352+ documents containing “deregulation”.
They have, on average, a thirty-five to forty percent increase in the number of scheduled departures and hub-and-spoke operations have made an increased number of destinations available to them. Airlines have cut frills during our current economic downturn, but the success of no-frills, low-cost airlines such as Southwest Airlines which do not offer many traditional amenities indicates that a substantial proportion of passengers are more swayed by price than comfort (Airline Deregulaton Act) .y far the most important aspect of customer service, safety, has increased under deregulation. Accident rates during the twelve-year period from 1979 to 1990 were twenty to forty-five percent below their average levels in the six or twelve years before deregulation (Kahn, Airline deregulation). Moreover, by displacing a certain amount of automobile travel, the low airfares made possible by deregulation have saved many more lives than the total number lost annually in air crashes.
Surprisingly, consumers enjoy….
Airline deregulation: Barriers to entry continue to limit competition in several key domestic markets. (1996, October). GAO RCED-97-4. Retrieved May 15, 2005 from Web site: http://www.gao.gov/archive/1997/rc97004.pdf
Airline Deregulation Act. Lockergnome Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 15, 2005 from Web site: http://encyclopedia.lockergnome.com/s/b/Airline_Deregulation_Act
Airline Deregulation Act of 1978. Department of Transportation. Retrieved May 15, 2005 from Web site: http://ostpxweb.dot.gov/aviation/airlinederegact.htm
Airlines (2002, July 2002). Consumer Reports. Retrieved May 15, 2005 from Web site: http://www.consumerreports.org/main/content/display_report.jsp?FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=348005& ; ASSORTMENT%3C%3East_id=333153
Marketing Strategies Changed Since Deregulation
The objective of this study is to describe how marketing strategies have changed since deregulation. It is reported that over the past 25-year that the transportation system in the United States has undergone dramatic changes in both "size and form as it carried ever-increasing numbers of passengers and volumes of freight, both domestically and internationally." ( ) The demand for transportation services has been due to a population that had increased staidly in addition to the increase in the numbers of "passengers and volumes of freight, both domestically and internationally." ( p. 1) There are reported to be other forces that have impacted the growth of the transportation system and this includes deregulation of the "aviation, rail, motor carrier and maritime shipping industries over the past 25 years." (, p. 1)
Urban Wallace Associates reports that deregulation has resulted in changes in the manner in which….
How to Develop New market Knowledge (2014) Urban Wallace Associates. Retrieved from: http://www.uwa.com/compadv_c_004.asp
Chapter 2: Growth, Deregulation, and Intermodalism (2014) Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved from: http://www.rita.dot.gov/bts/sites/rita.dot.gov.bts/files/publications/the_changing_face_of_transportation/html/chapter_02.html
The Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 was the first major attempt at regulating the financial industry. The Act was passed by President oosevelt with the objective of restoring public confidence in the banking system. Glass-Steagall sought to, among other things "prevent the undue diversion of funds into speculative operations," in response to the market crashes that had sparked the Great Depression (Maues, 2013). The reason for this was simple -- speculation was always a temptation for the banking industry, and if left unchecked the industry was likely to indulge in more speculation than the financial industry could sustain while performing at a high level of health and public confidence.
It has been argued that Glass-Steagall, for decades, had been able to prevent the type of accumulation in speculative assets within the banking system that occurred in the 2000s. Commercial and investment banking had been separated for this time, which meant that if….
Carow, K. (2002). Capital market reactions to the passage of the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999. Indiana University. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/223218603_Capital_market_reactions_to_the_passage_of_the_Financial_Services_Modernization_Act_of_1999/file/50463524b87589f488.pdf
Grant, J. (2009-2010). What the financial services industry puts together let no person put asunder: how the Gramm-Leach-Billey Act contributed to the 2008-2009 American capital markets crisis. Albany Law Review. Vol. 73 (2009-2010) 371.
Hendersholt, R., Lee, J. & Thompkins, J. (2002). Winners and losers as financial service providers converge: Evidence from the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999. The Financial Review. Vol. 37 (1) 53-72.
Maues, J. (2013). Banking Act of 1933, commonly called Glass-Steagall. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from http://www.federalreservehistory.org/Events/DetailView/25
Impact on Commercial Airline Industry as a Result of Deregulation
The airline industry in the United States began functioning almost as soon as the right brothers made their first flight at the Killdevil Hills in North Carolina. In 1903, mail began to be carried by airplanes over short routes, so the United States government created an agency to help regulate how this was accomplished to make it safe for carriers. This agency, called the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), first regulated mail carriers (since there were no passenger flights at the time), but when passenger flights began the board also dealt with how people would be moved also. The CAB was responsible for all areas of passenger flight such as ticket price, awarding of routes to different carriers, and how the planes were to be maintained. Because the CAB sometimes chose routes and different rewards in favor of one airline over….
Kost, John M. "Effects of Airline Deregulation." Mackinac Center, 1988. Web.
Levin, Alan. "Experts Call for Modern Airline Maintenance." USA Today, 2004, 1 March. Web.
Logan, James. "What Deregulation has Meant for Airline Safety." The Heritage Foundation, 1986. Web.
Siddiqi, Asif. "Deregulation and its Consequences." U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission, 2001. Web.
egulation and Deregulation
Prior to the 19th century, most people would have voiced their support for the "concept of laissez-faire, a doctrine opposing government interference in the economy, except in" the maintenance of law and order (U.S. Department of State, 2014). The turn of the 19th century, however, saw attitudes begin to change, and labor movements as well as small entrepreneurs asking the government to intervene, following the apparent failure of the market forces to allocate resources efficiently. This text answers the above question by providing real examples that are proof enough that the government ought to be the catalyst for innovations in all sectors because reliance on bubble-driven, market-controlled growth is both precarious and unsustainable.
At the start of the 19th century, the U.S. had no industry in its name and only survived by growing cotton, and later on, exporting the same to England. After being turned into clothes by the….
Brodwin, D. (2012). Government Economic Intervention Made America Great. World Report U.S. News. Retrieved 8 April 2014 from http://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/economic-intelligence/2012/04/19/government-economic-intervention-made-america-great
National Economic Council. (2011). A Strategy for American Innovation: Driving towards Sustainable Growth and Quality Jobs. National Economic Council. Retrieved 8 April 2014 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/nec/StrategyforAmericanInnovation
US Department of State. (2014). Government Involvement in the American Economy. About.com Economics. Retrieved 8 April 2014 from http://economics.about.com/od/useconomichistory/a/government_inv.htm
World Bank. (2010). Innovation Policy: A Guide for Developing Countries. The World Bank. Retrieved 8 April 2014 from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/2460/548930PUB0EPI11C10Dislosed061312010.pdf?sequence=1
Deregulation in the European Airline Industry
The European airline market:
Transport is one of the key sectors in Europe with commercial, economic and cultural implications for the European Union citizens. It accounts for over 10% of Europe's GDP and provides jobs to nearly 10 million people. In the last two decades, air transport has shown the maximum rise in passenger volumes, with an average annual growth rate of 7.4%, in terms of passenger per kilometer. Passenger strength rose by 19% during the period 1998-2001, driving demands in the European air markets. Since 1970, cargo traffic moved by air transport has increased five-fold. More than 25,000 planes fly over the European skies on a given day. The European Union is likely to have additional population of some 75 million in the medium term, as ten countries are expected to join the Union in the near future. These countries shall become party to….
Ashford, N (1999) 'Airport Finance', Loughborough: UK, pp.44-47
Aziz, A, Radford, M, and McCabe, J (September 2000) 'Health Impact Statement, Finningley Airport', Doncaster Health Authority, UK, pp.56-58
Berglund, B, Lindvall, T and Schwela, D (eds) (1999) 'Guidelines for Community Noise', World Health Organisation: London, pp.23-27
Button, K et al. (1998) 'Flying into the future', Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp.113-115
Airline Deregulation on Aviation Safety
This paper looks at the deregulation and the impacts it has had on the aviation industry. It details the changes that have taken place since deregulation act became effective. The main focus of the paper is safety in the aviation industry whereby the various maintenance procedures have been discussed shading light on the importance of carrying out the right maintenance to guarantee safety of the aircraft personnel and the travelling public. Training of the personnel being the most important aspect in ensuring safety standards are met have also been widely looked into and discussed, detailing the need for qualified and competent crew. In conclusion the safety evaluation measures have also been stated and an analysis of how they are carried out across the globe has been widely discussed with safety being the main focus.
The airline industry has witnessed a significant change over the years in….
Airbus, (2012). Engineering and Maintenance. Retrieved November 17, 2012 from http://www.airbus.com/support/maintenance-engineering/
CareFlight, (2010). Aircrew qualifications. Retrieved November 17, 2012 from http://www.careflightgroup.com/page/careflight-training-services/Aircrew_Qualifications/
International Civil Aviation Organization, (2010).State of Global Aviation Safety. Retrieved November 17, 2012 from http://www.icao.int/safety/Documents/ICAO_State-of-Global-Safety_web_EN.pdf
John W. Barnum, (2008). What Prompted Airline Deregulation 20 Years Ago? What Were The Objectives of That Deregulation And How Were They Achieved? Retrieved November 17, 2012 from http://corporate.findlaw.com/law-library/what-prompted-airline-deregulation-20-years-ago-what-were-the.html
POST-9/11 Management OF U.S. AILINE INDUSTY
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Airlines in the United States have a long, complicated history in terms of management strategy that includes alterations due to technological advances, bankruptcies, economic downturns, deregulation and even presidential intervention, but none of these forces had the power to both destroy and restructure the industry like the events of September 11, 2001.
The 9/11/01 attacks on the United States fundamentally altered the way the U.S. airline industry operated both publically and internally. One area that suffered significantly from these attacks, and brought about the need for major overhaul within the industry itself was strategic management strategies and practices within the airline industry in its entirety. The 9/11 attacks on America brought about the need for immediate change in these strategies, but the turnover from….
Allvine, F., Dixit, A, Sheth, J., and Uslay. (2007). Deregulation and competition: lessons learned from the airline industry. Print. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Alvesson, S. And Karreman, D. (2009). Critical performativity: the unfinished business of critical management studies. Human Relations, 62.4. pp. 537-560. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Belobaba, P. (2002). The airline industry since 9/11: overview of recovery and challenges ahead. MIT Global Airline Industry Quarterly. March 2002:1. pp. 1-11. Web. Retrieved from: EBSCOhost Database.
Besant, C. (2002 September 1). Chaos followed 9/11 in the aviation industry. Turnaround Management Association Journal of Corporate Renewal, 12:1. pp. 1-3. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
" (1999) eported as being potential dimensions for disaggregation are those of "market, season, month, week, section of week, segment, and itinerary." (McGill and yzin, 1999)
American Airlines experienced dramatic growth when other airlines were going bankrupt through increasing its capacity. American Airlines is reported as a prime example of an airline that grew successfully during the years that TWA and other failed. United Airlines held a strong financial position as well that assisted the airlines in weathering the reduction of flights and a steep decline in travel while other airlines failed miserably winding up in bankruptcy. American Airlines managed to bring about a reduction in costs while other airlines including TWA simply could not find a way to reduce costs, which was further stressed by the airlines lack of a solid financial base. In the airlines industry, just as in other industries the ability to profit on a higher level….
Dempsey, Paul Stephen (2008) the Financial Performance of the Airline Industry Post-Regulation. Symposium 2008. No. 2 Vol. 45. Retrieved from: http://www.mcgill.ca/iasl/sites/mcgill.ca.iasl/files/ASPL614_Industry_PostDeregulation-Houston.pdf
McGill, JI and Van Ryzin, GJ (1999) Transportation Science. Vol. 23, No.2. Retrieved from: http://ben-israel.rutgers.edu/711/McGill-VanRyzin.pdf
Tolkin, J. (2010) Airline Bankruptcy: The Determining Factors Leading to an Airline's Decline Claremont Colleges Scholarship @ Claremont. Fall 2010. Retrieved from: http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1088&context=cmc_theses
27-29) This provoked financial demands and awareness of the people in different parts of the world. People and businesses are dissatisfied with the traditional financial systems due to lack of opportunities for investors. Businesses today require more diversified portfolios for investments because this will reduce their investment risks and increase the probability of future capital flows.
Increased capital mobility has increased the importance of exchange rates which is serving as a monetary policy channel in some industrialized economies. In mid 2000s, there was a sharp shift in the flow of international investments and savings (geographic pattern) resulting in the segmentation of current account imbalances. This was also a major contributing factor. Additionally, the domestic financial markets were also affected by the change in regulatory environment. The two important factors for this are as follows:
1. apid growth of OTC (over-the-counter) markets of derivatives in terms of complexity as well as volume of….
Bekaert, G., Harvey, C. And Lundblad, C. 2005. Does financial liberalization spur growth? Journal of Financial Economics 77, 3 -- 55.
Edison, H., Klein, M., Ricci, L. And Slok, T. 2004. Capital account liberalization and economic performance: survey and synthesis. IMF Staff Papers 51, 111 -- 115.
Kaminsky, G. And Reinhart, C. 1999. The twin crises: the causes of banking and balance-of payments problems. American Economic Review 89, 473 -- 500.
Klein, M. 2005. Capital account liberalization, institutional quality and economic growth: theory and evidence. Working Paper No. 11112. Cambridge, MA: NBER, pp.19-21.
As a response to the savings and loans debacle, there have been several attempts by congress and other governmental agencies to assists consumers and some financial institutions alike. The most significant and some say extreme solution thus far came when the Federal government assisted JP Morgan with the purchase of Bear Stearns for $2 per share.
One of the most discussed solutions has to do with baling out the mortgage lenders and assisting borrowers. There are several different remedies that have been proposed. These remedies include everything from a moratorium on foreclosures to the freezing of interest rates.
As it pertains to the mortgage companies it has been suggested that limits should be lifted so that companies can purchase jumbo housing loans. According to one article this type of mortgage relief could help staunch the hemorrhaging in high-priced housing markets...where buyers have had difficulty getting loans and are paying interest rates a….
Jumbo Loans Spell Relief; Analysts See Economic Fix. (2008, January 29). The Washington Times, p. A01.
Kuttner, R. (2007, October). The Bubble Economy: The Financial Meltdown Is the Logical Consequence of Deregulation. Will We Reverse Field in Time to Prevent Another 1929?. The American Prospect, 18, 20+.
Peterson, J.R. (2005). Designer Mortgages: The Boom in Nontraditional Mortgage Loans May Be a Double-Edged Sword. So Far, Most Banks Have Moved Cautiously. ABA Banking Journal, 97(10), 30+.
What is the real definition of inflation?." Retrieved May 8, 2007 from; http://www.inflationdata.com/Inflation/Articles/Definitions.asp
Many airlines have faced difficult times after deregulation, and the problems were exacerbated by the downturn in air travel after 9-11. Smaller airlines like Northwest Airlines have had even more problems, and yet Northwest in particular persists and so far has voided going out of business in spite of a series of threats, including poor traveler performance, lowered expectations in business terms, labor problems, and so on.
Before deregulation in the 1970s, many had speculated as to how it would affect the structure of the airline industry, and the prevailing view was that deregulation would lead to a substantial consolidation of the industry, leaving some four to six large systems, each centered around one of the major prederegulation trunks. It was believed, for example, that American Airlines, Delta Airlines, Northwest Airlines, United Airlines, and TWA would be among the survivors because of financial strength or protected international franchises. It was….
Castro, Janice, 'Get 'Em While They Last," Time (July 22, 1991), p. 49.
Form 8-K for Northwest Airlines Corp. (2006). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved December 10, 2006 at http://biz.yahoo.com/e/061130/nwacq.pk8-k.html .
Meyer, John R., Clinton V. Oster, Jr., Ivor P. Morgan, Benjamin A. Berman, Diana L. Strassman. Airline Deregulation: The Early Experience. Boston, Mass.: Auburn House, 1981.
Morrison, S. & Winston, C. (1986). The Economic Effects of Airline Deregulation. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
137). Across the board, then, technological innovations will not only be a key driver of business in the coming decade, they will also facilitate the effects of the other key drivers of business discussed herein. For instance, the editors of World Economic Outlook (2002) point out that, "More trade integration is usually associated with more international financial integration, as they respond to many of the same technological and policy factors" (Trade and financial integration, p. 108). As the current fourth generation technologies are replaced by fifth and sixth generation technologies, these trends will likely become even more accelerated over the next 10 years. As Wiedmann and his associates point out, "Up-and-coming technologies like radio frequency identification and future trends like ubiquitous computing, ambient intelligence, and the connected (smart) home scenario have gained special attention in both research and business practice" (p. 137).
This paper provided a review of the relevant….
Describe the industry and explain the general pattern of change of the particular market model.
Since the 1990s, the electric utility industry has been going through tremendous amounts of deregulation. This is because the monopolistic model made them ineffective in delivering different services. When this happened, consumers began to experience dramatic increases in the costs for their utility bills. In general, this was considered to be a naturalistic monopoly, as the government regulatory agencies could protect the interests of consumers. However, after it became clear that this approach was ineffective, is when there was a transformation in these strategies. This occurred with many governments around the world opening the marketplace to foreign competitors or selling their assets to private individuals / entities. (Griffin, 2005, pp. 39 -- 110)
Moreover, the increasing demand from consumers meant that this model was simply unsustainable. Evidence of the can be seen with the total amount….
due to changes in the economical, financial, political and technological changes, the capital markets across the world are highly influenced by the changes. As compared to the past, the development in the financial sector has been observed to be at the highest rates. In order to understand and analyze the changes in the global capital markets the below report has been constructed.
Based on the theme idea, which is the change in the capital market due to many factors and elements, the report below tends to discuss and analyse the impacts of financial deregulation and capital control on financial globalization and international diversification. This will allow understanding of how these two elements are supporting the financial globalization. A part from this, the report will also analyze the role of financial innovation and advancements and technologies on international investments. Moreover, the risks and benefits that are associated with the carry trade….
Buch CM, 2004, Globalization of Financial Markets: Causes of Incomplete Integration and Consequences for Economic Policy, Springer, Germany
Collier P & Dollar D, 2002, Globalization, Growth & Poverty, Oxford University Press, GB
Henderson C, 2006, Currency Strategy, John Wiley & Sons, USA
Lien K, 2009, Day Trading and Swing Trading the Currency Market, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Canada
They have, on average, a thirty-five to forty percent increase in the number of scheduled departures and hub-and-spoke operations have made an increased number of destinations available to…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Advertising
Marketing Strategies Changed Since Deregulation The objective of this study is to describe how marketing strategies have changed since deregulation. It is reported that over the past 25-year that the…Read Full Paper ❯
Deregulation The Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 was the first major attempt at regulating the financial industry. The Act was passed by President oosevelt with the objective of restoring public confidence…Read Full Paper ❯
Airline Deregulation Impact on Commercial Airline Industry as a Result of Deregulation The airline industry in the United States began functioning almost as soon as the right brothers made their first…Read Full Paper ❯
egulation and Deregulation Prior to the 19th century, most people would have voiced their support for the "concept of laissez-faire, a doctrine opposing government interference in the economy, except in"…Read Full Paper ❯
Deregulation in the European Airline Industry The European airline market: Transport is one of the key sectors in Europe with commercial, economic and cultural implications for the European Union citizens.…Read Full Paper ❯
Airline Deregulation on Aviation Safety This paper looks at the deregulation and the impacts it has had on the aviation industry. It details the changes that have taken place…Read Full Paper ❯
POST-9/11 Management OF U.S. AILINE INDUSTY Strategic Management of the United States Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks Strategic Management of the United States Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks Airlines in…Read Full Paper ❯
" (1999) eported as being potential dimensions for disaggregation are those of "market, season, month, week, section of week, segment, and itinerary." (McGill and yzin, 1999) American Airlines experienced dramatic…Read Full Paper ❯
27-29) This provoked financial demands and awareness of the people in different parts of the world. People and businesses are dissatisfied with the traditional financial systems due to lack…Read Full Paper ❯
Solutions As a response to the savings and loans debacle, there have been several attempts by congress and other governmental agencies to assists consumers and some financial institutions alike. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Northwest Airlines Many airlines have faced difficult times after deregulation, and the problems were exacerbated by the downturn in air travel after 9-11. Smaller airlines like Northwest Airlines have had…Read Full Paper ❯
137). Across the board, then, technological innovations will not only be a key driver of business in the coming decade, they will also facilitate the effects of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Industry Pattern Describe the industry and explain the general pattern of change of the particular market model. Since the 1990s, the electric utility industry has been going through tremendous amounts of…Read Full Paper ❯
due to changes in the economical, financial, political and technological changes, the capital markets across the world are highly influenced by the changes. As compared to the past,…Read Full Paper ❯