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At the same time, Gudrun is not the character that could potentially match these lacks that Gerald has.
Indeed, first of all, Gudrun is an artist. There are several things that go with this brief characterization. First of all, she understands to seek a wide array of things from both life and a relationship, but all these are founded and based on the freedom of an artist.
Freedom is however only something she sees for herself not for the other individual of a couple. Her belief is that retaining her freedom in a relationship is equivalent to subduing the other individual involved in the couple, to the degree to which he will not be able to affect her personal freedom anymore. We can compare this to irkin's perception of the couple as a joining together of two individuals in order to form a mutually beneficial and equilibrated relationship.
1. Perkins, Wendy. "Reading Lawrence's Frames: Chapter Division in Women in Love" the DH Lawrence Review. (3 Fall 1992): 233.
2. Kelsey, Nigal. DH Lawrence: Sexual Crisis. London: Macmillan, 1991
3. Dorbad Leo J. Sexually Balanced Relationships in the Novels of DH Lawrence. New York: Peter Lang, 1991
4. Rossman, Charles. "You are the Call and I am the Answer': DH Lawrence and Women." DH Lawrence Review 8 (1975): 255- 328.
All those brains and ambition to help the community notwithstanding, Hermione was a "man's woman" and the manly world "held her" (p. 28). Hermione was indeed the "social equal" - if not "far the superior" - of anyone she might meet. Still, with all that cultural and social buildup by Lawrence, Hermione's soul "was tortured" because she felt vulnerable...there was a secret chink in her armor" (p. 29).
And part of her torture was that she was obsessed with Rupert Birkin, whom she passionately longed for and hoped he would be at the wedding. They had been lovers for years so she knew what to expect from him and yet he tried to get away from her. So readers have this sense of a woman's strong social and sensual desire to lay eyes on a man, but wait, after Hermione became so obsessed with the hope that he would be…
Lawrence, DH Women in Love. New York: Signet Classic, 1995.
Howe, Andrew. "Beastly Desire: Human/Animal Interactions in Lawrence's Women in Love." Papers on Language & Literature. (2002), 38.4, 429-442.
Her reaction "angered him somewhere, and made him want to compel her attention." While Paul's mother did not kill her son directly, her complicity in his obsessive behavior and her lack of genuine love and affection ultimately led to her own son's demise. Basset enables Paul, too, but because Basset is not a family member he is less responsible for Paul's fate.
Both Basset and Paul's mother enable Paul's gambling addiction. Paul's mother is a classic enabler who does not consider her son's well being. In fact, she blames her husband for her own problems too. By refusing to take responsibility for her own happiness-or for her own role as mother -- she fosters Paul's unhealthy behavior. Basset and Uncle Oscar use Paul, who appears to have a genuine knack for picking horses. They do not care how Paul picks the winners; only that he does. Likewise, Paul's mother only…
DH Lawrence's "The Horse Dealer's Daughter"
The short story by DH Lawrence entitled, "The Horse Dealer's Daughter" talks about the sudden love that both Mabel Pervin and Dr. Jack Fergusson had experienced when he accidentally saved Mabel from the suicide she intends to do. Aside from the theme of love, one of the main issues that will be discussed in relation to the theme of love is the importance of both protagonists' (Mabel and Jack) role in their small community, and how the roles that they have affects their own conception of real love.
Mabel Pervin is illustrated in the story as a very quiet and reserved woman, talking and saying nothing to her brothers at the start of the story. It is evident that there is no bond between the brothers and their sister Mabel, who, after several attempts from her brothers' part to talk to her, remain motionless…
But this quotation shows how efficacious Tom and the influence of the life of faming ae to even a female aised on it.
The pimay female chaacte who is actually able to sepaate heself fom the life of the Mash is Usula. She is quite an inteesting chaacte who symbolizes a wild feedom that is manifested in tems of sexual pefeence, eligious pefeences, as well as in an embace of vitually most othe things that typify the moden wold that the Bangwen's fam stands in opposition to. What is most significant about Usula, howeve, is that she is eventually able to motivate the est of he family to move beyond Mash Fam and into the uban envionment of Beldove, which symbolizes a tansitioning of the Bangwen's fom taditional life and its values to those of the moden wold. The following quotation demonstates Usula's depatue fom taditional Bangwen life. "Suddenly she…
references, as well as in an embrace of virtually most other things that typify the modern world that the Brangwen's farm stands in opposition to. What is most significant about Ursula, however, is that she is eventually able to motivate the rest of her family to move beyond Marsh Farm and into the urban environment of Beldover, which symbolizes a transitioning of the Brangwen's from traditional life and its values to those of the modern world. The following quotation demonstrates Ursula's departure from traditional Brangwen life. "Suddenly she saw her mother in a just and true light. Her mother was simple and radically true. She had taken the life that was given. She had not, in her arrogant conceit, insisted on creating life to fit herself. Her mother was right, profoundly right, and she herself had been false, trashy, conceited" (Lawrence). In this quotation, in which Ursula believes she is pregnant, she compares herself to her mother. The fact that Ursula had not merely accepted a life that was "given" to her, on the Marsh Farm, is underscored by this comparison. Furthermore, it is significant to note that Ursula's break from this life eventually influenced the rest of her family to move to Beldover as well.
In the end, Lawrence uses the images and conceptions of farming and gardening in Rainbow to show how they represent the central conflict of the novel: the tendency of the male Brangwen's to pursue a traditional life of farming on the Marsh vs. The tendency of the female family members to embrace modern life and all of its traditional views. The fact that the women, primarily illustrated by the characterization of Ursula, win demonstrates the larger triumph of modernity over tradition.
Horse Dealer's Daughter" by DH Lawrence and "The Blue Hotel" by Stephen Crane
The short stories by DH Lawrence and Stephen Crane, entitled "The Horse Dealer's Daughter" and "The Blue Hotel," respectively, have differing plot, character developments, settings, and style of the author, but these two short stories are a good study of literature because of one unique similarity that the short stories have regarding the plot of their story, and this is the self-fulfilling prophecies that happened in the main character's life, which resulted to grave results. What exactly is this self-fulfilling prophecy in the story? This self-fulfilling prophecy is found in the scenes wherein the main characters of the two short stories anticipated something to inevitably happen to them, even though the possibility of this event from happening is entirely remote. However, because of the actions and behavior of the characters, and the unexpected turn of events in…
Crane, Stephen. E-text of "The Blue Hotel." 4 March 2003 http://www.litrix.com/bhotel/bhote001.htm .
Lawrence, DH E-text of "The Horse Dealer's Daughter." 28 April 2002 http://www.geocities.com/andtherewaswafer/Archive/TheHorseDealersDaughter.htm.
Female power is presented in conflicting, contradictory ways in omen in Love. The increased status and social power that women of privilege have can cause upheaval and serious conflicts. Power can be misdirected away from self-empowerment to power over others, especially over men. The relationship between Gudrun and Gerald is a complicated one because it is not just Gudrun's personal power that causes the tension and abuse, but also Gerald's own lack of self-awareness and self-insight. His suicide shows that Gerald self-imploded, unable to cope with his own psychological turmoil. Gudrun remains in control of her own life. Her self-sufficiency is also a conflicting issue, one that challenges social norms related to gender and also one that undermines the status of patriarchy itself. For example, when Gerald does die, Gudrun feels very little and does not immediately cry. The narrator describes her reaction as "coldly at a loss," while the…
Lawrence, DH Women in Love. eText online: http://www.online-literature.com/dh_lawrence/ women_in_love/
Lawrence Women in Love
Ursula is the one character in DH Lawrence's novel Women in Love that truly changes from how we see her at the beginning of the novel. Near the end of the novel, her conversation with Gudren in the chapter "Continental," signals a big transformation, one in which she is essentially changing worlds. By contrasting her statements at the beginning of the novel with the conversation that concludes the chapter "Continental" we can detect of number of these changes. For one, Ursula has become more impulsive and carefree. Secondly, she begins to demonstrate a belief, influenced most definitely by Birkin, that there is something more than just the mental and material aspects of human relationships. All of these changes in Ursula's character suggest a thematic core in Lawrence's novel that is centered around a physical/mental and spiritual/intellectual dichotomy.
One of Ursula's biggest changes, evident by contrasting the…
At the end of the poem the line "and dreaming with strange whale eyes wide open in the waters of the beginning and the end" gives us a clue to the answer to this question. These whales with eyes wide open see reality. The meaning is that in our evolution we have closed our eyes on reality and in doing so have rejected passion.
The whole poem is written in a rhythmic pattern with calming language that also suggests a higher power. The result is that the reader begins to long for this enchanting life of the whale. While the poem raises questions in its content, it also allows the reader to experience the longing that Lawrence feels.
The Mystic lue
The Mystic lue is a poem about death and was written while Lawrence was grieving the loss of his mother. The poem has a staggered quality to it, reflected…
Boulton, James. T. Letters I: The Letters of DH Lawrence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
Boulton, James. T., Zytaruk, George. J. Letters II: The Letters of DH Lawrence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. "DH Lawrence." New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. http://www.bartleby.com/65/la/LawrencDH.html
Sagar, Keith. Life into Art. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985.
If he finds writhing around in plants and flowers naked more enjoyable than being with a woman he is weird and he's hiding his true self most of the time in the novel.
In his brief paragraph about omen in Love, Critic R.P. Draper claims that Rupert Birkin and Ursula provide a "creative counterpoint to the destructive relationship" between Ursula's sister Gudrun and Gerald Crich. It may come as a surprise to some readers of this novel that, according to Draper, Birkin plays a role as "prophet of a new conception of 'polarity' between man and woman, which involves both mutual commitment and a balanced independence" (Draper, 1991). Fortunately for his credibility Draper adds that Birkin "also believes in the need for a relationship of 'blood brotherhood" between man and man." This need to have a man on the side while married to a woman, Draper goes on is done…
Aldington, Richard. DH Lawrence. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1950.
Bakshi, Nitya. (2008). The Sisters in DH Lawrence's Women in Love. Retrieved Dec. 10,
2009, from http://www.literature-study-online.com/essays/lawrence.html .
Draper, R.P. (1991). DH Lawrence: Overview. Reference Guide to English Literature. Ed.
Although "Midsummer" is a shot work, in keeping with more of the original modernistic style of poetry writing, it is no less poignant in the message it conveys.
In many ways, DH Lawrence is a visionary that offers the reader imagery and creativity that engulfs the reader into the world in which he creates with his words. As with Walcott, it was not necessary for Lawrence to achieve cadence in his writing though the use of rhyme. There is a balance that is struck that clearly reads as poetic. Lawrence's expressive language and use of interesting characters helps to tell the stories of dehumanization that only comes with man's lack of recognition for the power of nature, and moving too fast in directions unknown under the call for modernization.
"If one thinks a poem is coming on… you do make a retreat, a withdrawal into some kind of silence…
Baugh, Edward. Derek Walcott. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006.
Burnett, Paula. Derek Walcott: Politics and Poetics. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.
Eagleton, Terry. The English novel: an introduction. Willey-Blackwell, pp. 258-260, 2005.
King, Bruce. Derek Walcott, a Caribbean life. Oxford: OUP, 2000.
setting of a story can reveal important things about the narrative's larger meaning, because the setting implies certain things about the characters, context, and themes that would otherwise remain implicit or undiscussed. In their short stories "The Lottery" and "The Rocking-Horse inner," Shirley Jackson and DH Lawrence use particular settings in order to comment on the political and socio-economic status of their characters without inserting any explicitly political or socio-economic discussion into the narrative. In the case of "The Lottery," the setting transforms the story from a one of simple horror to a more nuanced critique of American society, and particularly its dedication to arbitrary, destructive beliefs. Lawrence's "The Rocking-Horse inner" makes a similar point, but in this case the setting serves to implicitly critique the consumerism encouraged by capitalist hegemony in England. Comparing and contrasting these two settings allows one to better understand how each story makes an identifiable…
Jackson, Shirley. The Lottery and Other Stories. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 2005.
Lawrence, DH Selected Short Stories. Toronto: Dover Publications, 1993.
innovative tradition. Many great authors began their careers by writing short stories. Many authors whom were/are already successful practice and hone their craft by writing short stories. In the 21st century, there are many writers who specialize in short story writing, and there are in fact, new genres of short story writing in fiction, such as flash fiction, which are super short stories. Short stories provide authors a space where there are fewer rules than longer forms of fiction and even nonfiction. Short stories, in a way, are like poetry. Though poems are often bound and structured by many kinds of forms and cadences, poetry is one of the most expressive and difficult forms of literature to construct. The same goes for short stories. Short stories, at first glance, are superficially simple, yet in order to exploit the genre to its fullest and deliver a poignant or gripping emotional impact,…
Lady Chatterley's Lover - DH Lawrence
According to Lawrence, World War I was a tragic disgrace and resulted in a chaotic society in England. He felt that the English morals and guidelines changed drastically after the war. In the first chapter of "Lady Chatterley's Lover," Lawrence wrote: "Ours is essentially a tragic age, so we refuse to take it tragically. The cataclysm has happened, we are among the ruins, we start to build up new little habitats, to have new little hopes (Lawrence, 1995, p. 2)."
Lady Chatterley's Lover is full of social, political, and cultural implications. y focusing on the forbidden relationship between Lady Connie Chatterley and Oliver Mellors, Lawrence reveals a great deal about the structure and politics of post-war society.
While the main theme of this book is love, the unproductiveness, inhumanity and ugliness of life in a local mining community play a large role in this…
Lawrence, DH. (1995). Lady Chatterley's Lover. New American Library, Mass Market Paperback
Paired Poets." It attempts to compare and contrast the lives, personality, psychology and the work of T.S. Elliot and DH Lawrence. Furthermore, it elaborates the similarities and the differences between both the poets and also details some of the most significant work done by these poets.
Life and Personality of T.S. Elliot and D.H.Lawrence
Thomas. Stearns. Elliot; a poet, editor and a critic was born on 26th September 1888 in St. Louis Missouri. His father; Henry are Eliot was the president of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company and his mother Charlotte Champe Stearns, a former teacher, an amateur poet and a social work volunteer at the Humanity Club of St. Louis. Born into a prosperous old New England family, Eliot was the youngest of the seven children. Afflicted with a congenital double hernia, he was in the constant eye of his mother and five older sisters. (notablebiographies.com)
Eliot was initially educated…
Poets.org. T.S. Elliot. American Academy of poets. 2007. Web. Accessed on 5th May 2011
Questia, Roberts, Michael. The personal past makes the poet 2002. Accessed on 6th May 2011
< http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000877695 >
omen in Love" and "The Fox" written by DH Lawrence. e will discuss the mood of the novels and the similarities and differences between the two works. In addition, we will seek to understand Lawrence's feelings on love and the sexes.
The Fox" takes place on a farm during the post orld ar One era. The Fox tells the story of Banford and March-- two unmarried women in their late twenties. March and Banford have opposite personalities -- March is passive and fragile while Banford is feisty and determined. The two women own and operate the Bailey Farm. Lawrence writes,
They were neither of them young: that is, they were near thirty. But they certainly were not old. They set out quite gallantly with their enterprise. They had numbers of chickens, black Leghorns and white Leghorns, Plymouths and yandottes; also some ducks; also two heifers in the fields. One heifer,…
Lawrence, DH "Women in Love." Online Version. http://www.classicreader.com/booktoc.php/sid.1/bookid.979/
Lawrence DH "The Fox."
Christianity in portrayed in "The Second Death" by Graham Greene and "The Virgin and the Gipsy" by DH Lawrence. Two sources used.
The Second Death" and "The Virgin and the Gipsy"
D.H. Lawrence and Graham Greene have each written stories concerned with Christian mores and parental approval, or rather disapproval. The parent in each story is clearly convinced that others are influencing their adult child's character and leading them astray. Each has forbidden their child from associating with certain people whom the parent believes are not of good Christian standing. Moreover, each child is clearly filled with passion for life and sexual exploration. Lawrence's story is far more sensual and poetically lustful than Greene's, as his female character's sexuality is awakened. However, Greene's story, sketches a young man's sexual exploits and his last moments before death, his second death. Each author sets his story in a small country village.
Lawrence, DH The Virgin and the Gipsy. Fredonia Books. April 2002.
Greene, Graham. "The Second Death." Collected Short Stories. Penguin USA. July 1987.
As with Lawrence's young protagonist, the burden of excellence becomes too great, and the girl feels she cannot provide for her family -- intellectually, rather than financially. The metaphor of the boy's rocking horse, endlessly rocking back and forth to churn out the names of winners in maddening repetition becomes transformed, in "Suicide Note," into another kind of repetitive metaphor, that of failed flight. The boy, who should have rode on a real horse into his future becomes locked in childhood, madness, and misery, trapped by the adult-sized needs of his family, and the girl, who should have sailed confidently into adulthood dies a failed attempt at flying. The girl is endlessly flapping her invisible wings to take flight but sinks to her death as she jumps to her demise, trying and failing to fly for real. The anonymous speaker of the poem is an adolescent, unlike Lawrence's child, and…
Lawrence often compares the mechanistic world of industrialize Britain with the world of nature, and the fecundity and sexuality of the natural world is seen as distorted by the mechanistic world that has developed in this century. In such a comparison, Clifford is on the side of the industrial world, while Connie comes out on the side of the natural world. Yet, this is not what society wants women to be, and yet it is also the reason women were so restricted by society, because they were viewed as dangerous threats to the natural order because of their inherent sexuality.
In Lawrence's conception, living according to nature precludes the possibility of sin, though society may see the issue in a different light. hile one could apply this idea to Hester and Tess as well, their authors clearly do not view the issue in that way, though they do find their…
Benson, Larry D. The Riverside Chaucer. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987.
Euripides. Ten Plays by Euripides. New York: Bantam, 1988.
Hardy, Thomas. Tess of the D'Urbervilles. London: Macmillan, 1953.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. Boston: Bedford Books, 1991.
A round character has multiple dimensions as a human being, and strikes more than one 'note' in the text -- for instance, the snobbish Mrs. Elton of Emma is a one-dimensional presence in that novel, while Hardy's Bathsheba is contradictory as a real human being, and one cannot predict her likely actions.
Retrospective narration is narrated from the point-of-view of a present day narrator, looking into the far-off past of a long-ago world, like Hardy's third person omniscient narrator of Far from the Madding Crowd, or a narrator looking back on his own life, like Dickens' David Copperfield.
Didactic literature teaches an explicit lesson of how one ought to behave, like Jane Austen's Emma, or how human life evolves in strange ways in the point-of-view of the narrator, as in Joseph Andrews by Fielding.
A novel of manners is plot-driven in terms of questions about how its characters should…
Women as Outsiders: A Comparison of Jane Eyre and "The Horse Dealer's Daughter"
Women are often portrayed as a marginalized "other" or outsider in literature, reflecting the degree to which they are outside the traditional patriarchal concepts of authority and power as well as (for much of Western history) outside the practical and legal means of self-sufficiency and self-direction. As the times have shifted, the particular perspective and definition of women as outsiders has also changed, as can be seen in a comparison of the central figures in Charlotte Bronte's Victorian-era novel Jane Eyre and DH Lawrence's more modern short story "The Horse Dealer's Daughter." Interestingly, both heroines are seen as similarly detached from traditional power structures, yet the degree to which Jane distances herself through her morality actually gives her power, while the increasing amorality of the times leads Mabel (Lawrence's protagonist) down a path of deeper…
Winner Not a Winner?
In the short story "The Rocking Horse Winner" by DH Lawrence, the writer creates a spooky fantasy in which three major themes, luck, money, and love combine to form a bizarre and deadly unity. The boy Paul, intuitively feeling the lack of love in his family, becomes the embodiment of his parents obsessions with money. Riding his toy rocking horse he receives supernatural messages that allow him to pick winners in real horse races. He believes that he thus renews his family's luck, by winning money which he equates on an unconscious level with love. Lawrence uses the unified themes of luck, money and love to create a symbolic representation of life that is not truly lived, but in which concepts of luck, money and love are perverted into an imitation of life, the falseness of which kills the boy Paul.
This is a story about…
Beauchamp, Gorman. "Lawrence's The Rocking-Horse Winner." Explicator 31.5 (1973): Item 32.
Becker, George Joseph. DH Lawrence. New York: F. Ungar, 1980.
Burke, Daniel. Beyond Interpretation: Studies in the Modern Short Story. Troy, NY: Whitston, 1991.
Consolo, Dominick P. The Rocking-Horse Winner. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill, 1969.
Emily's only social imperfection in her eyes was remaining unmarried, and to remedy that when she could not possess Homer arron, she murdered him. The loss of her father is replaced by an obsession with another man. Emily literally cannot live without a man, even if she must become a kind of "threatening" and murderous harpy to have a husband (Clarke 6).
Faulkner's Emily lives for love. She follows the expectations of society in a perverse fashion: she kills a man so she will not lack a male presence in her life. In the story, there is no self-expression and freedom to live outside of social constraints and the expectations of how a woman must act. Love is not liberating. Emily is a symbol of a vengeful woman, and an outdated form of false Southern gentility. She seems to have no existence beyond the need for male approval. Although both…
Clarke, Deborah. Robbing the Mother: Women in Faulkner. University Press of Mississippi,
Fowler, Doreen & Ann J. Abadie. Faulkner and Women. University Press of Mississippi,
Bates to come home, there is a battle between light and dark, heat and cold. These are powerfully suggestive symbols of good and bad. Entering the scene, "the kitchen was small and full of firelight; red coals piled glowing up the chimney mouth. All the life of the room seemed in the white, warm hearth and the steel fender reflecting the red fire" (Lawrence). The fire is a good indicator of the anger that burned inside Elizabeth as she expected, once again, for her husband to be late. Later in the scene however, the fire began to go out and become a dull red. Annie, Elizabeth's daughter, describes it as "beautiful," and "full of little caves -- and it feels so nice, and you can fair smell it" (Lawrence). The fire has become a source of warmth and pleasantness, it is beautiful and it is good. As the coals struggle…
Lawrence, DH "Odour of Chrysanthemums." The Norton Introduction to Literature. Tenth Edition. City of Publication: W.W. Norton & Company, 2010. Page range. Print.
Social Construct of Prenuptial Events: From the Bridal Sheets to the Bachelorette Party
The social constructs of the transition from single adulthood to married life throughout recent history have differed between men and women. In modern construct women and men often share a similar prenuptial event that has many elements of public expressions of sexuality, the bachelor or stag party and the bachelorette or staggette party. (Tye and Powers, 1998, pp. 552-561) In most western societies before 1900 and especially during the enaissance the prenuptial ceremonies and rituals included a longer period of time that encompassed a gray area that included the business of the marriage transaction and the ritual of becoming publicly aware of the person you were to marry. Historically speaking there was little if any overt display of sexuality during pre-1900 premarital celebrations. (uggiero, 1985, p. 26) Changes in public sexual expression from before 1900 to now…
Benson, P.J. (1992). The Invention of the Renaissance Woman: The Challenge of Female
Independence in the Literature and Thought of Italy and England. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Fordham, J. (Apr/2000):. "Death of a Porcupine: DH Lawrence and His Successors."
Literature and History. Vol. 9 Issue 1, pp.56-67.
Destructors, by Graham Greene and "The Rocking-Horse inner," by DH Lawrence. Specifically, it will compare and contrast the two stories. Greed has always been a powerful motivator, and greed is one of the main themes in these two works that seem quite similar at first glance. However, a closer reading brings out the dissimilarities in these works, but ultimately points to greed as a powerful destructive force in our lives, and that society reveres money and possessions above all else.
Greed in Two Similar orks
Initially, these two short stories seem quite similar. They are both set in Great Britain, and they both have young boys as their main characters. At first glance, they seem as if they might be stories about growing up in different worlds than we are used to, but underlying this first look are some dark and disturbing themes about how greed can destroy, and how…
Greene, Graham. 21 Stories. New York: Viking Press, 1962.
Lawrence, DH "The Rocking-Horse Winner." Dowse.com. 2001. 20 March 2003. http://www.dowse.com/fiction/Lawrence.html
The evolution of mankind on all levels, and especially the new focus of the modern society on technology and material development, has brought about an estrangement from the spiritual life.
The new world offers "alternatives," as it were, to love, through a complexity of personal, both material and social developments, that seem to been able to replace or fill the spiritual needs.
Although men and women still interact what happens between them seems to be different from what was called love before, and it is often said that more and more isolation and solitude result from these interactions. The pressure of the material complex world and of the various social facts do not allow for the openness required by love. It can be said that the complexity of the modern society influence the emotional sates of the individual and make it impossible for him or her to return to the…
Alighieri, Dante Divine Commedy translated by Longfellow, Project Gutenberg at http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext97/0ddcl10.txt
Dickinson, Emily Poems Poetry x http://poetry.poetryx.com /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Imagist poetry is in many ways the essence of what poetry strives to be -- it is concise, concrete, and creates a visual image through carefully selected language. As a poetic movement, Imagism began around 1912 with poetry by Amy Lowell, Ezra Pound, and Hilda Doolittle (usually written H.D.), among others, and the movement carried on into the twentieth century to produce some very popular and highly expressive works. The Imagists produced four anthologies of their work -- Des Imagistes, 1914; Some Imagists, 1915, 1916, 1917; and the magazines Poetry (from 1912) and The Egoist (from 1914); and these included the work of a dozen or more Imagist poets. It has been some time since a strong collection of Imagist poetry has been made, and this anthology is intended to present some of the works that help define this poetic movement.
The approach is largely chronological, carrying the reader from…
Authentic Representations of Self universal theme of transitional literature is the sacrifice of self. Many characters, within some of the greatest works of literature express longing as a main theme, as if they are living a life that is not quite what they had in mind. DH Lawrence, Virginia oolf, Beryl Bainbridge and Doris Lessing, all develop characters within their works that establish the idea of a denial of authenticity of self. The four works and the four characters which best describe this sort of sacrifice of self are: Lawrence's Paul Morel in Sons and Lovers, oolf's Clarissa Dalloway in Mrs. Dalloway, Lessing's Susan Rawlings in To Room Nineteen and Charlie from Bainbridge's Clap Hands, Here Comes Charlie.
Even from the start Paul Morel from Sons and Lovers was different. More delicate than other children and the expression of grief through depression that brought on tears is a foreshadowing of…
Bainbridge, Beryl. "Clap Hands, Here Comes Charlie." In Collected Stories. London, UK
Penguin Books, 1994. Pgs. 81-88.
Lawrence, DH Sons and Lovers. Ed. Trotter, David. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Lessing, Doris. "To Room Nineteen." In The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1985, pgs. 2026-2054.
Inner Truth and Outer Truth
The forefathers of our country were not known for their emotional clarity. Neither were they known for expressing publicly their private sense of self. Those who became known at all were known for their hard work and dedication to the public causes meant to benefit the common good. We can perceive them only through our own eyes, much changed by the passage of time.
It is not for us to judge them, but to seek to understand as we hope that those who come after us will seek to understand us. The writings that historical figures have left us reveal their lives in guarded ways, in styles they had been taught were good and proper. If we search closely we may know something of what went on in their inmost hearts. John Woolman sat beside Newbegun Creek and listened quietly for Truth to "open the…
Destructors" by Graham Greene and "The Rocking Horse Winner" by DH Lawrence have little in common. However, when the emotional impact of each plot on the various characters is considered, it becomes clear that there are many points of comparison. Thus, this paper will compare and contrast the emotions experienced by selected characters in each story. In order to achieve this goal, issues such as children, adults and the emotions experienced in various ways by each are considered first. This is followed by a discussion of the end of the two works. Each story ends in a destruction that can be both compared and contrasted with each other.
Children as Main Characters
Both stories feature children as their main characters. It is also true that in each story the children in the roles of main character are somewhat unusual. In Greene's story for example, Trevor has a distinctly dark character.…
Men Undressed: An Examination
One of the most intriguing aspects of reading this anthology was how sex offered up these writers a more compelling platform upon which to write as sex is a topic which almost always grabs the attention of the reader, but which offered an opportunity for these writers to explore other, even more compelling topics such as emotions, the balance of power, gender identities, among others. Sex was used repeatedly in the book as a strong means by which the writers could approach certain human issues and stumbling blocks and seek to overcome them. The anthology creates a really interesting dialogue in the sense that it presents sex as both an element of an intimate and romantic relationship but also something which exists as a relationship unto itself. This is something that the anthology can courageously explore while shaking off the puritanical morality that is so embedded…
Bierlain, S.; Frangello, G. (2011). Men Undressed. Chicago: Other Voices
Interview: Thursday October 2nd 2014. JSK- professor AF- author
Worley, S. (2011). What do Women Think Men Think About Sex? Retrieved from chicagoreader.com, http://www.chicagoreader.com/chicago/what-do-women-think-men-think-about-sex/Content?oid=4926582
Yet, according to historians of the era, the exposition also defined American culture -- presenting lectures and discussions by leading activists about religion, science, women's rights, and racial equality. Even Historian Frederick Jackson Turner gave a paper on the significance of the American Frontier. All, despite the tragedy of a smallpox epidemic, attempted to portray to the world that America was on the verge of becoming the predominant country of enlightenment.
In contrast, ethnic historian and Professor of History at Columbia University Mae Ngai, in Transnationalism and the Transformation of the "Other": esponse to the Presidential Address, shows that it is the very idea of transnational representation that continues to define the basis of American culture. Using Shelley Fisher Fishkin to show that "figures who have been marginalized precisely because they crosses so many borders that they are hard to categorize," Ngai asks that the contemporary historians and sociologists utilize…
Ngai, Mae. (2005). "Transnationalism and the Transformation of the "Other." American
Quarterly. 57 (1): 59-65.
Rydell, R. (1978). "The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893." Journal of American Culture.
1 (2): 253-75.
The poet is in turmoil and he turns from his love in order to prevent tarnishing or "spoil" (Pound 2) her because she is surrounded by a "new lightness" (3). This poem reflects upon the importance of experience. Like the poets mentioned before, this poet wants us to consider every aspect of our actions. e should not only think of what we want to do but also how that desire and acting upon it will alter our lives. Robert Frost is focused upon the experience of nature. In "Dust of Snow," the poet brings poetry to life as if it were music. hen we read:
The way a crow
Shook down on me
The dust of snow
From a hemlock tree (Frost 1-4)
Here the poet wants to explore rather than embark on some discovery. These writers are different in their individuals styles but they each desire to connect with…
Dickinson, Emily. "Because I could Not Stop for Death." Masterpieces of American Poets. New York: Garden City Publishing. 1936.
Eliot, T.S. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock." The Bedford Introduction to Literature.
Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press.1993.
Dickinson, Emily. "Because I Could Not Stop for Death." The Complete Poems of Emily
" Emecheta uses metaphors, similes and allusions with appropriate timing and tone in this book, and the image of a puppet certainly brings to mind a person being controlled, manipulated, made to comply instantly with any movement of the controlling hand. In this case Ego seems at the end of her rope -- the puppet has fallen nearly to the floor and is dangling helplessly.
The Emecheta images and metaphors are sometimes obvious, as this one is, but always effective. The reader is clearly aware of Ego's initial identity, and Ego's swift feet of lightness and intensity running in the misty darkness, presents a fluid sensation -- a hoped for escape. She is running towards a new identity and when she hits the gravel road the color is of blood and water and she runs like this will be her duty forever, like someone is following her. The image of…
Derrickson, Teresa. "Class, Culture, and the Colonial Context: the Status of Women in Buchi Emecheta's The Joys of Motherhood. International Fiction Review 29.12 (2002):
Emecheta, Buchi. The Joys of Motherhood. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994.
Fishburn, Katherine. Reading Buchi Emecheta: Cross-Cultural Conversations. Santa Barbara,
The horn, like Saturn,
Is suspended in its ring of steering wheel;
And below is the black tongue of the gas pedal,
The bulge of the brake, the stalk
Of the stick shift,
The simile, "like Saturn" succeeds in expanding on the image of the car in adding a sense of its larger symbolic meaning. The other images also tend to provide the car with natural attributes - such as a tongue.
In the final lines of the poem, there is a suggestion of Apollonian individualism. The protagonist overcomes the fear of the car and drives. This can be seen as an assertion of individuality over the Dionysian mystery or, on the other hand, acceptance and entrance into that mystery. The last lines of the poem tend to favor the latter interpretation.
The world's open gate, eternity
Hits me like a heart attack.
There is a sense of…
Although he does travel, he is careful to stay at all of the 'right' hotels when he does leave Boston or go abroad, and that means the hotels where all of the other elite families from Boston stay, so he can recreate his social world even when he is not in what to him is the nexus of the universe. The point of travel is not to see other cultures or to learn new things, but to keep things as they are, and one only goes on vacation to see one's friends, and experience a little bit of Boston in Paris, London, or New York City.
As he grows older, Apley does have a sense that his life may not be completely fulfilled, simply living how his ancestors lived. He reads Lady Chatterley's Lover, a banned book by DH Lawrence, and exhibits enough "breadth of vision" to deem it to…
Marquand, John P. The Late George Apley. Boston: Back Bay, 2004.
During the trail, the prosecution is liable to produce sufficient evidence against the culprit, and it has to be proven that misrepresentation was false, but that the thief knew of the falsity. The opinions and puffing are not included in false pretense. False Pretense also includes the shift of title. In the case of larceny by trick, the culprit deceives to deprive the owner of possession, not title. Therefore false pretense is taken much different from larceny by trick, and the implication is taken separately.
False Pretense is basically treated as an act of Theft. The act of false pretense is applied to the defendant, who obtained any chattel, money or valuable security from any other person with intent to defraud.
QUESTION # 3
The act of trespass is legal offence with an intention to spy, rob or cause damage. Trespass is going beyond the limit of what is considered…
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996, 912, 42 U.S. Code 710; see Not in Front of the Children, pp. 145-48.
David S. Wall., Crime and the Internet.
Andrea Liss., Trespassing Through Shadows: Memory, Photography, and the Holocaust.
Institutions are defined as the existence of formal rules, on the one hand, and informal conventions and norms (such as impolitic societal rules that constrain behavior and impose forms of conduct) on the other. A system of enforcement structures are set in place to ensure that society abides to both and the strength of that enforcement system generally determines the extent to which individuals of a particular society will abide by its rules and conventions.
Enforcement may be carried out by various means depending on the specific set of situations. It may be carried out by self-enforcement (such as when one imposes upon oneself dietary restrictions of eating in order to lose weight). Enforcement may also be carried out by a second party as retaliation (as, for instance, another refusing to cordially greet the other is impolitely dealt with). Thirdly, and most strongly linked to maintenance and support of institutions,…
Bergman, P. (1980). Sociology of Knowledge, Oxford Univ. Press: Oxford.
Crossley, N. (2006) Contesting Psychiatry: Social Movements in Mental Health Routledge
Gerard, A. Institutions, path dependence and decomocratic consolidation, Journal of Theoretical Politics 13(3): 249 -- 70
Harris, H.W., Felder, D., & Clark, M.O. (2004). A Psychiatric Residency Curriculum on the Care of African-American Patients. Academic Psychiatry 28 (3): 226 -- 239
Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).
Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…
Alford, C.F. 2000, "What would it matter if everything Foucault said about prison were wrong? Discipline and Punish after twenty years," Theory and Society, vol. 29, no. 1,
Barratt, E. 2002, "Foucault, foucauldianism and human resource management," Personnel
Review, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 189-204.
history of the 1920's, a colorful era of tycoons, gangsters, bohemians and inventors. Areas covered include the arts, news and politics, science and humanities, business and industry, society fads and sports. The bibliography includes fives sources, with five quotations from secondary sources, and footnotes.
The 1920's are commonly referred to as the 'Roaring Twenties', an appropriate title for a decade that did indeed roar out of the Victorian Era. Gone were the corsets and up went the skirt hems as flapper girls bared their legs and speakeasies with bathtub gin dominated the nightlife.
Tycoons became America's royalties while bohemian lifestyles bore the twentieth century's most influential era of art and literature. Inventions brought us into the modern age of convenience and history making events.
The twenties began with a serious but short-lived post-war recession, following World War 1.
Yet, by the mid-twenties, business and industry had created legends that have…
Bryer, Jackson R. Edited. F. Scott Fitzgerald: Novels and Stories 1920-1922.
Library of America. September 2000.
http://classiclit.about.com/library/weekly/aa100100a.htm . (accessed 02-14-2002).
Many adult readers disagree with the portrayed unreality of Dahl's books because in life everything is not fair, and good does not always win. Even when the hero of the Witches is permanently turned into a mouse, the reader is assured by the main character that, "I honestly don't feel especially bad about it. I don't even feel angry. In fact, I feel rather good" This lack of remorse is typical of Dahl's stories.
Similarly, many do not like Dahl's concept that virtue and poverty go together, such as with Miss Honey, Matilda's adored teacher. Some find this objectionable because it is a view consistent with Marxist philosophy, not one that supports free market capitalism.
Further criticism arises from Dahl's portrayal of adults, which many believe has a negative impact on the young readers. Throughout his work, authoritarian adults are often the victims of horrible revenge. However, what some find…
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator
Housing Support on Teenager Parents
Housing Support on Teenagers
The Impacts of Housing Support on Teenagers Parent in United Kingdom
UK leads Europe in teenage pregnancies in Western Europe with 35,966 conceptions in the under 18s in 2009. Majority of these unplanned pregnancies are the cause and consequence of social exclusion in UK. (UNICEF, 2001) There are 90K teenagers under 20 years and 8k under 16-year's pregnancies in England each year; it is the highest rate in Western Europe (SEU, 1999).
Teenage pregnancy can take place before first menstrual period (12or 13 years), which can result into pregnancy but usually occurs between 13 to 20 years of age. The National Health Services spends over £63 million a year on teenage pregnancies in UK. (Dennison, 2004).
Teenage parenthood is a serious social problem; it has adverse effects on parents and children. These young mothers have greater chances of being poor, less…
Botting, B., Rosato, M. And Wood, R. (1998). Teenage mothers and the health of their children. ONS Population Trends 93: 19-28.
Dennison, C. (2004) Teenage pregnancy: An overview of the research evidence, London: Health Development Agency.
DfES (2006a)"Teenage Pregnancy: Accelerating the Strategy to 2010," DfES, Nottingham.
James R. Rest (1986), "Moral Development Advances in Research and Theory," published by Praeger, New York.
The medieval period in English history spans across some 800 years. The Anglo-Saxon period consisted of literature that was retained in memory. The major influence of the literature up until the Norman Conquest was mainly of the religious kind. "Distinguished, highly literate churchmen (Abrams 4) the Ecclesiastical History of England remains our "most important source of knowledge about the Anglo-Saxon period" (4).
The Anglo-Saxons were primarily known for their contribution to poetry. Their alliterative form was, of course, how poetry survived. Sine they wrote nothing down until they were "Christianized," Abrams suggest that that Christian ideals influenced how things were recorded and it would also explain why some non-Christian literature did not survive. Beowulf is what Abrams refers to as the "greatest" German epic, even though it appears to many pre-Christian ideas. (4) Another example of the Anglo-Saxon writing movement would be Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Chaucer brilliantly weaves…
Abrams, M.H., ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986.
Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago: William Benton Publisher. 1959.
Wright, Meg. Early English Writers. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. 1989.
Later Works and Themes
Kathleen Mansfield Murry, commonly known by her penname Katherine Mansfield, was born in the late nineteenth century and only lived to be thirty-four years of age. Her early death was due to the effects of tuberculosis on her body. During her lifespan however, she was able to write a variety of short fiction stories in the modernist genre. Her works gave her a great deal of notoriety during her life and her first published stores appeared in a publication known as the High School eporter. From 1910 publications in periodicals like the New Age through the five volumes of stories published before her death, Mansfield was recognized as innovative, accessible, and psychologically acute, one of the pioneers of the avant-garde in the creation of the short story (Poetry Foundation).
She had an interesting personal life and was born into a prominent family.…
Boddy, G. "Story: Mansfield, Katherine." 1996. Terra. Online. 27 August 2015.
During, S. "Katherine Mansfield's World." Journal of New Zealand Literature (2015): 33-66. Online.
Hennessey, A. "Reading Katherine Mansfield as 'Selective Cultural Archaeology'." Deep South (1997). Online.
Keese, A. "Katherine Mansfield and Literary Modernism Review." DH Lawrence Review (2013): 111-115. Online.
Authors From the Frankfurt and Birmingham Schools
The Frankfurt School and the Birmingham School are similar in that both partake in a critique of popular culture. Both have roots in Marxism, as well, though the latter rejected the fundamentals of Marxist thought. In one sense, the Birmingham School grew out of the Frankfurt School and expanded or deepened the critical interpretation of popular culture begun by the Frankfurt School authors. In another way, the Birmingham School established its own unique take on popular culture that broke with the perspective of the Frankfurt School and its assessment of why the working class failed to rise up and overthrow the ruling class, as Marx had predicted. This paper will compare the theories of two authors from these two schools and show how they are oppose one another at times, how they reflect one another on other occasions and how they complement one…
Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. NY: Continuum.
Hoggart, R. (1957). The Uses of Literacy. UK: Chatto, Windus.
Hoggart, R. (1973). 'Culture: Dead and Alive,' in Speaking to Each Other, vol. 1:
About Society. UK: Penguin.
The characters have faults, the endings are not happy, and the characters have real emotions and feelings. Just like real life, the young boy cannot fulfill his desire to buy the girl he loves a present, he is too afraid. And similarly, the young girl tries to kill herself, only to be rescued by a young doctor who then feels "obligated" to love her. The similarities here are that love is complicated, and does not always end happily.
The biggest difference in these two stories is the innocence of the young boy and the darker, more sinister "love" of the doctor and Mabel. Mabel manipulates the doctor, even if she does not realize it, while the young boy is not manipulative in his love, he is just young, naive, and afraid. It seems he will have another, more grown-up chance at love, while Jack and Mabel will not.
Joyce, James. "Araby." Eserver.com. 2005. 19 April 2005. http://eserver.org/fiction/araby.html
Lawrence, DH "The Horse Dealer's Daughter." Personal Web Site. 2005. 19 April 2005. http://www.geocities.com/andtherewaswater/Archive/TheHorseDealersDaughter.htm
This view is reflected in increasing calls for financial equity among schools, desegregation, mainstreaming, and standardized testing for teachers and students alike; it has been maintained that by providing the same education to all students, schools can equalize social opportunity (Bowman, 1994).
This latter position is typically followed up with the use of a particular curriculum designed to support the approach. In this regard, Bowman suggests that, "Knowledge is thought to exist in the collected wisdom of a canon, and education is the transferral of established wisdom to the learner" (p. 218). Unfortunately, when educators attempt to impose a "one-size-fits-all" curriculum on a diverse study body, there are bound to be problems -- particularly for those students who are already marginalized through language and other socioeconomic constraints.
Furthermore, in many ways, the public schools are unique in that they have been assigned the responsibility of communicating what American society regards…
Artiles, A.J., Higareda, I., Rueda, R., & Salazar, J.J. (2005). Within-group diversity in minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 283.
Banks, J.A. (1994). An introduction to multicultural education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(3), 218.
Breitborde, M.L. (1993). Multicultural education in the classroom. Childhood Education,
curriculum books have been written since the turn of the [20th] century; each with a different version of what 'curriculum' means (Ackerman, 1988). I define classroom curriculum design as the sequencing and pacing of content along with the experiences students have with that content. My use of the qualifier classroom is important. By definition, I am considering those decisions regarding sequencing, pacing, and experiences that are the purview of the classroom teacher. Some aspects of curricular design are addressed at the school level if, in fact, a school has a guaranteed and viable curriculum. egardless of the direction provided by the school (or district), individual teachers still need to make decisions regarding curricular design at the classroom level given the unique characteristics of their students. Indeed, in a meta-analysis involving 22 studies, Anderson, (2003) found a strong relationship between a student's knowledge and experience with content and the type of…
Ackerman, P.L. (1988). Determinants of individual differences during skill acquisition: Cognitive abilities and information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117(3), 288-318.
Anderson, J. (2003). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Anderson, J. (2009). Rules of the mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Brooks, C. (2000). Knowledge management and the intelligence community. Defense Intelligence Journal, 9(1), 15-24.
Anderson, J.R., & Fincham, J.M. (2004). Acquisition of procedural Skills from Examples. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20(6), 1322-1340.
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…
bibliography. (2010). http://science.jrank.org / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.
Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.
Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.
Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.
Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.
Learning Platforms -- K-12 and Beyond
A Comparison of Learning Platforms that Focus on the K-12 and Higher Education Learning Environments
Many of the educational initiatives in recent years have focused on improving the delivery of services by incorporating learning platforms that focus on the K-12 and higher education learning environments, such as WebCT or Blackboard. To determine how these learning platforms are being used today and for what learners, this paper will provide an overview of the features of learning management systems (LMS) that have assumed increasing importance for a wide range of corporate and government-sponsored learning environments. A comparison and evaluation of these platforms and their applicability to the different learning environments is followed by a summary of the research in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Background and Overview. In their book, Handbook of Distance Education Technology, Anderson and Moore (2003) suggest that it just makes good sense…
Anderson, W.G., & Moore, M.G. (2003). Handbook of distance education. Mahwah, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Carlivati, P.A. (2002). E-learning evolves. ABA Banking Journal, 94(6), 49.
Granger, D., & Bowman, M. (2003). Constructing knowledge at a distance: The learner in context. In W.G. Anderson & M.G. Moore (Eds.). Handbook of distance education.
Taylorism' / 'Scientific management.'
Introduction to the Evolvement of Management Theory during the 19th and 20th Century
With the coming of the Industrial age at the turn of the Century, and a new era, came the need for more efficient management techniques. Several Classical Theories evolved during the early years of this discipline. Fordism arose from a synthesis of the other earlier theories. Fayolism philosophy included close communication between bosses and workers. Taylorism developed a theory known as "Scientific Management" to study and set appropriate work quotas based on research. Lillian Gilbreth believed that workers were motivated by both direct and indirect motives. Arthur Gantt developed a task chart to help monitor and plan projects more efficiently.
After the Classical theorists, the Human Relations Movement began to take into account the reasons for individual responses. The first of these theorists was George Elton Mayo who conducted experiments at the General…
Website information for citation:
Accel-Team.Com, (2000) Scientific Management: Frederick Winslow Taylor [online]. Available at http://www.accel-team.com/scientific/scientific_02.html [Accessed 23rd November 2001].
Bibby, A. (2001) Organising in Financial Call Centres [online]. Available at http://www.eclipse.co.uk/pens/bibby/ofcc4.html . Or http://www.eclipse.co.uk/pens/bibby/hw-aa.html [Accessed 12th June 2002].
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76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
In fact, as early as the 1989-1990 school years, school-based decision making was implemented in three elementary schools in the Memphis City School System (Smith, Valesky & Horgan, 1991). Based on this seminal initiative, improvements were cited in: (a) the coordination provided by the school councils; (b) school-based staff development activities; (c) support and services provided by the district central office; (d) data and reports provided to the individual schools; and (e) the value of the school improvement plans (Smith et al., 1991).
A relevant study of the school-based decision-making process in the State of Tennessee by Etheridge (1990) evaluated the impact of different leadership styles used by school principals on the effectiveness of the school-based decision-making process in seven local school councils in Memphis including their elementary schools following their first 15 months of operation. According to Etheridge, the composition of SBDM councils in Tennessee largely reflects those being…
California State Board of Education Policy #89-01. (2010). California State Board of Education.
Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/ms/po/policy89-01-sep1994.asp .
Contract for excellence. (2009, December 31). New York State Education Department. Retrieved from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/part100/pages/10013.html .
Cowart, C. (2009). The Louisiana awakening: Church as portal for the emergence of a sustainable social reality. Anglican Theological Review, 91(4), 607-609.
In addition, the classic version of problem-based learning "requires students to collaborate, formulate learning issues by determining factors that may contribute to the cause or solution of a problem, identify relevant content, and generate hypotheses. Most problem-based learning models also contain student reflection components as a means of self-evaluation" (Knowlton & Sharp, 2003, pp. 5-6).
Although the positive effects of using a problem-based learning approach have been documented in a number of studies, the findings of other studies have indicated that problem-based learning may not compare favorably with more traditional teaching methods with regards to student's knowledge base, technical skills, or the resources expended; however, Dadd (2009) suggests that the benefits of using a problem-based learning approach justify the additional resources this method requires. Moreover, Simons et al. (2004) report that students using a problem-based learning approach "tend to develop more positive attitudes toward learning than students in more traditional…
Alavi, C. (1999). Problem-based learning in a health sciences curriculum. New York:
Albion, P.R. (2003). PBL + IMM = PBL2: Problem-based learning and interactive multimedia development. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 11(2), 243-244.
Dadd, K.A. (2009). Using problem-based learning to bring the workplace into the classroom.
The questionnaires for the purpose of this particular study were completed by 179 participants. The gender preference breakdown of the participants included 60 lesbians, 45 heterosexual females, 39 heterosexual males and 37 gay males (Harkless, Blaine, 2005).
When the study was completed and the data went through analysis it was found that gay men and lesbian women reported a higher degree of post relationship involvement with their former partners than heterosexual couple members reported occurring.
The data reflect how inclusion of sexual orientation can broaden understandings of gender differentiated phenomena beyond more traditional gender-only based accounts (Harkless, Blaine, 2005)."
The study questionnaire asked general demographic data and then moved into couple and gender specific questions. The questions required the participants to acknowledge their relationship with their former partner including whether or not they maintained emotional ties, sexual ties or other types of contact with the former partner. The questionnaire also…
Agnew, C.R., Loving, T.J., & Drigotas, S.M. (2001). Substituting the forest for the trees: Social networks and the prediction of romantic relationship state and fate. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1042-1057.
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The enablers include the competence of the people, the culture of the corporation, internal development, worker engagement, efficient and effective communication, and innovative learning.
Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. (1996). The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: progress and prospects. Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4), pp. 779-801.
The research attempts to advance debates on a nascent link between the human resource systems and the strategic impact of human resource management (HRM) decisions on performance outcomes. The implications of 'best practice' for HR system structure and effects are extensively discussed to literally build the ground of the organizational value creation. Nonetheless, researchers need to give careful thought to the meaning of HR measure at the corporate level because HR practices usually different across business units and facilities within a corporation, particularly as diversification and size increase.
Moss, J. (2000)"trategies for recruiting volunteers. A management sub-feature." Lessons from the…
Shackleton-Jones, N. 2003. 'Blended Learning at Siemens: A Training Manager's View'.
Article in TrainingZone.
In this article, Shackleton-Jones briefly describes the various training needs that are necessary behind the use of blended learning approach.
Merrill, in the UK. Following his experience with heart surgery using innovating surgical techniques, the physician noted the problems he experienced in understanding all of his alternatives compared to a simpler earlier procedure, and finally trusted to the advice of his cardiologist to surgically intervene. In response to the experience, Dr. Merrill emphasized that, "As a physician talking to colleagues, I had the best information possible under the circumstances. But it wasn't the same as my hernia repair. The experience brought home to me the realization that the progress of medicine has made informed consent impossible -- even for me" (Merrill 1999: 190).
ationale of Study
Taken together, the foregoing issues indicate that there is an ongoing need for an assessment of knowledge levels of informed consent among perioperative nurses and operating department practitioners. Perioperative nurses and operating department practitioners, though, are frequently subjected to an enormous amount of stress…
Calloway, S.J. (2009) 'The Effect of Culture on Beliefs Related to Autonomy and Informed
Consent.' Journal of Cultural Diversity 16(2): 68-69.
Cobb, W.G. (2005) 'Defending the Informed Consent Case.' Defense Counsel Journal 72(4):
The efforts of the federal government have been thoroughly and extensively backed up by fiscal funds given by the numerous states, districts, businesses, and parents (NCES, 2000). However, the overall literacy and literature education of students with the incorporation of technology has been primarily negative and this needs to change with time as the overall long-term impact of this negative pattern will be very damaging to the mindset of students and the overall literacy activities that they engage in.
Anderson, .E., & onnkvist, A. (1999). The presence of computers in American schools. Center for esearch on Information Technology and Organizations.
Becker, H.J., & Sterling C.W. (1987). Equity in school computer use: National data and neglected considerations. Journal of Educational Computing esearch, 3, 289 -- 311.
Becker, H.J. (2000). Who's wired and who's not. University of California, Irvine. Available: http://www.gse.uci.edu/doehome/DeptInfo/Faculty/Becker/packard/text.html
Cuban, L. (1998). High-tech schools and low-tech teaching. Journal of…
Anderson, R.E., & Ronnkvist, A. (1999). The presence of computers in American schools. Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations.
Becker, H.J., & Sterling C.W. (1987). Equity in school computer use: National data and neglected considerations. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 3, 289 -- 311.
Becker, H.J. (2000). Who's wired and who's not. University of California, Irvine. Available: http://www.gse.uci.edu/doehome/DeptInfo/Faculty/Becker/packard/text.html
Cuban, L. (1998). High-tech schools and low-tech teaching. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 14(2), 6 -- 7.
4, Privacy Information, Limits of Confidentiality
16. Does the site have a waiver that clients must electronically sign or mail in before beginning counseling that specifically states the limits of ensuring confidentiality over the Internet?
Confidentiality: a.4., Limits of Confidentiality; Confidentiality: c., Client Waiver
Source: Shaw & Shaw, 2006, p. 42
Other changes that will undoubtedly influence the types of codes of ethical conduct mandated for counselor in the future will be the enormous demographic shifts taking place in the United States. Indeed, Pack-Brown et al. conclude that nowhere is the change more evident than in the need for cross-cultural awareness on the part of counselors today. According to these authorities, "The recent changes in the professional ethics of American Counseling Association, American Psychological Association, and National Association of Social Workers reflect a growing sensitivity and moral-ethical respectability for the diverse cultural constructions of terms such as mental health and…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics quoted in Pack-Brown et al. At Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Blocher, DH (2000). Counseling: A developmental approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Code of ethics of the American Mental Health Counselors Association. (2001). Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23(1), 2.
Corey, G., William, G.T. & Moline, M.E. (1995). Ethical and legal issues in group counseling.