Available at Scholar Works
Assari, S. & Lankarani, M.M. (2016). Race and gender differences in correlates of death anxiety among elderly in the United States. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 10(2). e2024. DOI: 10.17795/ijpbs-2024
Harding, S.R., Flanelly, K.J., Weaver, A.J. & Costa, K, G. (2005). The influence of religion on death anxiety and death acceptance. Mental Health Religion and Culture, 8(4), 253-261. DOI: 10.1080/13674670412331304311
Lester, D., Templer, D.I. & Abdel-Khalek, A. (2007). A cross-cultural comparison of death anxiety: A brief note. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 54(3), 255-260. DOI: 10.2190/W644-8645-6685-358V
Rathor, M.Y., Rani, M.F.A., Shahar, M.A., Jamalludin, A.R., Bin Che Abdullah, S.T., Bin Omar, A.M. & Bin Mohammad Shah, A.S. (2014). Attitudes toward euthanasia and related issues among physicians and patients in a multi-cultural society of Malaysia. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 3(3), 230-237. DOI: 10.4103/2249-4863.141616
Shear, M. K. (2012). Grief and mourning gone awry: Pathway and course of complicated grief. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 14(2), 119-128.
Stolz, E., Burkert, N., Grobschadl, F., Rasky, E., Stronegger, W.J. & Freidl, W. (2015). Determinants of public attitudes towards euthanasia in adults and physician-assisted death in neonates in Austria: A national survey. Plos One, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124320
As one performs their dharma, they earn karma, which is the cause and effect aspect of Hinduism. Karma explains good actions bring good results, and by obeying this principle and dharma, one can experience rebirth into a "better" life that puts one in a stronger position to achieve moksha. The ultimate goal for any Hindu soul is to achieve moksha, which is the liberation from samsara, the cycle of life and death (Chidester: 85). The critical aspect of Hinduism is realizing when the body dies, the Self (Atman) does not die. The Self is carried from life to life, through reincarnation, and the secret to death is to realize the Supreme Self hidden in the heart through meditation and grace (Kramer: 30). Realizing Self in Hindu customs is required to achieve moksha, and be liberated from the endless round of birth, death, and rebirth of samsara. Only when the Self…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-216. Print.
Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL
Paulist Press, 1988. 27-166. Print.
" (illmott 2000) in other words, the reality of death is removed to the edges of culture and society; which means that the significance and reality of death is in effect 'anesthetized' by institutions such as the medicine and science. As Giddens states, death is avoided or excluded from common social life and from "…fundamental existential issues which raise central moral dilemmas for human beings." (Giddens 156)
This suggests that the taboo about death and its avoidance in the cultural discourse is linked to the structure and the composition of modern society and culture. There is a sense that death is seen as the pornography of the modern age. "Helmut Thielicke observed that death is coming to have the same position in modern life and literature that sex had in Victorian times." (the avoidance of death in our modern world)
If we analyze the sociological structure of modern society we…
"Death and Society." Web. 19 November
Giddens, a. Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age.
UNIT 1 SEMINAR
The first time I ended a serious relationship, I felt a lot of regret about it in the days after the breakup. I thought that I had hurt the other person (we had been together for a few years) and I worried that I had made the wrong decision. I kept thinking about all the different ways in which perhaps it could have worked out. I had to remind myself that I had very good reasons for ending the relationship and that my emotions were only telling one side of the story.
I believe this situation interrelates with the concept of death anxiety with respect to what Barnett, Anderson and Marsden (2018) showed in their study of the relationship between pessimism and death anxiety. They found that optimistic or pessimistic attitudes will change the extent to which one suffers from death anxiety. Pessimism tends to be…
social science viewpoint toward death can be valuable both for society and for individuals. In most societies, death plays a major role in how lives are shaped. Certainly, the way that death is handled in society can differ, and governs attitudes that society has towards death. Social sciences can help us to understand a little bit more about how societies deal with death, and we can understand the role that death plays in our lives. The author in particular notes that more or how we live and die is connected to our societal views about death, and illustrates this with example of the shift away from death as a religious experience that occurred in the 19th century, and how this change was coincidental to other changes in how we lived our lives and how we defined our lives.
The social sciences can also be valuable to help us understand our…
Kastenbaum, R. (2012). Death, society and the human experience. Pearson: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
hile "The Raven" is a powerful poem, it reads more like a story and therefore seems less serious and effective than "Thanatopsis." In their uniqueness, each poem realizes the human condition in that we can and are affected by death in different ways. In short, every individual will handle death and the thoughts of death in his or her own way.
Bryant, illiam Cullen. "Thanatopsis." Masterpieces of American Poetry. Van Doren, Mark, ed. New York: Garden City Publishing Co., Inc. 1936.
Eddings, Dennis. "Theme and Parody in 'The Raven.'" Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu. 1990. Gale Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Gado, Frank. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 250: Antebellum riters in New York. 2001. Gale Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Raven." The Complete Tales of Mystery and Imagination. Minneapolis: Amaranth Press. 1981.
Bryant, William Cullen. "Thanatopsis." Masterpieces of American Poetry. Van Doren, Mark, ed. New York: Garden City Publishing Co., Inc. 1936.
Eddings, Dennis. "Theme and Parody in 'The Raven.'" Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu. 1990. Gale Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Gado, Frank. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 250: Antebellum Writers in New York. 2001. Gale Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008.
Losing a pet is difficult for anyone, but children may take longer to grieve and get over the loss than adults do. A small amount of depression, acting out, or gloominess can be expected, and should go away. Longer periods or abnormal activity following loss should be addressed by the parent, a counselor or minister, or a grief counselor. Warning signs of severe or prolonged grief will vary depending on the child's age, relationship with the pet, emotional maturity, circumstances involved with the death, and so on.
Others find that children are far more resilient that adults in coping with death. Because they have a limited ability to understand chronology, unless faced with something quite traumatic, they are usually able to process grief, accept the issue, and sometimes with a little help or explanation, simply move through the issue with very little scaring. Children are exposed to many more issues…
Alat, K. (2002). "Traumatic Events and Children: How Early Childhood Educators
Can Help." Childhood Education. 79 (1): 2.
Bjorklund, D. 2006-08-10 "Spot Died Last Week: Children's Picture Books About
the Death of a Pet" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American
The Pilgrims Must Embark addresses specific issues associated with treating persons with AIDS (PWA). The film exhibits the importance of cultural sensitivity and communications in nursing. "Many hospitals are ill equipped to care for the chronically ill, and nursing homes are reluctant to admit PWA," (Adelman & Frey, n.d., p. 4). Creating an independent but assisted living community became the central challenge, focus, and goal of the Bonaventure House. The staff helps develop a family experience for the residents, bringing people together not just in the same physical space but also emotional and spiritual space. There is a common ground between the PWA residents at Bonaventure House, and the enormous diversity of age, gender, background, lifestyle, and ethnicity become sources of strength. Herein lies the secrets to how Bonaventure House model. Similar communications-related issues are at play at the La Communidad Habla (LCH), described in "Bridging the Health and…
Adelman & Frey (n.d.). The pilgrim must embark. Chapter 1.
"Bridging the Health and Digital Divide in a Low-Income Latino/a Immigrant Community." Chapter 16.
The Pilgrim Must Embark. Videos. Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fVnHpNO8sUc
Death & Dying
The general beliefs about death and dying have shifted greatly over the years and centuries of known human existence. There are surely things from before recorded and known human history that can be said about death and dying that would be intriguing. In both modern and historic times, there has been a marked difference between the way that the Western civilizations handle and perceive death and dying and Eastern philosophies do the same. There are even patterns and customs that occur when it is obvious and apparent that a person's death is imminent due to old age or sicknesses like cancer. Of course, examples of the West would include Western Europe, Australia and North America, including the United States. The East would include China, Japan and many other countries in Asia. There are some similarities between the United States and the Eastern death and dying practices and…
Essman, E. (2014). Death and Dying, from Life in the U.S.A.: The Complete Guide for Immigrants and Americans. Lifeintheusa.com. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://www.lifeintheusa.com/death/
Lee, S. (2009). East Asian Attitudes toward Death: A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America. The Permanente Journal, 13(3), 55. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2911815/
Death and Dying
There is no right or wrong way to react to someone's death or to someone who is dying. Grief is as individual as anything can be. Some cry uncontrollably and even have to be sedated. Others become silent and uncommunicative. A person's culture will invariably impact the way they grieve because it will socially dictate behaviors that are appropriate or inappropriate to a given set of conditions. There are some communities which, instead of grieving, choose to think only of the good times that they spent with the deceased. The Irish tradition of the wake exemplifies this model of grief. Other cultures, such as the Jewish people, will take days to mourn their loved one and devote a week to the process. In the United States there are many cultures all living in one place and each has its own practices about dealing with grief and the…
"Perspectives on Death: Cultural and Historical."
Field, Marilyn Jane & Cassel, Christine K. (1997). Approaching Death: Improving Care at the End of the Life. National Academic Press.
This work emphasizes the necessity to improve end of life care as a way to help ease fears about death and reduce anxiety which would create a more negative death experience within the nursing home. Additionally, this work shows the negative impact of over treating symptoms that are relating to oncoming death which cause patients unnecessary stress and pain in their last few days.
anson, Laura C. (2003). Improving Nursing ome Care of the Dying: A Training Manual for Nursing ome Staff. Springer Publishing Company.
This handbook for physicians emphasizes taking a multi-disciplinary approach to caring for the dying, which also encourages nursing home staff to learn from the lessons seen in hospice care. This includes taking a strategy of main management, rather than resuscitation in order to provide…
Hall, Sue; Longhurst, Susan; & Higginson, Irene. (2009). Living and dying with dignity: a qualitative study of the views of older people in nursing homes. Age and Aging. 38(4):411-416.
This study works within the established fact that most older people who reside in nursing homes will eventually die there. Thus, it examines an empirically-based model of dignity, defined through psychotherapy as a way to help increase the individual perceived levels of dignity within individuals in a nursing home setting. Results shows that issues attacking individual dignity is not necessarily related to the perception of death, but more towards illness-related concerns and the decline of their social role when dealing with various illnesses.
Henderson, Lori. (2009). Variables affecting death anxiety. Le Moyne College. Retrieved
Dying with dignity is a controversy argued in two perspectives by death scholars. Some scholars argue that dying with dignity is expiring without unnecessary physical pain while others argue that it is dying in the socially accepted ways. eaching these arguments was in light of changing health care demands and diverse customary practices. This controversy dated back to the ancient civilizations when many Greeks believed that taking one's life was better than experiencing endless suffering. This made physicians give poison to the terminally ill patients. However, with the advent of Christianity, the Hippocratic School that was against giving deadly drugs to patients acquired considerable acceptance. Therefore, euthanasia, as called in the fifteenth century was suicide and thus immoral. As time passed, reintroduction of the use of euthanasia continued, and it has even been largely accepted in various medical institutions.
In the perspective of dying with dignity as dying without any…
Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of biomedical ethics (6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Gentzler, J. (2003). What is a death with dignity? The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 28(4), 461 -- 487.
Poroch, N.C. (2012). Kurunpa: Keeping spirit on country. Health Sociology Review, 2i (4), 383-395.
This painting is David's masterpiece and one of the great curiosities of modern art because, by a strange feat, it has nothing trivial or vile. What is most surprising in this very unusual visual poem is that it was painted very quickly. When one thinks of the beauty of the lines, this quickness is bewildering. This is food for the strong, the triumph of spiritualism. This painting is as cruel as nature but it has the fragrance of ideals. Where is the ugliness that hallowed Death erased so quickly with the tip of his wing? Now Marat can challenge Apollo. He has been kissed by the loving lips of Death and he rests in the peace of his metamorphosis. This work contains something both poignant and tender; a soul is flying in the cold air of this room, on these cold walls, around this cold funerary tub.
As audelaire is…
Simon, Robert. 1991. David's Martyr-Portrait of Le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau and the conundrums of Revolutionary Representation. Art History 14 (4): 459-487.
Vaughan, William, and Helen Weston, eds. 2000. Jacques-Louis David's Marat. Cambridge:
Latour takes several steps to repair the damage done to the church by the moral misdeeds of rogue priests and, to a certain extent, the American and Mexican governments. Latour dispatches Valliant to Albuquerque and, in Valliant's travels, he performs sacraments and admonishes a priest for gambling with parish funds. Latour, for his part, helps rescue Magdalena from the abusive uck Scales and orders the founding of a girl's school - another important symbol of permanence and the church's commitment to the community. Latour also replaces Gallegos, a corrupt priest who drinks, gambles and left his parish in a "scandalous state," with Father Valliant (p.83).
Latour's house cleaning continues throughout the story, as he is determined to conquer the book's moral setting, as he conquered its natural setting. Perhaps Latour's greatest triumph is when he forces Father Martinez, who had become a "dictator to all parishes in Northern New Mexico"…
Cather, Willa (1962). "Death Comes for the Archbishop." New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Death of the Ball Turret Gunner by Randall Jarrell Without knowing that a ball turret is small place in a B-17, we would not understand the central metaphor analogizing the mother's womb to the ball turret, which is essential to understanding that the poem is about the contrast between the warmth of a mother's love and the cold dehumanizing treatment of the "State" where he is just another soldier.
Common Ground by Judith Cofer Before reading the poem, the title seemed quite self-explanatory, I figured the poem would be about finding common ground between people, and in a sense it is, but the message, after reading the poem, is much starker. It is more about the inescapability of aging, the common links that tie generations as the young get old and realize the commonalities they share with their parents.
Hazel Tells LaVerne by Katharyn Machan Knowing the fairy tale helps…
The victim is unable to make peace with himself, say goodbye to his family or have his constitutional rights seen too. When a murder is committed, I believe that the perpetrator does not forfeit his rights, but rather some of the respect and convention which is usually given to a dying person. After all, what respect and convention was awarded to his victim?
Many of the states which currently allow the death penalty have victim services via the department of Corrections. The services which they provide range all the way from family support and counseling to the provision for family members of the victim to watch the execution should they so desire. This ability is limited state to state, however. It should also be noted that several of the victims services programs have been severely curtailed due to budget cuts, while the needs of the prisoner in the time surrounding…
John Paul II, Gospel of Life, the (Evangelium Vitae) (1995) Three Rivers Press
Quinto, Morgan "Murder Rate in 2001 National Rate = 5.6 Murders per 100,000 Population" Accessed via the World Wide Web on 17 May 2006 at http://www.morganquitno.com/cit01rank.pdf
No Author Cited "Illinois Suspends Death Penalty Indefinitely" January 30, 2000 accessed via the World Wide Web on 17 May 2006 at http://archives.cnn.com/2000/U.S./01/31/illinois.executions.02/
Prejean, Helen, CSJ. "Would Jesus Pull The Switch" Salt of the Earth. 1997 Accessed via the World Wide Web on 17 May 2006 at http://salt.claretianpubs.org/issues/deathp/prejean.html
The issue of whether capital punishment is justified in a civilized world that is progressively concerned with achieving human rights and dignity for all its citizens is a subject that challenges the very scales of justice. On the one hand, the imposition of the death penalty prematurely terminates a human life and precludes any chance of rehabilitating criminals as productive members of society. On the other hand, abolishing the death penalty implies endangering society with the presence of known, dangerous anti-social elements who may one day become eligible for parole or worse escape from prison. Thus, the scales need to be weighed taking into consideration that society's primary responsibility is to ensure that its honest and upright citizens are able to lead a secure and safe life. Indeed, it is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate that the scales of justice need to necessarily be tipped in…
Jacoby, J. "When Murderers Die, Innocents Live." The Boston Globe.
Sept. 28, 2003. Accessed Feb. 29, 2004: http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2003/09/28/execution_saves_innocents/
Kane, G. "To murder victims' families, executing killers is justice." The Baltimore Sun. Feb.5, 2003. Accessed Feb. 29, 2004: http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/local/bal-md.kane05feb05,0,6385621.column
Murdock, D. "A sure way to prevent prison escapes." Mar 30, 2001.
Through which he concluded that each execution prevents around seven or eight people from committing murder (Worsnop 402). In 1985, an economist from the University of North Carolina by the name of Stephen K. Layson published a report that showed that every execution of a murderer deterred eighteen would be murderers (Guernsey 68). While the numbers from these studies seem quite low as compared to the large number of murders committed every day in the United States, the numbers become quite large when discussed in the terms of every year executions. (Guernsey 65)
The opponents of capital punishment here give different points which are also quite true. According to the critics of capital punishment many of the people who commit acts of murder are either retarded or are immature. Capital punishment doesn't have an effect on the youth and immature people. As Richard L. Worsnop writes in his article entitled…
Worsnop, Richard L. Death Penalty Debate Centers on Retribution. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1990.
Guernsey, JoAnn Bren. Should We Have Capital Punishment? Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co, 1993.
Van den Haag, Ernest, and John Phillips Conrad. The Death Penalty a Debate. New York: Plenum Press, 1983.
Maestro, Marcello T. A Pioneer for the Abolition of Capital Punishment Cesare Beccaria. [New York]: Journal of the History of Ideas, 1973.
Crude, twisted justifications were offered during this period of time that both upheld family values yet reflected the desperation of the era -- such as the defense that it was better to eat one's relatives, than to let the whole family starve, or the idea that if one consumed one's relations, then they lived on, at least a little longer.
Spence admits that he is operating with certain difficulties regarding the sources of his chronicles, given that few documents remain behind of the Chinese peasantry of this period. However, he says to give voice to the voiceless was one of his primary motivations in writing the text. The lack of documentary evidence, rather than being perceived as a hindrance, as might be the case with some historians, merely spurred him on to reveal what was left for posterity. He deploys a variety of sources including a Confucian civil servant and…
Spence, Jonathan D. The Death of Woman Wang. New York: Penguin, 1998.
Death and Dying in Other Cultures
Death and dying are never easy for family, friends, loved ones, and the ill persons themselves. These issues are further complicated by the fact that so many different cultures are now blended in the United States, and many of them have far differing views on death and dying.
For example, in the United States, most Christians believe in burying their dead quickly, holding a ritual funeral or "celebration of life," and mourning for a certain period of time. Most Christians believe the dead will rise to Heaven and live the remainder of their "life" as an angel in the clouds above. However, this is not the only way to celebrate death and face dying.
In the Hindu culture, people believe their loved one will return to earth to live another life, depending on the quality of life they lived during this current life.…
Aiken, L.R. (2001). Dying, death, and bereavement (4th ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kramer, K.P. (1988). The sacred art of dying: How world religions understand death. New York: Paulist Press.
adulthood death individual a culmination life span developmental process.
Death and dying is an intrinsic part of life, and the culmination of a life cycle that begins with conception. There are several various stages related to death and dying, such as preserving one's health and wellness, dealing with various facets of ageism, as well as examining cultural attitudes and varying viewpoints of the dying process from different points in history.
Health and Wellness
The primary way of mitigating the effects of aging on the body, mind and spirits of people is to actively promote an awareness of health and wellness. Quite simply, people must take care of their bodies. A key facet of doing so is to have a trusted physician and to go on regular checkups. In addition to keeping in contact with a doctor, individuals should make certain changes to their diet to reflect the varying needs…
Berger, K.S. (2008). The developing person through the life span (7th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Farid, S., Farid, Hany. (no date). "A brief history of ancient Egyptian tombs." Csdartmouth.edu. Retrieved from http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/farid/Hany_Farid/Egypt_History.html
death by Sherwin Nuland and Socrates. It has 4 sources.
One of the most mystifying phenomenons that keep most of us wondering is death. For the ordinary individual death is not only a topic that they have no clue about but also that they will never be able to satisfy their curiosity unless they experience it themselves. For medical professionals like Sherwin B. Nuland death is something that they see day in day out but never actually could explain unless they get into the technicality of it. Thus, in essence no one from the time of ancient civilization to the modern technological age could really explain the exact nature of death. They can only in fact attempt to explain the nature, cause and effects of death. There are several factors attached to the reason why death cannot actually be explained but only experienced.
In the following sections, the…
Sherwin B. Nuland. How We Die: Reflections on Life's Final Chapter. 1993, ISBN: 0679742441
Plato. The Last Days of Socrates. Ed, Hugh Tredennick and Harold Tarrant. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
Treddenick, Hugh (Tr.). Last Days of Socrates. Accessed on 6-2-2004 at http://lilt.ilstu.edu/drjclassics/texts/Plato/Socrates.shtm
Canavan, Francis. Letting Go: How We Die. First Things 44 (June/July 1994): 54-56.
Typically a Japanese funeral follows the sequence: when someone dies, they are placed to rest in their homes. The corpse was placed with the head pointing the North, copying the deathbed of Gautama, and the head of the bed is well decorated. Then the previously mentioned encoffinment process. The first night after one's death is called the Tsuya; and it is for close family and friends to remember their beloved. In the morning, a cleansing meal is served called Okiyome. The funeral is thereafter carried out where the Jukai rite also known as receipt of commandments gives the dead an opportunity to receive the Buddhist commandments, automatically making the dead a disciple of the Buddha, and the dead person is accepted into Buddha hood.
After all this, the deceased embarks on the journey to the other world as the coffin is carried out of the house and burnt in a…
Kimura, R (1996).Death and dying in Japan. "Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal," Vol. 6, No.
4,The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 374-378.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2007).The Definition of Death
It is impossible for science to "overtake" the light but not impossible for humans to experience it. hile light is pleasing, it is not lasting for the poet. hen it is no longer present, what remains is something that is almost opposite to light. The poet describes the experience as a "quality of loss / Affecting our content, / As Trade had suddenly encroached / Upon a Sacrament" (17-20). Here we see the emergence of despair and loss when the light is gone. The light is a severe contrast with the darkness alluded to in the other poems mentioned here but above all, the contrast demonstrates the poet's ability to write about diverse topics.
Death is a source of inspiration for Emily Dickinson and while this make seem creepy to many readers, it is actually brave for the poet because death, even today, seems taboo for many artists. This may…
Dickinson, Emily. "A Light Exists in Spring." The Complete Poems of Emily
Thomas Johnson. New York: Little, Brown and Company. 1960. Print.
-. "Because I Could Not Stop for Death." The Complete Poems of Emily
friend of mine overcome the desire to kill himself. He was suicidal and made several attempts on his life. Gradually he found the help he needed and today is still alive and healthy and no long suicidal.
I think my culture would find this story inspiring because today despair is everywhere and we see people succumb to it all to often, so when someone overcomes despair, which can be life threatening, is a great blessing to see. I think this would be true for every culture because despair is a universal phenomenon.
Freud felt that there was a death instinct and a life instinct, with the sex drive characterizing the life instinct and self-destructive behavior characterizing the death instinct (Life and Death Instincts, 2016). Thus Thanatos can be defined as the unconscious desire to die -- death being the end goal of life, according to Freud. He felt that this…
Doka, K. (2005). Death Awareness Movement. Retrieved from http://feleciamoon50.typepad.com/blog/2011/07/the-death-awareness-movement-description-history-and-analysis.html
Eig, J. (2005). Luckiest Man: The Life and Death of Lou Gehrig. NY: Simon & Schuster.
Escobar, P. (2015). Empire of Chaos. MI: Nimble Books.
Gatto, John. "AgainstSchool." WesJones.com. (n.d.). Web.
Jewish Faith in Life and Death
Of the main components of the human life cycle, dying is probably the one most people prefer to avoid or at least ignore until the last possible moment. Nevertheless, even though many of us prefer not to think about it, death is as much part of humanity as birth and life. Hence, every religion has its particular views on death and rituals to help those who have passed on their way to whatever concept of the afterlife exists in that religion. In this, the Jewish religion is not unique. Centuries of tradition still survive today as modern Jews practice the ancient art of their religion, both in life and when death occurs. When considered in terms of Foucault's "Technologies of the Self," one might say the elaborate Jewish rituals surrounding dying and death can be seen from the viewpoint of both self-care and self-renunciation.…
Diamant, A. (1998). Saying Kaddish: How to comfort the dying, bury the dead, and mourn as a Jew. New York: Shocken Books.
Foucault, M. (1988). Technologies of the Self. Retrieved from: http://heavysideindustries.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Michel-Foucault-Technologies-of-the-Self.pdf
Lamm, M. (2000). The Jewish Way in Death and Mourning. New York: Jonathan David Publishers, Inc.
The work of Chidester explores different types of death, and symbolizes three patterns describing the transcendence of death: ancestral, experiential, and cultural (12). Types of death, and the way death is imagined, can help human beings die in a meaningful way, give life ultimate meaning, and significance (Chidester: 12). The ancestral transcendence represents a type of biological death, meaning this form of transcendence provides a way for the individual to connect with a continuous biological chain of parents and offspring (Chidester: 12). This is significant as the family line is not broken by death; death provides an ongoing continuity of family. The psychological type of death is considered experiential transcendence, and represents "profound and often intense psychological experiences that embrace death in acceptance or ecstasy" (Chidester: 14). Accepting and embracing death signifies death as a psychologically peaceful experience. A third type of death is social, referred to as cultural transcendence,…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-36. Print.
The song "Eleanor Rigby" by The Beatles is a song about loneliness, wanting, and hopelessness. The song begins with the lyric, "Ah, look at all the lonely people." The line is repeated twice and gives an obvious nod to the song's theme of loneliness. The song details Eleanor Rigby's life to embellish her loneliness and her longing for a better life. The first line about Eleanor is, "Eleanor Rigby picks up the rice in the church where a wedding has been/Lives in a dream." This lyric explains Eleanor throwing rice after a wedding ceremony, and dreams of having her own wedding and belonging. She is alone, and wishes for something more from her life. Eleanor Rigby lives her life in isolation, and this is signified by the lyric, "Waits at the window, wearing the face that she keeps in a jar by the door/Who is it for?" Eleanor puts on a mask, "wearing a face," so that no one will be able to tell how lonely and empty she feels. The line, "Who is it for?" suggests, "What's the point? Why bother?" There is a sense of hopelessness. The song departs from The Beatles "pop-rock" sound, and has no drums, guitar, or piano accompaniment. The song only uses string instruments, adding to feeling of loneliness. The absence of other instruments allows for the desperation of the strings to be heard, and the isolation of the strings mimics Eleanor Rigby's isolation. A wish that people might have when they die, as suggested by the song, is to not die alone. The lyric, "All the lonely people/Where do they all belong?" suggests, "Where do the lonely people go?" And if no one is witness to their life, how does one know where the lonely people go? According to the song, Eleanor Rigby did not get this common wish. The lyrics states, "Eleanor Rigby died in the church and was buried along with her name/Nobody came." Eleanor Rigby died alone, and no one attended her funeral. The phrase, "was buried along with her name" refers to her being buried with her memory. She was alone in the world, and there is no one left behind to remember her; there is no memory by which she can continue to live.
A ritual is an observable behavior that is exhibited by a society. There are many different types of rituals, ranging from simple ones, which a person submits to on a day-to-day basis, to more complex ones such as a rite of passage ceremony in which boys are turned into adults (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2016). esearcher Kastenbaum (2012) defines dying as one of the many transitions that everyone must experience. He goes further to state that death often commences as a psychosocial incident, then organ systems shutdowns. However, death itself is felt in the social and personal spheres of an individual's life (p. 112).
Practices Associated with Death and Dying in the United States
Kastenbaum explains that death and dying have been medicalized in the United States. And that the medicalization of death has worked to insulate medical doctors and policymakers from appreciating the mortal realities of death. There are…
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2016). Ritual. Retrieved February 27, 2016, from ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA: www.britannica.com
Gire, J. (2014). How Death Imitates Life: Cultural Influences on Conceptions of Death and Dying. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture. Retrieved February 27, 2016 from www.scholarworks.gvsu.edu
Kastenbaum, R. J. (2012). Death, Society and Human Experience. New Jersey: Pearson.
"Are the Developmental Needs of Children in America Adequately Addressed during the Grief Process?." Journal of Instructional Psychology 31.2 (2004): 143+. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006444121.
Seibert, Dinah, Judy C. Drolet, and Joyce V. Fetro. Helping Children Live with Death and Loss. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2003. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105244795.
ebb, Nancy Boyd, ed. Helping Bereaved Children: A Handbook for Practitioners. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press, 2002. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111651481.
Barnard, Paul, Ian Morland, and Julie Nagy. Children, Bereavement, and Trauma: Nurturing Resilience. London: Jessica Kingsley, 1999. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113438929 .
Branch, Mary Louise, and Sabrina a. Brinson. "Gone but Not Forgotten: Children's Experiences with Attachment, Separation, and Loss." Reclaiming Children and Youth 16.3 (2007): 41+. Questia. 2 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024491224 .
In this context, the patient and family members provide support to each other by discussing death, illness, and pain in a direct and open manner.
In a family facing life-threatening illness, a closed awareness style would involve a great deal of secrecy. All conversations would have to direct attention away from the prospect of illness and death so as to keep the patient unaware. This would place a great deal of emotional strain on the family members, as they would carry the burden of their knowledge as well as the weight of the secret. The suspected awareness style would be equally difficult, as family members would be placed in the position of perhaps having to actively lie to the patient once they grew suspicious. This would make open and productive communication near-impossible, as there would be a lack of trust on both sides. The conversations in a family operating under…
DeSpelder, L.A. & Strickland, A.L. (2008). The last dance: Encountering death and dying. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
All of these scenes indicate that there might be little more than nothing after life. This poem allows us to see that Dickinson was not happy with accepting the traditional attitudes toward death and dying.
Another poem that examines death is "The Bustle in the House." Again, we see death is uneventful. Elizabeth Piedmont-Marton claims that in Dickinson's poetry, "the moment of death seems often less momentous than ordinary" (Piedmont-Marton) and it is "one of the most disturbing and powerful characteristics of Dickinson's poems" (Piedmont-Marton). "The Bustle in the House," demonstrates this assertion very well with its idea of humanity continuing to get along with the "industries" (the Bustle in the House 3) of life after a loved one dies. The heart of the dead is swept up (4), making it seem like the process of death needs a clean sweep and that is it. Mourning is nothing more than…
Dickinson, Emily. "Because I Could Not Stop for Death." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
Some keep the Sabbath going to Church." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
Tell All the Truth but Tell it Slant. " the Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
Fear of death is typically referred to by researchers as death anxiety. The phenomenon has been split into several categories. There is the fear of pain, the fear of the unknown, the fear of losing a loved one, and the fear of the consequences that may arise because of the loss of a loved one. The fear of not being able to survive is the prominent one among these fears. Many people are terrified at the fact that death is the end of one's life. Science does not help matters either. It, instead, aggravates the fear. No aspect of science has ever unveiled any element of the human body that can exist long after death. Thus, most scientists view death as biological process. This is the reason that makes many people still fear the consequences of death; even when they are devout religious believers of life after death (Hanson).
Hanson, Robin. "Fear of Death and Muddled Thinking -- It Is So Much Worse Than You Think," 2005, http://mason.gmu.edu/~rhanson/feardie.pdf . Accessed 29 Apr. 2017.
Konstan, David. "Epicurus." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, September 2016, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epicurus/ . Accessed 29 Apr. 2017.
Lacewing, Michael. "Descartes, the cogito and clear and distinct ideas. " Philosophy for AS: Epistemology and Philosophy of Religion. London and New York: Routledge, 2014. 106-117.
Robertson, Donald. "Stoicism and the Art of Happiness." London: Hodder & Stoughton General Division, 2014.
I do believe, therefore, that the Harvard criteria for determining brain death are a very important component of making decisions that affect individuals and families at the end of their lives.
When the EEG criteria are applied, for example, it might affect a family's decision to terminate artificial means of keeping a person alive, since there is no hope of revival. It could also affect the decision to donate organs.
ne thing I found quite surprising was that the concept of "brain death" only became an official diagnostic category in 1981. The term has been used so often that it feels almost like it has been in existence for far longer than this. Still, I think I find it quite comforting that there are criteria to determine whether a person has indeed completely died, or whether the end of brain function could be recovered after ceasing because of drugs or…
One thing I found quite surprising was that the concept of "brain death" only became an official diagnostic category in 1981. The term has been used so often that it feels almost like it has been in existence for far longer than this. Still, I think I find it quite comforting that there are criteria to determine whether a person has indeed completely died, or whether the end of brain function could be recovered after ceasing because of drugs or seizures. One wonders how many misdiagnoses have been made of death over the millennia of human existence. The particular horror of being buried alive has been the subject of many a horror tale. It is comforting that the possibility of this has been significantly diminished with the implementation of elements such as the Harvard criteria.
In conclusion, I find it particularly interesting that the reading gives such particular consideration not only of death in terms of physical functioning, but also in terms of the concept of spirituality. While nobody can truly claim to know what death is or whether anything happens after we die, it is good to know that there are criteria to determine whether death has indeed occurred.
I therefore believe that the Harvard criteria sufficiently cover all the areas necessary to determine the state of physical death. Where voluntary breathing, reflex, sensation, and brain function has ceased, it is indeed logical to assume that a person has died and that there is no hope of the person reviving.
Also, when this option is not used, the number and nature of other types of pain management methods will be investigated. The sample size will be in the range of 100 patients in addition to their primary care-giving family members, which might range between 100 and 200.
A power analysis will be done to determine the divergence of choices from the ones that are expected. In cases where pain management in hospitals have been relatively effective, it is expected that fewer patients and families would opt for sedation, for example, whereas those who remained with their families for as long as possible before the end stage, as well as those for whom pain medication has stopped functioning adequately, are expected to more readily choose this form of pain management.
End-of-life care is a very emotional stage in the lives of both sufferers and their families. Ethical research will be ensured…
Claessens, P., & Broeckaert, B. (2011). Palliative Sedation, Not Slow Euthanasia: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study of Sedation in Flemish Palliative Care Units. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Vol. 41, No. 1, 14-24.
Given, B.A. (2001). Family Support in Advanced Cancer, Vol. 54, No. 4. CA - A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 213-31.
Kahn, D.L., & Steeves, R.H. (1996). An Understanding of Suffering Grounded in Clinical Practice and Research. In B.R. Ferrell, Suffering (pp. 3-28). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
The concept of death is an abstract concept, but this does not mean that one has to be educated in order to understand this concept.
Death is as abstract a word as life is. There are people who are alive but may not necessarily be truly living. In the case of these people who are not living to their full potential, when does their life end? When does death occur? This changes the way then that we think about death. Is death necessarily evil? Is death something that can be avoided in some cases? If a person loses their family -- their spouses, their children, and all their friends -- is that person still alive if their life has been abruptly brought to a metaphorical death because they are no longer with the ones they love? Death, viewed in this way, is more philosophical and less physical.
As nurses, we…
Alligood, M.R. & Tomey, A.M. (2009). Nursing theorists and their work. (Seventh
Both characters found ways to avoid living through isolation. They alienated themselves from practically everyone and this resulted in severe pain. The message here is to think about the things that consume us and then consider how important those things will be at the end of our lives or when our lives become difficult.
The Death of Ivan Ilych" and "ard No. 6" are compelling stories that force us to think of life and death through the most painful experience of others. The search for the meaning of life becomes significant with these men who have lived rather aloof lives until they are stricken with a confounding truth. Ivan must face the truth that his life was not lived the best way that it could have been. Andrey must come to terms that he has been living has been terribly misguided. Both men realize that to some extent, their lives…
Chekhov, Anton. Ward No. 6." Read Print Online Library. Information Retrieved February 27, 2009. http://www.readprint.com/work-356/Anton-Chekhov
Tolstoy, Leo. "The Death of Ivan Ilych." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction R.V. Cassill, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1981.
Both doctors feel physician-assisted suicide is a compassionate alternative to living the remainder of life filled with pain and suffering. Many others agree, and there are even published documents instructing loved ones and physicians how to go about assisting in a death with dignity suicide. In fact, many physicians feel that physician-assisted suicide could help keep health care costs in check as the baby-boomer generation ages. Unfortunately, statistics are lacking in the area of terminally ill patients and how many would end their lives if given the choice. Statistics do show, however, that many physicians receive requests for medications that will hasten death, or requests for lethal injections, and that a small number to comply in some cases.
Many physicians oppose the practice because they feel it goes against the oath they took to always save lives, while some do sympathize with terminally ill patients. here are also similar considerations…
Two of the most well-known advocates of physician-assisted suicide are Dr. Jack Kevorkian and Dr. Timothy Quill. Moral conservatives oppose euthanasia because they believe it is morally wrong, and is the same as ending life-sustaining treatment. Both doctors feel physician-assisted suicide is a compassionate alternative to living the remainder of life filled with pain and suffering. Many others agree, and there are even published documents instructing loved ones and physicians how to go about assisting in a death with dignity suicide. In fact, many physicians feel that physician-assisted suicide could help keep health care costs in check as the baby-boomer generation ages. Unfortunately, statistics are lacking in the area of terminally ill patients and how many would end their lives if given the choice. Statistics do show, however, that many physicians receive requests for medications that will hasten death, or requests for lethal injections, and that a small number to comply in some cases.
Many physicians oppose the practice because they feel it goes against the oath they took to always save lives, while some do sympathize with terminally ill patients. There are also similar considerations for nurses and pharmacists who might be involved in the assisted suicide. The most famous proponent of physician-assisted suicide is Dr. Jack Kevorkian, now serving a prison sentence for the practice in Michigan.
The Supreme Court has upheld Oregon's right to die act, while striking down other rulings in other states. Their latest decision recognizes this is a state issue, rather than a federal one. The Oregon Act originated in 1994, and was finally passed in 1997. Since then, it has undergone several legal challenges, but continues to be upheld in the courts. It is interesting to note that in an Oregon study, not everyone who requests a lethal dosage of medication actually ingests the medication and dies. Some choose to keep their lethal dosage, and some die before they can use it. The numbers of requests for lethal doses each year have remained stable, as well.
virtual autopsy table and video depicting an autopsy was very informative in many different ways. The practical knowledge expressed in these two examples was complete and simplified for the lay person. The knowledge was enhanced by the visual aspects of both examples. The subject of autopsy is one that is extremely amplified by the use of visual examples and the inclusion of them in this instruction, has provided a new appreciation and respect for the practice and its necessity within our society's criminal justice system.
I learned that it takes a unique and special professional to perform these tasks on a day-to-day basis, and a certain personality type is also needed as well. One of the most glaring ideas that resonated with me on this subject was the precision that autopsy must have in investigating the causes of death. Autopsy examinations are critical to the criminal investigations that require such…
Australian Museum (nd). Interactive Autopsy. Viewed 18 Nov 2014. Retrieved from http://australianmuseum.net.au/interactive-tools/autopsy/
The Virtual Autopsy Table. Vimeo, 2 Oct 2009. Retrieved from http://vimeo.com/6866296
I would set aside the death sentences imposed as violative of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments." ("Top 10 Pros and Cons," 2012) This is significant, in showing how the use of the death penalty is considered to be a violation of the basic civil rights that are provided to everyone.
Conclusion of why we should abolish
The main reason why opponents are arguing that the death penalty should be abolished is based on: the right of the government to take life and it is violation of the principles of democracy. These basic ideas are directly associated with the ethical theory of deontology. This is when an action is judged based upon how it is applied to society's rules. Given the fact that America is based on freedom and the right to life means that the death penalty is going against these basic provisions. This is important, in showing how the…
Ethical Theories Compared. (2001). Trinity. Retrieved from: http://www.trinity.edu/cbrown/intro/ethical_theories.html
Federal Laws Providing for the Death Penalty. (2012). Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved from: http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/federal-laws-providing-death-penalty
Pro-Death Penalty. (2011). Wesley Lowe. Retrieved from: http://www.wesleylowe.com/cp.html#history
Randal Dale Adams. (2006). Northwestern. Retrieved from: http://www.law.northwestern.edu/cwc/exonerations/txAdamsSummary.html
In order to understand the underlying concepts of faith with respect to philosophy, first it is important to understand 'philosophy' adequately. Jaspers was concerned about noting the originality and singularity of philosophy and he frames it as "to elucidate" (erhellen). As per Jaspers, this clarification or elucidation does not come to philosophers through an external agent but it happens by itself during the philosophical process and this happening is an innermost act. (Wildermuth, 2007). Philosophers understand the meaning and philosophy behind actions and things as they seek to explore hitherto mysterious, unexplained happenings and phenomenon.
However, only a few philosophers speak about the death. Even then, the best they can reveal about death is about its awareness. As such, although death is an unavoidable event and that is the only knowledge we have about it. All are aware that they have to face death one day and it will…
However, from time immemorial, each soul has been obliged to repeatedly live and die in countless embodied forms: as a human being; an animal; a plant; a tiny unseen creature which lives only for an instant in air, water, fire, or earth; as an inhabitant of one of many terrible hells; or, as one of many classes of deity in an elaborate hierarchy of heavens. Overall, therefore, this universe of circulating souls is overwhelmingly characterized by pain, sickness, loss, want, and wickedness. Any pleasure is merely transitory. Even the gods will go through the agonies of death, then those of birth, and resume their life of suffering in another body (Laidlaw, p. 2).
Therefore, the religion advocates that the only way to break the cycle and obtain release from this samsar of endless suffering is through disciplined ascetic practice and by carefully abstaining from any sinful action such as the…
Archer, J.C. "Faiths Men Live by." New York: T. Nelson and sons, 1938.
Banks, M. "Organizing Jainism in India and England." Oxford: Oxford University Press,
Laidlaw, J. "Riches and Renunciation: Religion, Economy, and Society among the Jains."
Oxford: Clarendon Press.
It is thus that he helps to establish the truly tragic abstractions that characterize the family's individual experiences. here a broad, unilateral overview of the story might direct the reader's focus to the burial plot, an objective set of narratives articulated by the character's themselves suggests that Faulkner intends the story more as a lamentation for the living.
In As I Lay Dying, Faulkner delivers a treatise on the American condition too often unconsidered in either the literary or the public forums. The Bundrens can be considered less a family comprised of actual individuals as a unit of caricatures. The characters are altogether conflicted by selfishness and emotional ambivalence, divided by an unrefined sense of loyalty and an incapacity to truly experience mourning and relentlessly driven to their goal even as they are guided by cloudy ambitions. In this regard, it is difficult to even determine that Faulkner finds redemption…
Faulkner, W. (1930). As I Lay Dying. Vintage.
Levinger, L. (2000). Prophet Faulkner: Ignored for Much of His Own Time and Then Embalmed in Dignity by the Nobel Prize, William Faulkner Spoke to the Violence and Disorder of Our Time. The Atlantic Monthly, 285.
McHaney, T.L. (2004). First Is Jefferson: Faulkner Shapes His Domain. Mississippi Quarterly, 57.
Mellard, J.M. (1995). Something New and Hard and Bright: Faulkner, Ideology
Death of Artemio Cruz
When asked whether one likes Carlos Fuentes book, a reader might be prompted to admit that yes and no, for the book's graphic details about family hatred and a dying man's anatomy make it a difficult read. Furthermore, any book that is about the narrative of a death, rather than the life of an individual is at first off-putting. The reader knows how the story will end -- the unattractive main character will die, even though the system he has profited by for most of his life has yet to be put right.
Part of the reason for the book's confusing structure is its constant, fluid shifting in its tenses -- it begins in the first person, then enters the second person, than the third. This might be due to difficulties in translating from the Spanish original. But although not entirely coherent and linear in its…