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According to the World Diabetes Foundation, diabetes mellitus is considered to be the fastest growing chronic condition in the world (Chorbev et al., 2011). The diabetes epidemic afflicted an estimated 285 million people in 2010, equivalent to 6.4% of the adult population of the world. Since diabetes is largely a preventable condition, public health efforts must be directed at primary care centered on awareness and education regarding, causes, risk factors, prevention, and treatment for diabetes. However, there remains a discrepancy between the direction public health should be heading and the current state of health care. The following discussion outlines the necessity for public health change, how it can be implemented, as well as theoretical bases for the projected success of change and progress for public health models involved in diabetes awareness, prevention, and care.
Creative tension is essentially a conflict between different or opposing viewpoints or approaches regarding…… [Read More]
Frequent symptoms of either hypo or hyperglycemia may occur, but if symptoms are unknown to the woman may be associated with normal pregnancy announces and not followed up on. "The severity of the symptoms and the rate at which they develop may differ, depending on the type of diabetes." (Clark, 2004, p. 3) Increased urine production, glucose in the blood and urine, ketones (undigested protein) in the blood or urine, increased number of infections and decreased or limited healing of such infections, weight loss, or weight gain and occasionally (in extreme cases) numbness and/or tingling in extremities and vision disturbances are all symptoms of diabetes but as one can see from the list if such changes occur during pregnancy they could be attributed to normal pregnancy related changes, unless they become severe.
Particular attention should be paid to hypoglycemia and ketosis. Blood sugar control is essential, even in the first…… [Read More]
Concept Map: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Inactivity, Family history,
Fat distribution, Age
Execrise, Eating habits,
andom or fasting blood sugar test
Oral glucose tolerance test
Potential brain structure changes
Signs and Symptoms:
Increased thrist, Frequent
urination, Increased hunger,
Weight loss, Fatigue, Blurred
vision, Frequent infections,
Sores/slow healing, Darker skin
If untreated: Heart disease,
Stroke, Kidney disease,
Blood sugar monitoring, Exercise,
Healthy eating habits,
Possible medications / insulin therapy
Chnages to kidney function, Changes to pancreas function,
There are some pancreatic changes that have been associated with the onset of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, especially the progressive failure of pancreatic beta-cells apparently as a response to insulin resistance and leading to under-production and a…… [Read More]
Diabetes mellitus is one of the non-communicable diseases that have continued to be in the forefront of public health challenges. Diabetes occurs when the body system is unable to produce sufficient insulin. Typically, insulin is a hormone secreted from the beta cell within the pancreases that regulates the blood sugar as well as assisting in conversion of glucose into energy. Diabetes occurs when there is high level of glucose in the blood, and when the body pancreas in unable to produce enough insulin.
Type 2 diabetes known as non- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) accounts for more than 90% of diabetes globally. The type 2 diabetes occurs when a body is unable to produce sufficient insulin to overcome abnormality. There are three types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes,
Type 2 diabetes and Gestational diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes is an autoimmune system where the diseases in…… [Read More]
Type 2 diabetes, and its association with obesity, changes this relationship somewhat. Individuals with Type 2 diabetes typically have poor eating and exercise habits that contribute to the development of their disease, and these same risk factors also contribute to the risk for and progression of cardiovascular diseases and stroke (Mayo Clinic 2010; WebMD 2010). Though not necessarily directly related to diabetes their diabetes, these individuals have a much greater risk for heart attacks, strokes, cholesterol build-up in arteries, and a host of other cardiovascular diseases and conditions (Medline 2010; WebMD 2010). Still, with proper diet, exercise, and other methods for controlling the disease and correcting underlying conditions, much of this risk can be diminished or eliminated.
As mentioned above, the primary treatment for diabetes is through proper dietary habits and monitoring of glucose levels, with the possibility of needing insulin injections. All of these treatments are aimed at…… [Read More]
Head injury, brain surgery, and brain tumor are potential causes of Central Diabetes Insipidus. Nephrogenic Diabetes Inspidus is far les common than Central Diabetes Inspipidus and is caused by kidney defects. Kidney disease, an X chromosomal abnormality, and certain pharmaceuticals such as lithium can cause Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus. Stopping the intake of culprit medications can often reverse Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.
Symptoms of the different types of diabetes differ. Fatigue, excessive thirst, and excessive urination are symptoms in common to all forms of the disease. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus symptoms may include nausea and vomiting, as well as weight loss in spite of high appetite. Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus may also include male impotence and blurred vision. Diabetes Insipidus symptoms almost exclusively center on excessive thirst and urination, which can lead to secondary issues including dehydration.
Diabetes Mellitus is incurable and can only be treated. Lifestyle changes, especially diet…… [Read More]
Some patients feel helpless, hopeless, depressed, isolated from others, belittled, and do not know how to seek appropriate help from others (utter 2004). Socially supportive arrangements were addressed as the attributes of socially legitimate roles which provide for the meeting dependency needs without loss of esteem. Socially supportive environments were presented as pattern interpersonal relationships mediated through shared values and sentiments as well as facilitate the performance of social roles through which needs are met. In summation, social support has been defined as an intervening factor tied directly to the coping process (Pearson, 1986).
egardless of the differences in definition, social support has been the subject of medical and behavioral research for over two decades and the universal outcome has been that social support has therapeutic value in mental and physical health. The majority of studies have been correlational, and so statements about cause and effect remain tenuous. Nevertheless, it…… [Read More]
The symptoms are similar but type 2 can be more insidious as it is more commonly undiagnosed and could possibly have been prevented with early intervention lifestyle changes. Pain and reduced circulation in the extremities and/or long-term vision loss can also occur in type 2 as does permanent nerve damage in the eyes and extremities. Dependency on insulin is present in type 1 while in type 2 other pharmacological options and even simple lifestyle and diet changes can often suffice in the early stages of the disease, though many type 2 diabetics eventually become insulin dependant. (Clark, 2004, p. 4)
Ethnic minorities such as black, Asian, Pacific Islanders and Hispanic populations are more commonly effected by type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes but there is an increase in the Caucasian population. People who get type 2 diabetes are frequently overweight or obese, sedentary and can have other…… [Read More]
The development of new antidiabetic agents -- for example, insulin analogs and incretin-based therapies -- has led to new treatment strategies that will allow those patients with Type 2 DM to achieve target HbA1c levels (2011). However, he notes that there are many factors that can interfere with the ability of some patients to reach metabolic targets (2011). Clinical data shows that HbA1c concentration, blood pressure, and serum levels of lipids in patients with Type 2 DM are progressively decreasing toward the target goals set by the American Diabetes Association (2011). These improvements in metabolic regulation have resulted in a 30-40% decrease in reported microvascular and macrovascular complications of DM in the United States (2011). Gastric bypass surgery in morbidly obese people with Type 2 DM leads to remission of the DM in the majority of patients and improvement in the rest of them (2011). A major contributor to this…… [Read More]
The study found that triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes than in controls, while high-density lipoprotein levels were significantly lower in patients with diabetes. The researchers thus found that in Ethiopians with diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia occurs more frequently than in controls. Because of this, the researchers recommended periodic screening for dyslipidemia in all Ethiopian patients with diabetes. They also suggested the need for other studies to assess the potential negative effect of dyslipidemia and obesity on morbidity and mortality in Ethiopians with diabetes (Siraj et al. 706-710).
The rise in childhood obesity has been linked to a rise in diabetes both in childhood and in later life, leading to speculation that there may be an increase in Type 2 diabetes in the next few years. A study by Eva M. Vivian finds a rise in Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents worldwide. Vivian…… [Read More]
In cases where glycemic control is not achieved by dietary adjustments, commencing insulin therapy is strongly recommended. It is also essential to monitor the fetal health using ultrasound screening to avoid any complications during delivery of the baby. Regular monitoring of maternal glycemic levels and proper obstetric care should greatly help in reducing the potential health complications associated with diabetes during pregnancy.
1) Alana luman Jincoe, (2006), 'Diabetes: Monitoring maternal and Fetal Wellbeing', ritish Journal of Midwifery, Vol 14, no 2.
2) Terry J. Rosenberg, PhD, Samantha Garbers, MPA, Heather Lipkind, MD, and Mary Ann Chiasson, DrPH (Sep 2005), 'Maternal Obesity and diabetes as risk factors for Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Differences among four Racial Ethnic Groups', American Journal of Public Health Vol 95, no 9.
3) Huether, S & McCance K (2008), 'Understanding Pathophysiology', Mosby Elseiver.
4) Medscape, (2004), 'Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Pathophysiology', retrieved Nov 3rd 2010, from, http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/483810_2…… [Read More]
Bckground -- Diabetes mellitus is also known as Type II Diabetes, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes (adult onset diabetes in certain cases). The disorder is due to a number of variables that are present in the modern, developed world -- sugary foods, fast foods, lack of exercise, etc. It is characterized by higher than normal blood glucose levels that play havoc with insulin deficiency and resistance. Insulin resistance means that cells do not respond appropriately when there is free insulin in the blood system. Essentially, they body is reacting to an improper balance of sugars and insulin. Because obesity is often present, research suggests that even thought the mechanisms controling glucose and insulin are unclear, the adopose tissue likely plays a crucial role in the lack of proper uptake of sugards. Two new emergent ideas show that there is an issue of ectopic fat storage (fatty deposits in the muscles, liver, and…… [Read More]
versus Type II Diabetes Mellitus in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcome
This intention of this dissertation is to firstly provide an overview of the most recent research into the issue of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, with the aim of examining in detail specific aspects and differences between the two types and the impact of diabetes mellitus on pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. A further focus of this study is the emphasis on Type II diabetes and on the non-physical causative and prognostic factors in pregnancy. Issues such as naturalistic therapies and environmental and hereditary issues will form part of the overall discussion. The study also attempts to provide a balanced and comprehensive view of both types of the disease from various perspectives.
Overview: The essential difference between Type I and Type II diabetes
There are two forms of diabetes mellitus. Type I is insulin dependent while Type II is…… [Read More]
Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a common condition afflicting individuals worldwide. There are an increasing number of women in the reproductive age group presenting with type 2 diabetes, which necessitates appropriate risk management in order to reduce the likelihood of any negative effects for mothers and fetuses (Mahmud & Mazza, 2010). Prevention of any complications among this high risk group is best achieved through preconception care including counseling that effectively provides women with type 2 diabetes with information and guidance in order to achieve the most successful pregnancy outcomes. How is this preconception care most effectively delivered and how are pregnancy outcomes impacted?
Guidelines for preconception care should consist of counseling surrounding risks that uncontrolled preconceptional blood sugar poses regarding congenital malformation, and how appropriate blood sugar control should be achieved prior to conception, thus placing emphasis on the importance of effective contraception (Mahmud & Mazza, 2010). However,…… [Read More]
Diabetes Mellitus Type II
Diabetes is described as a condition that results from a chronic problem of hyperglycaemia that is brought about by insulin inaction in the body system. Diabetes type II is a condition that fronts the case for a range of diabetic problems characterised by some pathophysiological symptoms, including increased insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. The problems observed in the cell function and the deteriorating pancreatic conditions develop over a period of time. The root and development of diabetes type II is linked to the abnormal secretion of insulin, its action and endogenous output of glucose (EGO Type II diabetes affects over 6.4% of the world's population. This percentage represents over 285 million people the world over. It is expected that the number will increase to 7.7% (439 million) by the year 2030. The epidemic of Diabetes mellitus II (T2DM) as perceived by medical experts is an…… [Read More]
Managing Patients With Diabetes Mellitus
critical thinking managing patients with Diabetes Mellitus
The main goal of managing patients with diabetes mellitus is to eliminate symptoms and prevent the development of complications. There are differing methodologies that could be applied in the management of the disease. The type of diabetes affecting a patient determines the methodologies employed. Different health professionals who have the expertise in diabetes care and management best provide management of diabetes. American Diabetes Association (2010) states that the management of diabetes will include setting of appropriate goals, modifications to the diet and exercise of the patient, medications, regular monitoring of the patient for any complications, laboratory assessments, and employing self-monitoring of blood glucose. For an ideal management of diabetes, the levels of blood glucose should be near-normal levels. However, focusing on the management of glucose alone will not provide enough treatment for diabetic patients. Proper management and treatment…… [Read More]
ACE INHIBITOS vs. TIGHT GLYCEMIC CONTOL
Diabetic Nephropathy: ACE Inhibitors vs. Tight Glycemic Control
Diabetic Nephropathy: ACE Inhibitors vs. Tight Glycemic Control
Proteinuria is considered a risk factor for end-stage renal disease and coronary artery disease, secondary to diabetes (reviewed by Tan, Jaung, Gamble, & Cundy, 2014). The recommended treatment approach relies on angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (AB), with the goal of proteinuria remission and the control of hypertension. This strategy is effective for approximately 50% of type 2 diabetes patients suffering from microalbuminuria. The same treatment approach has been used for type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients suffering from macroalbuminuria and researchers have shown that remission is possible in a percentage of type 1 diabetes patients.
Tight glycemic control vs. regular glycemic control were compared for efficacy in reducing the risk of cardiovascular adverse events and nephropathy in several recent large randomized-controlled…… [Read More]
Clinical Problem: Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Settings
Mid-range nursing theories can be extremely useful in understanding specific clinical issues. These theories are less broad and all-encompassing than so-called grand theories of nursing such as Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and seek to offer a more technical and practical approach to applying theory in daily practice (Alligood, 2018). This paper will specifically examine the application of Kristen Swanson’s Theory of Caring to the treatment of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus living in rural settings without adequate access to healthcare. Virtually all nursing theories are composed of four essential core definitions, that of person, environment, health, and nursing itself. Swanson’s theory, however, specifically focuses on nursing, which Swanson defines as a very specific type of caring.
Although obesity is increasing across the nation, obesity is often particularly rife in rural settings with limited access to healthcare and healthy foods.…… [Read More]
The high levels of blood glucose lead to the production of insulin therefore patients have excessive production of insulin. There is insulin resistance and hence body cells do not respond in an appropriate way in the presence of insulin (Mealey, 2010).
The main difference between diabetes insipidus, and diabetes mellitus, is that in diabetes mellitus insulin resistance is referred to being "post-receptor." This implies that the problem lies with the cells which respond to insulin as opposed to there being a problem in the production of insulin. The onset of diabetes mellitus is slow and the disorder might go undiagnosed for a very long period of time. Diabetes insipidus has an abrupt onset and it might be diagnosed at any age.
Factors affecting diagnosis and treatment prescription of diabetes
There are various factors that might affect the diagnosis and treatment of these two types of diabetes.one of these factors is…… [Read More]
Diabetes in Australia
The Australian government and the relevant Health agencies have for many years strived to put the diabetes menace under close observation and management. There have been massive researches and huge sums directed towards good management and possible elimination of diabetes at the national levels. This commitment is exhibited by the specialized funds and efforts like the Juvenile Diabetes esearch Fund (JDF) that has been committed to striving to mitigate the effects of diabetes from the render age of the Australians.
Since diabetes is such a big challenge to Australia as a whole, diabetes mellitus was declared a National Health Priority Area in 1996 during the Australian Health Minister's Conference and this was as recognition to the high levels of diabetes prevalence within Australia, the mortality rates that were due to it, the impact it had on morbidity and the possibility of the health improvements that can be…… [Read More]
This fear is not unfounded, for Chicano lifestyle and diet are rich in elements that contribute to the escalation of diabetes, which includes a steady diet of fatty and starchy foods, not to mention the propensity among Chicanos to eat, both as a physical need and a social activity in their communities.
This measure is also biologically crucial to Chicano communities, since diabetes as a primarily genetic ailment can influence the way in which Chicanos' mental health is developed. In the same manner that mental health is mainly a function of genes (or one's genetic make-up), diabetes, then, becomes susceptible and possibly dangerous if left untreated among individuals who also experiences mental health problems. In addition to this concern, diabetes as an ailment also causes stress, attributing this not only to the physical degradation due to the illness, but also the emotional and financial distress that develop out of the…… [Read More]
However, advancements in pharmacogenetics promises new and better ways of managing diabetes. Studies have shown that Lisofylline, an anti-inflammatory compound is very effective in suppressing the autoimmune activity and in improving the islet secretion of insulin. Mice studies showed significant difference (25% vs. 91.6%) in the onset of diabetes among Lisofylline treated mice compared to placebo mice. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines IFN-? And TNF-? levels correlated with reduction in ss cell apoptosis. [Yang et.al, 2003] Recent study by Lipsett et.al (2007) has shown that Islet Neogenesis-Associated Protein (INGAP) is useful as a pancreatic regeneration agent. Successful tests in mice and regeneration of cultured human pancreatic cells have encouraged the researchers to seriously consider INGAP as an effective agent for improving insulin synthesis. [Lipsett et.al, (2007)]
A recent Cornell University study focused on an entirely different approach to diabetes management. The researchers examined the possibility of recombinant Commensal bacteria engineered to…… [Read More]
Diabetes Among Middle Age Males:
One of the major public health issues among middle age males is diabetes since they are twice as likely to suffer from the disease as compared to their female counterparts. Generally, the rate of diabetes has increased in the recent past to an extent that 8% of the American population have the disease, especially children and adults. The main reason for the increase of the rate of diabetes is that the risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age. The other risk factors include an inactive lifestyle, being obese or overweight, a history of the disease in immediate family, and a diet with high sugar and low fiber. As the rate of diabetes has increased among children and adults, much increase has occurred among the male population, especially middle age males. Therefore, it is increasingly important to examine the major health risks incurred by the…… [Read More]
What is Diabetes?
Clinical Practice ecommendations
Diabetes is considered to be a chronic disease which really needs some kind of long-term nursing and medical intermediations. esearch shows that patients likewise need to take a part that is active in their own treatment and management, and the alter their lifestyles in order to keep their metabolic state at a level that is normal (Sperl-Hillen, 2010). One of the transformations in education is recognized as being electronic learning. This technique is interesting because it has all of these unique features which users are interested in using, and has made it possible to learn anywhere. It facilitates individual as well as group learning, and makes it conceivable to familiarize the material as stated by the users' needs. However, in the last 10 years, it has been very obvious that the Internet has turned out…… [Read More]
Studies conducted over decades have concluded that there is a significant link between diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. For instance, the most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, which involves both the impairment in insulin resistance and the defective secretion of insulin by the pancreas. The development of diabetes often comes with a number of cardiovascular complications including "coronary heart disease (CDC), stroke, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, and possibly neuropathy and cardiomyopathy." (Grundy 1999)
Specifically both diabetes type 1 and type 2 are considered to be risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. "Moreover, myocardial ischemeal due to coronary atherosclerosis commonly occurs without symptoms in patients with diabetes." (Grundy 1999) In other words, patients with diabetes are more likely to be stricken with congestive heart failure. But it is not only the risk of heart failure that diabetes sufferers are at risk from, another…… [Read More]
African-Americans and Diabetes
Diabetes in the African-American Adult Population
Diabetes is a serious public health issue, and often seen in the African-American adult population. According to the CDC, African-Americans are twice as likely to have type II diabetes as Caucasians (Diabetes, 2011). This is highly significant, since 90 to 95% of new diabetes cases each year are type II (Diabetes, 2011). There are several reasons for these cases, and genetics is one of them. Additionally, people can develop type II diabetes from obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, age, and poor eating habits. In order to thoroughly address the issue, it is important to look at what African-Americans know and do not know about diabetes, and how they handle the disease if they do develop it or are told they are at risk for developing it. Many of them have pre-diabetes, and can avoid the disease if they are conscientious regarding the…… [Read More]
This means these children have a much higher chance of developing other diabetes related illnesses as they grow older, including serious damage to the eyes, nerves, heart, kidneys, and blood vessels (Bren, 2004). If they do not learn how to self-manage the disease when they are children, they will have more serious side effects as they grow older, and they will be a drain on the healthcare and insurance areas, as well.
One way to prevent diabetes is to treat the underlying causes, such as poor nutrition, lack of education, and obesity. This education should start in childhood, and the population should have resources available to help them deal with and self-treat the disease. Perhaps "diabetes centers" could open in inner city neighborhoods, that provided treatment kits, education, and even cooking and nutrition classes to help with patients cope with their disease.
In conclusion, Type 2 diabetes hits minority victims…… [Read More]
Indigenous Australians and Diabetes
In Adelaide the first case of diabetes in Indigenous people was noted in 1923. The records clearly show that Indigenous people didn't diagnose diabetes at the time as they were fit, lean and in good shape. Apart from that, they didn't have any metabolic ailment at the time. Till the 1960's, the estimates of diabetes in Indigenous people weren't taken and no investigation done until then. Then a connection was found between indigenous population and westernized living in the population as type-2 diabetes was slowly starting to materialize. Since then, type 2 diabetes has been deemed as the most worrying health problems in Australia as the probability of it being in the population is four times (Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 2007a).
Diabetes and the afflicted person
Diabetes can affect a person in many ways as shown below:
Physically (Shaw, 2012)
Physical…… [Read More]
Diabetes -- Literature eview
It is estimated that nearly five and a half million people, or over a third of the population, have prediabetes in some populations such as the City of New York; diabetes and diabetes-associated cardiovascular diseases have become the leading cause of death in the region accounting for roughly two-thirds of the deaths and the rates of diabetes has lead this trend to be referred to as the diabetes epidemic (Frieden, 2006). The same trends can be found in a greater or lesser extend in most Western nations in the world. Furthermore, there has been a strong correlation between childhood obesity and childhood diseases, such as diabetes, that has now been identified (Dietz & Bellizzi, 1999).
The link between childhood obesity and adult diseases has been the subject of much attention in recent years. Much of the research has considered the programming of adult metabolic processes and…… [Read More]
Problem Statement and Purpose of Study Self-care regimens that require a lot of input are necessary in making the study of diabetes effective. A lot of people with diabetes undergo distress. The diabetes distress is commonly described as the distress that arises from the effect of the diabetes symptoms, regimens for self management, the fear that there would be complications and functionality failure. The diabetes stress stabilizes after some time. It has been found that about a third of all diabetes type 2 patients are prone to diabetes stress regarded as clinically significant. Diabetes distress severely affects adult diabetic patients with a poor diabetes management plan. Such patients stand a high risk of diabetes-related complications. These developments are linked to poor glycemic control and self-management (Leeet al, 2018). The current research seeks to establish whether autonomy support by the health supporters of patients such as the members of their family…… [Read More]
Windshield Survey of Diabetes in the Asian-Indian Community in Plainsboro, New Jersey: Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation
As the home to the second-largest population of Asian-Indians in the United States today (the first is another nearby small community, Edison, New Jersey) (Sahney, 2010). Out of a population of around 23,500, 16.97% of the residents of Plainsboro (or about 4,000) describe themselves as having Indian ancestry (Sahney, 2010). Although Plainsboro enjoys a high standard of living, a desirable community environment and state-of-the-art medical facilities, it is reasonable to suggest that some of the Asian-Indian population in this community remain marginalized due to an inability to afford these state-of-the-art health care services and the potential for cross-cultural differences in views about health care may further exacerbate this lack of access.
A growing body of evidence also indicates that Asian-Indians are among the highest-risk populations for developing diabetes, making this community an especially important…… [Read More]
Diabetes and Thyroid
What is the mechanism of action of insulin and what are the differences in insulin therapy for Type I and Type II diabetes mellitus?
The pancreas secretes insulin, and it is used for the regulation of glucose from the blood into the cells. Insulin assists in lowering blood glucose by causing peripheral glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells. The breakdown of fat, proteins, and manufacture of glucose is inhibited by insulin. Insulin will also increase protein synthesis and the conversion of excess glucose to fat. Patients suffering from diabetes are not able to produce enough insulin, and this leads to hyperglycemia. Insulin therapy for type I diabetes mellitus is aimed at increasing or providing insulin in the patient's body (Trauner, ichert, & Luddeke, 2013). For type II diabetes, insulin therapy is aimed at controlling blood sugar, increasing insulin levels, and lowering the patient's resistance to insulin.…… [Read More]
Diabetes and Self-Care Ability of High School Diabetics
Diabetes has been one of the biggest challenges that the health sector has been facing in the recent decades. There have been a soaring number of fast foods across the nation and with them the subsequent rise in the number of diabetic population and in specific the high school students who hardly have aby time to cook or access healthy foods. The change in the feeding habits is significantly informed and shaped by the change in trends and lifestyle where eating in fast foods is seen as both a fashionable trend and convenient despite the outright health challenges that come with it like the predisposition to diabetes due to wrong diet. Ferguson, T., Tulloch-eis, M., Wilks, . (2010) note that the last 50 years have seen the highest number of Western fast foods mushroom across the world and with it the significant…… [Read More]
Diabetes was chosen as a topic because of the high percentage of the population that it affects coupled with the fact that it is a relatively preventable disease for most people. It is estimated that nearly five and a half million people in New York City, about a third of the population, have prediabetes, diabetes, and/or diabetes-associated cardiovascular diseases and similar frequencies have been noted throughout the Western world. Diabetes has become the leading cause of death in the region accounting for roughly two-thirds of the deaths and the rates of diabetes has lead this trend to be referred to as the diabetes epidemic (Frieden, 2006). There are a range of different factors that can lead to diabetes but the two main culprits are an improper diet and lack of exercise.
Furthermore, this condition is not reserved for only adults. The number of children who have diagnosed with…… [Read More]
Diabetes and Drug Treatments
TYPE II DIABETES AND DUG TEATMENTS
Type I Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus type 1 result from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas. Subsequent shortage of insulin translates to increased urine and blood glucose. The developed world is associated with increasingly variant type I diabetes with a large cause of kidney failure and non-traumatic blindness. The link is based on an increased dementia and cognitive dysfunction risk through disease processes of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The complications are inclusive of sexual dysfunction, acanthosis nigricans, and frequent infections (Jones, et al., 2012).
Type II Diabetes
The classic diabetes symptoms include polyuria (frequent urination), increased thirst, increased hunger (polyphagia), and weight loss. Alternative symptoms commonly presented in the diagnosis include histories of blurred vision, fatigue, recurrent vaginal infections, peripheral neuropathy, and itchiness (Barnett, 2012). However, many people lack symptoms in the initial years and while…… [Read More]
Diabetes Teaching Project
Combine knowledge from sciences and liberal arts with that from nursing sciences, for understanding universal perspectives, employing latest technology, and encouraging critical thinking.
Consistent with the diabetes teaching project's first objective, we realize the need for holistic development of each student, and hence, our curriculum not only comprises nursing courses related to diabetes, but also requires that students enroll themselves in science and liberal arts courses. For students who have already taken courses like Literature, English language, Sociology and Philosophy, our academic advisor simply certifies these and allows students to proceed with core courses. Further, integrated into these courses is a comprehensive insight into the global perception, eliciting critical thinking. Through the subject 'Dimensions of Professional Nursing Practice' (Subject code: NU 342), I aided students in developing critical thinking ability, which they would need to employ when dealing with diabetic patients. This subject required them to study…… [Read More]
As a complex metabolic disease, diabetes does not lend itself to a wide variety of interventions and concurring the disease does not appear to be an event that medicine will see in the near horizon. For these reasons, and because diabetes can be such a devastating disease, research that shows promise of positively impacting the course of the disease is greeted with enthusiasm by the medical community and the public.
Blood glucose levels must be strictly regulated in order to avoid the complications that diabetes can create. A substantive stumbling block is the difficulty of achieving consistent glycemic control without occurrences of hypoglycemia. Indeed, this factor is a primary obstacle to obtaining regulatory approval of an artificial pancreas. Earlier research has focused on automatic systems that monitor the levels of glucose and stop insulin flow when the blood glucose drops too low. While this is a viable approach,…… [Read More]
Psychological Influence of Diabetes
The National Diabetes Educational Program is under the sponsorship of the Disease control and prevention and the National institutes of health. The purpose of this joint interaction is to reduce the effects of diabetes and delay the onset of diabetes. The target audience for this program is children, Adults, families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, promoters and peers.
Diabetes as a health related issue has diverse effects on the psychological aspects of people infected. Diabetes as a disease falls into two categories: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes is as a result of destruction of insulin producing cells of the pancreas. The lack of insulin results to an increased urine or blood glucose (Penckofer et. al., 2007). If left untreated the disease may turn out being fatal. The illness may, however, be treated by administration…… [Read More]
thirds of the global population lives within the Asia Pacific area where pervasiveness of diabetes has reached rampant proportion. With India and China being the most densely inhabited countries in the world, it is thought that over one hundred and fifty million diabetes cases reside in the area with more than a staggering 95% being of T2DM or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additionally, other Pacific islands within the area have high rates of T2DM. These islands include Tonga, Nauru, French Polynesia, and Fiji.
The latter possesses the highest occurrence of T2DM per populace in the globe. Over the past twenty, New Zealand and Australia, the incidence of T2DM has actually doubled, largely midst the Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal and Maori peoples correspondingly. With the snowballing frequency of diabetes within the Asia Pacific area coupled with the inadequate number of resources, use of a consistent and efficient mode of diagnosis…… [Read More]
Burden of disease: disability/morbidity
The word 'pre-diabetes' applies to persons highly susceptible to contracting diabetes mellitus (type 2). Those diagnosed as pre-diabetic have sustained, higher-than-normal blood glucose levels; however, these levels are not sufficiently high to be characterized as diabetes. Pre-diabetics suffer from either IGT (impaired glucose tolerance), or IFG (impaired fasting glucose), or both. The former denotes a condition wherein glucose tolerance levels of individuals after two hours of glucose consumption lie between 140 and 199 milligrams/deciliter whereas the latter refers to a condition wherein fasting blood glucose levels lie between 100 and 125 milligrams/deciliter (when nothing has been consumed throughout the night) (Thomaskutty & Dwivedi, 2011).
After pre-diabetes sets in, beta cells lose their function progressively, resulting in the onset of diabetes. Type 2 diabetics characteristically have by high blood sugar levels, a condition that, with time, damages blood vessels and nerves, thereby giving rise to…… [Read More]
Obesity cause Diabetes Type 2?
From the time people came into existence; they have witnessed changes in virtually every aspect of life including the global environment, food production, health concerns, demographic growth, and so forth. Nevertheless, the capacity to adapt to the changes has facilitated the inhabitants to survive and have an improved lifestyle. However, as the globe penetrated into the twenty-first century, the standard of living of numerous people has altered to a great extent due to the technological advancements and innovations. People are now in a race where everyone wants to win success, prosperity, and affluence because of which they have neglected or overlooked the aspect of their health (Stern & Kazaks, 2009). Therefore, health has become an escalating and emerging concern in this epoch across the world.
However, when taking health issues under consideration, obesity has been observed as one of the epidemics that have been witnessed…… [Read More]
Even in the second half of the 17th century did doctors prescribe apparently absurd remedies such as viper's flesh, red coral, sweet almonds, and fresh flowers for diabetes sufferers (DiabetesHealth.com). Of course, these had little effect, and sufferers were generally condemned to death. The first breakthrough before the 1920s came in the form of Dr. John Rollo, who built on the work of Dr. Dobson of Liverpool to prescribe the first relatively successful treatment of the disease: a diet that was high in fat and meat and low in grains and breads. This improved the prognosis significantly, and for the first time in history could diabetes sufferers expect an extended life.
The year 1921 saw a miraculous discovery that would change the treatment of diabetes forever (Sattley). The surgeon Frederick Banting and his assistant Charles Best were instrumental in the discovery of insulin as an effective treatment for the disease.…… [Read More]
Ketoacidosis occurs when patients with Type 1 diabetes do not take their insulin shots or when patients with Type 2 diabetes develop ancillary complications such as chest or urinary tract infections. Therefore, the condition can be prevented with proper care and effective monitoring of blood sugar levels.
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNK) results from an excess concentration of sugar in the blood, which occurs mostly in patients with Type 2 diabetes. The onset of HHNK occurs gradually when patients do not take their medications or when they develop other complications or are under stress. Symptoms include tiredness, increased thirst, increased urination, and weight loss. The extreme fatigue may cause the patient to become unconscious, which is why the condition is a type of coma. Preventing HHNK is a matter of regulating blood sugar levels, through medications and insulin.
Complications of Diabetes." Diabetes and You. http://www.sokkari.com/complications.htm.
Diabetes Mellitus. http://www.sghhealth4u.com.sg/health4u/endocrinology/Diabetes_Mellitus.html.… [Read More]
Healthy People 2020 and Diabetes
Diabetes is a community health problem that is also a Healthy People 2020 priority area. abish (2007) has cited it as a growing epidemic occurring all over the world. Because diabetes has been linked to obesity, poor diet and lack of exercise, it is reasonable to arrive at the conclusion that if people ate better and exercised more the rising spread of diabetes could be reversed. his is the contention of researchers such as Davis (2008) and Cunninghamm-Myrie, heall, Younger et al. (2015). In short, diabetes is impacting everyone. All who consume "fast food" type of diets are at risk of developing diabetes according to these studies.
he public health leadership problem related to this health issue is that public health leaders appear all too willing to simply treat the symptoms of diabetes instead of attacking the causes of the disease. Better leadership in this…… [Read More]
Medical Conditions -- There are a number of factors that can increase the likelyhood of type-2 diabetes: hypertension, eleveted cholesterol, and a condition called Symdrome X, or metabolic syndrome (combination of obesity, high cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle, stress, and poor diet). Cushing's syndrome, cortisol excess and testosterone deficiency are also associated with the disease. Often, it is a number of co-dependent conditions that seem to give rise to diabetes (Jack & Boseman, 2004).
Genetics -- There is ample evidence that there is a strong inheritable genetic condition in type-2 diabetes. In addition, there is a genetic mutation to the Islet Amyloid Polypeptide gene that results in early onset diabetes (Lee & Hasim, 2001). There is a stronger inheritance pattern for type-2 diabetes with a significant association between family members. Typically, this is excacerbated by cultural and lifestyle factors that, while not inherited, are culturally shared. Gene expression promoted by a diet…… [Read More]
Long-Term Management for Diabetic Patients Under the Home Setting
Aubert .E., et.al, (1998).Nurse case Management to Improve Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients in a Health Maintenance Organization. A randomized, controlled trial. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9786807
This is a report on the research on the comparison of diabetes control in patients receiving nurse case management and patients receiving usual care. The research took a randomized controlled trial model. The research was conducted in primary care clinics in a group model health maintenance organization. It involved 121 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 17 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The intervention that was used in this case study was that the nurse case manager followed the written management algorithm with the direction of the family physician and an endocrinologist. If there were any changes then they would be communicated to the primary care physician. The patients received ongoing care through their primary care…… [Read More]
Diagnostic Treatment and Interventions for Diabetes in Children
"Diabetes can affect many parts of the body with serious complications ... heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney failure, and lower-limb amputations ... " (CDC).
According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) approximately 1.25 million American children and adults have diabetes type 1. As for children, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported in 2014 that 22 out of every 100,000 children under the age of 10 in the U.S. have type 1 diabetes. And a 2014 report in USA Today quotes a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association that shows that "... nearly 167,000 children and teens younger than 20 have type 1 diabetes" (Szabo, 2014). That data conflicts with the ADA data that reports 208,000 Americans under 20 have type 1 diabetes. No matter the conflicting data, it is clear that the rate of diabetes in…… [Read More]
Community based Screening of type 2 diabetes mellitus
The diabetes menace in the US is rampant and a national concern for the health agencies particularly rearing the high rates of new diabetes cases that emerge each year. It is estimated that by 1958, only 1% of the American population were diabetic, this has tremendously shot up to the estimated 9.4% by 2015. This number includes 30.2 million adults of 18 years and over. Of even greater concern in this evaluation or screening process is that nearly a quarter of the individuals with this condition do not know that they have it (Murrel D., 2018). This informs the screening initiative with the sole aim of increasing the number of screened individuals, hence awareness of their diabetes status.
The screening is projected to have a long term effect of the participants knowing their predisposition to the cardiovascular complications since blood…… [Read More]
2012, 1.5 million lives were lost to diabetes globally. It ranked eighth among the causes of deaths across both sexes and fifth among women (WHO, 2016). Higher than optimal glucose levels, even those that fall below diabetes diagnostic threshold, is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diabetes' diagnostic criterion is fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L which is a diagnostic point chosen because of micro-vascular issues such as diabetes retinotherapy. The likelihood of having a macro-vascular disease such as stroke or a heart attack begins to increase even before this point is reached (ellamy, Casas, Hingorani & Williams, 2009). To comprehend the impact blood glucose levels can have on mortality, one ought to view blood glucose related mortality as a risk factor. The total lives that were lost to high blood glucose levels in 2012 have been estimated to be about 3.7 million. The number includes those…… [Read More]
The CDC has provided almost $7 million in funding to establish DPPs for research purposes, which means the number of pre-diabetes individuals helped by these programs will be very limited (CDC, 2012). While these programs will probably provide free or nearly-free diabetes preventive services to a large number of individuals, most underserved patients will not benefit from these programs.
S. 452 is worded in such a way that establishing DPPs under Medicaid will be optional for states (Sebelius, 2010). As of 2010, 43 states covered the expense of screening Medicaid patients for diabetes, but only 13 states provided reimbursement for obesity preventive services. This suggests that states are willing to pay for screening, but not preventive services like lifestyle interventions; however, if only a few states implement DPPs for Medicaid recipients, this will provide a proof-of-principle experiment in a real-world setting and establish the overall healthcare savings such programs can…… [Read More]
Beneficial effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the United Kingdom.
The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the UK
Science of the problem
Type II diabetes progresses through two stages. The initial stage is referred to as insulin resistance. During this stage, the pancreas produces enough insulin, but the body's cell are unable to respond to insulin. The pancreas increases the production of insulin in the body to compensate for the resistance. The body cells absorb more and more insulin resulting in the pancreas continuously increasing its insulin production. Eventually, the pancreas will shut down the production of insulin because it is unable to keep up with the demand, which results in type II diabetes. The lack of sugar for conversion to energy results in the starvation of cells and there is a buildup of glucose levels in the…… [Read More]
The pathophysiology of Type 2 diabetes is found in the way the body's relationship with insulin. Either the body produces too little of it to meet the body's own needs or else there is a resistance to the insulin that the body has developed (which makes the insulin unable to do what it should -- thus there could be enough insulin in the body, it is just that cells in the body do not respond to it). The cause is due to "a combination of genetic factors related to impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance" and impacts from external factors "such as obesity," inadequate exercise, aging, etc. (Kaku, 2010, p. 41).
Wilmot and Idris (2014) show that there is an age continuum risk associated with separating Type 2 diabetes diagnosis onsets into two separate categories -- pediatric (under 20 years of age) and adult (over 20). They assert that…… [Read More]
Teaching Proposal on Diabetes
In recent years, an increase in demand for expansion of education programs for diabetes patients has been observed and for Federal Government or third party payers to support these programs. A survey by Veterans Administration Hospital evaluating the capability of patient for diabetes management, reported lack of formal training in over 35% of patients interviewed (Miller, Goldstein & Nicolaisen, 1978, p. 275). Similarly, accomplishing proper management of self-administration of insulin also continues to be a critical concern. Therefore, an educator needs to set appropriate and reasonable, specific, mutually agreed goals; and should remain sensitive to individual fears and anxieties while setting these goals.
Diabetes education is a lifetime learning process, which is developed and modified as per the requirements of people afflicted with diabetes. However, assessment of these requirements is time-taking, still vital for customizing diabetes education. Thus, to determine one's educational requirements…… [Read More]
17) Can the outcomes be measured through standard care? Yes, qualitative and quantitative measurements are standard and needed based on the increasing number of Type II diabetes patients. This increase is primarily cultural, and due to obesity and an unhealthy diet.
One of the more serious aspects of type II diabetes is the new prevalence of onset during later teen years, most likely completely due to rising obesity patterns in children. Symptoms for both children and adults range from chronic fatigue, general weakness and malaise to excessive thirst, blurred vision, lethargy, and more serious internal dysfunction. There also appears to be a strong connection in type II diabetes to a genetic predisposition -- which is ironically a similar predisposition to hypertension, cholesterol issues and obesity. Clearly, the epidemic proportions of the disease have increased due to a rapidly aging population, high-fat diets, and a far less active lifestyle (Zimmer,…… [Read More]
Childhood type diabetes and obesity
Which three databases will you use?
Search each database, using key words, for relevant research on this subject. What key words did you use in the Search Strategy fields? nclude all attempts and limitations used to refine your search.
Childhood obesity diabetes
Childhood obesity diabetes
Report the number of citations identified from each database in the number of articles found field.
Select one article from a peer-reviewed nursing journal published within the last three years -- or a germinal article which may contain an earlier publication date -- and provide the citation in APA format.
Hayden, M.R., Joginpally, T., Salam, M., & Sowers, J.R. (2011). Childhood and adolescent obesity in cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: A clinical vignette and ultrastructure study. Diabetes Management, 1(6), 601-614. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/dmt.11.50
Answer the following questions using your selected research article:
Q1. s this…… [Read More]
Persons with diabetes are at risk for complications such as amputations, heart attacks, strokes, blindness, kidney failure and gum disease (Arizona Department of Health Services, 2006). The Arizona Department of Health (2006) notes several activities that the individual and their family can follow to manage and prevent diabetes. For example, practicing a basic health regimen can reduce the risk of developing diabetes as well as preventing the complications once the disease is present. Family members should note that eating regular healthy meals is necessary, and complications can be prevented by recording blood sugar levels daily, exercise, and taking medication as prescribed.
Social and Economic Implications of Diabetes
There are many social and economic implications of diabetes in the Phoenix, Arizona population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is currently working with the Arizona Diabetes Prevention and Control Program to assist with the prevention of diabetes and develop the state's…… [Read More]
role of obesity in the spread of diabetes. It will examine how eating a healthy diet and exercising can help to reduce the risk of diabetes. Diabetes is a very dangerous problem for people all over the world (Butler, 2015). It has roots in obesity, poor diet and lack of exercise (Davis, 2008). It needs to be addressed as it is a serious health issue that is affecting even school children today (Flynn, McNeil, et al., 2005). If the problem of diabetes and obesity is not addressed, many lives will be negatively impacted. his study will be important to everyone who is suffering either directly or indirectly from diabetes/obesity. If loved ones are obese and could develop diabetes, this study will be important to them and those who care for them. As a societal issue, it should also be a concern because policies can be implemented if the issue is…… [Read More]
Type I diabetes
The type I diabetes is often referred to as the juvenile or the insulin-dependent diabetes. According to heem G., (2013) Type 1 diabetes is basically an auto-immune disease where the cells responsible for producing insulin in the pancreas are attacked by the immune system and the person has no control over this. Type 1 diabetes renders the patient dependent on lifelong injection of insulin into the body to help manage the blood glucose levels. It occurs predominantly among children and young adults, yet the Type 2 diabetes is predominant among the ages of 40 years and above. The victims of Type 1 diabetes are usually of normal weight or thin. Here, the body produces no insulin or too little to be of significant function for the body and the onset is usually observed to be sudden.
There are three cardinal signs of this type of diabetes…… [Read More]
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multisystem disease with both biochemical and anatomical consequences. It is a chronic disease of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism caused by the lack of insulin. In type 1 diabetes, insulin is functionally absent because of the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas. Type 1 DM occurs most commonly in juveniles but can occur in adults, especially in those in their late 30s and early 40s. Unlike people with type 2 DM, those with type 1 DM generally are not obese and may present initially with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
In this particular case, Yusuf, a 12-year-old boy was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes after exhibiting some of the following symptoms: weight loss, excessive urinating, and an unquenchable thirst. More recently, Yusuf was again admitted to the hospital after complaining of nausea, vomiting and intense thirst. The doctor observed that he appeared confused and was…… [Read More]