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Deviance is the violation of social norms. Norms are codes of ethics that act as guidance to people on how to live their lives. According to William Somner, there are three types of norms; Folkways are what a society considers being right with regard to culture and tradition. Issues like dressing, mannerisms are in this category. Different cultures and people have their own guidelines on dressing and etiquette. Violations of these folkways will not lead to the arrest of an individual, but people will consider this person as weird. Mores are those beliefs that are held by the larger community. Most societies are against interracial marriages, substance abuse, pregnancies out of wedlock or abortion (Alder & Alder, 2010). Laws are those guidelines that incorporate mores and folkways. They vary from society to society. When an individual violates mores, laws and folkways they are considered to be deviant.…
Alder, P. & Alder, P. (2012). Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interraction
(7th ed).Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learn
Jonathan, R. (2006). Scholarly Productivity in Criminal Justice. Journal of criminal Justice. 535-
Huzinga, D.(2006). Description of the National Youth Sample. The National Youth Survey project. Vol.1
Deviance Among Canadian Youths
Deviation refers to the violation of the acceptable norms and values that have maintained within the cultural framework of a society. Norms are very important in every society since they allow the people of a given society to coexist with one another, and create the best environment for human living. The Canadian society like other societies is guided by certain norms and values, which are useful for the normal operation of the Canadian society. It is on this account that the issue of deviance cannot be underestimated. One cannot underestimate the issue of deviance, and the way it has caught up with many youths in the Canadian societal setting. Deviance comes with a number of consequences, especially to the youth who are expected to be the future leaders of the nation (Platt, 1999).
Canada has experienced increased numbers of youths who have taken on deviant behavior.…
Flowers, R. (2003). Crime and deviance: exploring its causes, dynamics, and nature. New York: Charles C. Thomas Publisher
Platt, A. (1999). Thinking and Unthinking 'Social Control. Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 72 -- 79.
Thomas, P. (2002). The Power of Crime Detection. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Susan Smith was born into a traditional, middle class family. One of five daughters, Susan displayed a higher willingness to shoulder responsibility than her siblings at a very early age, which led to her parents' turning to her, for support, very frequently. The support sought was initially in the form of household chores, and then financial, once Susan was able to work, and especially after her marriage to a man who rapidly climbed the rungs of corporate success. Susan, herself, never resented her role in supporting her family's needs and in fact, based her self-esteem after the fact. Almost a model dutiful daughter, wife and mother, anyone who knew Susan in those years would have found it hard pressed to believe that Susan would one day be seen as a 'deviant,' and that she would increasingly resort to antisocial and criminal behavior.
A closer look would, however, reveal…
Shoham, S.G. (2000). Personality and Deviance: Development and Core Dynamics. Praeger Publishers. P. 183.
Final Report of the Task Force on Gambling Addiction in Maryland. (1990, December 31). Retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://www.nyu.edu/its/socsci/Docs/task_force_1.html
The issue remains widely debatable, with some insisting the behavior in the jails need to be reevaluated yet some insist on the societal emphasis in curbing recidivism.
The prison systems have also failed in reduction of recidivism through a failure to insist and implementation of programs that equip the inmates with the relevant and appropriate skills in lie with their interest and the environment from where they are. The offenders who have professions of technical skills that allow them to make a living within the society in a comfortable manner are also highly likely to succeed on their probation than those without any professional training or technical skills to earn a living from. It is also note that those offenders who went through high school successfully and finished are more likely to succeed in the probation and avid recidivism even after the probation period. Once the convict is in the…
Jeffrey Ian, (2006). Jailhouse Blues. Retrieved February 20,2013 from http://www.forbes.com/2006/04/15/prison-jeffrey-ross_cx_jr_06slate_0418ross.html
Dr. Tony Fabelo (2009). Travis County probation, three years later. Retrieved February 20,2013 from http://www.tdcaa.com/node/5268
Prison Policy Initiative, (2011). Prisoner Welfare. Retrieved February 20,2013 from http://www.prisonpolicy.org/research/prisoner_welfare/
Concomitantly, gangs such as the Crips and the Bloods were created from the former members of movements meant to increase the reputation of black individuals in the U.S. because they had diverging opinions and wanted diversity. The Crips and the Bloods can be deemed as subcultures of the pro-black movements, given the fact that the people that were once part of the larger group did not agree on certain matters and thus wanted to create smaller groups, which would be formed out of individuals who shared similar features, were affiliated with one another, and had similar objectives.
In spite of the fact that he came to be a member of the Bloods, Cle Sloan found that he knew very little of the group's background. This influenced him to search for more information regarding the community, what influence people in creating it, and how it became what it is in the…
1. Geis, Gilbert Juvenile Gangs (Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1965).
2. Thornberry, Terence P. Krohn, Marvin D. Lizotte, Alan J. Smith, Carolyn a. And Tobin, Kimberly. Gangs and Delinquency in Developmental Perspective (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
Gilbert Geis, Juvenile Gangs (Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1965) 19.
Terence P. Thornberry, Marvin D. Krohn, Alan J. Lizotte, Carolyn a. Smith, and Kimberly Tobin, Gangs and Delinquency in Developmental Perspective (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003) 13.
For example, the young woman knows it is wrong because her friends have spoken to her in the past about how awful stealing is. They have seen her steal before and told her that she is wrong. Among her friends, she is known as a thief. Deviance here has less to do with self-determination than the judgment of others. It is this external judgment of the audience that acts as the social control, if it works, and social reaction makes someone a deviant outsider. ecker (1963) says, "Social groups create deviance by making rules whose infractions constitute deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as outsiders" (1963, p. 9). Wanting not to be stigmatized as an outsider creates the social control that keeps people conformist. In this view, the woman would choose not to steal if she were concerned about avoiding stigmatization. In our example,…
Bartollas, Clemens. 2007. "Juvenile Delinquency." In 21st Century Sociology: a Reference Handbook (vol. 1). Bryant, C.D., & Peck, D.L., Eds, pp. 425-433. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference.
Becker, Howard S. 1963. Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: Free Press.
Best, Joel. 2004. Deviance: Career of a Concept. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Bryant, C.D., & Peck, D.L., Eds. 2007. 21st Century Sociology: a Reference Handbook (vol. 1). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference.
The definition of deviancy, its origin, as well as its negative connotations, seems to shifts from behavior to behavior.
Deviance at times seems benign and morally neutral and simply to challenge normative categories of identity, in the case of homosexuals, atheists, and women who are single and/or working. All of these categories have existed as Foucaultian character 'types' in the form of modern media stereotypes, as portrayed as the media, even though they could also be easily classified as acts or as belief systems. A woman's desire to work is technically an 'act' but cultural stereotypes attach assumptions to this decision -- such as the idea that a woman who works is callous and uncaring about her children. A homosexual is technically someone who engages in same-sex sexual activity but has been characterized as effeminate, overly sexual, predatory, or 'less than a man' although the only real deviant, contingent characteristics…
Foucault, Michel. (1995). Discipline and punish. New York: Vintage.
Foucault, Michel. (1990). The history of sexuality: Volume 1. New York: Vintage
Gill, N.S. (2010). Standard Roman sexuality. About.com. Retrieved August 15, 2010 at http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/sexuality/a/aa011400a.htm
Goode. (2008, February 4). Positivism. Retrieved August 14, 2010 at http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/positism.html
Deviance in odern Society
Defining Deviance in Society
All human beings are socialized by their respective societies. That means they learn what sorts of behaviors are expected and what kinds of behaviors are considered immoral, unacceptable or inappropriate. Generally, the socialization process teaches all members of the society about the norms, values, beliefs, and behaviors are considered "normal" within that society. Not all individuals necessarily adhere to all of those societal norms. In general, individuals have a certain amount of freedom to make choices about their values and beliefs and behaviors that may differ substantially from those within the predominant social culture of their society. Their behavior is considered "deviant" simply because it deviates from the normal expectations shared by most people in their society.
However, the concept of deviance exists in more than one form. There is benign deviance of the type that merely reflects different beliefs, values, and…
Macionis, J.J. (2007) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Some examples of deviance that might be used to describe this type of challenge to the social order would be events like the Boston Tea Party, or the multitude of Vietnam War protests, one resulted in the development of the independence of the U.S. And the other ended compulsory military service in the U.S. (O'Neill, 1986, p. 350)
Social control is defined as the ways in which our companions in culture (parents, friends, teachers or even strangers) attempt to redirect our behaviors toward behaviors that are more acceptable. Children are especially susceptible to social control and such control serves a serious purpose, with regard to the development of "normal" or non-deviant behaviors in the future. Social control can be something as simple as a parent giving a child a certain disapproving look when he or she reaches out to touch an item for sale in a store to an individual…
Bridges, G.S. & Myers, M.A. (Eds.). (1994). Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Harper, C.L., & Le Beau, B.F. (1993). The Social Adaptation of Marginal Religious Movements in America. Sociology of Religion, 54(2), 171-192.
Hewitt, K. (1997). Mutilating the Body: Identity in Blood and Ink. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.
O'Neill, J. (1986). The Medicalization of Social Control. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 23(3), 350-364.
The common perception of organized crime as consisting of tightly knit underworld syndicates who operate on the periphery of the legitimate business world is a misconception. It was illustrated as such in a most public way with the revelation of the Savings and Loan Scandal which swept through dozens of fronts that posed as banking institutions during the 1980's. ith the revelation that there was a direct and demonstrable relationship between mob influence at the highest levels of bank ownership for those institutions implicated and the government and corporate sponsors of the loan programs in question, the myth had been dispelled that organized crime is even capable of operating without the knowing involvement of so-called legit power-figures.
Indeed, "the distinctions drawn between business, politics, and organized crime are at best artificial and in reality irrelevant. Rather than being dysfunctions, corporate crime, white-collar crime, organized crime, and political corruption are mainstays…
Brann, J.W. (2009). Body Decor such as Piercing or Tattooing Should Not be Considered a Sign of Deviant Behavior. Women's Healthcare Topics
Desroches, F. (1995). Behind the Bars: Experiences in Crime. Canadian Scholars' Press.
Mork, B. (2006). Different ial Association Theory. University of Minnesota, Duluth.
Potter, G. (2003). CIA, Organized Crime and the Savings and Loan Scandal. Eastern Kentucky University: Third World Traveler.
I have been attending my church for my entire life. I was raised in this church and was married in this church. Although I only attend occasionally now, my parents are still faithful members who attend every week without fail, despite their age, my mother is seventy-five and my dad is eighty-five. To say this is a conservative congregation is an understatement, and so when I showed up one Sunday morning for Sunday school and church wearing jeans and a casual shirt, it became obvious that I was demonstrating a deviant behavior.
This is not only a conservative group of people, but an older group as well, the majority of the members being fifty years and older. There are very few young adults thus children are almost non-existent. There are no screaming or crying noises in this church. If there are, someone will very politely instruct the parents…
Luke 18:16. The Holy Bible. World Bible Publishers. 1986.
Yet instead, Glass had the savvy of knowing which way opinion was sliding, and simply say what most of the readers were already thinking. Had his pieces been billed OpEd, the discussion would be over. Instead, he mistakenly purposed his facts as just that, and thus moved from unbiased journalism to political and social pundit -- certainly no guiltier of lying that most High School Paper editors, but certainly at a higher profile.
Both were, by the letter of the law, guilty as charged. Ethically, Glass deserves a solid slap for his sloppiness and laziness, thinking he actually needed to double quote certain sources rather than using his intellect and power of persuasion to document the 'truth." Or, does he deserve to be chastised for being sloppy, an even more egregious charge. For Ambrose, however, let the Bard tell a story, take the notes with a grain of salt if…
Historian Stephen Ambrose Dead at 66. (15 October 2002). National Geographic News.
Retrieved from: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/10/1015_021015_ambrose.html
Clarke, R. (2006, 7-1). Plagiarism by Academics: More Complex Than It Seems. Retrieved from Journal of the Association for Information Systems: http://aisel.aisnet.org/jais/vol7/iss1/5/
Hoffman, S. And McGinley, T. (2009). Identity Theft: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing ABC/CLIO.
This may be explained partly by the fact that methamphetamine is the only drug where the number of women using the drug is roughly the same as that of men (Cohen et al., 2007) and partly due to the fact that one's status in these groups is dependent on one's involvement in the production process rather than on cultural perceptions of gender.
Question 4 Answer 4
Deviant acts can be categorized into three forms: individual, cooperation, and conflict. Individual deviant act is an act that can be accomplished by one individual. Many individuals can participate in the same act or accomplish it separately from each other, but in essence individual deviance "can be committed by one person, to that person, on that person, for that person" (Adler & Adler, 2012, p. 460). An example of individual deviance is alcohol addiction. The goal of such a deviant is to satisfy himself/herself…
Adler, P.A., & Adler, P. (2012). Constructions of deviance: Social power, context, and interaction. (7th edition). Belmond, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Cohen, J.B., Greenberg, R., Uri, J., Halpin, M., & Zweben, J.E. (2007). Women with Methamphetamine Dependence: Research on Etiology and Treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 347-351.
Farrell, R.A., & Nelson, J.F. (1976). A Causal Model of Secondary Deviance: the Case of Homosexuality. Sociological Quarterly, 17(1), 109-120.
Oselin, S.S. (2010). Weighing the consequences of a deviant career: Factors leading to an exit from prostitution. Sociological Perspectives, 53(4), 527-550.
Deviance: Internet Crimes
The Internet has revolutionized everything, from communication and entertainment to business. By one estimate, the Internet contains approximately 487 billion gigabytes (i.e., 487 Exabyte's) of data, and by the end of 2010, there were more than two billion Internet users. Nearly one-quarter of these users are members of social networking sites such as Facebook. There are many reasons for the Internet's extraordinary growth, including its vast applications, anonymity, and global outreach. (Lynn, 2010).
However, many of the factors that have contributed to the Internet's success have also made it a dangerous place. Criminals now take advantage of the Internet to exploiting suspecting users for personal, political, and financial gain. The current essay is an exploration of the concept of internet scams and fraud. The author will discuss in detail how the internet fraud began and the way it is affecting the internet users. There will…
Anderson, N. (2007). Massive DDoS Attacks Target Estonia; Russia Accused Retrieved from http://arstechnica.com/security/news/2007/05/massive-ddos-attacks-target-estonia-russia-accused.ars.
Arbor Networks (2009) Attack Report retrieved from http://www.arbornetworks.com/report .
CBS News (2010). Cyber War: Sabotaging the System. 60 Minutes Broadcast.
Danchev, D. (2008). Coordinated Russia vs. Georgia Cyber Attack in Progress. Retrieved from http://www.zdnet.com/blog/security/coordinated-russia-vs.-georgia-cyber-attack-in-progress/1670 .
Women constituted thirteen percent of the personnel. Data collected by officers' mobile data computers between 17 January 2000 and 31 March 2000 were used in the study. Consistent with the conflict theory, the authors tested whether racial and socioeconomic variables increased the likelihood of traffic stops, traffic stops resulting in search, and traffic stops resulting in summons of arrest. Ordinary least squares regression was used as the primary analytic tool to test the hypotheses. The research led to mixed results, challenging and confirming some of the hypotheses of conflict theorists. Traffic police of Richmond, Virginia were more likely to stop suspects in areas of high crime, regardless of race or socioeconomic factors. Traffic stops resulting in search, however, disproportionately targeted Black citizens than Whites. But the arrest summons resulting from traffic stops were lower for Blacks. The authors explain that police officers may not be aware of the citizen's race…
Abortion is the process determining the fate of a mother and a child who is not only unwanted but also is deprived of the opportunity to view the way the world is. All issues revolving around abortion have a strong connection with ethics, the "rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession" (Webster's evised Unabridged Dictionary) or ethics are also defined as "a set of principles of right conduct" as well as "a theory or a system of moral values" (Webster's evised Unabridged Dictionary). Hence, these carefully formulated rules and policies determine "the actions or reactions of a person in response to external or internal stimuli" thereby energizing behavior of the all human beings and motivating them to act accordingly (American Heritage Dictionary). Abortion, by some is considered the right of a woman or of the parents of the unbidden child, by some…
Calhoun, C., Light, D., & Keller, S. Sociology (5th. ed.) Alfred Knopf: New York. 1989
Leighninger, L., & Popple, Phillip R. Social Work, Social Welfare, and American Society (3rd. ed.). Allyn and Bacon: Needham Heights, MA. 1996
Erich Goode, Deviant Behavior (5th Ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 1997
Edwin M. Schur: Crimes without Victims: Deviant Behavior and Public Policy Abortion, Homosexuality, Drug Addiction. Prentice-Hall.Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1965.
Film And Book Analysis
Donna and Entry Level Deviance
In accordance to the cultural-transmission theory, deviance is a behavior that is learnt by means of interacting with others. Basically, individuals end up learning from other individuals who take part in deviant norms and also possess and display deviant values. Donna largely represent entry level deviance in the sense that she hangs out with cocaine and substance D addicts, but does not alter her behavior. More so, she acts as a supplier of substance D yet at the culmination of the film, ends up being a police officer who is keen on blowing up the operations of New Path. The manner in which law enforcement follows a chain of evidence from low-level deviants, such as Donna, is simply through direct supervision on a daily basis as several prospects for deviance can present themselves to such low level deviants. This enables the…
A Scanner Darkly (2006). Film Boundless. "Social Control Theory." Boundless Sociology. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015. Retrieved 16 Nov. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/textbooks/boundless-sociology-textbook/deviance-social-control-and-crime-7/social-control-60/social-control-theory-367-3422/
Boundless. "Strain Theory: How Social Values Produce Deviance." Boundless Sociology. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015. Retrieved 16 Nov. 2015 from: https://www.boundless.com/sociology/textbooks/boundless-sociology-textbook/deviance-social-control-and-crime-7/the-functionalist-perspective-on-deviance-62/strain-theory-how-social-values-produce-deviance-375-6183/
Calhoun, Thio. Conyers A. 2013. Deviance Today. ISBN-10: 0205208754
Chang, Jenna. 2008. The Role of Anonymity in Deindividuated Behavior: A Comparison of Deindividuation Theory and the Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE). The Pulse: Volume 6, Issue 1.
Deviance and Crime:
Acts that are regarded as deviant are not necessarily criminal acts since an act does not need to break the law to be considered deviant. Generally, a deviant act is merely any behavior that breaches the accepted norms of the community, regardless of whether it breaks the law. For instance, wearing a t-shirt with a curse word could considered deviant to some though the words on the t-shirt wouldn't be criminal due to the First Amendment. Therefore, people who are motivated by deviant behavior have a tendency of committing acts that are viewed as breaking the norms of the society. The labeling of acts as deviant differs across places, cultures, social groups, and time ("Deviance, Crime, and Law," n.d.). Nonetheless, there is an ongoing debate on the role of law enforcement in dealing with deviance and crime.
One of the major ways of determining whether the role…
Bond, M. (2014, February 6). Being an Ethical Warrior: How Labeling Theory Influences Police
Officers and Their Patrol Perceptions. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://inpublicsafety.com/2014/02/being-an-ethical-warrior-how-labeling-theory-influences-police-officers-and-their-patrol-perceptions/
"Deviance, Crime, and Law." (n.d.). SAGE Publications. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/47667_ch_7_%26_8.pdf
Deviance in a Police Drama
"White Collar" is a television drama involving the adventures of FBI agents who investigate white collar crimes. The team of investigators includes a former con-artist/thief, Neil, who assists a regular FBI agent, Peter, and uses his special knowledge to solve cases. The episode being discussed was called "The Original" and dealt with an art forger who was selling forged art pieces. At first the FBI did not want to investigate a possible forgery, however, the perseverance of the team was finally supported by the bureau. The team believed that the forger was the former assistant of the artist who's works were being forged and an elaborate plan was set into motion to catch him.
The crime may have gone unnoticed except that the team was sent to an art gallery to inspect a different artwork, but while there, Neil noticed a piece that was not…
"Art Theft." The FBI. Retrieved from www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/vc_majorthefts/arttheft/art-crime-team
Eastin, Jeff, Mark Goffman (Writers), & John Kretchmer (Director). (2013).
The Original, White Collar, USA Network. Retrieved from http://www.hulu.com/watch/461720
Henslin, James. (2011). Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn
Quite often in our day-to-day lives we hear the word "deviance," but never truly know the concepts behind it. It is not a complicated term although it is one with many theories behind it giving a vast variety of interpretations of just what deviance is and is not. Questions arise as to its relativity. Of course, no one can proclaim deviance is not relative, as deviance is behavior that does not follow common perceptions. An important sociological concept states that people conform, or perform to societal expectation or norms (Brown, 1965). Conformity provides order in the society. Thus, when someone is doing something that the rest of society find unacceptable, or out of the ordinary, he or she is considered deviant.
One sociologist, Erdwin Pfuhl, believes that the label "deviant" depends on a group's notion of actions and conditions that should and should not occur. This view also suggests…
Labeling theory looks at the reaction of others and the subsequent effects of such reactions, which create deviance ("Labeling," 1997). When it becomes know that a person has engaged in deviant behavior, he or she is segregated from the larger society and labeled with names such as: "whore," "thief," "abuser," and "junky" (1997).
In looking at this perspective today, one can see hoe social reaction is key to labeling. Women who had sex before marriage in the 1950's, where considered "wild." It was such a label that was attached and considered deviant. Today, because there are not many single adult women who remain virgins until the day of their wedding, the term "wild" does not carry the weight it once did. While some labels are obsolete, other labels are very much in vogue.
Criminologists decided to look into family trees to
I would also attribute the use of these services to be more commonly found among students that are not on higher levels of education, such as doctorates, Master's students, or higher ranking Ivy-League students. However, the students within these contexts are, in my opinion, the ones who are more likely to be caught when they do utilize such services simply because of the level of demand that is required of students at this level. This type of cheating may also be more commonly found among athletes who have much lower academic achievement, but must sustain a higher intellect in their academics in order to continue their athletics. A simple reason behind some of this cheating may be due to poor public education or because of too much focus on social activities.
Cheating can be identified in many ways. I have never personally had anyone attempt to conspire cheating…
Currently, not social distancing is considered deviant. People will take pictures of others and put them on social media to shame them and they will call them names like “Covidiot” because they are not following the social distancing guidelines that the US government has put forward and that state governments are making mandatory in some cases. They are deviant because they are being labeled as such in the news media and on social media, and according to labeling theory labels are a way to ostracize, to marginalize and to prevent groups of people from being legitimized or from having any power in a system (Lumen, 2019).
Some things that were deviant 50 years ago were homosexuality and having children out of wedlock. Today these things are normalized and the change has occurred in large part thanks to the second wave, third wave and fourth wave feminism. The activism of…
Furthermore, the label of deviance does not encourage society to question its supposed normalcy, although not so long ago, homosexuality or using birth control was labeled a criminal, deviant act. Finally, not all criminal acts are deviant per se, as speeding or drinking before the age of 21 and other actions that are technically violations of the law are often tolerated by the majority rather than the minority of society.
There are also crimes, like cheating on one's taxes, that may be clearly deviant, but are viewed as less pathological than crimes of violence. Understanding why so-called normal society views certain deviant acts with greater disapproval than other acts, or marginalizes certain individuals who are more likely to become criminals as a result might thus be a more important area of study.
Simon, David R. (2006). Elite Deviance.
Thio, Alex & Thomas C. Calhoun. (2006). Readings…
Simon, David R. (2006). Elite Deviance.
Thio, Alex & Thomas C. Calhoun. (2006). Readings in Deviant Behavior. 3rd Ed.
Deviance: Breaking Social Norms
For this exercise, I decided to be deviant at church. At our church, people tend to pick a pew and spread out in it. Usually there are a few families who will stand in the back because all the pews are taken. However, there is always still plenty of space in a pew for multiple families—but in America personal space is considered rather important, so it is rare to find a pew that is jam packed full of people unless they are all related or know one another well. Sharing space with a person in America is deemed something that is reserved for intimates rather than for strangers. However, in a country like India there is really no concept of personal space. People when pack themselves on trains to beyond capacity and to the point that one can be literally hanging out the door as the…
Role of Deviance in Societies
Deviance is behavior that is regarded as outside the bounds of a group or society (Deviance pp). Deviance is a behavior that some people in society find offensive and which excites, or would excite if discovered, and is usually met with disapproval, punishment, condemnation, or hostility (Deviance pp).
Deviance is not merely behavior, but involves a moral judgement (Deviance pp). Moreover, in essence, any act can be defined as deviant (Deviance pp). It is not possible to isolate certain acts and find them universally condemned by all societies as deviant acts, not even murder or incest, and even within a given society, behavior defined as deviant continually undergoes redefinition (Deviance pp). Furthermore, it is relative to time and place, thus, it is not possible to find a behavior that is absolutely condemned by all societies, because what is deviant in one society may not be…
Boyden, Matthew; Green, Amy. "Positive Deviance."
http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:U0HBSqQA6f8J:www.ex.ac.uk/Psychology/docs/courses/3227/boydengreenwk7.ppt+Role+of+Deviance+in+Societies& ; hl=en
Campbell, LeAnne. "As strong as the weakest link: urban high school dropout."
High School Journal. 12/1/2003.
The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes.
The other five people upon entering the elevator realized that not everybody turned to face the entrance as usual. The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned. However, the…
Alder, P., & Alder, P. (2012). Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction (7th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Beauvais, F. (1992). Characteristics of Indian Youth and Drug Use. American Indian and Alaska
Native Mental Health Research Journal .
Cullen, F.T., & Cullen, J.B. (1978). Toward A Paradigm of Labeling Theory. NCJRS, 53.
Duncan continues to conform to the statutory definition of a sexual psychopath (Crenson, 2005)."
Temporal deviance can also cause inappropriate sexual behavior and problems maintaining personal relationships.
The courts must decide is and is not criminal when considering temporal deviance. The most basic answer to that question is that a deviancy is criminal if it the deviancy is acted on and is of such a nature that it commits force, damage or fear in a person or against a property.
Located just above the ears, the temporal lobe is involved in face and object recognition, musical ability, personality and sexual behavior. If epilepsy or some other condition causes damage to the temporal lobe, a person can become sexually attracted to inappropriate stimuli, even inanimate objects (Crenson, 2005)."
Studies have indicated that pedophiles have a lower activity level in the temporal part of the brain, however it only becomes criminal when…
Crenson, Matt (2005) Key Trait May Predispose Predators to Sexual Deviance; Many Appear to Possess One or More Brain Abnormalities. The Washington Post
Garcia, Erica (2006) Genetic predictions of future dangerousness: is there a blueprint for violence?(the Impact of Behavioral Genetics on the Criminal Law) Law and Contemporary Problems
McCracken, James (2001) Mental Health Problems and Service Use Among Female Juvenile Offenders: Their Relationship to Criminal History. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Sutherland was quite critical of why some crimes were defined as deviant, while society appears more tolerant of other transgressions. For example, individual theft is seen as causing great harm, while the harm caused by illegal pollution and the dissemination of hazardous waste are hardly recognized. In 2002, for example, the Carnival Company, a Florida-based cruise company which operates 40 ships, was convicted of falsifying its oil record books. The company under-reported the levels of oil in the bilge water it discharged. The higher levels of oil threatened ocean life. To avoid prosecution, Carnival agreed to pay $18 million in fines (Ferro 2003).
Though Carnival was guilty of wrongdoing, few members of the general public at the time would go so far as to define Carnival's actions as criminally deviant.
In summary, both functionalist and social labeling theories help to explain how corporate deviance are both defined and addressed in…
Ferro, Jeffrey. 2003. "White-Collar Crime." Crime: A Serious American Problem. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC
Friedrichs, David O. 1996. Trusted Criminals: White Collar Crime in Contemporary Society. New York: Wadsworth.
Sutherland, Edwin H. 1983. White Collar Crime: The Uncut Version. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group
influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.
The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas
There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…
American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html
Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.
Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications
Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Durkheim Four Principles of Deviance
In looking at the four functions of deviance in the context of examples. Namely rock and roll music and marijuana smoking, etc. In the 1950s and 1960s compared to today.
The first function according to Durkheim is that deviance gives affirmation to validate the values and cultural norms that guide behavior in society (Macionis, 2006).
In America a guiding principle of society has always been morality. Since the country was founded on a primary belief in Godly ("In God we Trust") principles of right and wrong. Along with the freedoms that comes with allowing people of all religions to determine their own destinies. With this freedom comes the realization that there will be differences in opinion about behavior and the type of attitudes that accompany a moral premise. If there is a virtue of what is 'acceptable' or good in society there has to be…
Digital Dream Door. (2005). Rock n Roll Timeline. Retrieved July 27, 2011 from http://www. digitaldreamdoor. com/pages/best_timeline-r1. html
Henslin, J.M. (1996). Essentials of Sociology. Retrieved July 27, 2011 from Needham
Heights:MA. Publishers Allyn & Bacon,
Macionis, J.J. (2006). The Basics of Society. Prentice Hall. Pearson Education. Edition 5.
The changing nature of crime should make criminology, in terms of criminal laws, flexible and up-to-date. The law must have a regular review to ensure that the society is governed by proper and accurate directives to guarantee peace and equality among the people. Moreover, flexibility is important to ensure that right punishment is rendered to every crime. Another impact that criminology holds because of the changing nature of crime is the goal and objective of assessing their tools and technology that fight against crime.
Unlike some decades ago, guns and written laws are not the only tools these days that can prevent crimes and put the criminals in bars. Because of the diverse high technology that emerges, it is important that criminology has the right and advance instruments that can enhance their purpose of serving and ensuring peace to society.
On the other hand, this exposure to many different systems of morality can also be confusing, and can make any kind of deviant behavior seem acceptable in a relativistic fashion. hy obey the drug laws of the United States when in Amsterdam, there are no such regulations?
Setting standards of deviance and normalcy is a negotiation between the rights of the individual and the needs of the community. Sometimes, the rights of the individual will win out, other times the community's need for harmony will supersede these individual rights. This negotiation will vary from nation to nation, time to time, and place to place.
Simon, David R. (2006). Elite Deviance.
Thio, Alex & Thomas C. Calhoun. (2006). Readings in Deviant…
Simon, David R. (2006). Elite Deviance.
Thio, Alex & Thomas C. Calhoun. (2006). Readings in Deviant Behavior. 3rd Ed.
Ethics - Deviance
"Eating your Friends is the Hardest: The Survivors of the F-227" by James M. Henslin discusses the ways in which reality is created by society and groups within it. The unique life-or-death situation of the Andes Mountain plane crash survivors shows how a group can be compelled to redefine deviant behavior to make it acceptable and even holy. By examining this group's situation, Henslin is able to define a number of lessons about social reality.
"Eating your Friends is the Hardest: The Survivors of the F-227" by James M. Henslin discusses the ways in which reality is created by examining a unique but disturbing situation. This situation, in which some humans survived a plane crash in the Andes Mountains, were stranded in the Mountains for more than 2 months and were literally starving to death with no food source except human corpses, gave Henslin a unique opportunity…
Celibacy and Sexual Deviance by Priests
Many psychologists have suggested that clergy who take a vow of celibacy are more likely to engage in sexual deviance than clergy who are allowed to marry. Many others argue that this is completely untrue. This research paper aims to examine these points-of-view to either prove or disprove the relationship between celibacy and sexual deviances by priests.
In today's society, the Catholic Church is confronted with two important issues regarding sexuality. The first is the scandal of sexual abuse of children by priests, which is a highly publicized issue that it damaging the reputation of the Catholic Church in the United States. The second is the question of whether priest should take a vow of celibacy and remain unmarried.
In order to fully address this hypothesis, it is important to address these questions but not regard them as two aspects of one problem.
Berry, Jason. Lead Us Not Into Temptation: Catholic Priests and the Sexual Abuse of Children. Doubleday, 1992.
Burkett, Elinor, and Frank Bruni. A Gospel of Shame: Children, Sexual Abuse, and the Catholic Church. Viking, 1993.
Hudson, Dean. Ten Myths About Priestly Pedophilia. Crisis, July, 2001.
Isely, P. Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church: A Historical and Contemporary Review. Pastoral Psychology, 1997.
police corruption. Furthermore, it will address the areas of organizational and occupational deviance.
Occupational and Organizational Deviance
The definition for occupational or workplace deviance given by Bennett and obinson is: voluntary employee behavior that goes against key company norms, and hence, threatens its well-being as well as that of fellow employees. The workplace represents a forum in which several different behaviors can be seen, with each of them having different consequences to organizational members and the overall organization. Such behaviors normally fall within organizational norms' constructs (Matthew, et.al, 2014). Company norms are defined as a collection of expected principles, behaviors, languages, and postulations, which enable its operations to progress at the proper pace. Any action is considered an occupational deviance if important organizational rules are violated by it. Some examples of occupational deviance include: absenteeism, alcohol/drug abuse, abusing sick leaves, sabotage, filing false accident claims, rule-breaking, stealing, not working to…
Egelko, B. (2014, December 5). SFGate: San Francisco Bay Area - News, Bay Area news, Sports, Business, Entertainment, Classifieds - SFGate. 2 San Francisco police officers convicted of corruption - SFGate. Retrieved January 18, 2016, from http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/Two-San-Francisco-police-officers-convicted-in-5937963.php
(n.d.). Insurance Journal - Property Casualty Insurance News. Tulsa, Oklahoma, Settles Police Corruption Case for $425K. Retrieved January 18, 2016, from http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/southcentral/2014/01/31/319049
Matthew, O., Chigozie, U., & Kosiso, A. (2014). Workplace Deviance: A Predictive study of Occupational Stress and Emotional Intelligence among Secondary School teachers. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(12). Retrieved, from http://hrmars.com/hrmars_papers/Workplace_Deviance_A_Predictive
Crime and Deviance
Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.
Theories of Crime and Deviance
Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…
Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved
Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/
Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm
"The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938." American Sociological Review, 1972.
t's us vs. them! This familiar theme runs through a substantial amount of political rhetoric in the current electoral media discourse. However, writing during one of the most polarized periods of American politics, Walter D. Connor from the University of Michigan was able to show that such a construction of deviancy in a group deemed sociologically 'other' has been largely true of both the left and the right, throughout history and in many nations and political environments. Much as hippies and other social undesirables were tarred and feathered as deviant during the late 1960's and 1970's, in America, the American Sociological Review of 1972 article entitled "The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938" suggests that the repressive Soviet regime of Stalin similarly derived its sense of popular legitimacy from…
It's us vs. them! This familiar theme runs through a substantial amount of political rhetoric in the current electoral media discourse. However, writing during one of the most polarized periods of American politics, Walter D. Connor from the University of Michigan was able to show that such a construction of deviancy in a group deemed sociologically 'other' has been largely true of both the left and the right, throughout history and in many nations and political environments. Much as hippies and other social undesirables were tarred and feathered as deviant during the late 1960's and 1970's, in America, the American Sociological Review of 1972 article entitled "The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938" suggests that the repressive Soviet regime of Stalin similarly derived its sense of popular legitimacy from manufacturing or creating not only a communist sense of class or dialectical warfare, but of medical and racial and social deviance of good citizens of the republic vs. The bad citizens.
As the class warfare, according to official Soviet rhetoric had ended, between the bourgeois and proletarian, Stalin was in something of an ideological quandary as to how to define what was wrong with Soviet society, even after communist 'reforms' had been instated. Personal deviance from what was considered the norm in a sociological fashion was one way this was created. By perpetually creating or manufacturing distractions, and then purging such deviant groups, Stalin kept his hold on power through paranoia.
The public's ire and distrust wielded against other social groups, such as Jewish individuals or members of ethnic minorities, rather than politicians. Thus Stalin was able to keep secure in power, even in a nation that was weathering terrible economic privations that would normally spur a population to revolt. The ideological manufacturing of blaming a group, whether international capitalists outside, or Jewish doctors infiltrating the inner sanctum of Stalin's power base ensured that the dictator was able to create a climate of fear on a personal, micro level within the Kremlin and on a macro level for the populace at large, as they had to be constantly on guard for spies and other deviants in their midst. O'Connor ultimately concludes that polarization rather than harmonization is key in a dictatorship, and also in some manifestations of democracy during economic and social difficulties.
Counterproductive and Productive Behaviors
Defining Counterproductive and Productive Work Behavior
Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is defined by an employee's actions causing harm to either a coworker or their employer (reviewed by Krischer, Penney, and Hunter, 2010). The forms of CWB can vary considerably, from arguing with or ignoring coworkers, damaging equipment to sabotage the work of others, and reducing the amount of time spent at work. esearchers have proposed a number of theories that attempt to explain the psychological roots of CWB and these include an employee reacting emotionally to a perceived negative workplace event or condition, or simply seeking a desired outcome (manipulation).
Krischer, Penney, and Hunter (2010) argue that organizational psychology research has focused almost exclusively on an employee's affective response to negative events, to the exclusion of internal or instrumental motivations. Instrumental motivations for engaging in CWB could arise from an employee's attempts to cope…
Bennett, Rebecca J. And Robinson, Sandra L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 349-360.
Fodchuk, Katherine M. (2007). Work environments that negate counterproductive behaviors and foster organizational citizenship: Research-based recommendations for managers. Psychologist-Manager Journal, 10, 27-46.
Koster, Ferry and Sanders, Karin. (2006). Organizational citizens or reciprocal relationships? An empirical comparison. Personnel Review, 35, 519-537.
Krischer, Mindy M., Penney, Lisa M., and Hunter, Emily M. (2010). Can counterproductive work behaviors be productive? CWB as emotion-focused coping. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, 154-166.
Merton also incorporated Durkheim's observations of the difference between intrinsic motivation for work and economic profit and purely superficial extrinsic motivation for the tangible trappings of success and/or social status. Since post-Industrial evolution social values tended to focus so much more on acquisition and less on contributing to society through work, individuals experiencing psychosocial strains from the lack of available opportunities for legitimate work often sought to acquire the same outward social status through deviant and criminal means (Schmalleger, 2008).
The documentary traced the evolution of organized neighborhood protection and political rights organizations in vast criminal enterprises after the discovery of the economic profit potential associated with selling illicit narcotics. In Los Angeles, a parasitic relationship developed wherein the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) extracted protection money from the gangs while simultaneously increasing their official budget to upgrade their facilities and equipment on the basis of the increasing firepower and…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, R. (2005). Psychology and Life/. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
The environment, has been a scientific argument since the Victorian Era. The nature vs. nurture and stability vs. change arguments remain quite controversial. In essence, it concerns the importance of an individual's innate qualities (their nature) versus the way they were raised, the interactions they have had, and their personal experiences (nurture). One asks, would we have had a Stalin had he remained in seminary, or not been part of a prison system that spurred ideas of communism, would Van Gogh or Tchaikovsky produced such masterpieces of art had they not had clinical depression and perhaps a host of psychological disorders - or, does history (a general term here for civilization and humanity), produce those individuals that are products of their time and environment, thus perpetuating the idea of change? (Ridley). Likely not, but the basis for their behavior is likely still part of their psyche. However, just because the…
society as we know exerts its influence on the affairs and behavior of human beings. Social influences encompass the changes that occur in attitudes, beliefs, and behavior that often result from interpersonal interactions. Conformity and obedience are key concepts that aid in explaining social influences. Concisely, conformity refers to the influence that the masses or the majority have over an individual (Collins, 2009). On the other hand, obedience is influence exerted by the state or an authority over its subjects. This essay will endeavor to compare and contrast these two forms of social influences and draw conclusions that will candidly show the difference between conformity and obedience.
Conformity and obedience bear some semblance with each other in the fact that they can both persuade, or inspire an individual to change one's behavior, actions and thoughts, as regards a specific situation. Another semblance between conformity and obedience lies in their ability…
Bleske-rechek, A.L. (1999). Obedience, Conformity, and Social Roles: Active Learning in a Large Introductory Psychology Class. Teaching of Psychology, 28(4), 260-262.
Burger, J.M., Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Baltes. (2001). The psychology of social influence. In N.J. Smelser & P.B. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Social Behavioral Sciences (pp. 14320-14325). Cambridge University Press.
Collins, S.D. (2009). Persuasion. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Fiske, S.T. (2010). Social beings: Core Motives in Social Psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ:
Indeed, the way the two girls move together once they meet suggests a growing obsession that is not entirely explained by reference to shared experiences or to agreement on how wonderful Mario Lanza is. Throughout the film, there is a strong sense of a deeper attraction that cannot be explained except in sexual terms, even if the girls themselves never think in that way and if those around them also do not see the meaning of this attraction. Queer deviance in that sense has to be imposed by later observers, meaning the audience for the film, because that leap in thinking was not taken by the society in which the girls lived. What the film suggests is that this leap would have been made had people known more about the situation at the time.
Of course, the psychological impact of the film is extended even further by a fact not…
Brown's Shooting And Organizational Deviance
Michael Brown was fatally shot dead by a police officer in Ferguson, Missouri on August 9. While the circumstances surrounding the shooting remain under investigation, the incident contributed to several days of protests and conflicts between citizens and law enforcement officers that have been covered extensively by the media. During the time of the shooting, Michael Brown was shot six times and murdered despite presenting no threat to the life of the officer or any other individual. Therefore, the use of deadly or brutal force by the police officer was not immediately necessary to enforce the arrest of the suspect. The series of protests in the aftermath of the incident was fueled by the fact that the police officer presumably killed an innocent individual and endangered the lives of others by discharging his weapon several times in an area with a high population.
Alba, M. (2014, September 5). Ferguson Police Force Faces Civil Rights Investigation. NBC
News. Retrieved September 8, 2014 from http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/michael-brown-shooting/ferguson-police-force-faces-civil-rights-investigation-n196236
Pazzanese, C. (2014, August 21). The Fumbles in Ferguson. Retrieved from Harvard University
ape in Conflict
There are various situations in life that results in rape in conflict;
The feminist perspective on the various forms of violence perpetrated against women does suggest strongly that such acts are a reinforcement of patriarchy. This is portrayed in the unequal bargaining power that exists in the various sexual encounters in the societies that are increasingly patriarchal. The fact that the traditional male privilege has continuously faded away through time has resulted in the increasing use of violence in order to ensure that women are put women "in their place" as indicated by Sheffield (1987).The resulting fear of violence has therefore made women to modify their way of living since they are depraved of certain fundamental freedoms.
Slavery has been note to be a key factor in the occurrence of rape cases. The African-American women were exposed to institutionalized rape while the African-American men…
Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will: Men, women and rape. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Davis, a., (1981), "Rape, Racism, and the Myth of the Black Rapist," in Women, Race, and Class, New York: Vintage Books
Fattah, E.A. (1994). Some problematic concepts, unjustified criticism and popular misconceptions. In G.F. Kirchhoff, E. Kosovski, & H.J. Schneider (Eds.), International debates of victimology (pp. 82-103). Moenchengladbach, Germany: World Society of Victimology.
Funk, RE (1993)Stopping Rape: A Challenge for Men (Philadelphia: New Society, 1993), p19.
Socialization, Deviance & Social Control
Socialization in Children
Human beings are essentially born without culture, they have what is commonly referred to as Tabula rasa by psychologists, meaning and empty and receptive mind or brain. It is the society that plants the relevant culture into this empty mind and makes the child a member of a certain culture. It is the society that makes the individual a socially and culturally aware individual or animal. This process of generally acquiring culture is known as socialization. Generally, during the socialization process, the individual learns the language of the culture they are born in and also the roes that they are expected to play or undertake within that society. It is at the early ages of childhood that the children also learn of the occupational roles that they are expected to assume once they grow up and the behaviors that are held by…
Maurice Sendak, (1963).Where the Wild Things Are. Harper Trophy Publishers. Retrieved July 28, 2014 from http://ebooks.booklikes.com/post/8903/where-the-wild-things-are-by-maurice-sendak
Merriam Webster, (2014). Definition: Enculturation. . Retrieved July 28, 2014 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/enculturation
Social control can be maintained through proper guidelines and laws. If there will come a time that the multicultural society of Australia may be in need of change, there is always a room for social construction and re-construction as this is always part of the country's initiatives to develop and grow as a country for the people and by the people.
It appears that the Australian government is currently having an exaggerated moral panic over its asylum seekers. Based on a number of reports, this moral panic is just used as part of the propaganda of the new government to get the attention of the people. In fact, neither deviance nor lowering social control is not a problem and should not be considered as one.
Australia has been known for its humanitarian programs for asylum seekers from the very beginning. It was once the refuge of migrants wanting to…
Australian National Audit Office. (2001). Management Framework for Preventing Unlawful Entry into Australian Territory. Report No. 57.
Canberra: Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. (2001). Refugee and humanitarian issues: Australia's response.
Jewkes, Y and Letherby G. (2002). Criminology: A Reader. SAGE Publications Ltd.McMaster, Don (2002). "Asylum Seekers: Australia's Response to Refugees." Melbourne; Melbourne University Press, pp 60
Picketing, Sharon. (2001). "Common Sense and Original Deviancy: News Discourses and Asylum Seekers in Australia," Journal of Refugee Studies, 14(2): 169-86.
John ommel Case Study
Why would John be considered a deviant? What social foundations of deviance appear to be evident in this case study?
Deviance is defined as the recognized violation of cultural norms. Social deviance is defined as any behavior that violates the social norms within a culture or greater community. This behavior can be criminal but does not necessarily need to violate a law to qualify. Criminal acts such as theft or assault are common types of social deviance, but so are incidental behaviors like lying, excessive drinking, or nose picking. The theory of social deviance is the foundation of the study of criminology and splinters into three classes of deviant behavior: conflict, structural functionalism, and symbolic interactionism.
2.Examine the three theoretical foundations of deviance (structural-functional, symbolic-interaction, and social-conflict). Determine which foundation applied to John's situation, and why. Give specific examples.
British sociologist A.. adcliffe-Brown developed the structural-functionalism…
Kessel, DH (n.d.). Sociological theoretical perspectives. Retrieved from http://www.angelfire.com/or/sociologyshop/soctheopers.html
participation in deviant social structures. What makes people commit to a deviant identity? What makes people adhere to the social structures of deviant groups? Why are members of deviant groups so deeply loyal to each other and to the organization? The paper endeavors to offer insight into these questions and more as part of a quest to understand deviant behaviors, deviant organizations, and the construction of identity.
Exploring the Continuum of Deviant Organizations
For this essay, use Best & Luckenbill's continuum of deviant organizations as outlined in the textbook to explain how a person or group could become increasingly invested in his/her deviance. For example, consider how a youth from a gang-impacted area could move his/her way through from less organized to more organized deviant social organizations and imagine how this would ultimately impact his/her identity formation.
The higher the degree of deviant behavior demonstrated to serve and/or participate in…
Adler, P., & Adler, P. (2012) Constructions of deviance: Social power, context, and interaction. (7th ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Best, J., & Luckenbill, D.F. (1980) The Social Organization of Deviants. Social Problems, 28(1), 14 -- 31.
In this example, it becomes evident that Anderson's underlying theory in conducting his analysis is the labeling theory. A product of the symbolic interactionist paradigm, labeling theory posits that "a response to an act and not the behavior that determines deviance...(it) is the recognition that some people or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others" (Schaefer, 1998:165). From this definition, Anderson's categorization of street people corresponds to the people's behavior and actions as they live a life of poverty. For the "criminal elements" of the society, deviance is a form of legitimacy for them to conduct more deviant acts, and thus, the continuous conduct of deviant actions reinforces the label "criminal element(s)." Similarly, there exist labels that determine people who lead double identities of being able to assimilate to both the normative and deviant groups. y resorting to "decent ways" of living, Anderson considers some…
Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the Street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of inner city. NY W.W. Norton.
Schaefer, R. (1998). Sociology: a brief introduction. NY: McGraw-Hill Co.
1. Deviance is relative, and refers to behavioral deviation from established social norms within a specific community (Schaefer, 2016). Therefore, what is deviant in one period of time will become normative in another and vice-versa. Likewise, what is deviant in one culture may not be considered deviant in another. Although deviance is typically framed as maladaptive behavior that either leads to or is categorized as criminal, deviance can also be constructive, productive, and “positive,” (Hughes & Coakley, 1991, p. 307). In fact, athletes engage in what is known as “positive deviance,” in that their behaviors constitute a cohesive “sport ethic” that includes taking risks, pushing past personal limits, and making sacrifices for the greater good of the game (Hughes & Coakley, 1991, p. 307). The 2010 documentary I Am Alive is about the Uruguayan rugby team’s remarkable survival in the Andes, and is a perfect example of positive deviance in…
In its current form in the U.S., prostitution is associated with high rates of criminality, but that is likely a function of its illegal status more than of anything inherent in prostitution. Prostitution is also associated with high risks of STDs, but a closer examination of the specific factors to which that is attributable strongly suggest that legalizing prostitution can effectively eliminate that negative element. Ultimately, prevailing negative attitudes about legalized prostitution are much more reflective of the persistence of irrational social stigmas and antiquated definitions of social deviance that originated in the Victorian Age, if not even much earlier.
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting ealistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:…
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting Realistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
Kaul, R., Kimani, J., Nagelkerk, N.J. (1997).Risk Factors for Genital Ulcerations in Kenyan Sex Workers Sexually Transmissible Diseases [Vol. 4: 24(7):387-392].
In fact, many studies show that deviant or antisocial children may experience a strengthening of the bonds between parents and society in the process of their development.
Therefore, while social control theory is one view, there are many alternative theories that take other findings and variables into account. In general, the view that a deviant child who does not change by a certain age is "condemned "to a life of crime if sharply criticized, as it often does not concur with empirical findings. Theories put forward by Gottfredson and Hirsch propose another view of the life-course towards crime that takes into account the fact that in many case early deviant behavior does not necessarily lead to a life-long pattern of criminal behavior.
Describe the labeling theory and the consequences that labeling can have on a child. Should we be concerned with labeling? Why or why not?
ACF Questions and Answers Support. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from http://faq.acf.hhs.gov/cgi-bin/acfrightnow.cfg/php/enduser/std_adp.php?p_sid=qnPNlL5i&p_lva=&p_faqid=68&p_created=1001610478&p_sp=cF9zcmNoPTEmcF9ncmlkc29y dD0mcF9yb3dfY250PTEzJnBfc2VhcmNoX3RleHQ9JnBfc2VhcmNoX3R5 cGU9MyZwX2NhdF9sdmwxPTEwJnBfY2F0X2x2bDI9MzAmcF9zb3J0X2J 5PWRmbHQmcF9wYWdlPTE*&p_li =
Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/define.cfm
Crime Theories. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from NCWC. Web site: http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/111/111lect03.htm
Overview of Labeling Theories. Retrieved April 9, 2008 http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/labeling.html
Sociology and Req. For a Dream
ARequiem for a [email protected] takes sociological deviation to the extreme. Deviation is defined as behaviors which do not conform to significant norms held by most members of a society or group. This movie uses drugs as the deviation and shows how it destroys the four main character's lives. Harry and his girlfriend start out as ambitious young adults with dreams of starting their own clothing store. Tyrone just wants happiness with his girlfriend. Lastly Sara Goldfarb, Harry's mom wants to be on television. The three friends end alone, with nothing but their addiction to heroin and Sara is committed to an asylum because of the effects of the speed she uses to lose weight in order to be on TV. There are many specific sociological principles that apply to things that happen within deviant subcultures. This movie illustrates a good many of them in…
It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.
7. eflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?
I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part…
Bates, K., C. Bader, and F. Mencken. (2003). "Family structure, power-control theory, and deviance: extending power-control theory to include alternate family forms." Western Criminology Review, Vol. 4, No. 3.
Egelman, B. And A. Susman-Stillman. (1996). "Dissociation as mediator of child abuse across generations." Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 20, Issue 11.
Flowers, R. (2001). Runaway kids and teenage prostitution: America's lost, abandoned, and sexually exploited children. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Simons, R., C. Johnson, J. Beaman, and R. Conger. (1993). "Explaining women's double jeopardy: factors that mediate the association between harsh treatment as a child and violence by a husband." Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55.
The argument here is highly theoretical, ultimately defining crime as unskilled and essentially unrestrained activity -- supporting their later conclusions in a Genera Theory of Crime (Gottfredson & Hirschil 1986). Even here, however, some points of continuity with other research can be found.
The authors ultimately maintain that criminal behavior arises out of a failure to meet the standards of normal behavior in society, and that the image of the "career criminal" is a misleading research concept as all who exhibit consistent criminal patterns are essentially incapable of maintaining the intellectual and conscious through-line of a "career" (Gottfredson & Hirschil 1986). Though other findings suggest that rehabilitation is more possible than these conclusions indicate, even a minor adjustment in Gottfredson & Hirschil's (1986) theory makes it compatible with these other findings: if learning can continue in adulthood, than the persistent "incapabilities" of career-oriented behavior can eventually be taught these capabilities.…
Gottfredson, M. & Hirschil, T. (1986). The true value of lambda would appear to be zero. Criminology 24(2), pp. 213-234.
Gottfredson, M. & Hirschil, T. (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Laub, J.; Nagin, D. & Sampson, R. (1992). Trajectories of change in criminal offending. American Sociological Review 63, pp. 225-238.
Sampson, R. & Laub, J. (1990). Crime and Deviance over the Life Course: The Salience of Adult Social Bonds. American Sociological Review 55(5), pp. 609-627
When this happens, the total amounts of social satisfaction will improve. Moreover, the U.S. will be able to reduce the number of people that are living in the lower economic classes by understanding these viewpoints. This is when there will be increased amount of economic mobility, which helps to reduce any kind of class divisions. ("Multi Culturalism in America," 2012)
How would deviance be defined in America through a multicultural perspective?
Deviance would be defined as those groups that are unwilling to embrace different American cultural traditions (over several generations). This is because select nationalities could be focused on embracing their cultural practices and are not learning those of their new country. What would make the situation worse is when future generations do not accept American attributes with their own traditions. ("Multi Culturalism in America," 2012)
For example, a family from another country will automatically practice certain traditions when they…
Multi-Culturalism in America. (2012). Buzzle.com. Retrieved from: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/multiculturalism-in-america.html
Santorum, R. (2012). Multi-Culturalism Threatens America. Town Hall. Retrieved from: http://townhall.com/columnists/ricksantorum/2011/02/18/multiculturalism_threatens_america
Social System, Institutional Values and Human Needs_
Burton's Deviance, Terrorism, and War redefined the nature of the problem to be discussed and the means to discuss it. Burton's agenda is not about states and state centric dynamics. He constitutes a new definition of the problem and a new definition of the reality (1979). In fact, the subtitle of his book, solving unsolved social and political problems, attests to this. Burton's work is therefore committed to addressing the process as opposed to stasis or structures. The book is committed to solving social and political problems and not their containment, management, or control. It is committed to initiating change not coercion. It is concerned with recurrent patterns of human behavior at all levels of social complexity (Burton, 1979).
Burton (1979) assesses the way society classifies and defines deviance. Structure of freedom underpins a portion of Burtons work. Structure of freedom is recognized…
Burton, J. (1965). International Relations, a General Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Burton, J. (1979). Deviance, Terrorism and War: The Process of Solving Unsolved Social and Political Problems. New York: St. Martin's Press.
To wit, power is a huge influence in any social interaction, and in a study reported by the University of California Press (est, 2008, p. 87), men often interrupt women during conversations because men are generally viewed as the power in any male-female interaction. "Physicians interrupt patients disproportionately" in doctor-patient interactions, est writes, "except when the doctor is a 'lady'; then, "patients interrupt as much or more than physicians, and their interruptions seem to subvert physicians' authority" (est, p. 87). In other words, the stratification of male doctors having the power to interrupt is reversed when a woman is the doctor.
Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:
Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).
Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care
Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
Donovan, Jenny L., and Blake,…
Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:
Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).
Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care
Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
They have a moral obligation to the South African people in this area for many reasons. First, they have an obligation to make certain that they can participate in the global economy to give their citizens the same chances for advancement as other nations. Secondly, they have a moral obligation to do everything possible to keep their citizens safe.
When one discusses the topic of security in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), much of the discussion focuses on the technology itself. Currently, the South African banking industry is attempting to establish standards that represent best practices in information security (Tshinu, Botha, and Herselman, 2008). These measures currently focus on the technological aspects of information security. However, the development of industry-wide best practices must take all sources of vulnerability into consideration, including the moral and ethical responsibility to keep information safe.
Therefore, the development of best practices cannot ignore the human…
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2006. "The Economics of Information Security." Science [Online] 314 (5799), pp.610-613, October 27, 2006. Available at:
http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/toulouse-summary.pdf (Accessed June 20, 2010).
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2007. "The Economics of Information Security: A Survey and Open Questions." Fourth Bi-annual Conference on the Economics of the Software and Internet Industries. January 19-20, 2007: Toulouse, France. [Online] Available at:
Furthermore, it is suggested that the roots of the problem lie deeper than the superficial debate about gun control. In sociological terms, this problem is to do with the lack of meaning and the breakdown of inherent normative structures. In this sense the debate about gun control should be seen against the underlying background of these sociological issues. Even if a compromise was be reached about whether or not to have gun control, there would still be underlying structural causative features that would need to be addressed and which are the source of this problem in the first place.
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. etrieved November 21, 2004
Egger, Steven A., et al. 1990.Serial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon. New York:
Praeger Publishers, 1990.
Lintelman, D. Gun Control. etrieved November 21, 2009…
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. Retrieved November 21, 2004