Depression Disorder Essays (Examples)

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Depression and Dealing With Mental Illness

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80309288

Depression is a deeply personal issue that many people battle with each year. Persistnt depression categorized as dysthymia can be another more treacherous kind of monster that plagues those suffering from mental illness. While quantitative data can be helpful in determining accuracy in things like treatment and performing studies on medication efficacy, because depression is so personal and pertaining to a persons individual experience and perspective, qualitative research should be included. There can be named several reasons for this, but the main reason is because qualitative research for an examination of a persons unique experience and perspective and identification of underlying themes that can help paint a better picture of the mental disorder.
Although there are various kinds of qualitative research designs, the phenomenological study fits with what is needed, which is exploration and discussion of underlying themes through interviews, watching videos, examining research and then making comparisons and deriving…… [Read More]

References
Fetters,M.D., Curry,L.A., & Creswell,J.W. (2013). Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs-Principles and Practices.Health Services Research,48(6pt2), 2134-2156. doi:10.1111/1475-6773.12117
Novais,F., & Starkstein,S. (2015). Phenomenology of Depression in Alzheimers Disease.Journal of Alzheimer\\\\\\\'s Disease,47(4), 845-855. doi:10.3233/jad-148004
Palinkas,L.A., Horwitz,S.M., Green,C.A., Wisdom,J.P., Duan,N., & Hoagwood,K. (2013). Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research.Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research,42(5), 533-544. doi:10.1007/s10488-013-0528-y



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Depression Currently Depression Is a

Words: 3040 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91861547

So, although the reverse of these characteristic is not indicative of depression, their expression within the context of grief suggests the lack of clinical depression.

ith the fundamentals of depression outlined, it is reasonable to wonder why such symptoms and behaviors manifest themselves in certain people and why they do not in others. Many different researchers coming from many different scientific backgrounds -- from psychology to biochemistry -- have investigated the fundamentals of depression, and each have constructed models as to what its underlying causes are. Each of these investigations has attempted to explain the causes and symptoms of depression and has offered treatment possibilities.

The psychological models of depression have focused their attention on failed early attachment, inability to obtain desired rewards, impaired social relations, and distorted thinking." This approach to depression has yielded some valuable information regarding the disorder; yet, much of the results make it unclear as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ainsworth, Patricia M.D. Understanding Depression. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2000.

American Medical Association. Essential Guide to Depression. New York: Pocket Books, 1998.

Cherlin, Andrew J. "Going to Extremes: Family Structure, Children's Well-Being, and Social Science." Demography, Vol. 36, Nov. 1999. Pages 421-28.

Copeland, Mary Ellen M.S., M.A. The Depression Workbook: Second Edition. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications, 2001.
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Depression the Nature of Depression Depression Exists

Words: 1607 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7455366

Depression

The nature of depression

Depression exists as a regular mental disorder presented in the form of loss of interest, depressed moods, and feelings of low self-worth, guilt, poor concentration and disturbed sleep. The most common symptoms of depression are manifested in the form of anxiety. The problems could become recurrent or chronic, leading to notable impairments in a person to become responsible. When it reaches its worst stage, depression might lead to suicide. Over one million succumb to depression annually. This translates to at least three hundred suicidal deaths per day (Stark, 2010). A single individual who commits suicide motivates twenty more to attempt suicide.

People can suffer from multiple variations of depression. The most significant difference is depression among individuals who do not have or who have a history of maniac episodes. Depressive episodes draw symptoms like loss of interest, increased fatigability and depressed mood. Depending on the…… [Read More]

References

Joiner, T.E. (2010). Interpersonal, cognitive, and social nature of depression. Mahwah [u.a.: Erlbaum.

Knittel, L. (2013). User's guide to natural remedies for depression: Learn about safe and natural treatments to uplift your mood and conquer depression. North Bergen, NJ: Basic Health Publ.

Stark, K.D. (2010). Childhood depression: School-based intervention. New York: Guilford Press.

Wasserman, D. (2011). Depression. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Depression and Eating Disorders the Eating Disorder

Words: 2168 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29615540

Depression and Eating Disorders

The eating disorder category in the DSM-IV includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified categories. Peck and Lightsey (2008) note that while the DSM classification symptom is currently the most used system, there has been some debate in the about how to classify people with eating disordered behavior. A viable alternative to the discrete categories used in the DSM is notion of viewing eating disorders along a continuum from having no such behaviors to the severe eating disordered behaviors. In an effort to combine the two methods the self-report Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis (QEDD) was developed. The QEDD distinguishes nonsymptomatic individuals (no symptoms) to symptomatic individuals (those that have some symptoms, but do not qualify for a diagnosis to anyone qualifying for an eating disorder diagnosis). Previous research has provided support for this conceptualization by comparing the QEDD with scores…… [Read More]

References

Hudson, J.I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H.G., Jr., & Kessler, R.C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 348 -- 358.
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Disordered Eating in College Students

Words: 5808 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39021106

Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: "...no 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.

Allen, Jon G. (2001) a Model for Brief Assessment of Attachment and Its Application to Women in Inpatient Treatment for Trauma Related Psychiatric Disorders Journal of Personality Assessment 2001 Vol. 76. Abstract Online available at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327752JPA7603_05?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jpa

Armsden, G.C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.

Barrocas, Andrea L. (2006) Adolescent Attachment to Parents and Peers. The Emory Center for Myth and Ritual in American Life. Working Paper No. 50 Online available at http://www.marial.emory.edu/pdfs/barrocas%20thesisfinal.doc
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Depression and Metabolic Syndrome Is

Words: 2340 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85883804

A key strength of the study was that it was the first to show that major depression predicts increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women. One of the key limitations of the study was that it only evaluated the role of depression in middle-aged women and not in men. This limits the external validity of the study. In addition, the use of cross-sectional data, self-reports, or the measurement of depressive symptoms as opposed to clinical depression only provided indirect support for the link between depression and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

Although a majority of the research agrees that a clear connection exists between depression and metabolic syndrome, several sources disagree. Hildrum, Mykletun, Midthjell and associates (2008) are a key example of research that does not support the connection between depression and anxiety with metabolic syndrome. This study used a cross sectional study of participants aged 20-89.…… [Read More]

References

Akbaraly, T.N., Kivimaki, M., Brunner, E.J., Chandola, T., Marmot, M.G. Ferrie,

(2009). Association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Diabetes Care, 32, 499-504.

American Heart Association. (2010). Metabolic syndrome. Retrieved June3, 2010. From http://www.american heart.org/presenter,

Identifier+4756.
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Depression and Censoring the American

Words: 1444 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39783071

The vey cux of the agument comes to the cental point of censoship -- who must be potected and why must they be potected? Ideas, political, social, o othewise, may be the most dangeous fom of liteatue eve. Fo instance, in 19th centuy autocatic egimes, the ideas of Kal Max, even Voltaie, Locke, and Jeffeson wee seen to be subvesive because they challenged the ode of things, the idea that the monachy should ule by divine ight, and that cetain people had, by manifest destiny, the ight to be moe equal than othes. So, too, do images and vebiage change ove time egading public acceptance. At the tun of the centuy bathing suits coveed almost 90% of the human body, and a day at the beach would've been fa diffeent had some of today's skimpy G-stings o bikinis shown up. Similaly, sexual activity was hinted at fom the ealy days…… [Read More]

references homo-eroticism in a coming of age drama; another might see critiques of the War on Terror subversive, while still another might find literary value in the works of art by someone like Robert Mapplethorpe. Thus, in order to maintain a free and just society in which ideas are strong commodities we must take the notion that an educated populace is an informed populace. Our focus should be on educating children and youth so that, when appropriate, they can make decisions about what is right, wrong -- how to vet source material, and above all, what ideas they might want to accept and which to reject. This documentary should be shown in the classroom for, much like the movie Saving Private Ryan, it brings the real story of history into the lives of people without over glorifying the issue. War and conflict are not pretty, not neat, and people do not die as they do in a John Wayne western. Of course, certain material is age dependent, but it is important to note that in Middle and High school, students appreciate the truth more than half-truths and old adages about history that are simply not factual.
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Depression in Adolescents

Words: 2145 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23764681

Depression in Adolescents

Roughly nine percent of the population - an estimated 18.8 million Americans -- suffers from depressive disorders, illnesses that affect the body as well as the mind.

The effects of depression are magnified in children, who are experiencing depression in greater numbers. An estimated 8.3% of teenagers in the United States are suffering from depression, a significant leap from two decades ago. To compound the problem, researchers like Farmer (2002) found that about 70% of adolescents suffering from depression are unfortunately not receiving adequate treatment.

This paper examines the growing problem of depression among adolescents. The first part of this paper is an overview of teen depression, looking at its causes and contrasting teen depression with depression in adults. The next part then looks at the depressive symptoms among teenagers, contrasting these with the symptoms of depression in adults. In the last part, the paper examines the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beardslee, William R., Tracy Gladstone, Ellen Wright and Andrew Cooper. 2003. "A family-based approach to the prevention of depressive symptoms in children at risk: evidence of parental and child change." Pediatrics. 112(2): 401-412.

Egger, Helen. 2003. "Recognizing and treating depression in young children." The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter. 19(3): 1-3.

Farmer, Terri J. 2002. "The experience of major depression: Adolescents' perspectives." Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 23(6): 567-586.

Koplewitz, Harold. 2002. More Than Moody: Recognizing and Treating Adolescent Depression. New York: Putnam.
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Depression in the Young or Old Adult Women

Words: 2252 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96416849

Depression in Young and Older Women

Recent research reveals that about one percent of the general population suffers from manic-depression and five percent suffers from major depression during their lives (Simonds, 2001, p. 86). However, the incidence for depression in women is twice as high or more; as many as one in five American women has a history of depression during her lifetime.

Due to the various social and medical problems presented by increasing numbers of women who suffer from depression, this topic is of utmost importance in today's society.

This paper will examine the causes and effects of depression in both young and older women; examine existing medical research for both groups; identify major differences in depression for young and older women; and present a conclusive analysis of observations.

To determine what the causes of depression are in young and older women, and to differentiate between the two groups,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blumenthal, Susan. (Fall, 1996). Gender Differences in Depression. The Decade of the Brain, NAMI, Volume VII, Issue 3.

Boyles, Salynn. (February 14, 2002). Older Women Have Tough Time With Depression. WebMD Medical News.

Merschino, Diane. (July 2002). Depression in Young Women. Women's College Hospital Foundation.

National Institute of Mental Health. (October, 1999). Depression: What Every Woman Should Know. NIMH Publication No. 95-3871.
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Depression Continues to Be One of Most

Words: 1911 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34445568

Depression continues to be one of most common medical conditions for the elderly.

Percentages of elderly with the illness

Degree of increase in suicidal tendencies of depressed

Wrong assumption that aging necessitates depression.

Difficulty of healthcare providers in recognizing depression.

Increased tendency toward suicidal tendencies in many depressed.

Other individuals immune to depression and suicide despite life problems.

Individuals may not even recognize their own depression

Myths associated with aging including depression

Symptoms may take months to worsen and show up

Aging individuals should be treated similar to younger patients when seen by doctor.

Depression can mask itself in many ways

Up to family and healthcare providers to be vigilant and notice changes.

With care, individuals can be helped.

Depression ranks as one of the most common medical problems in the elderly. The occurrence of this illness among community-dwelling older individuals ranges from 8 to 15% and among institutionalized individuals,…… [Read More]

References

De Leo, D. (ed) (2004). Suicidal Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber.

Evans, G. (2000) Suicide and the elderly: warning signs and helping points.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) of the University of Florida.

Fact sheet FCS2183. Gainesville, FLA.
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depression and age related issues

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78887396

Depression in the Lifespan

Depression is a multifaceted and complex phenomenon affecting multiple age cohorts. It is therefore important to understand what differential age-related risk factors account for the manifestation of depressive symptoms, whether precipitating factors are genetic or environmental, also how specific treatment interventions might change depending on age-related needs or age-appropriate interventions. A developmental approach to depression can provide some insight into how clinicians can improve treatment interventions and promote a more nuanced and realistic understanding of the disorder. The symptoms of depression are also likely to be different for different age cohorts, in part due to developmental differences, but also to biological differences in brain structure and chemistry, life experiences and socialization. This topic is important to both clinical and counseling psychology because reframing depression from a developmental perspective can shed light on etiology and best practices.

eview of Literature

Literature has generally not focused on a…… [Read More]

References

Cicchetti, D., Nurcombe, B. & Garber, J. (1992). Developmental approaches to depression. Development and Psychopathology 4(1992): 1-3.

deMello, M.F., Mari, Jdj., Bacaltchuk, J. & Neugebauer, R. (2005). A systematic review of research findings on the efficacy of interpersonal therapy for depressive disorders. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 255(2): 75-82.

Hyde, M., Hanson, L. M., Chungkham, H. S., Leineweber, C. & Westerlund, H. (2015). The impact of involuntary exit from employment in later life on the risk of major depression and being prescribed anti-depressant medication. Aging & Mental Health 1(5): p381-389.

Simmons, M., Wilkinson, P. & Dubicka, B. (2015). Measurement Issues: Depression measures in children and adolescents. Child & Adolescent Mental Health 20(4): 230-241.
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Disorder Down's Syndrome and the Certain Ways

Words: 3241 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75320661

disorder Down's syndrome and the certain ways these individuals are treated in the society. Certain characteristics like their learning ability and their ability to live in the society is emphasized in the paper. Laws and regulations for children with these disorders are also hinted upon. Lastly, the inclusion of these children in the integrated teaching program is discussed.

Down syndrome is a disorder that has been named after John Langdon Down, who was a British physician and he explained this syndrome in the year 1886. Earlier in the 19th century, this condition was clinically described by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in the year 1838 and then by Edouard Seguin in 1844. Dr., Jerome Lejeune identified this syndrome as a chromosome 21 trisomy. This disorder can be diagnosed after as well as before birth through prenatal screening procedures. If such pregnancies are identified, they are often terminated.

According to the CDC…… [Read More]

References

Buckley, S. (1995). Teaching children with Down syndrome to read and write. Down syndrome: Living and learning in the community (pp. 158-169). New York: Wiley-Liss.

Cheung, Y.B., Law, C.K., Chan, B., Liu, K.Y., YIP, P.S. (2006): Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts in a population-based study of Chinese people: risk attributable to hopelessness, depression, and social factors. J. Affect. Disord.

Cicchetti, D., & Beeghly, M. (Eds.). (1990). Children with Down syndrome: A developmental perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crawford, P.A. (1995). Early literacy: Emerging perspectives. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 10(1), 71-86.
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Depression Has Been Known as a Result

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52116989

depression has been known as a "result when individuals forfeit their personal power." (Depression: Multimedia Sourcebook, p.1) It also has been described in ancient times as "... [an] affliction [that] laid its cause to supernatural intervention, primarily religious in nature. (insworth, p. 48) In the Hindu depression was noted as a struggle between good and evil in which evil would win and "victimize individual humans." (insworth, p.48) In texts from Babylonia and Egypt, gods punished transgressions in the hearts of people and placed on them the depressive curse. The early Hebrew texts allude to the belief that depression in humans reflects the displeasure of Yahweh.

But according to up-to-the-date research, we know that depression is an "innocuous-sounding word... that refers to a potentially disabling illness that affects many but is understood by few." (insworth p.1) Professor Patricia insworth, a leading psychologist on depression, further explains that sufferers often do not…… [Read More]

A variety of medical conditions can cause depression. These include dietary

1. http://www.nami.org / deficiencies in vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid. Degenerative neurological disorders may also be to blame such as Alzheimer's disease and strokes or through certain viral infections, such as hepatitis and mononucleosis.1

Depression typically cannot be shaken or willed away. (Becker, p. 187) An episode must therefore run its course until
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Depression and Pregnant Women Using Antidepressants

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21678283

Society for Women's Health esearch

Survey Design: Society for Women's Health esearch

The research study conducted by the Society for Women's Health esearch (2008) entitled "Surveys of adult U.S. women and doctors gauge perceptions about depression through hormonal transitions" is not designed to determine if it is actually safe for women to take medication for depression during pregnancy and immediately after pregnancy but rather if most adult women believe that doing so is actually dangerous versus physicians with specialized knowledge. While the extent to which women are willing to seek out and accept treatment from a physician if they were pregnant and suffering from depression might be a valuable subject area for research, the survey also asked a number of other questions, such as what the respondents thought were the symptoms of depression; if they believed women suffered more from depression than males; and if they believed women were more…… [Read More]

Reference

Surveys of adult U.S. women and doctors gauge perceptions about depression through hormonal transitions. (2008). Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web//http://www.womenshealthresearch.org/site/DocServer/DepressionSurveyAnalysis
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Depression Not Just a Bad Mood Mdd

Words: 3261 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90318784

Depression: Not just a Bad Mood

MDD: Not Just Another Bad Mood

The term "Prozac Nation" says a lot. This catch-phrase had begun to describe the current state in the U.S. when cases of clinical depression began blooming and treatment turned to medication as a first response. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, over fourteen million of the adult U.S. population suffers from Major Depressive Disorder. Major Depressive Disorder, or MDD, is the leading cause of disability in people ages 15-44. The average age of onset is 32 (U.S. Department of, 2011.) It is often also found co-occurring with other mental disorders, such as anxiety and substance abuse. Perhaps it is worth taking a closer look at a case example in order to better understand this often debilitating disorder in our times.

Taylor is a 24-year-old single, Jewish female presenting with symptoms of depression. She reports that for…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Burns, D.D. (1989). The feeling good handbook. New York, NY: Plume.

Cornes, C.L., & Frank, E. (1994). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. The Clinical

Psychologist, 47(3), 9-10.

Cuijpers, P, van Straten, A, Hollon, S.D., & Andersson, G. (2010). The contribution of active medication to combined treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression: a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 121(6), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=13&sid=568ccfe5-0fe6-4429-92a3- cb159b2e4044%40sessionmgr115&vid=5&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3
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Depression

Words: 2302 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39910594

Depression is a state of sadness and gloom where one feels dull and overwhelmed by the challenges of life. People tend to say that they are "depressed' any time they feel very unhappy. More likely than not, it could just be a mere response to fatigue, sad thoughts or events. This improper use of this term causes confusion between an ordinary mood swing and a medical condition. While it is normal for all human beings to experience dejection every now and then, a few people may experience unipolar depression. Ordinary dejection is rarely serious enough to significantly affect a person's day to day activities and does not persist for long. Mood downcasts can even have some benefits. Time spent contemplating can help an individual explore their inner self, values and way of life. They often come out of it feeling stronger, resolved and with a greater sense of clarity.

Unlike…… [Read More]

References

Comer, R. (2013). Abnormal Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.

Bolton, P., Bass, J., Neugebauer, R., Verdeli, H., Clougherty, K. F., Wickramaratne, P.,. ..& Weissman, M. (2003). Group interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in rural Uganda: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 289(23), 3117-3124. Retrieved from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12813117 

Dombrovski, A. Y., Lenze, E. J., Dew, M. A., Mulsant, B. H., Pollock, B. G., Houck, P. R., & Reynolds, C. F. (2007). Maintenance Treatment for Old-Age Depression Preserves Health-Related Quality of Life: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Paroxetine and Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(9), 1325-1332. Retrieved from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17767673 

Elder, B. L., &Mosack, V. (2011). Genetics of depression: an overview of the current science. Issues in mental health nursing, 32(4), 192-202. Retrieved from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355753
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Disorder of Emotional Behavioral

Words: 1935 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74349818

Persons with Emotional Behavior Disorder

Importance of assessment of emotional and behavioral disorders in schools

Identifying and assessing emotional and behavioral disorders in schools (EBD) helps identify and address a number of risky behaviors among youths in good time. Students suffering from EBD experience difficulties when learning, have challenging social relationships, experience depression and anxious moments as well as exhibit inappropriate behaviors. School, administrators usually know these students, as they need a lot of support and different resources to be able to survive in a school environment (Davis, Young, Hardman & Winters, 2011).

Early identification of these problem behaviors help school administrators provide the necessary support students need before the situation gets out of hand or becomes impossible to manage. Even though students at risk of EBD have less severe characteristics and frequency than those already diagnosed, early identification is crucial in improving educational outcomes (Davis, Young, Hardman & Winters,…… [Read More]

References

Angold, A., & Costello, E. (2000). A review of issues relevant to the creation of a measure of disability in children based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning and Disability (ICIDH-2). https://devepi.duhs.duke.edu/pubs/who.pdf.

BASC,.BASC-2 Summary - Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition. Retrieved 2 March 2015, from http://basc-2.szapkiw.com/basc-summary/

Connecticut State Department of Education,. (2012). Guidelines for Identifying and Educating Students with Emotional Disturbance. Retrieved 2 March 2015, from http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/pdf/publications/edguide/ed_guidelines.pdf

Davis, S., Young, E., Hardman, S., & Winters, R. (2011). Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Nassp.org. Retrieved 2 March 2015, from http://www.nassp.org/tabid/3788/default.aspx?topic=Screening_for_Emotional_and_Behavioral_Disorders
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Depression Among Teenagers Who Are Homeless

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35857503

Depressive Symptoms Among Homeless Adolescents

The research and subsequent data analysis aims at showing the relationship that there is between the factors that the interviewees will give and the depression rates among the homeless adolescents of below 20 years of age. The data that will be collected will be predominantly qualitative since this is a social science that seeks to understand the reason why the homeless adolescents get depressed and to find out whether the depression causes the homelessness/came before being homeless or if the depression set in after being homeless. The data analysis will seek to show the statistical correlation between the variables that will be recorded. The strength of the correlation will be derived from the similarity of answers on what caused their depression and the damage or effects that it caused in their life. The data analysis will look into central tendency trends like the mean, mode…… [Read More]

References

MedicineNet, Inc. (2012). Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens: A Parent's Guide. Retrieved April 17, 2015 from  http://www.medicinenet.com/bipolar_disorder_in_children_and_teens/article.htm
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Socially Reactive Depression in African American Adolescents

Words: 2973 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95785604

Depression in African-American Adolescents

Etiology of Depression

Mental illnesses like depression can be very difficult to diagnose or to recognize: There is no serum to test for when looking for depression. In some real if rather vague way, mental health is simply the absence of mental disorders. And in the reverse we define mental illness as the absence of mental health. The circularity of this definition is certainly confusing, but it reflects the real confusion over the range of what may be considered to be mentally "normal." This vagueness as to definition does not mean that the problem of mental illness and especially depression is not real: Indeed, the difficulty of identifying those with mental illness and so of providing prompt and appropriate treatment to them makes the need to do so more effectively all the more important (Grob, 1991, p. 13). The need to identify mental illness in -…… [Read More]

References

Achenbach, T. etal. (22 December 2002). "Ten-year comparisons of problems and competencies for national samples of youth: self, parent, and teacher reports. J of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Boyer, C. (2003). Interview.

Crawford, I. etal. "The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men." J. Of Sex Research 39 (3): 179-189.

Donnel, A. etal. (2001, Oct. 1). "Psychological reactance: Factor structure and internal consistency of the questionnaire for the measurement of psychological reactance." Journal of Social Psychology 141 (5): 679-687.
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Psychological Sociological Cultural and Biological Theories on Depression and Treatments That Take These Into Account

Words: 2590 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91688277

Depression Theories

Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments

Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…… [Read More]

Lastly, with respect to biological theory-based treatments, scientific research is vital. A study conducted in 2010 states that the finding of "various structural and chemical abnormalities in the brain through neuroimaging" has been the foundation in depression research in the last year. This study further states that the research combines various brain areas to arise specific symptoms, and that the new data could contribute to further understanding and treating depression. Specific treatments are not given as part of this study, but "biological" treatments will usually include medication, such as anti-depressants. [20: Papageorgiou, G. (2010). Biological theory of depression in the light of new evidence. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/9/S1/S47. ]

Conclusion

This paper has discussed various theories of depression and has expanded upon treatments that take into account these theories. Some treatments have been proven effective, and others have been illustrated simply as examples or as evidence of much needed field research. Depression has been shown to be a complex illness explained by various intelligent minds in different ways, yet in order to treat this disorder, one must take into account all this knowledge, and hope that advances in scientific research, such as that illustrated above, will provide for better treatments and, finally, more effective relief from depressive symptoms.
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Older Adults the Connection of Depression With Diseases

Words: 2590 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42903853

Depression, Disease, And Aging

Aging brings many changes in health, social relationships, work situation, and other dimensions of life, and old age has been examined as one aspect of life development, showing how earlier stages contribute to the coping mechanisms older people have and how they apply these to new situations. A number of the changes accompanying old age can create stress and depression, and in turn these psychological states can contribute to the onset of disease or to the course disease takes. Studies have also shown that untreated depression can contribute to a higher suicide rate for the elderly.

How the elderly person is affected may depend on his or her closest relationship. The aging process for many includes physical or mental deterioration which can place considerable strain on the life partner, who now has to contend not only with his or her own diminished function because of aging…… [Read More]

References

Causes of depression 2004, GlaxoSmithKline, retrieved August 23, 2005 from http://www.depression.com/causes_of_depression.html.

Cox, H.G. (1988). Later life: the realities of aging. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Depner, C.E. & Ingersoll-Dayton, B. (1985). "Conjugal social support and patterns in later life." Journal of Gerontology, 40, No. 6, 761-766.

Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1998). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
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Analyzing Depression in Adolescent

Words: 3055 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45960897

Depression in Adolescence

Depression in Adolescents

The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.

In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.

The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…… [Read More]

References

Algon, S., Yi, J., Calkins, M.E., Kohler, C. And Borgmann-Winter, K.E. (2013). Evaluation and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychotic Symptoms. Current psychiatry reports. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500659/

Christie, A. (2007). Childhood anxiety: Occupational disruption. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(2),31-39. Available at  http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~fbcpf/PAMPIE/childhood%20anxiety%20Occupational%20disruption.pdf 

Halverson, J. L. (1994-2016). Depression Differential Diagnoses. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759-differential

Lewis, A. J., Bertino, M. D., Skewes, J., Shand, L., Borojevic, N., Knight, T., Lubman, D.I., Toumbourou, J.W. (2013, Nov 13). Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Available at: http://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6215-14-384
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Analyzing Depression in Children and Adolescents

Words: 1946 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62687673

Depression in Children and Adolescents

Depression is a severe sickness, which is capable of affecting almost all parts of a young individual's life and considerably affects his or her family as well. It can interfere with relationships amidst friends and family members, damage performance at school and limit other academic opportunities. It can result to other health issues because of the impacts it has on eating, physical activity, as well as sleeping. Given that it has several repercussions, it is very vital that the illness is realized and successfully treated. When this is done, the majority of kids can resume with their normal daily lives. Depression is not easily noticeable in kids. The symptoms of depression are frequently hidden in kids by other physical and behavioral complaints. The majority of young individuals that are depressed shall at the same time also have a second psychiatric condition, which complicates diagnosis (APA…… [Read More]

Bibliography

APA, & AACAP. (n.d.). The Use of Medication in Treating Childhood and Adolescent Depression: Information for Patients and Families. Parents Medical Guide Workgroup, 1-6.

Egger HL, Angold A. (2006).Common emotional and behavioral disorders in preschool children: Presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry;47:313-337.

Gibb, B. (2014). Depression in Children. 383.

Gray, P. (2011). The Decline of Play and the Rise of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents. American Journal of Play, 459.
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Understanding depression

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25909750

Depression is a term that has multiple meanings. In an economic context, it can mean a continued, long-term decline in economic activity in one or several economies. Depression can also mean a landform that is depressed or sunken below the adjacent area. This definition is for geology and can be used to describe sinkholes. However, the focus of the meaning of the term depression will be examined through the psychological perspective. As defined in psychology, depression is a mood disorder causing an ongoing feeling of loss of interest and sadness. Depression can affect how one feels emotionally and physically, often requiring long-term treatment. This report aims to understand the word depression, its roots, and why it is being used today to categorize a mood disorder.

The word depression has been used for quite some time. When examined as a noun, is was first seen in the late 14th century from…… [Read More]

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Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Disorder

Words: 1743 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65719540

This may consist of arising and seating in chairs securely. Following the progressive characteristics of this illness, all people gradually lose their capability simply to move and will need to advance and use a wheelchair.

eferences

Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.

Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, . (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. eceived: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.

Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2008). Gaze Control and Foot Kinematics During Stair Climbing: Characteristics Leading to Fall isk in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.…… [Read More]

References

Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.

Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, R. (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Fabio, R., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. Received: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
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Sensorimotor Disorder

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75381045

Sensorimotor Disorder

estless legs syndrome, also known as Ekbom syndrome, is the most commonly experienced sensorimotor disorder among the general population (Bassetti et al., 2011). The disorder afflicts approximately 2 to 10% of the general population and it is experienced as periodic limb movements in 80% of individuals with restless legs syndrome (Bassetti et al., 2011). The most prominent symptoms of the disorder are urges to move the legs as well as unpleasant sensations in the legs (Lee et al., 2011). The symptoms generally commence or become worse during inactivity and individuals with the disorder generally feel relief from symptoms after movement (Lee et al., 2011). Also, symptoms of the disorder are generally worse during the evening hours in comparison to the daytime. Furthermore, restless leg syndrome often results in sleep disturbances such as delayed sleep onset, multiple awakenings, and reduced sleep efficiency (Lee et al., 2011). The disorder is…… [Read More]

References

Bassetti, C.L., Bornatico, F., Fuhr, P., Schwander, J., Kallweit, U., Mathis, J. (2011). Pramipexole vs. dual release levodopa in restless leg syndrome: a double blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Swiss Medical Weekly, 141, w13274.

Bayard, M., Bailey, B., Acharya, D., Ambreen, F., Duggal, S., Kaur, T., Rahman, Z.U., Tudiver, F. (2011). Bupropian and restless leg syndrome: a randomized control trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24(4), 422-8.

Lee, D.O., Ziman, R.B., Perkins, A.T., Poceta, J.S., Walters, A.S., Barrett, R.W. (2011). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacabil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(3), 282-92.

Mitchell, U.H. (2011). Nondrug-related aspect of treating Ekbom disease, formerly known as restless leg syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7, 251-7.
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Beck Depression Inventory-Ii Bdi-Ii Is a 21-Item

Words: 4152 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83941983

Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.

Title of paper

The…… [Read More]

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Women and Depression

Words: 2214 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88717040

Women Depression

Women and Depression

Depression is among the most studied psychiatric disorders in the world. While it is known that every person will go through periods of mild, short-term depression (following a death, divorce, etc.), there is a growing number of individuals who are experiencing depression on a much more serious scale. Among the research findings is a curious finding that women suffer the condition at a much greater rate than men. Again, this means that women suffer clinical depression at a much greater rate than men. The research has tried to determine the causes, symptoms and treatments for the condition, and there has been some success in this endeavor. In this paper, depression's causes, symptoms and treatments modalities will be examined as they apply to women as a body.

Causes

It may seem necessary to discuss symptoms before causes since it is easier to delineate what the symptoms…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Edition). Washington, DC: Author

Cirakoglu, O.C., Kokdemir, D., & Demirutku, K. (2003). Lay theories of causes and cures for depression in a Turkish university sample. Social Behavior & Personality, 31(8), 795-799.

Craig, C.D. (2009). Depression, sociocultural factors, and African-American women. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 37(2), 83-91.

Grote, N.K., Bledsoe, S.E., Larkin, J., Lemay, E.P., Jr., & Brown, C. (2007). Stress exposure and depression in disadvantaged women: The protective effects of optimism and perceived control. Social Work Research, 31(1), 19-35.
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Depressive Disorder According to the DSM --

Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69443539

Depressive Disorder

According to the DSM -- IV -- T (2000), Major Depressive Disorder is classified by the number of Major Depressive Episodes -- although only one is needed in order to diagnose Major Depressive Disorder -- and according to the severity, ranging from mild, moderate, severe without psychotic features, or severe with psychotic features (347). This means that, in practice, the signs or symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder are those of a Major Depressive Episode: the clinician is required to diagnose the Episode before the larger diagnosis of the Disorder is indicated. In order to diagnose a Major Depressive Episode, there must be present a mood which is obviously depressed, which can also be observed as simply the loss of interest in nearly all activities, or the absence of accustomed pleasure -- sometimes known by the more clinical term "anhedonia" -- in familiar activities (349). However, the DSM-IV-T specifies…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
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Neurological Disorder Epilepsy Neurological Disorder Epilepsy --

Words: 2610 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35563773

Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.

Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…… [Read More]

References

Huffman, J. & Kosoff, E.,H. (2006). State of the Ketogenic Diet(s) in Epilepsy. Epilepsy. Pp.

332-340. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from http://www.matthewsfriends.org/jh/CurrentNNKossoff.pdf

Macrodimitris, S., Wershler, J., Hat-elda, M., Hamiltone, K., Backs-Dermott, B., Mothersill, K.,

Baxter, C. & Wiebe, S. (2011). Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety. Epilepsy and Behaviour. 20. Pp. 83-88. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from  http://old.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsyusa/yebeh/upload/Group_Therapy.pdf
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Is

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80932247

While there are approximately 5 million people suffering from the illness at any one time in America, women are twice as likely to develop PTS as compared to men. In relation to children and teens, more than 40% has endured at least a single traumatic incident contributing the development of the disorder. However, PTS has occurred in nearly 15% of girls as compared to the 6% of boys.

Causative Factors of the isorder:

As previously discussed, the main cause of post traumatic stress disorder is exposure to a life-threatening, hugely unsafe, and frightening traumatic experience. These experiences are likely to contribute to the development of the disorder if the victim feels a constant sense of danger and painful experiences (Smith & Segal, 2012). As a result of this constant feeling of painful and frightening experience, the individual remains relatively unable to overcome the incident or feel normal again. Some of…… [Read More]

Diagnosis of the Disorder:

While post traumatic stress disorder has existed for as long as human beings have endured trauma, the illness was only recognized as a formal diagnosis in the 1980s (Dryden-Edwards & Stoppler, 2010). The diagnosis of PTSD is often comorbid with eating disorders, depression and substance abuse, anxiety disorders, and manic depression. The assessment of PTSD sometimes involves the use of rating scale or controlled psychiatric interview to test the disease. Some of the standardized screening tools for diagnosis of the disease include Trauma Screening Questionnaire and PTSD Symptom Scale.

Based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria for diagnosing PTSD, there are several necessary factors in this process including the patient's view of the trauma and duration and effect of associated symptoms (Grinage, 2003, p.2401). For this diagnosis to be conducted, the symptoms must exist for a minimum of one month and disrupted normal activities considerably. During this process, clinicians look for three major types of symptoms i.e. re-experiencing, avoidant, and increased arousal symptoms. The re-experiencing ones are those associated with recurrence of the traumatic event while avoidant are means in which the patient attempts to avoid the event and increased arousal symptoms are those associated with panic or anxiety attacks. The identification of
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Eating Disorder and Gender

Words: 5075 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8532186

Eating Disorders and Gender

There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bates, Daniel. "Globalization of Fat Stigma: Western Ideas of Beauty and Body Size Catching

on in Developing Nations." Daily Mail. 2011. Print.

Battiste, Nikki & Lauren Effron."EDNOS: Deadliest Eating Disorder Is Quietly the Most

Common." ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. .
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Autoimmune Disorders Maladaptive Responses to

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74622935

"Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is a broad term that describes conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The two most common inflammatory bowel diseases are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease" (IBD, 2013, CDC). Ulcerative colitis affects the large colon; Crohn's usually affects the small colon and the beginning portion of the large colon. egardless in both manifestations of IBD, the body attacks the cells of the intestine, mistaking 'good' things like food and bacteria for dangerous invaders and thus causing chronic inflammation.

The effects of IBD can be extremely severe because of the nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and subsequent weight loss and malnutrition that they cause. Crohn's is particularly dangerous because it can cause intestinal blockage from severe swelling and scaring. Ulcers can cause fistulas which become infected. Unlike lupus, both forms of IBD can be treated with surgery as well as various anti-inflammatory drugs.…… [Read More]

References

Systemic Lupus Erythematous (Lupus). (2013). American College of Rheumatology.

Retrieved:

http://www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/lupus.asp

IBD. (2013). CDC. Retrieved:
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Childhood Depression

Words: 4442 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78449735

Childhood Depression

Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).

Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).

Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).

Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
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Bipolar I Disorder

Words: 4472 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47788968

Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.

History

Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…… [Read More]

References

"A Brief History of Bipolar Disorder," (2012). Today's Caregiver. Retrieved online:  http://www.caregiver.com/channels/bipolar/articles/brief_history.htm 

Angst, J. & Marneros, A. (2001). Bipolarity from ancient to modern times: Conception, birth, and rebirth. Journal of Affective Disorders 67(1-3): 3-19.

Angst, J. & Sellaro, R. (2000). Historical perspectives and natural history of bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 48(6): 445-457.

Baethge, C. Salvatore, P. & Baldessarini, R.J. (2003). Cyclothymia, a circular mood disorder. Historical Psychiatry 2003/14: 377-399
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Processing Effects of Cognitive and Emotional Psychotherapy on Bipolar Disorder

Words: 6099 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3470826

BP Disorder

Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.

Bipolar Disorder

Description and differentiation

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…… [Read More]

References

Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
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Psychiatric Disorder of Childhood Depression The Information

Words: 1390 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22681223

psychiatric disorder of childhood depression. The information will discuss how the disorder is diagnosed, the prevalence rates, theories concerning the etiology of depression and various treatments that are available for childhood depression.

hile many people may overlook this serious mental condition that occurs within some children, others are facing the reality of the disorder on a daily basis. More information is becoming readily available that offers research about depression in children and is very helpful to those seeking prognosis and treatment of their loved ones. Many times, depression in children and adolescents is overlooked or misdiagnosed. This paper will discuss symptoms and treatment of depression in children.

Depression

Depression is a mental problem that affects people of all ages, race, and economic levels. The diagnosis is becoming more acceptable and is commonly treated with antidepressant drug therapy. The patient is not only affected by treatment, but the drug and insurance…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AllPsych. "Major Depressive Disorder." 13 April 2003. http://allpsych.com/disorders/mood/majordepression.html

Mendlowitz, S., Manassis, K., Bradley, S., Scapillato, D., Miezitis, S., Shaw, B. "Cognitive Behavioral GroupTreatments in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Role of Parental Involvement." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, v38, p1223. 1999.

National Institute of Mental Health. (Sept 2000). "Depression in Children and Adolescents." NIH Publication No. 00-4744. Available at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depchildresfact.cfm.

O'Conner, Richard. Undoing Depression: What Therapy Doesn't Teach You and Medication
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Depressive Disorder Is it Caused

Words: 1701 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52021775



orks Cited

Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.

Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1671559601).

Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm

Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/major.htm

Khaled, Salma M.; Andrew Bulloch, Derek V. Exner, Scott B. Patten. (2009). Cigarette

smoking, stages of change, and major depression in the Canadian population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(3), 204-8. Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical

Library database. (Document ID: 1673587981).

Levinson, Douglas. (2005). The genetics of depression: a review. Biol Psychiatry.

Retrieved April 27, 2009 at http://depressiongenetics.med.upenn.edu/DLResearch/Levinson_GeneticsDepression.pdf

Marrie, A.; R. Horwitz, G. Cutter, T .Tyry, D. Campagnolo, & T. Vollmer. (2009). The burden of mental comorbidity in multiple sclerosis: frequent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Multiple Sclerosis, 15(3), 385-92.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carney, Robert M.; Kenneth E .Freedland. (2009). Treatment-resistant depression and mortality after acute coronary syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(4), 410-7.

Retrieved April 27, 2009, from ProQuest Medical Library database. (Document ID: 1671559601).

Major depressive episode. (2009). DSM IV. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at  http://www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm 

Franklin, Donald. (2003). Major depression. Psychology Info. Retrieved April 27, 2009 at  http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/major.htm
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the association between depression and eating disorders

Words: 2056 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80932587

ascertaining the link between depression and eating disorders, with particular focus on young adults and teens. Not much information is available on the subject of eating disorder (ED)-diagnosed persons' nutritional status and food consumption. The objectives of this study were:

To explain eating disorder-diagnosed teens' nutritional intake and To study the relationship of depression with ED among teens without as well as with ED.

A number of data sources were employed for individual papers examined for this research. This examination facilitates the drawing of a few key inferences. ED's high stability and its major link to obesity and declining psychological health among adults highlight the necessity of timely problem identification and treatment in childhood and teenage. Depressed youngsters must be especially observed to detect restrictive ED development. Further, adult females depicting a lifetime ED diagnosis showed double the likelihood to report migraines as compared to unrelated members of this very…… [Read More]

References

Allen, K., Mori, T., Beilin, L., Byrne, S., Hickling, S., & Oddy, W. (2012). Dietary intake in population-based adolescents: support for a relationship between eating disorder symptoms, low fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 459 - 469.

Christina, B., Lange, K., Stahl-Pehe, A., Castillo, K., Scheuing, N., Holl, R., . . . Rosenbaeur, J. (2015). Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early - Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control. PLoS ONE.

Costa, J., Maroco, J., Pinto Gouveia, J., & Ferreira, C. (2016). Shame, Self-Criticism, Perfectionistic Self-Presentation and Depression in Eating Disorders. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 315 - 328.

Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Dempfle, A., Konrad, K., Klasen, F., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2015). Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 675 - 684.
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Quantitative

Words: 1934 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94683735

Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).

Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses

The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:

1. The sample will not be random,

2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,

3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,

4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,

5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,

6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)

major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…… [Read More]

References

Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446

Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237

Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388

Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
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Bipolar Psychiatric Disorder Bd -- Which Is

Words: 3047 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67751574

Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.

Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking

In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical

Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-

Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.

Retrieved March 27, 2013, from  http://www.cnn.com .
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Major Depression

Words: 4777 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90936662

Clinical Depression

Major depressions or unipolar depressions are some of the names by which the term Clinical depression is known, which is a type of depressive disorder. To explain, it is a condition that is to be diametrically observed, in the sense that the expert does not count on a patient's self-report but checks for indications of depression that can be noticed and recognized. (Schatzberg, 2002) Clinical depression is a term that explains a situation serious enough to require medical, that is expert help and may even require pharmacological involvement. Clinical depression, as stated by various medical sources, survives for a period of two weeks and is usually not impetuous because of any external being or thing.

In a year, clinical depression affects at least 19 million American individuals. Not considering whether the individual is young or old, man or woman, regardless of race or income any body can be…… [Read More]

References

Abeles, Norman & Victor, Tara (2003) Unique Opportunities for Psychology in Mental Health Care for Older Adults, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice V10 N1

Denton, Donald D. (2003) Beating Depression: The Journey to Hope. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1533-a-1534-a

Fink, Max (2003) Dealing With Depression: A Commonsense Guide to Mood Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1365-1366

Frank, Ellen & Kupfer. David J. (2003) Progress in the Therapy of Mood Disorders: Scientific Support. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1207-1208
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Panic Disorder During Pregnancy and

Words: 1880 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57684873

The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…… [Read More]

References

Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.

Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.

Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.

Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
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Assorts of Disorder Terms and Diagnose

Words: 969 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54392348

Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment,…… [Read More]

References

Additional treatments for ADHD. (2013). Psych Central. Retrieved from:

http://psychcentral.com/lib/additional-treatments-for-adhd/0001205

Depression. (2013). NIMH. Retrieved from:

 http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml
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Clinical Disorder Clinical Psychology and

Words: 3626 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49707748

This leaves many veterans prone to the condition known as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This may be characterized as "an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural or human-caused disasters, accidents, or military combat." (NIMH, 1) in the particular case of this discussion, military combat is a cause of PTSD that can have devastating long-term outcomes. Indeed, "studies estimate that as many as 500,000 troops serving in Iraq and Afghanistan will suffer from some form of psychological injury, with PTSD being the most common." (Eliscu, 58) the outcomes of this condition will run a wide range of symptoms that impact the ability of individuals to cope with the pressures of everyday life, to relate to those who have not experienced the traumas of war,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Blanco, C.; Laje, G.; Olfson, Marcus, S.C. & Pincus, H.A. (2002). Trends in the treatment of bipolar disorder by outpatient psychiatrists. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(6), 1005-1011.

Craddock, N.; O'Donovan, M.C. & Owen, M.J. (2005). The genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: dissecting psychosis. Journal of Medical Genetics, 42, 193-204.

Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS)1. (2006). Anorexia Nervosa. Women's Health.gov

Ellenberger, H. (1970). Discovery of the Unconscious. New York: Basic Books.
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Female Substance Use Disorder Gender

Words: 2505 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21550261

..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."

In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.

Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…… [Read More]

References

Conrad, Patricia J., Pihl, Robert O., Stewart, Sherry H., & Dongier, Maurice. (2000). Validation

Of a System of Classifying Female Substance Abusers on the Basis of Personality and Motivational Risk Factors for Substance Abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(3),

Markoff, Laurie S., Finkelstein, Norma, Kammerer, Nina, Kreiner, Peter, & Prost, Carol a.

2005). Relational Systems Change: Implementing a Model of Change in Integrating
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Screening for Depression in Prisoners Using the

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93936011

Screening for Depression in Prisoners Using the Beck Depression Inventory" by Boothby & Durham examines depression levels of a random sample of 1,494 prisoners admitted into the North Carolina state prison system between September 1995 and February 1997 using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (1999). The article first addresses its potential significance to the criminal justice and psychological fields; it states that incarceration is an event characterized by lack of control, undesirability, and threat. Situations involving these characteristics typically precede depressive symptoms. eactions to feelings of depression can lead to disciplinary infractions, assault, self-injury, and suicide, among other problems. Boothby & Durham argue that reducing these problems would not only alleviate suffering, but save prisons money. Furthermore, unlike Boothby & Durham's study, existing literature related to screening for depression among prison populations using the BDI focus on specific groups within the prison system, rather than a random, general sample. These…… [Read More]

References

Boothby, Jennifer L. & Durham, Thomas W. (1999). Screening For Depression in Prisoners

Using the Beck Depression Inventory. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 26: 107-124.

Eack, Shaun M., Singer, Jonathan B., & Greeno, Catherine G. (2008). Screening for Anxiety and Depression in Community Mental Health: The Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories.

Community Mental Health, 44: 465-474.
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Depressive Disorder Mdd Is a Condition Distinguished

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79049209

depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition distinguished by the presence of at least one major depressive episode (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). MDD occurs in adolescents with an estimated annual prevalence of four to eight percent and with a lifetime prevalence of 20% by age 18 (APA, 2000). In addition, the data indicates that the prevalence of depression rates among adolescents is increasing with the greatest surge in rates of depression occurring in adolescents between the ages of 15-18 years-old (Costello, Erkanli, & Angold, 2006).

Previous research has suggested that when MDD occurs in adolescents and children an untreated episode can last from seven to nine months (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Adolescent depression shares many clinical features similar to depression in adults. Depressed adolescents are sad, they can lose interest in activities that used to be of importance to them, and they are very critical of themselves and believe that…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Costello, E.J., Erkanli, A., & Angold, A. (2006). Is there an epidemic of child or adolescent depression? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 1263-1271.

Giedd, J.N., Clasen, L.S., Lenroot, R., Greenstein, D.,Wallace, G.L., Ordaz, S., Molloy, E.A.,
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St John's Wort Depression in

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96325619

("St. John's ort," 2006, NCAM: National Council of Alternative Medicine)

Research, at present, is inconclusive. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a 3-year study of 336 patients with major depression of moderate severity. The study randomly assigned patients to an 8-week trial. One-third of patients received a uniform dose of St. John's ort, another third a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed for depression, and the final group received a placebo. The study participants who responded positively were followed for an additional 18 weeks. At the end of the first phase of the study, participants were measured on two scales, one for depression and one for overall functioning. There was no significant difference in rate of response for depression, but the scale for overall functioning was better for the antidepressant than for either St. John's ort or placebo. ("Depression," 2000, National Institute of Health)

Another study, described in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Depression." (2006) Healthy Place. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.healthyplace.com/Communities/depression/causes.asp

Depression." (2000) National Institute of Health. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depression.cfm

Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group."(2002). Journal of the American Medical

Association. 287(14): 1807-1814. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11939866&query_hl=2
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Postnatal Depression Lit Review in

Words: 1318 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68432596

(Mason, ice & ecords, 2005, p.52)

The literature dealing with postnatal depression has sought over many years to understand the phenomena of postnatal depression and to find causal links to external and internal environments that could cause it in certain women. In Grote and Bledsoe the goal of the work was to study the influence of optimism and stress in the life and mind of the new mother and determine if there was a link between the negative and/or positive the led to or helped avoid postnatal depression. The results of this research correlated internal optimism with a reduced risk of postnatal depression but also found causal links between postnatal depression and life stresses. Though internal optimism was able to counter these effects it is clear that the lack of social support that can be linked with life stress still increased the incidence of depression in some women. (Grote &…… [Read More]

References

Clemmens, D.A. (2002). Adolescent Mother's Depression after the Birth of Their Babies: Weathering the Storm. Adolescence, 37(147), 551.

Conway, K.S., & Kennedy, L.D. (2004). Maternal Depression and the Production of Infant Health. Southern Economic Journal, 71(2), 260.

1995). Depression a Multimedia Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Frye, a.A., & Garber, J. (2005). The Relations among Maternal Depression, Maternal Criticism and Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(1), 1.
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Coping With Depression Could Be Well a

Words: 1639 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18902043

Coping ith Depression

Depression could be, well, a depressing subject matter to deal with, over the course of an entire 158-page text. However, by emphasizing positive coping strategies that can be adopted by sufferers of depression and the friends and loved ones of those going through a depressed period in their lives, Coping with Depression by Sharon Carter and Lawrence Clayton. (Hazeldon, 1995), manages to avoid this potential stylistic pitfall. In fact, if anything, it errs on the side of excessive cheerfulness.

Part of the reason the book has such an upbeat tone is because this work is clearly intended for younger, rather than older adults. It attempts to explain the many causes of depression, the different potential courses of treatment for depression (from therapy to chemical remedies), how to personally manage the disease on a daily basis and how to cope if a family member or friend is clinically…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carter, Sharon and Lawrence Clayton. Coping with Depression. New York; Hazeldon, 1995.

Depression may range in severity from mild symptoms to more severe forms that include delusional thinking, excessive somatic concern, and suicidal ideation, over longer periods of time. The DSM-IIIR requires the presence of at least five of the symptoms listed above for a diagnosis of major depressive episode.
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Gid Gender Identity Disorder Has

Words: 3105 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16884845

As a result Cuypere et al. conducted a study which evaluated the physical and sexual health of individuals that received reassignment surgery. The participants were 107 Dutch speaking participants that had the surgery between 1986 and 2001 (Cuypere et al. 2005).

The results demonstrate that those participants going form Female-to-males had more problems establishing a secure relationship following the transition (Cuypere et al. 2005). In fact the study found that a third of the female-to-males did not have a sexual partner following the surgery even though their sexual drives were intact (Cuypere et al. 2005). The results also found that in spite of the fact that participants had masculine presentations and sex organs, many of them steered clear of a relationship with a potential partner. This avoidance was present because he participants were not yet confident in their maleness (Cuypere et al. 2005). The study also found that when transsexual…… [Read More]

References

Bartlett N.H., Bukowski W.M., Vasey P.L. (2002) Is Gender Identity Disorder in Children a Mental Disorder? Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Page Number: 753.

Bodlund, O., & Kullgren, G. (1996). Transsexualism -- General outcome and prognostic factors: A five-year follow-up study of nineteen transsexuals in the process of changing sex. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 303-316.

Carroll L. & Gilroy P.J.(2002) Transgender issues in Counselor preparation.

Cuypere G.D., Beerten R., Sutter P.D., Hoebeke P., Monstrey S., Rubens R., Selvaggi G., T'Sjoen G., Vansteenwegen Al. (2005) - Sexual and Physical Health after Sex Reassignment Surgery. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Volume: 34. Issue: 6. Page Number: 679.
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Biopsychology Disorder Over the Last Several Years

Words: 1435 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32414731

iopsychology Disorder

Over the last several years, many health care professionals have been focusing on wide variety of approaches to fully understand the impact that depression having on people. At the heart of this area of research, has been studying the way that a person is reacting to a particular event. This is because there are certain genetic factors and traits that can have an effect on how they are interpreting a variety of situations. As a result, there has been an emphasis on comprehending how these elements can influence an individual's thinking. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than, observations from Plomin (2003) who observed, "We are rapidly approaching the postgenomic era in which we will know all of the 3 billion DNA bases in the human genome sequence and all of the variations in the genome sequence that are ultimately responsible for genetic influence…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Benediketer, R. (2010). The Future of Self-Image. Futures, 42 (1), 1102 -- 1109.

Lobstien, D. (1983). Depression as a Powerful Discriminator. Journal of Psychology, 27 (1), 69 -- 76.

Plomin, R. (2003). Psychopathology in the Psotgenomic Era. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 205-288.

Ryback, D. (2006). Self-Determination and the Mindfulness of Neurology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 46 (4), 474 -- 493.
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What Do We Know About Bipolar Disorder

Words: 907 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55270439

Bipolar Disorder

English Literature

Bipolar disorder, as much as thirty years ago, was a big American secret. Bipolar disorder was not as common knowledge as it is today. During the latter 20th century and 21st century a lot of light has been shed on the subject of bipolar disorder: the diagnoses, the treatments, the signs, and the ways to live with the disorder, both for the sufferer as well as the people close to the sufferer in his or her life. The paper will briefly outline key terms and conditions of bipolar disorder. The paper will additionally offer insight into the lives of people living with bipolar disorder providing commentary on the adjustments in life one must make to move forward, as well as commentary on some of the more popular treatments to assist with the symptoms of the disorder.

The causes of bipolar disorder are unknown to medical professionals…… [Read More]

References:

National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2008) Understanding Bipolar Disorder and Recovery. NAMI: Arlington, VA.

National Institute of Mental Health. (2009) Bipolar Disorder. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Bethesda, MD.
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Seasonal Affective Disorder SAD

Words: 1066 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36480570

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder associated with specific periods of the calendar year. SAD is more commonly found in geographic locations with long winter seasons with shorter daylight hours, less sunlight, and longer nights. This lack of sunlight has been directly connected to mood changes in a variety of populations and is most common at latitudes that experience less light during the winter seasons. In addition, some mood changes have been associated with the summer months in specific geographic areas. This paper will explore the diagnosis and assessment of Seasonal Affective Disorder, including the differentiation of the physical and emotional causes for the mood changes that occur. The paper will also explore the common treatment methods, including behavioral, pharmacological, and biopsychological, attempting to identify the preferred methods of treatment and data regarding the efficacy of the methods (.

According to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) DSM-IV, SAD…… [Read More]

References:

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1994:390. Copyright 1994.

Lurie SJ, Gawinski B, Pierce D, Rousseau SJ. (2006). "Seasonal Affective Disorder." Am Fam Physician. 1:74(9): 1521-4.

Saeed, S., Bruce, T. (1998). "Seasonal Affective Disorders." American Family Physician. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/980315ap/saeed.html. 13, March. 2011.

Targum, S., Rosenthal, N. (2008). "Seasonal Affective Disorder." Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2008 May; 5(5): 31 -- 33.
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Panic Disorder Counseling Panic Disorder

Words: 4240 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27767876

Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).

Psychological

Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…… [Read More]

References

Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;

Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-

term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.

Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
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Physical and Mental Disorders for

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61490952

Usually, diagnosis is symptom driven, then combined with testing, forms an opinion, sometimes verified by lab tests, of a specific diagnosis. For instance, someone may have symptoms of nausea, pain, depression, anxiety, and their skin has a yellowish hue. The physician runs blood tests and finds that the liver is malfunctioning and there is likely a diagnosis of hepatitis. In this case, there are both physical and mental symptoms, but it is the physical nature that is diagnosed first. For mental diagnosis, symptoms are also important, but are based more on the functioning of the individual in social systems, or by observing the patient's behavior (How are Mental Illnesses Diagnosed? 2012). Thus, both use symptoms as a guide, but mental diagnosis is more empirical and uses observation, while physical diagnosis uses quantitative measurements.

Etiology- Etiology is the study of basic causation. We now know that there are a number of…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines. (2006). PsychiatryOnline. Retrieved from: http://psychiatryonline.org/guidelines.aspx

How are Mental Illnesses Diagnosed? (2012). WebMD. Retrieved from:  http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/mental-health-making-diagnosis 

Curtis, a.J. et.al. (2000), Introduction to Health Psychology, New York: Routledge.

Dombeck, M. (2003). Blurring the Boundary Between Mental and Physical. Seven Counties Services, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.sevencounties.org / poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=1855&cn=74
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Eating Disorders in Women from the Christian Point of View

Words: 3830 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94830349

Abstract

Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.

Outline
I. Introduction
a. Key facts and statistics…… [Read More]