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There is a stark and medical difference between feelings of sadness and clinical mood disorders such as unipolar depression and bipolar disorders. Both disorders can have a profound on the quality of life of an individual. Often times the two disorders are precipitated by specific events and sometimes they just are, in any event effective diagnostic tools and treatments exist. It is not a hopeless situation in the least. In this paper, I summarize and defined the depression, and bipolar mood disorders. I then go through the symptoms, causes, and treatments of the two disorders by reviewing some of the literature. Finally, I compare and contrast the two disorders and conclude with a review of emerging ideas about the two mood disorders.
Depression is a mood disorder characterized by prolonged feelings of sadness which make everyday interactions and tasks difficult, if not impossible to complete (Mood Disorders, 193). In…
Badssarini, R.J., Vieta, E., Calabresee, J.R., Tohen, M. & Bowden, C.L. (2010). Bipolar Depression: Overview and commentary. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 18(3), pp. 143-157.
Goldberg, J.F., & Harrow, M. (2011). A 15-year prospective follow-up of bipolar affective disorders: comparisons with unipolar nonpsychotic depression. Bipolar disorders, 13(2), pp. 155-163.
Keena, K., Fend, X., Hipwell, A., & Klostermann, S. (2009). Depression begets depression: Comparing the predictive utility of depression and anxiety symptoms to later depression. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 50(9), pp. 1167-1175.
Depression and Family
Depression is a very serious condition which can have some surprising effects on those who are experiencing this mental state. Depression is often looked upon as a negative consequence of the human condition as it sends a message to the world that life is not worth living and the zest and appeal of all that life has to offer is not available for that person experiencing depressed moods.
The purpose of this essays is to examine the topic of depression and how this condition's secondary effects are very significant. This essay will argue that not only does depression cause the acute and noticeable signs most commonly associated with the mental state, but also that depression may be the cause of other physical ailments. Additionally, this essay will examine how depression affects those closest to the one suffering and what steps can be taken to help prevent the…
Iowa State University (2009, January 6). Early Family Depression Has Lasting Effects On Teens, Young Adults. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 4, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com / releases/2008/12/081223172743.htm
Kenny, T. (2012) Depression. Patient, 19 July 2013. Retrieved from http://www.patient.co.uk/health/depression-leaflet#
Marano, H. (2002). When Depression Hurts. Psychology Today, 1 July 2002. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200308/when-depression-hurts
The National Institute of Mental Health (nd). What is Depression? Viewed 3 Nov 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml
After more persuasive interviewers were brought in -- over the last two weeks of the recruitment period -- the response rates jumped to 72.5% (Dewa, 745).
Results: Using the orld Health Organization's Health and ork Performance Questionnaire the authors showed that those who received treatment for depression "…were significantly more likely to be highly productive" than were workers who had "moderate or [a] severe depressive episodes" but did not receive treatment for depression (Dewa, 743). The negative news associated with this research is that only half of the Canadian workers who indicated some depression on the questionnaire actually agreed to get help.
Discussion: Being an older female greatly increased the odds of being in the highest group in terms of productivity following treatment for depression (Dewa, 747). The authors suggested that females may be more likely to seek help for a depressive disorder than males, which may have skewed the…
Birnbaum, Howard C., Cremieux, Pierre Y., Greenberg, Paul E., and Kessler, Ronald C. (2000).
Management of Major Depression in the Workplace. Disease Management and Health
Outcomes. 7(3), 163-171.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Depression. Retrieved May 9, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/implementation/topics/depression.html .
Depression, Diabetes and Obesity
This is a case study on a 58-year-old male, Mr. H.Y. who worked at a supermarket and is now retired. He has a supportive wife who works full time and children who are all independent .He has a history of smoking, but quit 10 years ago and drinks alcohol twice a week. He is obese and a known case of diabetes for one year. He has gained 8 kg over the past four months, his blood glucose levels are uncontrolled. He denies feeling sad but doesn't like to take part in activities he once enjoyed, he feels tired and lethargic after doing any work, his sleep pattern is also disturbed. His drug history reveals that he is taking glyburide and multi-vitamins. He has scored 14 on his PHQ-9 score which indicates moderate depression. The patient has been diagnosed with depressive disorder not otherwise specified (DSM IV…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Depressive disorder coding and diagnostic criteria. Retrieved from http://www.cqaimh.org/pdf/tool_assist_ddcdc.pdf
American Psychiatric Association. (2010, January 2). Recommended changes in 'depressive disorder not otherwise specified' (code 311). Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Mood Disorders Work Group/Subdividing the NOS Depressive Dx.2JAN2010.pdf
CDC. (2011). National diabetes fact sheet, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf
Ellis, P.M., & Smith, D.A.R. (2002). Treating depression: the beyondblue guidelines for treating depression in primary care. The Medical Journal of Australia, 176(10), 77.
Various intervening and overlapping factors are responsible for their susceptibility to depression. As much a stress-related problems can be zeroed in to blame for prevalence of this illness, nurture and nature play a role in a person's coping abilities. Genetics also contribute to the probability of a person to experience major depression. It does not, however, run in the family, but increases the likelihood of a person to experience major depression if one of his family members have this illness.
Why should caution be taken when prescribing anti-depressants in young people?
Caution should be taken when taking anti-depressants, not just in young people, but all those experiencing major depression. It is not just the side effects that must be noted, but also the adverse drug reactions and abuse potential to these medications. All of these drugs alter metabolism of the body in one way or another and cause side effects…
Long, P. (2005). Major Depressive Disorder American Description. Retrieved April 22, 2007, from Internet Mental Health. Website: http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis1/p21-md01.html
Franklin, D. (2003). Major Depression. Retrieved April 22, 2007, from Psychology Information Online. Website: http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/major.htm
Caffeine dependency/addiction may contribute to "insomnia, digestive disorders, gastric irritation, headaches, as well as exacerbated PMS symptoms and emotional irritability," (Hunt, 1999) each potential components of depression. To counter the need for a caffeine "fix," gradually introduction decaf as substitute, albeit decaf also has between 2 and 33 milligrams (mg.) caffeine per 8-ounce serving.
Full-strength coffee has 145 to 272 mg.. A person may also substitute herbal drinks or drink peppermint tea.
As excessive caffeine consumption may impair sleep, a necessary practice to counter depression, re-establishing normal sleep patterns after withdrawal from caffeine may prove difficult as a person's body, frequently artificially stimulated " forgets" how to shut down when he/she becomes tired. Capsules of valerian with kava before going to bed may help, however, tinctures with an alcohol base introduce the herb into a person's system more quickly. Herbs, albeit, are to help support a person through the healing…
Campbell, William G., MD, CCFP, FASAM. (2002). "Addiction: A Disease of Volition Caused by a Cognitive Impairment." The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved September 15, 2008, from https://ww1.cpaapc.org/Publications/Archives/CJP/2003/november/campbell.asp
Cell Press (2007, November 9). Enzyme Regulates Brain Pathology Induced by Cocaine, Stress. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 15, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2007/11/071107160227.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Not all physical activity could tackle depression. Researchers at Glasgow University interviewed hundreds of men and women about the types of exercise they engaged in (Templeton 2002). They discovered that housework, unlike vigorous exercise, not only failed to improve the morale of depressed people but also worsened their condition. They found that physical activity performed as paid work had no effect on well-being. There was no improvement in the mood, which was evident with people who walked more than four times a week. They gave a psychological explanation in that housework is a chore, which carries an obligation or something to be done to earn money. This could also explain why 9.3% of UK households now employ domestic helpers (Templeton).
The lack of physical activity has been blamed as a major public health enemy (National Institute on Aging 2000). It contributes to the development of disease and disability. Older people…
Barker, J. And C.D. Meletis (2003). Enhancement of exercise performance. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients: The Townsend Letter Group
Camacho, T.C. (2000). Exercise and depression. 4 pages. American Fitness: Aerobics and Fitness Association of America
Gianoulis, T and Ava Rose (2002). Depression. 6 pages. St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture: Gale Group
National Institute on Aging (2000). Exercise: feeling fit for life. 4 pages. Pamphlet. National Institute on Aging: Gale Group
Depression-Effects on the Family
There are few families today that have not been affected by a relative or close associate who suffers or has suffered in the past from depression. During the average life span, more than twenty million Americans will experience or suffer some degree of depression at some point. Moreover, the ratio of families that will be directly affected is one in five (Papolos 3). ith statistics such as these, is it any wonder that there are daily commercials on television touting the latest pharmaceutical mood enhancing drug or that book stores devote entire sections to depression and emotional disorders? Moreover, support groups for those suffering from depression and/or are affected by someone who is, can be found in any community, large and small, across the country. Demitri F. Papolos in "Overcoming Depression" states that "mood disorders are the common cold of major psychiatric illnesses" (Papolos 3). Clinicians…
Depression and Mania." Merck Manual of Medical Information. Simon & Schuster, Inc. 1997;
Hock, Ellen; Lutz, Wilma J. "Peer rejection in childhood: Effects on maternal depression and behavior problems in toddlers." Journal of Genetic Psychology. June 01, 2001; pp 167. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Journal_of_Genetic_Psychology&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.heldref.org~S~gnt.html&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Hock%2C+Ellen&title=Peer+rejection+in+childhood%3A++Effects+on+maternal+depression+and+behavior+problems+in+toddlers++&date=06%2D01%2D2001&query=depression%2Deffects+on+the+family&maxdoc=24&idx=19.(accessed 10-26-2002).
Marchand, Jennifer F.; Hock, Ellen. "The relation of problem behaviors in preschool children to depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers." Volume 159. Journal of Genetic Psychology. September 01, 1998; pp 353. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Journal_of_Genetic_Psychology&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.heldref.org~S~gnt.html&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Marchand%2C+Jennifer+F%2E&title=The+relation+of+problem+behaviors+in+preschool+children+to+depressivesymptoms+in+mothers+and+fathers%2E++&date=09%2D01%2D1998&query=depression%2Deffects+on+the+family&maxdoc=24&idx=17.(accessed 10-27-2002).
Depression and Teen Violence
Few issues in society transcend all economic, educational, ethnic, gender, intellectual, occupational, political, religious, sexual, and social boundaries. Depression and teen violence are two such issues, impacting every individual as well as society at large, both directly and indirectly. hile the causes and symptoms associated with depression and teen violence are well-known, doctors and researchers have yet to develop and implement a clear, uniform, tried and proven method that would eliminate and/or prevent depression and teen violence. One of the primary reasons depression and teen violence is highly difficult to eliminate and/or prevent is that while depression and teen violence are often intertwined, individuals who suffer from depression may not exhibit symptoms of depression or violent tendencies until it is too late, i.e., until an unexpected, violent school shooting occurs.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to depression and teen violence. Part…
Birmaher, B., Ryan, N.D., Williamson, D.E., et al. (1996). Childhood and Adolescent Depression: A Review of the Past 10 Years. Part 1. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(11), 1427-39.
Schaffer, D., Fisher, P., Dulkan, M.K., et al. (1996). The NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3 (DISC-2.3): Description, Acceptability, Prevalence Rates and Performance in the MECA Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(7), 865-77.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition (DSM IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. WISQARS (Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System). Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/osp/data.htm . On December 4, 2002.
Depression and Internet Usage
Internet Paradox: A Social Technology That Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well-eing?
With the advent of the World Wide Web, a network of computers previously relegated to the world of science, engineering, and business opened to U.S. And international households. y 1998, approximately 40% of all households owned at least one computer and one third of these homes had access to the Internet.
Many sociologists, communication theorists, technologists, and scholars subscribe to the belief that the Internet, in-home computer usage, and widespread availability of virtual access are transforming modern social and economic life.
Problematic to these issues, however, is whether the changes have been beneficial or detrimental; some argue that the Internet is causing social isolation and forcing a break from genuine social relationships, as they "hunker alone over their terminals or communicate with anonymous strangers through a socially impoverished medium."
Others argue that the Internet…
Attewell, P. & Rule, J. (1984). Computing and organizations: What we know and what we don't know. Communication of the ACM, 27, 1184-1192.
Beniger, J.R. (1987). Personalization of mass media and the growth of pseudo-community. Communication Research, 14, 352-371.
Canary, D.J. & Spitzberg, B.H. (1993). Loneliness and media gratification. Communication Research, 20, 800-821.
Cohen, S. & Wills, T.A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310-357.
Even in persons with full-blown depression, such alterations of negative life patterns can be helpful. Although "depression can be treated in a variety of ways," either with antidepressant medications or counseling, "most people benefit from a combination of the two. Some studies have shown that antidepressant drug therapy combined with psychotherapy appears to have better results than either therapy alone. ("Major Depression," 2006, Medline Plus Encyclopedia)
The most common medications include older tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and some newer antidepressant drugs. Tricyclics and MOIS have severe side effects, which tend to cause most therapists to prescribe SSRIs, but even these newer remedies have risks, particularly increasing the danger of suicidal tendencies in children. Therapy can take a variety of forms, including cognitive behavior therapy to minimize negative thinking in the patient, therapy specifically designed to cope with stressful life circumstances, or other forms of…
Major Depression." (2006). Medline Plus Encyclopedia. Retrieved 6 Dec 2006 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000945.htm
Willemse, GRWM, Smit F, Cuijpers P, et al. (2004)."Minimal contact psychotherapy reduces the risk of major depression in people with sub-threshold depression Minimal-contact psychotherapy for sub-threshold depression in primary care -- randomized trial." Br J. Psychiatry. 2004; 185:416-21. Retrieved 6 Dec 2006 at http://ebmh.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/8/2/39.pdf
The failure is rooted in the changing perception of the world and the individual's incomplete sense of place: the new generations in new societies like Australia or America lack a "shared cultural heritage or strong sense of identity" (Eckersley, S16).
Likewise, the spirituality that was of use to people in the medieval age is not of the same use in the modern world. People in America, for example, have ignored the used of spirituality in the treatment of depression, because they fail to see meaning in their suffering (Puchalski, p. 32). The Middle Ages saw a meaning to suffering: "the guiding concept of human potential fulfillment was the same for all medieval persons: salvation in heaven" (Baumeister, 1987, p. 166).
As the modern world became increasingly irreligious, it lost reason for suffering -- which in the religious age was a consequence of sin. Without the answers that religion and spirituality…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders:
DSM-II. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; 1968 [cited 2008-08-03]. Schizophrenia. p. 36 -- 37, 40.
Baumeister, R. (1987). How the Self Became a Problem: A Psychological Review of Historical Research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52(1), 163-176. Retrieved from http://www.kokdemir.info/courses/psk433/docs/How%20the%20Self%20Became%20a%20Problem.pdf
Eckersley, R. (1993). Failing a generation: The impact of culture on the health and well-being of youth. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 29, S16-S19. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.1993.tb02254.x
Depression & Improper Treatment
Many advances have been made in the healthcare field towards recognizing mental disorders as real and serious conditions. In times past, a mentally unstable person may have been thought to be possessed by demons in extreme cases, or considered to just be a lazy or bad person in more moderate circumstances. While many ignorant people still hold the opinion that people who are depressed should "just get over it" and that people can always choose to stop feeling sad or upset if they simply chose to do so, medical professionals have worked to make it more commonly understood that depression, like many mental disorders, may actually be caused by physical factors such as chemical imbalances. This is a very positive change and incredibly welcomed decision by those who suffer from depression, who can finally find help from professionals without being judged harshly. Many avenues are available…
However, the side effects of drugs, especially in older adults, and the less-than-universal effectiveness of current therapies prompt the continued search for alternate safe treatment interventions. Numerous research studies report the use of psychotherapeutic approaches and compare them to medical therapies. (Mcfarland, 2005)
Medical treatments have been assessed through various studies. Mcfarland, reports on studies on cognitive behavioral therapy. esearch was conducted in hopes that there would be a significant change in coping ability, and significant changes in the older adult's feelings. Cognitive behavior of 102 elderly outpatients with mild to moderate depression is compared. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) desipramine alone, 2) cognitive behavioral therapy alone, or 3) desipramine plus cognitive behavioral therapy for 16-20 therapy sessions. esearch results show that the groups that received desipramine plus cognitive behavioral therapy showed greater improvement than the groups taking medication alone, whereas the group receiving…
Cox, C. (1993). The Frail Elderly: Problems, Needs, and Community Responses. Westport, CT: Auburn House Paperback.
D'Mello, D.A. (2003). 1 Epidemiology of Late-Life Depression. In Depression in Later Life: A Multidisciplinary Psychiatric Approach, Ellison, J.M. & Verma, S. (Eds.) (pp. 1-26). New York: Marcel Dekker.
Mcfarland, K. (2005). Battling Late-Life Depression: Short-Term Psychotheraphy for Depression in Older Adults -- a Review of Evidence-Based Studies since 2000. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 8(4), 20+.
A person with depression must have at least five of nine symptoms in the DSM-IV-T for two weeks. There are many theories of the causes of depression:
(1.) Psychoanalytic theories - internal conflicts and a low self-image leading to anger turned inward.
(2.) Behavioral theories - disruptions of normal reinforcement patterns brought on by stressors.
(3.) Cognitive theories - cognitive distortions and/or cognitive errors and a person's mistaken underlying assumptions.
(4.) Humanistic theories - a slavish concern with expectations and values from others leads away from genuineness and wholeness in the person.
(5.) Biopsychosocial models - psychological, biological, and social factors play a role in depression. An outgrowth is the diathesis -- stress model that asserts that depression occurs as a result of a preexisting vulnerability (diathesis) triggered by stressful life events. The diathesis can be biological, psychological, or both.
(6.) Biological models - an imbalance of neurotransmitters (serotonin,…
Barlow, DH (2000). Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the perspective of emotion theory. American Psychologist, 55, 1247 -- 1263.
Barrios, C., Chaudhry, T.A., & Goodnick, P.J. (2001). Rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Expert Opinions on Pharmacotherapy, 2 (12), 1963 -- 1973.
Lauber, C., Falcato, L., Nordt, C., & Rossler, W. (2003). Lay beliefs about causes of depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108 (418), 96 -- 99.
O'Rourke, J.A., Scharf, J.M., Yu, D., & Pauls, D.L. (2009). The genetics of Tourette Syndrome: A review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 67(6), 533-545.
Depression and Productivity
What is the effect of depression on productivity (professional and personal)? This question is derived both from observations of people with depression as well as a number of research studies indicating that depression leads to decreased productivity; however, initially the hypothesis that depression leads to decreased productivity was most likely made on the observations and experiences of clinicians. These experiences and observations led to certain hypotheses concerning depression which when empirically tested can be associated in a theory. For instance, several of the DSM diagnostic criteria relate to states of decreased productivity, and these diagnostic criteria originated from clinical observations (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000).
The question the relationship between depression and productivity has been addressed in a large number of empirical studies that operationalize "productivity" in several different ways. Nearly every one of these studies has indicated that there is a negative relationship between depression severity…
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IV- Test Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Goodwin, C.J. (2005). Research in psychology: Methods and design. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Katon, W., Sullivan, M., Russo, J., Dobie, R., & Sakai, C. (1993). Depressive symptoms and measures of disability: a prospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 27, 245 -- 254.
Moussavi, S., Chatterji, S., Verdes, E., Tandon, A., Patel, V., & Ustun, B. (2007) Depression, chronic diseases, and decrements in health: Results from the World Health Surveys. The Lancet 370, 851 -- 858.
Depression and Diabetes
Effects of Depression and Diabetes on Patients
Depression is an illness involving the body, thinking ability and mood. It has adverse effects on the eating habits, feelings and even the affected experience sleeping difficulties. Most of the people affected include the middle age that undergo stressful endeavors including trouble adjusting to new working environments, maintaining relationships among others. Most of those affected, but are beyond the middle age get depressed due to many reasons, including the most common which is security fears. Security in this perspective includes wealth and family.
Diabetes, on the other hand, is a metabolic disorder whose symptoms include excessive discharge of urine and persistent thirst. According to Thesaurus (2011), it is mainly caused by insufficient production of insulin, leading to high glucose or sugar levels in the body. The disease is polygenic (genetically inherited). The most prone to this disease include those leading…
Boushey, C. J, Coulston, A.M & Rock, C.L. (2001) Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of disease: New York, Academic Press.
Butler, G. & Hope, T. (2007) Managing your Mind: The Mental Fitness guide: London, Oxford university press.
Ostman, J. Britton, M. (2006) Treating and Preventing Obesity: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Williamson, G. M, Shaffer D. R, & Parmelee P.A. (2000) Physical illness and Depression in older adults: New York, Springer.
Depression can be considered the "common cold" of psychological disorders. This expression describes its pervasiveness, but definitely not its seriousness. Depression is considered a mood disorder, which is a psychological disorder, characterized by emotional extremes. Studies have shown that depression is the number one reason people seek mental health services. Depression is often a response to past and current loss. It is a sort of psychic hibernation: it slows people down, avoids attracting predators, and evokes support. There are normal downs that people have, such as feeling bad in reaction to profoundly sad events. However, when individuals persist with their feelings of depression and the response becomes more serious, the line may be difficult to draw between normal feelings of sadness and a depressive disorder. Understanding depression is important; therefore, the following will be discussed: symptoms of depression, types of depression, reasons why people may get depression, and ways to…
The purpose of the journal study in the Annals of Internal Medicine is to update the 2002 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) with the 2012 recommendation statement on depression screening in adults. There were a number of problems with the 2002 study in terms of the reliability of the evidence, limiting the use of its recommendations. Based upon the experiences in the formulation of first recommendation's result and by using the 2002 results and comparing them in a longitudinal fashion with those of 2012, more definitive results were achieved to recommend depression screening in the appropriate clinical settings to detect and prevent suicide. The accuracy of such screenings and the supporting evidence is presently much better, justifying a wider use of them to better treat patients suffering from depression.
The purpose of the journal study is to update the 2002 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation…
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2009). Screening for depression in adults: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(11), 784-793.
The Social Issue
Depression is a significant social issue of interest to me as I have seen it affect numerous people in my own life and have even struggled with it at times myself. Depression has caused people to take their lives: Chester Bennington, lead singer of the group Linkin Park took his life following the suicide of his friend, and numerous other people who are less famous end up in similar situations—lost, without hope, unable to break a cycle of depression that has them gripped as though in a vice. Depression is an issue that can be treated, however, but in order for the right intervention to be applied, awareness about depression has to be raised so that the stigma and taboo of depression can be alleviated, allowing those who suffer from it to come forward. In recent years, major public figures, especially athletes, have come into the light…
Prevalence of Depression in Massachusetts
Prospectus: Depression Among Older Immigrant African Women in Metro West Massachusetts
In West Massachusetts United States, the most common health disorders are anxiety and depression. These health disorders are prevalent in elderly immigrant women aged between 50 and 79 years (Agbemenu, 2016). Despite a variety of efficacious interventions for depression and anxiety, elderly immigrant women experience mental health care disparities in their access to mental health services and the quality of treatment they receive (Sánchez et al., 2014). Researchers have determined that African American heterogeneity influences access to depression and anxiety treatment. In addition, African Americans are becoming an increasingly visible minority within the United States, especially in West Massachusetts. The intention in this current study is to understand the causes and prevalence of depression among older immigrant African American women in Metro West Massachusetts as well as how the older immigrants cope with…
The Military and Mental Health
The military provides an opportunity for men and women to serve their country. However, in the conduct of that service there are certain risks that can damage the mental health of military servicemen. Those risks can be associated with PTSD incurred from situations in combat, abuse, drug addiction, or lack of a positive value system that causes a soldier to deteriorate from within as he has nothing beyond his duty in the military to give him meaning or to sustain him through the long hours, months and years. Some servicemen go to their doctors for assistance and end up being overprescribed medications that only exacerbate their issues and further the decline of their mental health (Snow & Wynn, 2018). If not treated, service-related depression can lead to suicide—and as Kang et al. (2015) show, suicide risk among veterans returning from the Middle East has…
When the term depression is used it may refer to the various existing types of depression depending on the factors that lead to that depression. Existential causes of depression occur when people question their life, its meaning, death. By questioning these things they end up sinking into depression (John & Grohol., 2018). The philosophy of existentialism states that human beings find meaning in life internally through their pursuits, desires and choices and not by specific type of god, authority or deity. A person is a free being who is entirely in charge of their own misery or happiness. It is the responsibility of each person to cultivate a meaning to their life in order to have the drive. These meaning can be cultivated through working, relationships, family, offspring, religion, charity, hobbies or other things. Existential depression could happen when a person contends with issues of freedom, death, finding meaning to…
John, M. & Grohol, Psy.D. (2018) What is Existential Depression? PsychCentral. Retrieved, 21 October, 2018, from https://psychcentral.com/lib/what-is-existential-depression/
Luna, A. (2018). Existential Depression, Sensitivity and Soul Loss, Lonerwolf. Retrieved, 21 October, 2018, from https://lonerwolf.com/existential-depression/
Review and Analysis of Selected Resources Concerning Post-Natal Depression
In the present day, owing to different factors, a significant number of child bearing women are experiencing post natal depression. Statistics indicate a huge prevalence with 13 percent of women worldwide suffering from post natal depression. The purpose of this research proposal is to develop an entry for selected resources concerning post-natal depression, and to provide a confirmatory analysis of the relevance of the respective resources to the above-stated thesis.
Review and Analysis
Article #1: Moraitou, Galanakis, Stalikas and Garivaldis (2011)
Five key words that relate to the content of the source
Childbirth, positive emotions, post natal depression, resilience, coping
Summary of the research findings
The general topic these researchers are addressing concerns the onset of post-natal depression can be mitigated by helping new mothers develop the coping skills they need to overcome the adverse consequences of depression following childbirth. These…
Hazrat, A., Humza, S. & Saeed, S. (2017). Perceptions of insufficient breast milk: A comparison of depressed and non-depressed lactating mothers. Pakistani Armed Forces Medical Journal, 67(2), 226-231.
Likierman, M. (2003). Post natal depression, the mother’s conflict and parent – infant psychotherapy. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 29(3), 301-315.
McManus, B. M. & Poehlmann, J. (2011). Maternal depression and perceived social support as predictors of cognitive function trajectories during the first 3 years of life for preterm infants in Wisconsin. Child: care, health and development, 38(3), 425–434
Moraitou, M., Galanakis, M., Stalikas, A. & Garivaldis, F. J. (2011). The relation of positive emotions to post partum depression. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 1(2011), 112-142.
Psychological support for mothers can reduce post-natal depression. (2010, October). Mental Health Practice, 14(2), 4.
Stein, A., Malmberg, L. E., Sylva, K. Barnes, J. & Leach, P. (2008). The influence of maternal depression, caregiving, and socioeconomic status in the post-natal year on children’s language development. Child-care, Health and Development, 34(5), 603–612.
Uguz, F., Akman, C., Sahingoz, M. & Kaya, N. (2009, June). One year follow-up of post-partum-onset depression: the role of depressive symptom severity and personality disorders. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 30(2), 141–145.
According to Son and Kirchner (2000), depression frequently goes unrecognized in children and adolescents. However, Bhatia (2019) is categorical that depression in childhood and teen years appears to have been in an upward trend in recent times. According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2018), it is not uncommon for children to have worries and fears. If these fears and worries are not addressed, they could result in depression. If depression in children and adolescents goes unaddressed, the impact could be severe. Indeed, according to Clark, Jansen, and Cloy (2012), depression could in this case have a negative impact on not only the emotional, but also the social and physical development of children and adolescents suffering from the same. Rey and Birmaher (2012) point out that depression in this age group could impact the ability to form and nurture social relationships. This is more so the case…
Life-Stage Considerations: Strengths-Based Approach
A strengths-based approach to treatment resonates greatly with resiliency models involving patients and their families, as well as family-focused care grounded in mutually helpful practitioner-patient family therapeutic relationships. In this sort of care setting, patients and their family members actively engage in identifying concerns or issues, making decisions, and formulating steps for patient health restoration and promotion (Swartz, 2017, p. 1). In particular, Ballantyne and Gan (2016, p. 233) delineate a solutions-oriented or strengths-grounded intervention approach for families of teens suffering from severe brain damage. According to the authors, every household possesses the strength, capability, and resources for recovering from adversity. Additionally, they explain that unlike the conventional clinical model, strengths-based therapy revolves around strengths as opposed to deficiencies, promotes teamwork as against hierarchy, makes use of resources as against expert opinion, emphasizes skills and solutions as opposed to what must be resolved, and concentrates on…
In the article Screening for Depression Among Minority Young Males Attending a Family Planning Clinic, Ruth S. Buzi, Peggy B. Smith, and Maxine L. Weinman sought to determine depression among males who attended a family planning clinic and if there were variations in depression based on service requests and sociodemographic. This paper, therefore, is an evaluation of this article with the objective of determining the variables used, the analysis method used, and how these are appropriate for the type of study and the data collected. The evaluation will include a summary of the study.
Summary of the research
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common chronic conditions as, according to statistics, one in every five Americans aged 18 years and older have experienced at least one major episode of depression. This is even more pronounced among young people as the rate of mental illness is…
Reaction to My Depression
My Depression (n.d.) shows how serious depression can be for a person and it does so in a manner that really helps to eliminate much of the strangeness and taboo nature of the issue of depression. It explains how people experience depression in a way that allows the viewer to sympathize with and understand the subject. This is important because depression is often something that goes unappreciated. People think that if a person is depressed it is just because the individual wants to be depressed and that all that the person has to do is snap himself out of it and be happy again. The video shows that this is clearly not the case. Depression is much more serious than that. It can take hold of a person just like a virus can: if one’s defenses are weak it can strike and the individual is basically…
Pharmacotherapy for Neurological Disorders
Depression is a neurological disorder that is treatable by pharmacotherapy. However, treatment for depression does not always solely rely on drugs and interventions can include counseling or approaches such as cognitive behavioral therapy to help patients suffering from depression who also have behavior issues that factor into their treatment plan. This paper will describe the types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat symptoms associated with depression and it will also reflect on how behavior factors might impact the effects of prescribed drugs along with measures a nurse practitioner might take to help reduce negative side effects.
There are numerous drugs available to treat depression. These include Zoloft, Prozac, Celexa, Wellbutrin XL, Cymbalta, Lexapro, Xanax, Paxil, and dozens of others. Many drugs that are used to treat depression are classified in the following categories: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norpinephrine reuptake…
Gupta, S., Gersing, K. R., Erkanli, A., & Burt, T. (2016). Antidepressant regulatory warnings, prescription patterns, suicidality and other aggressive behaviors in major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Psychiatric Quarterly, 87(2), 329-342.
Molero, Y., Lichtenstein, P., Zetterqvist, J., Gumpert, C. H., & Fazel, S. (2015). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and violent crime: a cohort study. PLoS Medicine, 12(9), e1001875.
The topic is dysthymia. The qualitative study titled: “The self-management of longer-term depression: learning from the patient, a qualitative study”, investigates how people deal long-term with depression. The first page gives readers a brief background on depression and how it is viewed now as a long-term or chronic mental health problem (Chambers et al., 2015). Because more than half of people may suffer from at least one episode of depression after the first episode, it is important to understand how to manage depression in the long-term. “More than 50 % of people will have at least one further episode of depression after their first, and therefore it requires long-term management. However, little is known about the effectiveness of self-management in depression, in particular from patients’ perspective” (Chambers et al., 2015, p. 1).
The researchers created a study to understand what coping strategies people with long-term depression have and what options…
Chambers, E., Cook, S., Thake, A., Foster, A., Shaw, S., Hutten, R., … Ricketts, T. (2015). The self-management of longer-term depression: learning from the patient, a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry, 15(1), 1-12. doi:10.1186/s12888-015-0550-6
Kessler, R. C., & Bromet, E. J. (2013). The Epidemiology of Depression Across Cultures. Annual Review of Public Health, 34(1), 119-138. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031912-114409
Klein, D. N., & Kotov, R. (2016). Course of depression in a 10-year prospective study: Evidence for qualitatively distinct subgroups. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(3), 337-348. doi:10.1037/abn0000147
How Illnesses and Injuries Impact the Mind
In what ways does mental health need to be considered across the illness/injury continuum?
Mental health necessities should be considered across the illness range by pinpointing a uniform form of managing depressive symptoms amongst the patients within an in-patient healthcare setting. Spilman et al. (2015) conducted a retrospective study investigating the use of in-hospital antidepressant medication (ADM) amongst adult trauma patients with an intensive care unit stay of a period of five days or more. 25 percent of the patients involved in the study received an antidepressant medication, with solely 33 percent of this figure having a recorded history of depression. In addition, out of all of the patients that received their initial antidepressant medication from a trauma or critical care physician, solely 5 percent of them were discharged with a recorded plan for psychiatric follow-up. Taking this into consideration, the study ascertained…
Buijck, B. I., Zuidema, S. U., Spruit-van Eijk, M., Bor, H., Gerritsen, D. L., & Koopmans, R. T. (2014). Determinants of geriatric patients’ quality of life after stroke rehabilitation. Aging & mental health, 18(8), 980-985.
Haugan, G., Innstrand, S. T., & Moksnes, U. K. (2013). The effect of nurse–patient interaction on anxiety and depression in cognitively intact nursing home patients. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22(15-16), 2192-2205.
Spilman, S. K., Smith, H. L., Schirmer, L. L., & Tonui, P. M. (2015). Evaluation and treatment of depression in adult trauma patients. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 22(1), 17-22.
Prescription for Health
Social support is a major factor in terms of a social variable that influences health. People who suffer from depression are often isolated and alone and do not have a support network to give them confidence or to make them feel like they are loved and valued. According to Maslow’s (1943) hierarchy of needs and human motivation model, people need esteem, friendship and love before they can reach a level of self-actualization, where they can feel self-motivated and self-empowered. Thus, having a social support system is truly important for one’s psychological health.
Part of the problem of today’s digital culture is that too many young persons are turning to social media for a support system but only finding instead a self-obsessed social media culture in which every person is trying to redirect attention to themselves and their own profiles. It is not a true community of support…
Third, economic depressions spread from one nation to others whereas economic recessions remain substantially isolated where they first occur and they are eased partially by the strength of national economies elsewhere. Finally, contemporary analyses of economic downturns suggest that distortions to industrial labor markets that keep wages above market-clearing levels are more significant than even bank failures (Ohanian, 2010).
Recommendations and Conclusion
It is recommended that public statements on the matter highlight the failure of the opposition to recognize or understand the fundamental nature of economic depressions and the dangers associated with ignoring the important similarities between the 2008 economic crisis and the Great Depression. The current economic crisis shares all of the conceptual hallmarks of an economic depression, including the potential to persist over a longer term and spread globally more than it has already. In that regard, the key to overcoming the current economic crisis is in supporting…
Judis, J.B. "You Say Recession, I Say Depression: Why the difference between those two words is so important to the future of our economy." The New Republic, September 7, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2010 from: http://www.tnr.com/article/economy/77427/economic-crisis-recession-depression
Ohanian, L.E. "Understanding Economic Crises: The Great Depression and the 2008
Recession." The Economic Record, Vol. 86, Sept. 2010: 2-6.
The design of this research must focus around the testability of depression and how these symptoms can manifest within the test subjects. A case study done between these two groups of black males will be helpful in finding a relationship between smoking and depression.
ole as a esearcher
The role of the researcher is to find truth and balance within examined data. It is important for the researcher to maintain ethical and moral standards especially in dealing with sensitive information contained in medical records that involve the sensitive subject of mental health and depression. Validity issues must be addressed as well, that is why it is important that proper statistical inferences are drawn using the prescribed techniques and formulas that are designed to help researchers eliminate superfluous information and ultimately retract that information that has the most practical value.
Data analysis requires precise know how and exact calculations. Dealing with…
Fox, M. (2010). Survey shows how depression and smoking intertwine. Reuters, 14 Apr 2010. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/04/14/us-depression-smoking - idUSTRE63D48O20100414
Mendelsohn, C. (2012). Smoking and depression, a review. Australian Family Physician, 2012 4 May, 41(50):304-7. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558621
A definition that is frequently utilized is that of a prolonged recession that has a larger impact on the business economy (Lapidos, 2008). Further, a depression is a period of time during which the GDP declines by more than 10 percentage points (Lapidos, 2008). This practical approach allows one to quantify the differences between the two phenomenons.
It is important to determine whether an economic downturn is a recession or a depression due to the fact that each will require a different response from the federal government in order to improve the outcome. If it is a recession, since it is caused by monetary conditions, it can be aided through the lowering of interest rates. However, the large changes to fiscal policies such as tax cuts or government spending plans will not be very effective (Adams, 2009). A depression, on the other hand, is the direct result of an asset…
Adams, T.H. (2008, March 1). How will you know a recession when you see it? ColoradoBiz. Retrieved from http://www.cobizmag.com/articles/how-will-you-know-a-recession-when-you-see-it/
Adams, T.H. (2009, April 1). What's the definition of a depression? ColoradoBiz. Retrieved from http://www.cobizmag.com/articles/the-economist-whats-the-definition-of-a-depression/
Lapidos, J. (2008, October, 1). You say depression, I say recession. Are we talking about the same thing? Slate. Retrieved from: http://www.slate.com/id/2201249
National Bureau of Economic Research (2010). Business cycle expansions and contractions. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/cycles.html
The vey cux of the agument comes to the cental point of censoship -- who must be potected and why must they be potected? Ideas, political, social, o othewise, may be the most dangeous fom of liteatue eve. Fo instance, in 19th centuy autocatic egimes, the ideas of Kal Max, even Voltaie, Locke, and Jeffeson wee seen to be subvesive because they challenged the ode of things, the idea that the monachy should ule by divine ight, and that cetain people had, by manifest destiny, the ight to be moe equal than othes. So, too, do images and vebiage change ove time egading public acceptance. At the tun of the centuy bathing suits coveed almost 90% of the human body, and a day at the beach would've been fa diffeent had some of today's skimpy G-stings o bikinis shown up. Similaly, sexual activity was hinted at fom the ealy days…
references homo-eroticism in a coming of age drama; another might see critiques of the War on Terror subversive, while still another might find literary value in the works of art by someone like Robert Mapplethorpe. Thus, in order to maintain a free and just society in which ideas are strong commodities we must take the notion that an educated populace is an informed populace. Our focus should be on educating children and youth so that, when appropriate, they can make decisions about what is right, wrong -- how to vet source material, and above all, what ideas they might want to accept and which to reject. This documentary should be shown in the classroom for, much like the movie Saving Private Ryan, it brings the real story of history into the lives of people without over glorifying the issue. War and conflict are not pretty, not neat, and people do not die as they do in a John Wayne western. Of course, certain material is age dependent, but it is important to note that in Middle and High school, students appreciate the truth more than half-truths and old adages about history that are simply not factual.
So, although the reverse of these characteristic is not indicative of depression, their expression within the context of grief suggests the lack of clinical depression.
ith the fundamentals of depression outlined, it is reasonable to wonder why such symptoms and behaviors manifest themselves in certain people and why they do not in others. Many different researchers coming from many different scientific backgrounds -- from psychology to biochemistry -- have investigated the fundamentals of depression, and each have constructed models as to what its underlying causes are. Each of these investigations has attempted to explain the causes and symptoms of depression and has offered treatment possibilities.
The psychological models of depression have focused their attention on failed early attachment, inability to obtain desired rewards, impaired social relations, and distorted thinking." This approach to depression has yielded some valuable information regarding the disorder; yet, much of the results make it unclear as…
Ainsworth, Patricia M.D. Understanding Depression. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2000.
American Medical Association. Essential Guide to Depression. New York: Pocket Books, 1998.
Cherlin, Andrew J. "Going to Extremes: Family Structure, Children's Well-Being, and Social Science." Demography, Vol. 36, Nov. 1999. Pages 421-28.
Copeland, Mary Ellen M.S., M.A. The Depression Workbook: Second Edition. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications, 2001.
Depression in Young and Older Women
Recent research reveals that about one percent of the general population suffers from manic-depression and five percent suffers from major depression during their lives (Simonds, 2001, p. 86). However, the incidence for depression in women is twice as high or more; as many as one in five American women has a history of depression during her lifetime.
Due to the various social and medical problems presented by increasing numbers of women who suffer from depression, this topic is of utmost importance in today's society.
This paper will examine the causes and effects of depression in both young and older women; examine existing medical research for both groups; identify major differences in depression for young and older women; and present a conclusive analysis of observations.
To determine what the causes of depression are in young and older women, and to differentiate between the two groups,…
Blumenthal, Susan. (Fall, 1996). Gender Differences in Depression. The Decade of the Brain, NAMI, Volume VII, Issue 3.
Boyles, Salynn. (February 14, 2002). Older Women Have Tough Time With Depression. WebMD Medical News.
Merschino, Diane. (July 2002). Depression in Young Women. Women's College Hospital Foundation.
National Institute of Mental Health. (October, 1999). Depression: What Every Woman Should Know. NIMH Publication No. 95-3871.
Depression in Adolescents
Roughly nine percent of the population - an estimated 18.8 million Americans -- suffers from depressive disorders, illnesses that affect the body as well as the mind.
The effects of depression are magnified in children, who are experiencing depression in greater numbers. An estimated 8.3% of teenagers in the United States are suffering from depression, a significant leap from two decades ago. To compound the problem, researchers like Farmer (2002) found that about 70% of adolescents suffering from depression are unfortunately not receiving adequate treatment.
This paper examines the growing problem of depression among adolescents. The first part of this paper is an overview of teen depression, looking at its causes and contrasting teen depression with depression in adults. The next part then looks at the depressive symptoms among teenagers, contrasting these with the symptoms of depression in adults. In the last part, the paper examines the…
Beardslee, William R., Tracy Gladstone, Ellen Wright and Andrew Cooper. 2003. "A family-based approach to the prevention of depressive symptoms in children at risk: evidence of parental and child change." Pediatrics. 112(2): 401-412.
Egger, Helen. 2003. "Recognizing and treating depression in young children." The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter. 19(3): 1-3.
Farmer, Terri J. 2002. "The experience of major depression: Adolescents' perspectives." Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 23(6): 567-586.
Koplewitz, Harold. 2002. More Than Moody: Recognizing and Treating Adolescent Depression. New York: Putnam.
Depression continues to be one of most common medical conditions for the elderly.
Percentages of elderly with the illness
Degree of increase in suicidal tendencies of depressed
Wrong assumption that aging necessitates depression.
Difficulty of healthcare providers in recognizing depression.
Increased tendency toward suicidal tendencies in many depressed.
Other individuals immune to depression and suicide despite life problems.
Individuals may not even recognize their own depression
Myths associated with aging including depression
Symptoms may take months to worsen and show up
Aging individuals should be treated similar to younger patients when seen by doctor.
Depression can mask itself in many ways
Up to family and healthcare providers to be vigilant and notice changes.
With care, individuals can be helped.
Depression ranks as one of the most common medical problems in the elderly. The occurrence of this illness among community-dwelling older individuals ranges from 8 to 15% and among institutionalized individuals,…
De Leo, D. (ed) (2004). Suicidal Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber.
Evans, G. (2000) Suicide and the elderly: warning signs and helping points.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) of the University of Florida.
Fact sheet FCS2183. Gainesville, FLA.
Depression Scores Among College Students
The first symptoms of depression tend to occur during college years as college students suffering from this condition do not receive the needed help. While there are various reasons for the failure by these students to receive needed help, one of the most common reasons is the assumption that the condition is part of normal stress of college. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (n.d.), depression is a common but severe condition that is usually characterized by feelings of anxiety or sadness. College students are increasingly vulnerable to suffering from depression since typical college life is characterized by stress. Actually, many college students sometimes feel anxious or sad, but the emotions disappear quickly i.e. within a short period of time. If these symptoms prolong and become untreated, the individual develops depression which interferes with his/her ability to perform daily activities.
Amr et. al. (2013). Depression and Anxiety Among Saudi University Students: Prevalence and Correlates. The Arab Journal of Psychiatry, 24(1), 1-7.
Brandy, J.M. (2011). Depression in Freshmen College Students. Retrieved from Loyola
University Chicago website: http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1176&context=luc_diss
Geisner, I.M., Mallett, K. & Kilmer, J.R. (2012, May). An Examination of Depressive Symptoms
Depression and Eating Disorders
The eating disorder category in the DSM-IV includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified categories. Peck and Lightsey (2008) note that while the DSM classification symptom is currently the most used system, there has been some debate in the about how to classify people with eating disordered behavior. A viable alternative to the discrete categories used in the DSM is notion of viewing eating disorders along a continuum from having no such behaviors to the severe eating disordered behaviors. In an effort to combine the two methods the self-report Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis (QEDD) was developed. The QEDD distinguishes nonsymptomatic individuals (no symptoms) to symptomatic individuals (those that have some symptoms, but do not qualify for a diagnosis to anyone qualifying for an eating disorder diagnosis). Previous research has provided support for this conceptualization by comparing the QEDD with scores…
Hudson, J.I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H.G., Jr., & Kessler, R.C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 348 -- 358.
The affects of precursory steroidal compounds is difficult to determine due to differences in how adolescent bodies process them, but they may have an impact on social behavior similar to steroidal compounds, therefore, use of these substances will be included in this study as well.
A key area of research focused on treatment of the symptoms of depression and aggression caused by steroid use. Effective treatment was achieved through the use of common antidepressants (Schule, et. al, 2003). This is an important body of research, as it provides the guidance counselor with choices in treating students found to be affected by steroid use. Knowing that there are treatment options available through mental health channels will help in the development of treatment strategies for students whose social lives are being negatively influenced by steroid use.
The literature revealed many facets of academic research that will have an impact on the conduct…
Fish, L., Goldberg, L., and Spratt, D. (2005). Supplements, Steroid Precursors and Adolescent Heatlh. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 90 (9).
Gober, S, Klein, M., Berger, T., Vindigni, C., and Paul McCabe (2006). Steroids in Adolescence: the Cost of Achieving the Physical Ideal. NASP Communique, 34 (7). Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq/cq347steroids.aspx .
Goodyer, I. (2002). Social adversity and mental functions in adolescents at high risk of psychopathology, the British Journal of Psychiatry 18, 383-386.
Melloni, R. (2006). Animal Models Show That Anabolic Steroids Flip the Adolescent Brain's Switch for Aggressive Behavior. American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.apa.org/releases/steroids0226.html.
Then after Homer disappeared, she gave china painting lessons until a new generation lost interest, and then "The front door closed...remained closed for good" (Faulkner pp). Emily's depression caused her to become a recluse.
All three female protagonists are so dominated by male authority figures that their loneliness leads to severe depression, which in turn leads to madness, then eventually acts of violence. None of the women have active control of their lives, however, each in their own way makes a desperate attempt to take action, to seek a type of redemption for the misery and humiliation they have endured by the male figures in their lives.
Curry, Renee R. "Gender and authorial limitation in Faulkner's 'A Rose for Emily.'" The Mississippi Quarterly. June 22, 1994. Retrieved July 28, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Faulkner, illiam. "A Rose for Emily." Retrieved July 28, 2005 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~drbr/wf_rose.html…
Curry, Renee R. "Gender and authorial limitation in Faulkner's 'A Rose for Emily.'" The Mississippi Quarterly. June 22, 1994. Retrieved July 28, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily." Retrieved July 28, 2005 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~drbr/wf_rose.html
Gilman1, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper (1899)." Retrieved July 29, 2005 at http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/wallpaper.html
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "Why I Wrote The Yellow Wallpaper" 1913. Retrieved July 28, 2005 at http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/whyyw.html
A key strength of the study was that it was the first to show that major depression predicts increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women. One of the key limitations of the study was that it only evaluated the role of depression in middle-aged women and not in men. This limits the external validity of the study. In addition, the use of cross-sectional data, self-reports, or the measurement of depressive symptoms as opposed to clinical depression only provided indirect support for the link between depression and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
Although a majority of the research agrees that a clear connection exists between depression and metabolic syndrome, several sources disagree. Hildrum, Mykletun, Midthjell and associates (2008) are a key example of research that does not support the connection between depression and anxiety with metabolic syndrome. This study used a cross sectional study of participants aged 20-89.…
Akbaraly, T.N., Kivimaki, M., Brunner, E.J., Chandola, T., Marmot, M.G. Ferrie,
(2009). Association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Diabetes Care, 32, 499-504.
American Heart Association. (2010). Metabolic syndrome. Retrieved June3, 2010. From http://www.american heart.org/presenter,
Depression in the Lifespan
Depression is a multifaceted and complex phenomenon affecting multiple age cohorts. It is therefore important to understand what differential age-related risk factors account for the manifestation of depressive symptoms, whether precipitating factors are genetic or environmental, also how specific treatment interventions might change depending on age-related needs or age-appropriate interventions. A developmental approach to depression can provide some insight into how clinicians can improve treatment interventions and promote a more nuanced and realistic understanding of the disorder. The symptoms of depression are also likely to be different for different age cohorts, in part due to developmental differences, but also to biological differences in brain structure and chemistry, life experiences and socialization. This topic is important to both clinical and counseling psychology because reframing depression from a developmental perspective can shed light on etiology and best practices.
eview of Literature
Literature has generally not focused on a…
Cicchetti, D., Nurcombe, B. & Garber, J. (1992). Developmental approaches to depression. Development and Psychopathology 4(1992): 1-3.
deMello, M.F., Mari, Jdj., Bacaltchuk, J. & Neugebauer, R. (2005). A systematic review of research findings on the efficacy of interpersonal therapy for depressive disorders. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 255(2): 75-82.
Hyde, M., Hanson, L. M., Chungkham, H. S., Leineweber, C. & Westerlund, H. (2015). The impact of involuntary exit from employment in later life on the risk of major depression and being prescribed anti-depressant medication. Aging & Mental Health 1(5): p381-389.
Simmons, M., Wilkinson, P. & Dubicka, B. (2015). Measurement Issues: Depression measures in children and adolescents. Child & Adolescent Mental Health 20(4): 230-241.
Mercosur is the fourth largest integrated market and is the second largest in the Americas (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). NAFTA is first. In May of 2008 Argentina was also elected to the Human Rights Council.
There have also been UN peacekeeping operations in places like Cyprus, Haiti, Kosovo, and the Middle East that have used Argentine troops (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). In 1990, diplomatic relations with Argentina were restored and many countries invest in Argentina (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). The U.S. is one of them, and is the sixth largest investor (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). In the pharmaceuticals sector, the UK is one of the biggest investors (Paolera & Taylor, 1999). It is easy to see that Argentina has been through a lot but it has emerged stronger and is capable of doing a great deal for other countries as well.
Caldwell, J. & O'Driscoll, T.G. (2007). What caused…
Caldwell, J. & O'Driscoll, T.G. (2007). What caused the great depression? Social Education, 71(2), 70-74.
Hopenhayn, H.A. & Neumeyer, P.A. (2003). The Argentine great depression 1975-1990. Universidad T. di Tella. Retrieved from: www.utdt.edu/download.php?fname=_ 116465913307356800.pdf
Ohanian, L.H. & Cole, H. (2002). The great UK depression: A puzzle and possible resolution. Review of Economic Dynamics, 19-44.
Ohanian, L.H. & Cole, H. (1999). The great depression in the United States from a neoclassical perspective. Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, 2-24.
Depression or Oppression: The Yellow Wallpaper
\\"The Yellow Wallpaper\\" is an amazing piece about Charlotte’s descent into mental impairment. Presented in diary form, the text recounts the experiences of Charlotte who is diagnosed with a nervous condition (i.e. hysteria) and is advised by her physician husband that she ought to be exposed to minimal mental stimulation in her path to recovery. Towards this end, she is essentially barricaded in her bedroom – a room wrapped in yellow wallpaper. While Charlotte is at first diagnosed with depression and supposedly put on treatment for the same, what informs her descent into further mental impairment is oppression, as opposed to depression.
It is important to note that human beings happen to be social creatures. What this means is that they thrive on constant interactions with each other. Charlotte is isolated and the only persons she has access to are the nurse and her…
Depression is a state of sadness and gloom where one feels dull and overwhelmed by the challenges of life. People tend to say that they are "depressed' any time they feel very unhappy. More likely than not, it could just be a mere response to fatigue, sad thoughts or events. This improper use of this term causes confusion between an ordinary mood swing and a medical condition. While it is normal for all human beings to experience dejection every now and then, a few people may experience unipolar depression. Ordinary dejection is rarely serious enough to significantly affect a person's day to day activities and does not persist for long. Mood downcasts can even have some benefits. Time spent contemplating can help an individual explore their inner self, values and way of life. They often come out of it feeling stronger, resolved and with a greater sense of clarity.
Comer, R. (2013). Abnormal Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Bolton, P., Bass, J., Neugebauer, R., Verdeli, H., Clougherty, K. F., Wickramaratne, P.,. ..& Weissman, M. (2003). Group interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in rural Uganda: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 289(23), 3117-3124. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12813117
Dombrovski, A. Y., Lenze, E. J., Dew, M. A., Mulsant, B. H., Pollock, B. G., Houck, P. R., & Reynolds, C. F. (2007). Maintenance Treatment for Old-Age Depression Preserves Health-Related Quality of Life: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Paroxetine and Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(9), 1325-1332. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17767673
Elder, B. L., &Mosack, V. (2011). Genetics of depression: an overview of the current science. Issues in mental health nursing, 32(4), 192-202. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355753
The nature of depression
Depression exists as a regular mental disorder presented in the form of loss of interest, depressed moods, and feelings of low self-worth, guilt, poor concentration and disturbed sleep. The most common symptoms of depression are manifested in the form of anxiety. The problems could become recurrent or chronic, leading to notable impairments in a person to become responsible. When it reaches its worst stage, depression might lead to suicide. Over one million succumb to depression annually. This translates to at least three hundred suicidal deaths per day (Stark, 2010). A single individual who commits suicide motivates twenty more to attempt suicide.
People can suffer from multiple variations of depression. The most significant difference is depression among individuals who do not have or who have a history of maniac episodes. Depressive episodes draw symptoms like loss of interest, increased fatigability and depressed mood. Depending on the…
Joiner, T.E. (2010). Interpersonal, cognitive, and social nature of depression. Mahwah [u.a.: Erlbaum.
Knittel, L. (2013). User's guide to natural remedies for depression: Learn about safe and natural treatments to uplift your mood and conquer depression. North Bergen, NJ: Basic Health Publ.
Stark, K.D. (2010). Childhood depression: School-based intervention. New York: Guilford Press.
Wasserman, D. (2011). Depression. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Psychology and Treatment for Depression
There are many different views on depression, what causes it, and how it should be treated. The two most common options for depression treatment are medication and therapy (Lambert, 2006). These have been used for some time, mostly because they seem to have the highest rates of success. However, some people think that coupling them is the best choice while others feel that only one at a time is what is going to work. There are two points-of-view: that therapy works to "fix" depression, and that medication is what is required to correct depression problems in the population. Both of these are valid points-of-view, and both have their merits. However, whether only one is correct, one has more merit than the other, or a different (or combined) approach should be taken still has to be addressed in order to ensure that depression treatments are…
Lambert, K.G. (2006). Rising rates of depression in today's society: Consideration of the roles of effort-based rewards and enhanced resilience in day-to-day functioning. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(4): 497 -- 510.
Sharp, L.K., & Lipsky, M.S. (2002). Screening for depression across the lifespan: a review of measures for use in primary care settings. American Family Physician, 66(6): 1001 -- 1008.
Walker, S. (1997). A Dose of Sanity: Mind, Medicine, and Misdiagnosis. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
depression has been known as a "result when individuals forfeit their personal power." (Depression: Multimedia Sourcebook, p.1) It also has been described in ancient times as "... [an] affliction [that] laid its cause to supernatural intervention, primarily religious in nature. (insworth, p. 48) In the Hindu depression was noted as a struggle between good and evil in which evil would win and "victimize individual humans." (insworth, p.48) In texts from Babylonia and Egypt, gods punished transgressions in the hearts of people and placed on them the depressive curse. The early Hebrew texts allude to the belief that depression in humans reflects the displeasure of Yahweh.
But according to up-to-the-date research, we know that depression is an "innocuous-sounding word... that refers to a potentially disabling illness that affects many but is understood by few." (insworth p.1) Professor Patricia insworth, a leading psychologist on depression, further explains that sufferers often do not…
A variety of medical conditions can cause depression. These include dietary
1. http://www.nami.org / deficiencies in vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid. Degenerative neurological disorders may also be to blame such as Alzheimer's disease and strokes or through certain viral infections, such as hepatitis and mononucleosis.1
Depression typically cannot be shaken or willed away. (Becker, p. 187) An episode must therefore run its course until
Depression: Not just a Bad Mood
MDD: Not Just Another Bad Mood
The term "Prozac Nation" says a lot. This catch-phrase had begun to describe the current state in the U.S. when cases of clinical depression began blooming and treatment turned to medication as a first response. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, over fourteen million of the adult U.S. population suffers from Major Depressive Disorder. Major Depressive Disorder, or MDD, is the leading cause of disability in people ages 15-44. The average age of onset is 32 (U.S. Department of, 2011.) It is often also found co-occurring with other mental disorders, such as anxiety and substance abuse. Perhaps it is worth taking a closer look at a case example in order to better understand this often debilitating disorder in our times.
Taylor is a 24-year-old single, Jewish female presenting with symptoms of depression. She reports that for…
Burns, D.D. (1989). The feeling good handbook. New York, NY: Plume.
Cornes, C.L., & Frank, E. (1994). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. The Clinical
Psychologist, 47(3), 9-10.
Cuijpers, P, van Straten, A, Hollon, S.D., & Andersson, G. (2010). The contribution of active medication to combined treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression: a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 121(6), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=13&sid=568ccfe5-0fe6-4429-92a3 - cb159b2e4044%40sessionmgr115&vid=5&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3
Depressive Symptoms Among Homeless Adolescents
The research and subsequent data analysis aims at showing the relationship that there is between the factors that the interviewees will give and the depression rates among the homeless adolescents of below 20 years of age. The data that will be collected will be predominantly qualitative since this is a social science that seeks to understand the reason why the homeless adolescents get depressed and to find out whether the depression causes the homelessness/came before being homeless or if the depression set in after being homeless. The data analysis will seek to show the statistical correlation between the variables that will be recorded. The strength of the correlation will be derived from the similarity of answers on what caused their depression and the damage or effects that it caused in their life. The data analysis will look into central tendency trends like the mean, mode…
MedicineNet, Inc. (2012). Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens: A Parent's Guide. Retrieved April 17, 2015 from http://www.medicinenet.com/bipolar_disorder_in_children_and_teens/article.htm
Depression Among Preschoolers
Depression is an illness where one gets bad feelings that hang on for weeks or even longer. The feelings don't go away that easily just like the way bad feelings do after a day or few hours, it hangs on a bit longer and could as well lead to a disease which ought to be treated. When you one is depressed one feel sad, angry, hopeless and discouraged. Physically one may feel tired all the time and have constant headaches. Different individuals have a number of reasons that makes them depressed such as; work related, family reasons, unfulfilled desires, sickness, financial strains just to name a few. All this are reasons that cause worry but if they change to become uncontrollable it leads to depression (ey & Birmaher, 2009). Those found to exhibit such tendencies are known to be depressed. Such people are unable to think clearly…
Rey, J., & Birmaher, B. (2009). Treating child and adolescent depression. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Rutledge, R., & Bannister, T. (2007). The everything parent's guide to children with depression: An authoritative handbook on identifying symptoms, choosing treatments, and raising a happy and healthy child. Avon, Mass: Adams Media.
Huberty, T.J.R. (2012). Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: Assessment, intervention, and prevention. New York: Springer.
Depression in African-American Adolescents
Etiology of Depression
Mental illnesses like depression can be very difficult to diagnose or to recognize: There is no serum to test for when looking for depression. In some real if rather vague way, mental health is simply the absence of mental disorders. And in the reverse we define mental illness as the absence of mental health. The circularity of this definition is certainly confusing, but it reflects the real confusion over the range of what may be considered to be mentally "normal." This vagueness as to definition does not mean that the problem of mental illness and especially depression is not real: Indeed, the difficulty of identifying those with mental illness and so of providing prompt and appropriate treatment to them makes the need to do so more effectively all the more important (Grob, 1991, p. 13). The need to identify mental illness in -…
Achenbach, T. etal. (22 December 2002). "Ten-year comparisons of problems and competencies for national samples of youth: self, parent, and teacher reports. J of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Boyer, C. (2003). Interview.
Crawford, I. etal. "The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men." J. Of Sex Research 39 (3): 179-189.
Donnel, A. etal. (2001, Oct. 1). "Psychological reactance: Factor structure and internal consistency of the questionnaire for the measurement of psychological reactance." Journal of Social Psychology 141 (5): 679-687.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2013a) reported that in 2005/2006 an estimated 5.4% of all Americans over the age of 12 sought medical help for depression. Americans, however, are far from alone. Globally, 37% of lost life years due to disease have been attributed to mental illness (Insel, 2011). Of this 37%, depression is responsible for a full third. The economic burden of mental illness on a global scale is massive, representing $2.5 trillion dollars in 2010. By comparison, all health care spending worldwide in 2009 reached $5.1 trillion. These statistics suggest mental illness accounts for half of all health care spending globally and depression is responsible for approximately one-third. In addition, mental illness is expected to account for 35% of lost economic output within two decades. Given the substantial impact that depression has on society and the lives of individuals, this essay will review what is…
APA. (2013). Highlights of changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/changes%20from%20dsm-iv-tr%20to%20dsm-5.pdf .
CDC. (2013a). Depression: Surveillance data sources. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/data_stats/depression.htm .
CDC. (2013b). Mental health: Depression. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/basics/mental-illness/depression.htm .
Insel, T. (2011). Director's Blog: The global cost of mental illness. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director/2011/the-global-cost-of-mental-illness.shtml .
Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments
Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…
Lastly, with respect to biological theory-based treatments, scientific research is vital. A study conducted in 2010 states that the finding of "various structural and chemical abnormalities in the brain through neuroimaging" has been the foundation in depression research in the last year. This study further states that the research combines various brain areas to arise specific symptoms, and that the new data could contribute to further understanding and treating depression. Specific treatments are not given as part of this study, but "biological" treatments will usually include medication, such as anti-depressants. [20: Papageorgiou, G. (2010). Biological theory of depression in the light of new evidence. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/9/S1/S47 . ]
This paper has discussed various theories of depression and has expanded upon treatments that take into account these theories. Some treatments have been proven effective, and others have been illustrated simply as examples or as evidence of much needed field research. Depression has been shown to be a complex illness explained by various intelligent minds in different ways, yet in order to treat this disorder, one must take into account all this knowledge, and hope that advances in scientific research, such as that illustrated above, will provide for better treatments and, finally, more effective relief from depressive symptoms.
Depression, Disease, And Aging
Aging brings many changes in health, social relationships, work situation, and other dimensions of life, and old age has been examined as one aspect of life development, showing how earlier stages contribute to the coping mechanisms older people have and how they apply these to new situations. A number of the changes accompanying old age can create stress and depression, and in turn these psychological states can contribute to the onset of disease or to the course disease takes. Studies have also shown that untreated depression can contribute to a higher suicide rate for the elderly.
How the elderly person is affected may depend on his or her closest relationship. The aging process for many includes physical or mental deterioration which can place considerable strain on the life partner, who now has to contend not only with his or her own diminished function because of aging…
Causes of depression 2004, GlaxoSmithKline, retrieved August 23, 2005 from http://www.depression.com/causes_of_depression.html .
Cox, H.G. (1988). Later life: the realities of aging. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Depner, C.E. & Ingersoll-Dayton, B. (1985). "Conjugal social support and patterns in later life." Journal of Gerontology, 40, No. 6, 761-766.
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1998). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
Depression is a term that has multiple meanings. In an economic context, it can mean a continued, long-term decline in economic activity in one or several economies. Depression can also mean a landform that is depressed or sunken below the adjacent area. This definition is for geology and can be used to describe sinkholes. However, the focus of the meaning of the term depression will be examined through the psychological perspective. As defined in psychology, depression is a mood disorder causing an ongoing feeling of loss of interest and sadness. Depression can affect how one feels emotionally and physically, often requiring long-term treatment. This report aims to understand the word depression, its roots, and why it is being used today to categorize a mood disorder.
The word depression has been used for quite some time. When examined as a noun, is was first seen in the late 14th century from…