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This is particularly true for students with learning disabilities. Secondary students' reading performance reaches a plateau during their high school years, and it is clear that the performance gap between their abilities and what they are expected to do widens (Mock, 2003). Adolescents who lack basic literacy skills need intensive, focused, sustained instruction to help them catch up with their peers.
eading disabilities are life long; however, the effects may be mitigated to support learning, living, and earning, particularly when identified early and dealt with effectively. Language acquisition with phonemic awareness correlates to learning to read, plus it is an accurate predictor of reading success. Furthermore, it is important to identify reading disabilities early so that effective intervention strategies are employed. High school students are in a transitional phase and without the necessary scaffolding support and tools to enhance self-efficacy, young adults will have challenges to becoming self-sustaining. Hence,…
American School Counselor Association. (2012). Adolescent development. Retrieved from http://www.teachervision.fen.com/growth-and-development/child-development/2874.html?detoured=1
Bowman, M., & Treiman, R. (2004). Stepping stones to reading. Theory Into Practice, 43(4), 295-303.
Catone, W.V., & Brady, S.A. (2005). The Inadequacy of Individual Educational Program (IEP) Goals for High School Students with Word-level Reading Difficulties. Annals Of Dyslexia, 55(1), 53-78.
Hock, M.D. (2003). "No Child" leaves behind teen reading proficiency. Education Digest, 69(4), 27.
They should also show much strength and character and in that they need immense support of their immediate families. They should not self depreciate themselves because of certain stereotypes in the society. The attitude of the society should also improve but women should not get easily bogged down by it. The have to learn and in most difficult cases taught to value their own self and sexuality more than any one else. "Whether the woman had slight difficulty in walking or used a power wheelchair with a ventilator, her concept of her value was much more important than the level of her disability in predicting satisfaction with relationships and her practice of healthy behaviors. In a philosophical framework, sense of self can be interpreted as a construct with strongly spiritual dimensions and the strength that comes from it can be interpreted as having divine origins" (Hughes & Nosek 20).
Chance, Randi S. To Love and Be Loved: Sexuality and People with Physical Disabilities. Journal of Psychology and Theology. 30.3. (2002): 195+.
Giulio, Gina Di. Sexuality and People Living with Physical or Developmental Disabilities: A Review of Key Issues. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 12.1 (2003): 53+.
Hughes, Rosemary B. & Nosek, Margaret a. Psychospiritual Aspects of Sense of Self in Women with Physical Disabilities. The Journal of Rehabilitation. 67. 1. (2001): 20.
Goldstein, Susan B. & Johnson, Vera a. Stigma by Association: Perceptions of the Dating Partners of College Students with Physical Disabilities. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. 19.4.
This creates a platform for them to help each other with daily needs or simply to offer companionship and other forms of assistance. It is also found that, in the case of unmarried or childless older people, nieces and nephews can play an important role in care and companionship needs. Hence, the various family relationships the elderly are able to establish over time because they live longer allow them to establish a basis for informal care once his becomes necessary.
Because of longer lives, the health needs of older people have undergone great changes over the last 100 years. Modern diseases such as HIV / AIDS are at the forefront of medical professional attention today, especially as this concerns older people. Indeed, a paradigm shift has become necessary, since the common assumption has been that young people are in need of education regarding the condition (National Institute on Aging, 2013).…
Perhaps this is one of the greatest shifts in conceptual paradigms not only by individuals observing the elderly, but also by the elderly themselves. It is the understanding that moving to a home or retirement village is not necessarily the only option. Indeed, many prefer to remain at their homes, not only for financial reasons, but also for the emotional attachments to the home (NORCs, 2013).
At the same time, health care reform has created great congressional debate, especially concerning the needs of older people and the future needs of people who will reach older ages even than today. The Community Living Assistance Services and Supports Act (Langel, 2009), is sponsored by HELP Chairman Edward Kennedy. The purpose of the Act is to establish a voluntary disability insurance program. Many Senate Republicans, on the other hand, argue that the bill will be far more costly than is justified. Nevertheless, all sides of the debate appear in agreement that long-term care policies need a significant overhaul. This is more political attention than the elderly has ever received before. In terms of human rights and the Constitution, no person should be allowed to age and die in abject poverty. Unfortunately, this is the reality for many of the country's elderly.
In conclusion, the new situation facing society today means that new concepts and policies need to be devised. A balance between actual needs, the possibilities involved in informal care, and policy making will probably take a significant amount of time to establish. It is nevertheless encouraging that those in power and those in academic institutions are working towards assessing the various dynamics of aging and what can be done to ensure that all citizens enjoy their lives as fully as possible from birth to death.
Classroom teachers may therefore have limited experience with these students and even the special education team may not be as fully prepared as possible to meet the needs of these students.
Miranda and Josh, two students with low vision, are too young to advocate for themselves. Miranda is a nine-year-old third grader; she had had enough school experience that she can begin advocating for herself. According to the anecdotal evidence provided by Beard et al., Miranda is a child of average intelligence for whom accommodations have been made thus far in her school career. One can assume that her progress has kept pace with that of her peers and she is beginning to understand her own learning style and what she needs to continue to be successful.
Josh is only five and thus just beginning to learn what school is all about and how he can be successful. The special…
Beard, L.A., Carpenter, L.B., & Johnston, L. (2011). Assistive technology: Access for all students. 2e Kindle edition. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.
Kleinert, J.O., Harrison, E.M., Fisher, T.L., & Kleinert, H.L. (2010). "I can" and "I
did" -- Self-advocacy for young students with developmental disabilities.
Teaching Exceptional Children 43(2), pp. 16-26.
According to the U.S. epartment of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook, in the broadest sense, counselors assist people with personal, family, educational, mental health, and career decisions and problems. Their duties depend on the individuals they serve and on the settings in which they work.
In school settings -- elementary through postsecondary -- these professionals are normally called school counselors. Their role is to work with students, including those considered to be at risk and with special needs. They advocate for students and work with other individuals and organizations to promote the academic, career, and personal and social development of children and youths. School counselors help children and youth understand and deal with social, behavioral, and personal problems (U.S. ept. Labor, 2005).
Vocational counselors, also called employment or career counselors, primarily provide career counseling. These individuals are located both within and external to the school setting. Their main focus…
Depending on their specific concerns, individuals who have mental or physical disabilities may see any of these counselors for support or else respectively mental health and rehabilitation counselors. Mental health counselors work with individuals, families, and groups to analyze, address and treat mental and emotional disorders and to promote optimal mental health. They are trained in a variety of therapeutic techniques required to address a broad range of concerns such as depression, addiction and substance abuse, suicidal thoughts, stress management, self-esteem issues, ageism, occupational problems, educational decisions, and relationship problems. Mental health counselors often work closely with other mental health specialists, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, psychiatric nurses, and school counselors (U.S. Dept. Of Labor, 2005).
Rehabilitation counselors support people who must cope with the personal, social, and vocational effects of disabilities. They counsel disabled individuals who are coping with birth defects, illness or disease, accidents, or daily stress. They evaluate the strengths and challenges of these individuals, offer specialized and vocational counseling, and arrange for medical care, training, and job placement. Rehabilitation counselors meet both with disabled individuals as well as their families, evaluate school and medical reports and make suggestions, and confer and plan with physicians, psychologists, educators, occupational therapists, and employers to determine the capabilities and skills of the individual. Conferring with the client, they develop a rehabilitation program that frequently consists of training to help the person develop job skills. Rehabilitation counselors also work toward increasing the client's capacity to live independently (U.S. Dept. Of Labor, 2005).
The article "Vocational attainment of adults with CF: success in the face of adversity" (Burker, 2005, 22) discusses the unique needs of those suffering from Cystic Fibrosis (CF), a fatal inherited disease found in industrialized nations that affects multiple body systems but has the greatest impact on the lungs and pancreas. The article reports that despite the fact that there has been an increase in the number of working-age individuals with CF in the past two decades, research on career choice, work status and work disability
Difficulty pronouncing words.
Trouble learning to do snaps, zippers, buttons, and tying shoes
Difficulty controlling scissors, pencils and crayons, and coloring between two lines
Trouble sticking to routines and following instructions
Difficulty mastering shapes, colors, numbers, and days of the week
This term encompasses a range of learning problems that have little or nothing to do with motivation and intelligence (Kemp, Smith & Segal, 2013). Children struggling with learning disabilities could, therefore, be as capable or intelligent as other children, but would usually "see, hear and understand things differently" (Kemp, Smith & Segal, 2013). This as the authors further point out makes it quite challenging for such children to process, and put to use, new information (Kemp, Smith & Segal, 2013). Learning disabilities range from struggling with reading and spelling, to difficulty in understanding math (Kemp, Smith & Segal, 2011).
The main types of…
Adams, S. & Baronberg, J. (2010). Importance of Family Involvement. Education.com. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/importance-family-involvement/
Autism Society of Los Angeles. (2014). Ages 3-5 - Transition to School. Autism Society of Los Angeles. Retrieved from http://autismla.org/The-Autism-Journey/Ages-3-to-5.htm
Kemp, G., Smith, M. & Segal, J. (2013). Learning Disabilities and Disorders. Help Guide. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/learning_disabilities.htm
Smith, M. & Segal, R. (2014). ADD/ADHD in Children. Help Guide. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/adhd_add_signs_symptoms.htm
Stress to Students with Disabilities
Students with disabilities experience heightened stress levels because of the challenges they encounter in the learning environment. Students with learning disabilities often show increased stress levels and are reported to have significant negative characteristics than students without disabilities. Students with disabilities have shown high stress levels and low competency levels than students without disabilities. Children with behavior disorders and other disabilities have reported higher levels of frequent struggles and depression in challenging educational situations. Such a literature shape suggests a rising toll of stress in students with disabilities (Stinson, 2010).
Educators dealing with disabled students are required to conduct careful evaluation on stress levels these students experience. Similarly, they need to develop coping strategies that these students may inhibit. Experts have provided information illustrating that families are an integral player in treating students with disabilities. In addition, development services and training parents are strategies employed…
Comer, R.J., & Gould, E. (2013). Psychology around us. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Davies, J.L., & Janosik, E.H. (2010). Mental health and psychiatric nursing: A caring approach. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Mace, N.L., Coons, DH, & Weaverdyck, S. (2009). Teaching Dementia Care: Skill and understanding. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Stinson, A. (2010). Anxiety and stress: How poor performance and absenteeism affect the workplace. S.l.: *****.
In my view, it is clear that the parents' decision to include their son in mainstream high school classes was a wise one. Even with their reservations, it appears that educational professionals agreed with this view.
The disagreements are evidently mainly the result of philosophical differences, with educators being reserved about inclusion while parents were clearly overwhelmingly positive. I think greater alignment could have been achieved from the beginning if the parents' views were seen in a more positive light. In other words, if the parents' knowledge of their son and his situation were acknowledged as having significant validity, I think the educators would have experienced less conflict with them. There appears to be a sense of general distrust of the parents' opinion as subjective regarding their son. The parents, in turn, appear to be somewhat dismissive of the educators' reservations. I think there could have been a greater alignment…
Blankenship, T., Boon, R.T., & Fore, III, C. (2007). Inclusion and Placement Decisions for Students with Special Needs: A Historical Analysis of Relevant Statutory and Case Law. Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education, 2 (1). Retrieved from: http://corescholar.libraries.wright.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1074&context=ejie
McKee, A.M. (2011). A story of high school inclusion: an ethnographic case study. University of Iowa. Retrieved from: http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2631&context=etd
The shift toward standardized testing has failed to result in a meaningful reduction of high school dropout rates, and students with disabilities continue to be marginalized by the culture of testing in public education (Dynarski et al., 2008). With that said, the needs of students with specific educational challenges are diverse and complex, and the solutions to their needs are not revealed in the results of standardized testing (Crawford & Tindall, 2006). Special education issues that demand more immediate attention include (a) ensuring that special education teachers have appropriate textbooks, (b) providing special education teachers with help to complete needed paperwork relative to student assessments and intervention; and (c) investigating why "a disproportionate number of children of color end up in special education" (Shorr, 2006, p. 1).
Without giving the proper attention to special education, the ongoing challenge of dropping out among students with disabilities cannot be addressed. It is…
Brigham et al. (2006) detailed four different pathways (similar to tracks) that tailored offerings to student needs and then ensured that all students on each pathway received all the support needed to succeed. For special needs students, this often involved co-teaching efforts to ensure success in basic English and math skills required to pass standardized tests. Constant monitoring of all students was accomplished through collaboration between special and general education teachers. Four case studies of how special needs students successfully followed various pathways to graduation were provided. The researcher's careful examination of these case studies found teachers engaging these students through project related activities, prompting, and conversation before or after class. They taught note taking strategies, co-taught courses using interactive instruction, engaged in intensive reading counseling, and carefully adhered to IEPs. The school also offered students with disabilities added help in passing standardized tests. Brigham et al. (2006) thus documented a strongly inclusive culture that refused to allow the emergence of alienation or disconnection between the school and students with disabilities and that exemplified the benefits delivered by committed, collaborative professionals.
The Life-Centered Career Education Model
Roessler and Foshee (2010) described an occupationally-based special education program, called Life-Centered Career Education, at a small, rural high school instructing 23 students with
In order for me to develop as a recreation and leisure professional to the point where I can conduct successful programming for people with disabilities, I will need to use my strengths and overcome my weaknesses, in order to better understand how diversity in ability can impact programming.
The greatest personal weakness I would anticipate in conducting programming for people with disabilities is simply a lack of knowledge. According to a survey of women with disabilities, the people around them often lack the knowledge to appropriately encourage them to participate in physical activities
Health promotion, No date). As a recreation and leisure professional, it will be my job to ensure I have that requisite knowledge. The problem, naturally, is that there are a great variety of disabilities and I will need to ensure that I have enough knowledge about those disabilities to appropriately plan and modify activities. Planning activities for…
About us (No date). Retrieved March 26, 2007 from, http://www.specialolympics.org/Special+Olympics+Public+Website/English/About_Us/default.htm .
Dieser, Rod (1997). Pluralistic leadership in recreation and leisure planning:
Understanding minority/ethnic identity development. Retrieved March 26, 2007, at http://www.lin.ca/resource/html/Vol24/v24n3a4.htm
Disabilities/Limitations (2007). Retrieved March 25, 2007, at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/disable.htm .
Q1. Discuss the relationship between medical advances and the prevalence of physical disabilities.
Due to immense advancement in the field of medical science (Bureau, 2001), a number of diseases have been treated and improved especially the brain injuries and trauma cases which produce in a year more than 80,000 new generation people with a disability. Even the survival rates of less weighing babies have increased, in turn causing physical and mental development impediments (Bureau, 2001). This proves that as the medical science advances, problems like physical disabilities have also increased showing a positive correlation.
Q2. Define the three categories of physical disabilities described in the chapter (neuromotor impairments, orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders, and other conditions that affect health or physical ability) and provide one example of each. Define each condition.
The three categories of physical disability discussed in the chapter are;
Congenital/Acquired: This classification emphasizes that the person is born…
Work Disability in Small Firms
Work Disability Thesis Proposal
Is There a Problem? What is the Contribution?
ivermore, Whalen, Prenovitz, Aggarwal and Bardos (2011) explain how the connection between disability, work productivity and income benefits the whole society by reducing reliance on tax-funded support programs (p. 1). All of us have an interest in ensuring the most productivity from all workers, if stable employment for workers with disabilities frees up resources for other public or private endeavors, and turning tax consumers into tax payers will help reduce the burden for those who now pay. Given public perceptions of funding constraints and increased challenges to public services posed by an aging population majority, ensuring stable employment for everyone especially workers with disability grows more rather than less urgent over time. Even at current levels, ivermore et al. (2011) assert, "it is especially important for policymakers to have access to a wide…
A major confound undermining many survey-based research claims is selection bias, where researchers impute generalizations from convenience samples without ensuring truly random selection. This study will sidestep that issue simply by avoiding claims of incidence, because copious such data already exist in general as Markesich (2008) and Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Statistics and Demographics (2011) demonstrate, even if those data do not speak to workers' productivity and satisfaction in precisely the category of interest between large and small firms and disability compared to workers without. Avoiding claims of prevalence will enhance focus on qualitative inquiry as to satisfaction and productivity given the qualification that those responses indicate perceptions or intent, like perceived job fit or intent to quit or search for different employment. Claims couched in terms of perception and ex-ante intent rather than as ex-post quantitative events, will avoid the type of subjectivity Hotchkiss (2002) e.g. finds underlying much of the research on incidence or causality.
Likewise reporting perceptions of ability, performance and satisfaction seeks to avoid confounding subjectivity of language but also of disclosure, because counting disability as only those conditions with medical documentation or real accommodation in the workplace, would omit workers with invisible disability they may have declined to report. That official definitions restricted by documentation and disclosure understate incidence of disability in the workplace is not only logically coherent, but becoming more recognized as a growing body of research demonstrates (e.g. Hotchkiss, 2002, pp. 8-13, or Kukla & Bond, 2012, p. 14). Kruse and Schur (2003), for example, raise plausible doubt about comparing statistics as definitions
Work Disability in Small Firms Chapter II
Work disabled ChII Lit Review
Review of Literature Demonstrates Information Gap and Identifies Methods
This chapter justifies the problem statement and research questions, and locates the results among existing research. Copious data and analysis describes pronounced unemployment for potential workers with disabilities and lower income where workers with disabilities are employed, compared to the general U.S. workforce, extensive policy intervention notwithstanding. Fewer studies focus on workers or potential workers with disabilities in the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, Georgia metropolitan statistical area, and even at the national level, very few juried reports describe productivity and job satisfaction for workers with disabilities in firms smaller than fifteen employees. Firms with fewer than fifteen employees are exempt from compliance with Title I of the ADA, but stimulating employment for workers with disabilities in these firms may improve economic self-sufficiency for this historically disadvantaged population. Conversely, if productivity and…
Policy disincentives probably affect productivity, satisfaction and employment.
Where consensus agrees is around a strong disincentive to work if medical costs covered by Medicaid exceed the level of income qualifying them for SSDI reimbursement. As numerous experts, administrators and disability employment program consumers testified to the 111th U.S. Congress in 2009 (U.S. Congress, 2011), once an individual earns more than a threshold that qualifies them for Medicaid coverage, they have to pay their medical costs out of pocket, and if those costs are more than the new earnings plus the SSDI transfer income, then the result is negative earnings plus often considerable effort and expense getting to work along with the labor of work itself. The result, not surprisingly, is often that potential workers with disability live off $674 per month income support in order not to lose Medicaid eligibility by earning more than qualifies them for federal health care coverage, i.e. $940 in one month (C. Bates-Harris, qtd. In U.S. Congress, 2011, p. 23-25), if total earnings become less or negative covering medical costs out of pocket, especially given exclusion from insurance for the pre-existing condition that justified Medicaid coverage in the first place before the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). PPACA made such exclusion illegal, but the results are still too new for empirical analysis as yet. The perverse incentive generated by high-enough out-of-pocket medical costs meant that a potential worker with disability had to go from earning little enough to qualify for Medicaid, to enough that they could cover those costs out of pocket and also the foregone monthly income transfer. This might often mean many thousands of dollars per year or month if disability required ongoing medical attention, a situation experts often call the "Cash Cliff" (Tremblay, Porter, Smith and Weathers, 2011, p. 19) due to the abrupt income threshold.
Extensive testimony to Congress (2011) described problems within SSDI programs themselves. Income verification requirements where employment was successfully accomplished, for example, resulted in overpayment and then reversal of awarded transfers that left workers with obligations to reimburse SSDI for in one case $115,000 where a worker with psychiatric disability had benefits retroactively revoked for the prior six years, for "sporadically, very occasionally exceeding the substantial gainful activity level by small amounts, due to his disability, and there is no dispute that he reported his work attempts" (Landry, Anderson, Lacava and Bronstein, qtd. In 111th Congress, 2011, p. 88). Another was overpaid $60,000; another over $56,000; none of these individuals have worked since, which their program administrators attributed to their
The question is not whether the students are truly disabled but rather what constitutes a child who is a low achiever? Is there something in the pedagogy, the methodology or the manner of instruction that fails to tap into what the child is good at and expounds on that to improve learning? For those students who are non-native English speakers, is that a problem of the student or the teacher who may not be bi-lingual or impatient in his or her instruction? As suggested by Kaufman, Hallahan, ills and others, it is incumbent upon the educational system to determine a universal way to classify students as learning disabled and stop school systems from using it as a catch all for the students they find difficult to instruct.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: what, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly.…
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: what, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly.
Gresham, F., MacMillan, D., & Bocian, K. (1996). Learning disabilities, low
Achievement and mild mental retardation: more alike than different? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 570-581.
Hale, J., Naglieri, J., Kaufman, a., & Kavate, K (2004). Specific learning disability
disabilities as 'deficits.' Even though I did not harbor prejudices against the disabled or regard people who had disabilities as 'inferior,' I viewed disabilities as challenges that had to be overcome. This class has helped me see persons with disabilities as people with particular conditions or differences, not as people defined by a singular characteristic. Everyone has personal deficits and strengths, but needing 'talking books' to read a book does not make a blind or dyslexic person defined by their condition any more than someone who needs glasses to see the same text. Defining persons with disabilities as people 'with' specific conditions, such as saying that Johnny is a child 'with ADHD' rather than a 'hyperactive kid,' much as you would say someone is 'a person who wears glasses' rather than a 'glasses-wearing friend' has been helpful in changing my mindset.
Before I took this course, I also had a…
Stocker, deaf since birth, admittedly attempted to compensate for her disability, her imperfection, through the relentless pursuit of achieving perfection physically and athletically, and even when she excelled, Stocker confesses, for a long time she remained emotionally tortured by disability for which no amount of body shaping or athletic skill in sports could change that disability (2001, p. 154). Stocker's struggle with her self-image, her identity and hers sexuality were in large part shaped by her disability.
While it is not an attempt here to disparage Stocker, or to belittle the significance of her disability; Stocker is a woman who suffered her hearing impairment from birth. Stocker suffered emotionally as a result of her disability, struggled with it for most of her life in the ways in which it impacted her self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. So, might not a woman who acquired a disability at that point her life when…
Barker-Benfield, G.J. (2000). The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Routledge. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108011402 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
Bellerose, S.B., & Binik, Y.M. (1993). Body Image and Sexuality in Oophorectomized Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22(5), 435+. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
DeFries, Z., Friedman, R.C., & Corn, R. (Eds.). (1985). Sexuality: New Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=51035002 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105657669
Connecting Theory and Meaning of Disability Studies in Schools
The connecting theory application in the system of basic education has contributed to the development and establishment of a trans-disciplinary scientific strategized framework. This framework bases on the specified reverence for a considerable orientation in long-term and the engagement of decision makers in the education system on its application. The connecting theory involves work that cuts across education disciplines. This is with the aim of exposing the aspects perceived to be of outdated assumptions in the education system. This happens with their respective enrichment in the technological and social practice. The theory constitutes well-strategized research with knowledge meant for informing a scientific framework designated. This is to enable direct transformation towards the education system future with worldview fit (Fenton-Smith, & Stillwell, 2011).
The concrete developed strategic objectives aim at addressing the advancements with accuracy in understanding the aspect of science. This…
Albrecht, G.L. (2003). Handbook of disability studies. Thousand Oaks, Calif. [u.a.: Sage.
Dan Goodley & Michele Moore. (2010). Doing Disability Research: Activist lives and the academy. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cdso20
Danforth, S. (2006). Vital questions facing disability studies in education. New York: Lang.
Fenton-Smith, B., & Stillwell, C. (2011). Reading Discussion Groups for Teachers:
He would sometimes be wheel chaired to the door through which he would enter to make a public appearance, but once at the door, his leg braces would be put on him, and he would rely on his son's arm for support and balance (43-48). Later, with his son's support, he was able to use a cane, and the extent of his disability was successfully downplayed by the force of his political platform and the attention he commanded with powerful words and the presentation of himself in a dignified way with strong posture (43-48).
"Deeply concerned that the image of a 'permanently crippled man' seeking to lead a crippled nation out of the Depression would be damaging to his campaign, oosevelt's aides every effort to portray the Democratic nominee as a man who had conquered polio and who could walk. As he traveled across the country, his leg braces, without…
Bardes, Barbara A., Shelley, Mark C., Schmidt, Steffen W. (2008).
American Government and Politics Today: The Essentials,
Coates, Peter A. (2006). American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive
Species: Strangers on the Land,
One area that was missed in the literature was the effectiveness of various intervention strategies in reducing stress in families with persons with disabilities. It is not known what interventions have been tried and which ones were most effective in helping families to build coping mechanisms and reduce stress. This is the obvious next step into developing a thorough understanding of the topic area.
This literature review revealed several key trends into research regarding families and cognitive impairment. This area continues to be an area of interest. However, the focus seems to be shifting from a psychological perspective into a sociological based approach. There is much more interest in recent years regarding the issues of cognitive disability and its impact on society at large. In the area of persons with cognitive disability, having families of their own, politics will play a factor in the direction of research in the future.…
Anderson, V., Catroppa, C., & Haritou., M. et al. (2005). Identifying factors contributing to child and family outcome 30 months after traumatic brain injury in children. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 76(3):401-408,
Family Village. (2006). Cognitive Disability/Mental Retardation. Retrieved April 9, 2009 from http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/lib_cdmr.htm
Feldman, M., Varghese, J., Ramsay, J., & Rajska, D. (2002). Relationships between social
support, stress, and mother-child interactions in mothers with intellectual disabilities.
In addition to a lightened burden of proof and broader definition there were two additional changes resulting from the amendment which served to positively affect the impact and ultimate effectiveness of the legislation. This amendment clarified the fact that judges are not allowed to assess possible mitigating factors such as medication, corrective surgery, or specialized equipment in the determination of whether or not an individual is disabled. This change is directly related to the Sutton case. Further the amendments clarified the definition of major life activities. This amendment relates directly to the Williams case in which a judge deemed that Carpal Tunnel wasn't in fact a significant impairment to major life activities, it merely precluded her from successfully completing specific tasks in the work place. Though the language of the Act is still quite ambiguous, these changes help to clarify and protect the intention of the act.
1. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. (c.50), London: HMSO.
2. Schall, C., 1998. The Americans with Disabilities Act -- Are we keeping our promise? An analysis of the effect of the ADA on the employment of persons with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), pp.191-203.
3. Stowe, M., 2000. Interpreting "place of public accommodation" under Title III of the ADA: A technical determination with potentially broad civil rights implications. Duke Law Journal, pp. 297- 329.
4. Grabois, R., Nosek, M., & Rossi, D., 2005. Accessibility of primary care physicians' offices for people with disabilities: An analysis of compliance with the American with Disabilities Act. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, pp. 44- 51.
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…
Abu-Rabia, a., and Maroun, L. (2005). The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community. Dyslexia, 11, 1-21.
Davis, G.N., Lindo, E.J., and Compton, D.L. (2007). Children at risk for reading failureL Constructing an early screening measure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 32-37.
Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.
Hudson, R.F., High, L., and Al Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? The Reading Teacher, 60, 506-515.
What works for one patient may not work for the next. If everyone is treated according to the way that everyone else has always been treated then it may be that no one ever gets any better.
Every child should be treated so that they have the opportunity to have the best life possible. I definitely think that it would be unethical to not treat a child who I believe could minimize the consequences of a disabling condition. Every child deserves the chance to have the best life possible and if a medical professional has the ability to make sure that this happens then they should be bound to do just that. What constitutes a successful intervention for one child may not be viewed as being successful for the next, but they will find something that is successful for them. Every child has potential and it is up to the…
2). Like students who have trouble acclimating themselves to life in the classroom, emotionally disabled students need the resources that the school can provide in order to make a successful life for themselves. When subject to zero-tolerance policies, they are often kicked out into areas with limited supervision and resources for their special circumstances. Without them, they have trouble continuing on a path to success.
Thus, the current state of zero-tolerance policies does a disservice to emotionally disabled students through its poorly implemented status. Today, zero-tolerance policies are unfairly applied that will be likely to target emotionally disabled students if they are "problem students," and even more likely to victimize them if they are black (Eggert, 2009). Further, teachers and administrators are barred from making decisions on a case-by-case basis, even when they are the ones who know the students best, because of zero-tolerance. In addition, zero-tolerance policies may inadequately…
Eggert, D. (2009). ACLU: Michigan's zero-tolerance law unfair to students. Retrieved August 3, 2009, from Michigan Education & School News: http://www.mlive.com/education/index.ssf/2009/06/aclu_michigans_zerotolerance_l.html
Jull, S. (2000). Youth Violence, Schools, and the Management Question: A
Discussion of Zero Tolerance and Equity in Public Schooling. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 17. Retrieved from http://www.umanitoba.ca/publications/cjeap/articles/jull.html
Skiba, R.J. (2000). Zero Tolerance, Zero Evidence: An Analysis of School
This level is comprised of early detection and treatment of diseases, disorders, and poor health; including those which are occupational in nature. This level simply states that by eliminating the cause of the disability, the impairment caused by the disability will diminish. For example, the lowering of one's stress level will prevent future illnesses and diseases; and in the long run, may prevent an impairment caused primarily from the stress that occurred in the past. Therefore, preventing, limiting, or reversing the disability caused by impairment is an effective way of preventing disabilities before they occur.
Finally, the third level deals with preventing the transition of the disability into unacceptable challenges or handicap. This level includes surgical or therapeutic measures in the treatment, training in self-care, provision of technical and engineering aids, social and vocational counseling, and educating the public to improve public awareness, acceptance of, and behavior towards those people…
They find talking while walking difficult because of the attention talking demands. This is why less than 24% of trips were made by them without company. Researchers pointed to this as an important aspect of training mobility in disabled adults who travel with a companion and engage in multi-task conditions Furthermore, community mobility also requires many postural transitions, such as starts and stops, changing direction and reorienting the head accordingly, and reaching out for certain objects. These transitions are believed to be a basic part of mobility that exacts a lot from the balance control system beyond the requirement of steady walking. Disabled older adults were observed to take fewer postural transitions than those without disabilities. They make fewer transitions partly because of deficiencies in postural control mechanisms and partly because most of them have company when they shops and do the reaching out for distant objects for them (Cook).…
Carlson, J.E. (1999). Disability in Older Adults 2: Physical Activity as Preventive. Behavioral Medicine, Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOGDC/is_4_24/ai_55052020
Cook, a.S. (2002). Environmental Demands Associated with Community Mobility in Older Adults With and Without Mobility Disabilities. Physical Therapy: American Physical Therapy Association. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3753/is_200207/ai_n9104853
Harper, D.C. (1996). Emerging Rehabilitation Needs of Adults with Developmental Abilities. Journal of Rehabilitation. National Rehabilitation Association. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_n1_v62/ai_18562553
Lewis, M.A. (2002). The Quality of Health Care for Adults with Developmental Disabilities. Public Health Reports: U.S. Government Printing Office. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0835/is_2_117/ai_94042627
People With Disabilities in the Business Place
First Article: Equality and Human Rights Commission. "Working Better: he perfect partnership -- workplace solutions for disabled people and business." May 2012. . 11 September 2014.
his article on the topic, "Working Better: he perfect partnership -- workplace solution for disabled people and business" is by the Equality and Human Rights Commission of the United Kingdom. It focuses mainly on the people living with disability in the workplace and the discrimination they encounter on a daily basis. It brings out the present reality at the workplace in London, where there are several people with disabilities, but only a handful are hired compared to their colleagues with no disability. herefore, the commission went out to engage the people living with disabilities, asking them about their aspirations and experiences in the workplace. his was with the goal of finding new solutions to eliminate discrimination against…
The article by YMCA is titled, "How Does Disability Discrimination Affect All of Us?" The article addresses the topic in question form as a way of reasoning with its audience on this crucial topic bedeviling the society. First, it begins by giving the readers the recent statistics about the people living with disabilities in America and the world at large. The statistics shows how these people have been increasing since the early 1990's and their approximate current population. The article further brings out the various ways in which people living with different disabilities are affected in different places in the society. The various places identified where people with disabilities are discriminated include employment, education, healthcare and insurance, housing, law enforcement, legislation and advocacy, media and entertainment industry, and transportation. Ideally, employment tops the list of the discrimination avenue for people living with disabilities.
Relation to class readings
The article proves the desperation suffered by many employees living with disabilities at the workplace. The contents also relate closely with the class discussions. This can be from the session when the class discussed on the various ways in which and how people living with disabilities are affected at the workplace. The article concurs with the reality that the class came to terms with, during the discussion sessions where every member seemed to suggest an urgent need for intervention to protect the rights of people living with disabilities at the workplace.
It also lists goals and objectives, which are used to measure a student's progress and determine whether the program and placement are appropriate" ("The IEP Cycle," DREF, 2007). Each student's IEP must be developed by a team of people who are knowledgeable and concerned about the student and must be at least reviewed annually. The team may include the child's teacher, the parents, the child, and agency representatives. "If parents disagree with the proposed IEP, they can request a due process hearing and a review from the State educational agency if applicable in that state" ("Guide to Disability Rights Laws," U.S. Dept. Of Justice, 2005).
IDEA lists 13 categories under which a student can qualify for special education services, including autism, deaf-blindness, deafness, hearing impairment, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, serious emotional disturbance, specific learning disability, speech or, language impairment, traumatic brain Injury and visual impairment,…
Guide to Disability Rights Laws." U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (Sept 2005). Retrieved 18 Jun
2007 at http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/cguide.htm#anchor65310
The IEP Cycle." DREF: Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund. Retrieved 18 Jun
2007 at http://www.dredf.org/special_education/iep_cycle.shtml
Temporary Disability Law
What laws apply to temporary disability at the workplace?
Temporary Disability Insurance (TDI) programs are designed to provide wage replacement for non-work-connected sickness or injury. The TDI program complements the UI program by providing benefits to individuals who do not meet the UI program's "able" to work requirement. Although Federal law does not provide for a Federal-State TDI system, the SSA and the FUTA both authorize the withdrawal of employee contributions from a State's unemployment fund for the payment of TDI. (Temporary Disability Insurance, n.d..)
Another law providing for temporarily disabled workers injured on the job is Workers' Compensation. Workers' Compensation laws are designed to ensure that employees who are injured or disabled on the job are provided with fixed monetary awards, eliminating the need for litigation. These laws also provide benefits for dependents of those workers who are killed because of work-related accidents or illnesses. Some…
Workers compensation: an overview. Retrieved from:
'Temporary Disability Insurance" Retrieved August 10, 2005 from
Personal Perspectives on Living With a Disability
The objective of this work is to examine a work in writing that provides a first-hand perspective on the psychosocial issues involved with living with a disability of a disabling illness. personal perspectives on living with a disability. Questions addressed in this study include those as follows: (1) what type of disability or disabling illness did the person have? (2) provide a description of how this disability/illness affects the individual's perceptions of his/her identity? (3) What forms of prejudice or discrimination did he/she encounter from others? How did he/she cope with it? And (4) What did you learn from this individual's account of his/her experience that would help you as a therapist in working with another individual who has a similar illness or disability?
Type of Disability or Illness
Anthony Galvez relates that in September 2005 he was diagnosed with a "non-malignant brain…
Galvez, Anthony (2010) Reversal: When a Therapist Becomes a Patient. Health and Fitness. Google Books. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=3E1hch-CMDcC&dq=Reversal:+When+a+Therapist+Becomes+a+Patient+by+Eric+Anthony+Galvez+ (PT+with+brain+tumor)&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Living with disabilities certainly exposes life to a variety of challenges including the challenge of securing and keeping a job. But today fortunately for most people with disabilities, increased awareness and technological advancements have given a boost to their quality of life. Also societal and legislative changes have reduced the discriminations against disabled peopled especially at work by making it mandatory on employers to make reasonable accommodations for people with disabilities. For example one such disability can be visual impairment. We are using this example to explain how disabilities are viewed under Americans with disability act and how they must be taken care of at workplace. Visual disability or vision loss can have various forms and degrees and have many different causes. Each person with visual impairment or blindness is affected differently. Some people might have low vision since birth but most have vision problems because of a disease or…
ADA, (2008). Questions and Answers About Blindness and Vision Impairments in the Workplace and the Americans with Disabilities Act, The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, retrieved 28 March 2012 from http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/blindness.html
CDC, (n.d.). National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD), http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dd/ddvi.htm .
NCHS, (2002). National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Dept. Of Health and Human Services, Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2002, Vital and Health Statistics, Series 10, No. 222 (DHHS Publication No. 2004-1550).
WHO, (2011). Visual impairment and blindness, World Health Organization, Retrieved March 28, 2012 from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en/
pecifically, the ADA recognizes disability that results from physical or psychological disabilities that have detrimental effects on any part of life that is considered a "major life activity." Generally, those activities are those that are, ordinarily, "basic components" of a person's life. Typical examples of "basic components" of a "major life activity" would be seeing, hearing, walking, communicating, and learning.
Title I also prohibits any form of discrimination in hiring and promotions against the disabled. American with Disabilities Act Title II requires all state and local governments and municipalities to make "reasonable accommodations" to enable the disabled fair access to their buildings and facilities, and to the equipment of their public transportation systems. American with Disabilities Act Title III establishes similar obligations on private businesses and on most other commercial facilities that are generally open to the public.
Relevance to the Modern Workplace and Health Information Management
In the modern…
Edwards, G.C., Wallenberg, M.P., and Lineberry, R.B. (2009). Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy. New York: Longman.
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century
America: A Social and Political History. New Jersey: Pearson.
Education: Teaching Math to Students ith Disabilities
orking with students with disabilities (SD) can be quite challenging, especially for teachers working on a full-time basis. Almost every classroom today has one or more students dealing with either an emotional, educational, or physical disability; and teachers are likely to find themselves looking for resources or information that would enable them teach all their students in the most effective way. There are numerous special-education websites from which teachers and instructors can obtain information or lessons on teaching their respective subjects. Five websites available to the math special education teacher have been discussed in the subsequent sections of this text.
Teachers Helping Teachers: http://www.pacificnet.net/~mandel/
This online resource provides teaching information for all teachers, with a 'Special Education' segment that provides a number of activities meant specifically for instilling basic conceptual skills in learners with special needs. The activities are submitted by…
Oldham County Schools. "Instructional Resources for Math." Oldham County Schools, n.d. Web. 17 August 2014 http://www.oldham.k12.ky.us/files/intervention_resources/Math/Instructional_Resources_for_Math.pdf
Starr, Linda. "Teaching Special Kids: Online Resources for Teachers." Education World, 2010. Web. 17 August 2014 from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr139.shtml
The Act is not adaptable, it is not distinct in nature and it is costly to implement (eynolds, 1995). These factors have allowed the public to disregard the members of the society that were supposed to be protected by the Law. It has been difficult to distinguish the groups that are protected by the Act, to ensure the Act is understood and applicable, the Act should be refined, reworded and simplified to ensure that it is easily understood and adapted (Lande, 1998).
Employers have in a greater way been able to deny disabled people employment although the disabled person may be in a position to perform most of the responsibilities; they are not given the opportunity to prove their ability to perform. The employer refuses to hire the person not on the basis of inability to perform but because they are physically disabled (Shaw, 2008). Whenever an employee is terminated…
Shaw, K. (2008). The Disability Rights Movement -- The ADA Today. Academic Search Premier 4(2), 20-25.
Meneghello, R., & Russon, H. (2008). Creating a Movement: The First 18 Years of the ADA. Academic Search Premier. 4, 21-25.
Hermes, J. (2008). Attempt to Broaden Disabilities Act Concerns Some College Officials. Chronicle of Higher Education. 40, A23-A23
Lande, R. (1998). Disability law: Problems and proposals. Southern Medical Journal, 6, 518.
Specifically, the parents want their son's teachers to help him not only learn, but to be able to receive instruction from others. So far, they are fairly pleased with the progress that they have seen their son make in the classroom, but wish the teachers could develop more large-group activities and take the time to really make sure their son was a full participant, which they feel would help him to progress socially more than the often individualized instruction he receives.
The difficulty, they acknowledge, is that individualized instruction is how he learns best, and with a class the size of his they understand that the teachers couldn't focus their attention on him during a large group project. Still, they are hopeful that new ideas might come up that will improve his situation even more, and they continue to work closely with the teachers regarding his progress.
LDA. (209). Learning disabilities association of America. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.ldanatl.org/
WV Dept. Of Education. 92009). "Schools of Brooke County." Accessed 2 October 2009. http://wvde.state.wv.us/ed_directory/index.html?county_id=10
Disorder / impairment Characetristics Teaching Strategy Example
The basic idea is to provide these individuals with technology that they can use to help them effectively deal with the issues that they are facing. A few of the most notable solutions that we will be using include: the Braille / Braille Embosser, FM radio systems, Hear It devises, tape recorders, victor reader waves for audio books, victor reader streams for audio books, Handi Cassette II (talking book), MP 3 Players, Neo-Alpha Smart Note Pad, TTY Communication, Digital Voice Statistical Calculators, Speaking Dictionaries and Cannon Scanner for text books. At the same time, we will use different programs to support these various solutions that are being introduced to include: JAWS, Kurzweil, open book, and zoom text. Once this occurs, this will help to address the needs that are facing a wide variety of individuals who suffering from various disabilities. As, these tools can be used to help them be…
Characteristics on Mild/Moderate Disabilities
Special Education and Inclusion: Characteristic on Moderate Disabilities
The inclusion of special needs students in a standard classroom continues to be a topic of debate among educators that covers an array of issues including academic, social, emotional, medical, and economic concerns. Opinions range greatly; however, at the heart of debate lies the question, which parents and educators on all sides attempt to answer, is "what is best for the child?" One approach is the inclusion of children with mild disabilities into standard classrooms. This paper shall give a brief overview of the meaning of inclusion, and present characteristics and classroom strategies for the inclusion of a child who is hard-of-hearing in a standard classroom.
A discussion on inclusion would be benefited by clarifying two common terms that mark distinct approaches in special education. These terms are 'integration' and 'inclusion.' The concept of integration implies that a…
Thomas, G, (1997), Inclusive schools for an inclusive society. British Journal of Special Education. 24, pp. 103-107.
American Disability Act and Affirmative Action Act
Critique of Modern Civil ights Acts
The quest to ensure that every American's civil rights are guaranteed is still being waged today. New populations of disadvantaged are continuing to be guaranteed by modern legislation the same every day benefits the majority of the population often takes for granted. Acts like the American Disability Act and the Affirmative Action Act are continuing to provide for the American people to ensure that everyone gets the same benefits and rights; although some of these acts have been more successful than others.
The American Disability Act was a monumental piece of legislation aimed at helping protect the rights of vulnerable populations. For generations, there was little vocational protection for the disabled in the work environment. This often led to wrongful termination and even a complete lack of hiring people with disabilities. In 1990, the president Bush passed…
Dale, Charles V. (2005). Federal affirmative action law: A brief history. CRS Report for Congress. Web. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rs22256.pdf
U.S. Equal Opportunity Employment Opportunity Commission. (2008). Facts about the American Disability Act. Web. http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/fs-ada.html
JAMES' CASE STUDY
Case Study on James in IDEA
Case Study on James in IDEA
James is a six years old boy living with his parents in first grade. With his intellectual disability, he has been placed under special education classroom having 15 other students. James has some challenges related to learning due to the poor memory and delays in language development. One of the strengths that James has is that he is confident in school and is not easily frustrated. He can communicate effectively with adults but socializing with his peers is a challenge. One of the major challenges that he faces is the fact that he has low achievement in most of the academic areas. These include reading comprehension, mathematics, and written expressions. His interests are in sports, games although he is challenged by isolation from his peers. He has faced delays in cognitive, social and adaptive behavior…
hear the word 'disability' is someone in a wheelchair or someone whose mobility is otherwise restricted because of his or her physical condition. Upon further reflection, I would also consider someone who is blind or hard of hearing to be 'disabled.' Of course, not all disabilities are visible to the naked eye. For example, someone who is epileptic can be said to have a disability, even though when he or she is not having a seizure he or she seems normal. People who are autistic, particularly those who are high-functioning, might not seem to be disabled at all, until intimate relationships develop with the person and their social deficits become evident.
Of course, the term 'disability' is itself problematic, given that it has been taken to mean 'inferior' rather than simply 'different from most abled persons.' Everyone has a disability in some shape or fashion, even though not everyone has…
Adults ith Learning Disabilities
It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.
One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National
Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.
In 1963, the term "learning…
Author Unkown. Adult with Learning Disabilities
Corley, Mary Ann & Taymans, Juliana M. Adults with Learning Disabilities:A Review of Literature
classroom instruction and are these ideas/strategies feasible for a particular classroom, can they be adapted, alter, or incorporated to benefit students with disabilities?
A Critique of the Journal Article 'Cultural Models of Transition: Latina Mothers of Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities' and Implications for Classroom Instruction
The journal article Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities was a qualitative examination of attitudes of Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities, toward approaches to the transitions of those young adults from school-age activities to more independent living. According to the authors: "Sixteen Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities participated in the study, recruited from an agency
serving low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking communities" (Rueda,
Monzo, Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, Summer 2005). The qualitative study emphasized five themes: life skills and social adaptation; importance of family and home vs. individualism and independence; mothers' roles and decision-making expertise; information…
American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)
American Association of People with Disabilities
The American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)
Purpose and structure
The American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD) is the largest cross-disability membership organization in the nation. The agency serves multiple purposes, the most fundamental of which is advocacy. Established in 1995, the agency's original objectives were twofold: (1) to be a voice for and implement the policy goals of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) -- which had been enacted in 1990 -- and (2) to unite a wide diversity of people with disabilities into a community, bringing together the many disability-specific organizations that made up the landscape. The American Association of People with Disabilities holds that joining the diverse constituencies of the disability community -- people with physical disabilities, intellectual disabilities, developmental disabilities, sensory disabilities, psychiatric disabilities, and chronic health conditions --…
Affirmative Action, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.(2009). Retrieved http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
American Association of People with Disabilities Annual Report 2008-2009. Retrieved
Buskey, F., and Pitts, E.M. (2009). Training subversives: The ethics of leadership preparation. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3), 57-61. Retrieved July 7, 2011 from EBSC host, http://web.ebscohost.com/
fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).
Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…
Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.
Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm
American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.
Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
Human Rights: Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Human Rights
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was adopted in 2007 by the United Nations General Assembly after disability rights organizations pushed to petition the Assembly to recognize disability as a human rights issue. Today, the Convention serves as the primary reference point for identifying and safeguarding the rights and freedoms of persons with disabilities. This text identifies the basic rights protected under the Convention, and the various measures that states have put in place to safeguard the same.
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has been selected for analysis in this assignment. It basically is a civil rights treaty designed to ensure that persons with disabilities are treated with dignity and that they receive equal treatment…
California Department of Justice. "Legal Rights of Persons with Disabilities." California Department of Justice, last modified 2006. Accessed November 9, 2015. http://www.ag.ca.gov/consumers/pdf/disabled.pdf
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. "Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities." Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2015. Accessed November 9, 2015. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CRPD/Pages/ConventionRightsPersonsWithDisabilities.aspx#16
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. " Monitoring the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities." office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2010. Accessed November 9, 2011. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/Disabilities_training_17EN.pdf
United Nations. "Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities." The United Nations, 2006. Accessed November 9, 2015. http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/convention.shtml
Inclusion of a Child With Disabilities
Child With Disability
Inclusion of a child with disabilities into a general education class
Inclusion is a right that should be provided to all children. Parents fight for access to quality education to their children even though they have disabilities. This fight has contributed to the provision of equal access to quality education opportunities and equal opportunities oach & Elliott, 2006.
The passage of the PL 94-142 lessened the fight that parents had to fight for general education. PL 94-142 made a call for education of those children who have special needs in an LE (least restrictive environment) Terman, Larner, Stevenson, & Behrman, 1996.
What constitutes the LE has led to a huge debate on how to best include those children who have disabilities into the regular education system.
Additionally, the amendments that were made to IDEA of 1996 put further emphasis on inclusion…
Berry, R.A.W. (2006). Inclusion, Power, and Community: Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 43(3), 489-529.
Cawthon, S.W. (2007). Hidden Benefits and Unintended Consequences of 'No Child Left Behind' Policies for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 460-492.
Conyers, L.M., Reynolds, A.J., & Ou, S.-R. (2003). The Effect of Early Childhood Intervention and Subsequent Special Education Services: Findings from the Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(1), 75-95.
Cook, B.G. (2004). Inclusive Teachers' Attitudes toward Their Students with Disabilities: A Replication and Extension. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 307-320.
Strategies and Best Practices for Supported/Transitional Employment for Individuals with Disabilities
People with disabilities are often deprived of employment opportunities and condemned on grounds of low performance, if any organization tends to offer them jobs. Physical disability is not the measurement of cognitive incompetence hence; there is strong need to focus on promoting these individuals in taskforce. It can help them earn for themselves and play their role in organizational development as well.
Strategies and Best Practices for Supported/Transitional Employment for Individuals with Disabilities
In the 21st century, the importance of human beings is increasing as assets to the organization. It is no exaggeration to mention that many organizations officially state that their employees are their most valuable assets. The employees also confirm that their organization is concerned about their professional as well as personal lives and provides them with many opportunities to enjoy both of them. Furthermore,…
Banerjee, B.S. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility: the good, the bad and the ugly. USA: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
Congress. (1986). Employment Opportunities for Disabled Americans. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=iQNdO7z9SR8C&q=employment+opportunities+for+disabled&dq=employment+opportunities+for+disabled&hl=en&sa=X&ei=lG4xUcXrFouKhQfsroGIDw&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAA
Hindery, L. (2008). Making a difference, Defining Philanthropy and Responsibility. Leaders, 31, 12.
Hunt, H. (1992). New Technologies and the Employment of Disabled Persons, Part 63. USA: ILO.
Instructional strategies for transitioning students with disabilities from high school to post-High school vocational programs.
Like all young people, students with disabilities want to go out in life and make a career and learn skills, which are necessary for their future use. Some students with disabilities have a strong desire to attend college or a vocational school and some want to operate independently in the community. Most of these students with disabilities work either in paid or subsidized jobs and this is the reason they need to learn, especially in the high school to be prepared for his or her adult life. Transition services are thus services, which help the students to prepare for their future work and devise strategies and learning skills to cope up with the coming challenges. These services allow the students to identify and increase the scope of their skills as they will need to pursue…
D.W., Grossi, T., & Keul, P. A functional analysis of the acquisition and maintenance of janitorial skills in a competitive work setting. Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 1988, 13(1).
Sharon Lesar Judge. Computer Applications in Programs for Young Children With Disabilities: Current Status and Future Directions JSET E. Journal, Volume 16, Number 1, Winter 2001.
Katherine J. Inge, Stacy Dymond, Paul Wehman, Curtis Sutphin, Christopher Johnston, Marguerite Faina, Community-Based Vocational Preparation for Students with Severe Disabilities: Designing the process. Vocational Options Project: Chapter 1 Accessed on 8-4-2003 at http://www.vcu.edu/rrtcweb/techlink/iandr/voproj/chap1/chapter1.html www.vcu.edu/rrtcweb/techlink/iandr/voproj/chap1/chapter1.html
Human Development and Disabilities
Developmental stages are categorized into six phases, which include pregnancy and infancy, toddlerhood and early childhood, school age, adolescence, adulthood and midlife and the young elderly and the elderly. There are various ways in which these stages of development are impacted by disability. The stage of development of a person at the time of inception or identification of a disability has a significant impact on the person's response to the disability. When a person acquires a disability, it can have a dominant impact on the person's negotiation of developmental phases. It can give rise to a person missing out on significant developmental learning and completion of tasks (Smart, 2011). There are three distinguishing elements that will bring people with disabilities into the American culture. First, there is the populace explosion of people with disabilities. Secondly, there is the element of people with disabilities shifting away from…
Smart, J. (2011). Disability across the developmental life span: For the rehabilitation counselor. Springer publishing company.
Federal legislation requires students with disabilities to participate in state assessments, partly because such assessments are important components of educational accountability. These assessments are used to classify students according to their educational needs, provide information regarding the progress of students with disabilities, and identify the extent to which students are attaining state academic standards. The large majority of classified students are classified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). But classification is highly inconsistent, which should raise concerns about over-, under-, and misclassifying certain types of disabilities. Misclassification can result from failing to identify students with disabilities, from classifying students with disabilities they do not have, and from delaying classifying disabilities in students. Some of this inconsistency is accounted for by teachers and schools (McDonnell, McLaughlin, & Morison, 1997); however, when contrasting state classification data there are striking differences that indicate that state guidelines vary and lead to the…
Data Accountability Center (2009). Data Tables for OSEP State Reported Data, table 1-13, https://www.ideadata.org/arc_toc6.asp. May, 9, 2011.
Jimerson, S.R., Burns, M.K., & VanDerHeyden, AM. (2007). Response to intervention at school: The science and practice of assessment and intervention. In S.R. Jimerson, M.K. Burns, & A.M. VanDerHeyden, Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Assessment and Intervention. New York: Springer.
Harry B. & Klinger, J.K. (2006). Why are so many minority students in special education?: Understanding race & disability in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
McDonnell, L., McLaughlin, M., & Morison, P. (Eds.). (1997). Educating one and all:
Social Promotion on Students With Learning Disabilities
Prospectus: Effects of Social Promotion on Young Students with Learning Disabilities
Social promotion in various learning institutions is a practice where the students are promoted to the next grade level even if they have not attained the required learning standards by the understanding material used. In most cases, social promotion has been contrasted with retention, which is a practice of holding students back to remain in the same class or grade if they fail to meet academic expectations. Students are always expet to show that they have attained the required learning standards or academic expectations before they are promoted to the next class of grade level (Chou et al., 2016). The practice is referred to social promotion in various learning institutions because as non-academic considerations factors like societal expectations and pressures influence promotions decisions made on students from one class to the next…
Chou, Y. C., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., & Lee, J. (2016). Comparisons of Self-Determination Among Students With Autism, Intellectual Disability, and Learning Disabilities A Multivariate Analysis. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 1088357615625059.
Ciullo, S., Falcomata, T., & Vaughn, S. (2015). Teaching Social Studies to Upper Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities Graphic Organizers and Explicit Instruction. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(1), 15-26.
Wehmeyer, M. L., Shogren, K. A., & Seo, H. (2015). Promoting the Self-Determination and Goal Attainment of Youth with Learning Disabilities And Behavioral Disorders. In Transition of Youth and Young Adults (pp. 173-196). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Mrs. C. does not need education and training beyond what would normally be provided any new employee with regard to policies and procedures specific to the practice of Drs. Wicklund, Howe and O'Donnell. The dentists knew about Mrs. C.'s physical limitations and agreed to make the necessary accommodations to the parking lot and the office space where Mrs. Co would be working. Since accommodations required some construction work, part of the consultation involved managing the disruption to the practice and ensuring its effects were minimally experienced by staff and patients.
To prepare for the consultation, I would create an outline of issues to be discussed with the principals of the dental practice. As has been shown, these issues would include employer benefits to hiring a person with a disability, sources for guidance to which the dentists could refer, and a discussion of the physical accommodations that would…
Brigman, G., & Webb, L. (2008). An individual psychology approach to school counselor
Consultation. Journal of Individual Psychology, 64 (4), 506-515.
Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Pransky, G.S., Shaw, W.S., Franche, R., & Clarke, a. (2004). Disability prevention and communication among workers, physicians, employers, and insurers -- current models and opportunities for improvement. Disability & Rehabilitation, 26 (11), 625-634.
Sometimes the worst disabilities are those which are invisible to the naked eye; people who have a mental illness or disability are overwhelmingly stigmatized by society and discrimination against them is both widespread and fully condoned in our culture. (Johnstone, 2005). The disadvantages of mental disabilities are compounded by the fact that the abilities which are disabled, so to speak, tend to be those which are most useful in navigating the social provisions for the disabled, and by the lack of physical manifestations which may discourage outsiders from recognizing the need for intervention. Thus there are many particular challenges facing the mentally disabled, including a lack of social sensitivity to, acceptance of, and knowledge about these disabilities, and widespread institutional discrimination affecting employment, medical care, travel, residency, and many other aspects of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore the portrayal in film and literature of the…
The well-known Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the EEOC, Department of Homeland Security and the Department of labor outline the various provisions that are formatted to ensure the people with disability, the minority groups, and every caliber of Americans have equal access to the employment opportunities. The laws and provision are meant to ensure the people with disability live a normal and comfortable life, there is a reduce discrimination in term of color, race, country of origin, religion or sex. The EEOC for instance ensures that the rule of law is followed in employment and no single organization uses the neutral laws to disadvantage a given group or individual.
The ADA is mandated to ensure the Americans living with disability enjoy equal employment opportunities, equal rights to access and enjoy State and Local Government Activities, easy access to public transport, access and equal utilization of public accommodations, fair…
Edie Grace, (2010). Discrimination against the Disabled in the Workplace. Retrieved May 5,
2011 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6744403_discrimination-against-disabled-workplace.html
U.S. Department of Justice, (2006). A Guide to Disability Rights Laws. Retrieved May 5, 2011
Teaching Historical Events to Student With Disabilities
Our perspective of the concept of the passing of time and our place in the history of the world is important to us towards our growth and evolution. Lacking a sense of time and space, one is prone to be disconnected with the universe. While it can be frightening to be trapped in a moment in time and not be cognizant of the position in space you occupy, it is the experience people classified to have Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties (PMLD) go through (Tony Jones, 2013). Adolescents who have learning disabilities (LD) face a number of challenges with the strict application of Common Core State Standards for literacy when considering subjects such as social studies and history. Besides the challenges they have with reading, students with LD are required to take part in reasoning and thinking at a high level. For teachers…
Candy Bear, & Cheryl Mason Bolick. (2013). Teaching Social Studies in Middle and Secondary Schools. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Pearson.
Carole Boudreau, Anne Rodrigue, Veronique Parent, Julie Myre-Bisaillon, & Annick Tremblay-Bouchard. (2014). Teaching History to High School Students with LDs: Pedagogical Considerations & Strategies. LD School.
Janis A. Bulgren, Patricia Sampson Graner, & Donald D. Deshler. (2013). Literacy Challenges and Opportunities for Students with Learning Disabilities in Social Studies and History. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 17-27.
Tony Jones. (2013). History for Individuals Experiencing Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties. Nottinghamshire: Talksense.
deficits of students with mathematics disabilities?
Mathematical skills are definitely just as crucial as literacy and reading skills when it comes to succeeding at school and beyond. Of late, researchers and policymakers have focused considerably on reading; the latter's attention was manifest in the 2001 No Child Left ehind (NCL) Act. While reading deficiencies are commonly believed to be one among the main characteristics of learning-disabled pupils, mathematical disabilities pose an issue just as serious as reading in case of several learning-disabled pupils and might, in fact, be just as common as reading deficits.
Although cognitive skills (including intelligence quotient), educational experience, drive, etc. might challenge mathematical ability development, a major probable barrier is DD or Developmental Dyscalculia, a numeracy-specific developmental learning problem impacting roughly three to six percent of persons' school-level mathematical skill acquisition (Price, 2013). DD-related studies have revealed a broad array of mathematical skill-related behavioral deficiencies. ut…
MCUE. (2008). Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Strategies. New York: New York University.
Morin, A. (2014, March 10). Understanding Dyscalculia. Retrieved from Understood.org: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-disabilities/dyscalculia/understanding-dyscalculia
NASET. (2014). Characteristics of Children with Learning Disabilities. National Association of Special Education Teachers.
O'Connell, T., Freed, G., & Rothberg, M. (2010). Using Apple Technology to Support Learning for Students with Sensory and Learning Disabilities. WGBH Educational, 9.
Lesson for Children With Learning Disabilities
Developing a Lesson for Children with Learning Disabilities
Learning disability is a term misused severally. In essence, it applies to students who have different learning challenges. Most people associate learning disability to the development of a child, thus assuming that it is a short-term condition and disappears as the person matures. The accepted definition, provided by the National Adult Literacy and Learning Disability Center states that; learning disability is generic and refers to a composite group of disorders that become evident in the person; through observing that they have challenges in the acquisition and use of speaking, listening, reading, reasoning and execution of mathematical concepts, as well as, understanding social skills. As teachers process the learning procedure in class, they encounter various children with varied challenges, which constitute the learning disorders (Aster & Shalev, 2007). Thus, they have the obligation to accommodate those children…
Aster, M.G. v., M.D., & Shalev, R.S., M.D. (2007). Number development and developmental dyscalculia. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49(11), 868-73. Retrieved
Canizares, D.C., Crespo, V.R., & Alemany, E.G. (2012). Symbolic and non-symbolic number magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia. The Spanish Journal
of Psychology, 15(3), 952-66. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1439791245?accountid=458
Inclusion of Disabilities in the Classroom
During the later years of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium, it has become abundantly clear that we are living in an increasingly diverse world. Indeed, the diversity of the world has increased not only in terms of race and nationality, but also in terms of ability and aptitude. So recognized have these differences become that that accommodations have been made for them in work, educational, and social settings. The same is true for persons with learning disabilities, or LD. Although there has been much controversy around including such children in general education settings, the trend has been to opt for this choice rather than excluding them from the general education classroom. Interestingly, studies such as the one by McLesky and Waldron have proved that such an idea may indeed be worth the considerable time and money involved in setting…
Lauchlan, F. And Boyle, C. (2007). Is the use of labels in special education helpful? Support for Learning. 22(1).
McLeskey, J. And Waldron, N.L. (2011, Apr.). Full inclusion programs for elementary students with learning disabilities: Can they meet student needs in an era of high stakes accountability? Council for Exceptional Children Convention.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) governs how the U.S. states offer special education services to children with disabilities. It addresses the educational needs of the children with disabilities from birth to age 21, and involves more than a dozen specific categories of disability. Congress has reauthorized and amended IDEA several times, most recently in December 2004. Although historically, students with disabilities have not had the same access to the general education curriculum as their peers, IDEA has changed the access and accountability requirements for special education students immeasurably (NCTM, 2011).
The challenges for meeting the needs of students with disabilities and ensuring their mathematical proficiency, confront teachers of mathematics every day. Teachers must use the results of all assessments, formative and summative, to identify the students whose learning problems have gone unrecognized, and monitor the progress of all students. Regardless of the level or method of assessment used, teachers…
Gavigann, K., & Kurtts, S. (2010). Together We Can: Collaborating to Meet the Needs of At-Risk Students. Library Media Connection, 29(3), 10-12.
King, C. (2011, March). Adults Learning. Retrieved from http://content.yudu.com/A1rfni/ALmarch2011/resources/a29.htm
Sellman, E. (Ed.). (2011). Creative Teaching/Creative Schools Bundle: Creative Learning for Inclusion: Creative. Port Melbourne: Routledge.
hear the word 'disability, the first images that come to mind are people with obvious disabilities, such as physical limitations. But now I know that disabilities come in many shapes and sizes. Learning disabilities are not always immediately apparent to even the trained eye of a seasoned teacher. A student with ADHD can seem very normal running around on the playground, and it is not until the child is sitting in a classroom environment that his or her 'disability' becomes evident on a test.
The first words which come to my mind when I hear 'disability' tend to be negative words: it is difficult not to see a disability as a liability rather than simply as a difference, although from the point-of-view of a teacher it is better to view it as such, and is more empowering for the students to do so as well.
Question Box 2 on
Special Education: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Special Education
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
What is the most significant way that federal regulations within IDEA give direction to solving the increasingly complex issues surrounding special education? Is there case law to support your response?
The IDEA provides a set of regulations geared at ensuring that eligible students with disabilities have access to educational facilities just like other children their age, and that they are not victimized for their handicaps and disability. These regulations are scattered across multiple areas including discipline, enrolment, individualized education programs, assistive technology services and so on. Basically, these regulations are geared at ensuring that children with special needs have access to a free and appropriate public education within the least restrictive environment. The most significant avenue through which the IDEA uses these regulations to resolve…
Weishaar, M. K., Weishaar, P. M. & Borsa, C. (2014). Inclusive Educational Administration: A Case Study Approach (3rd ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
Wilson, C. M. & Horsford, S. D. (2013). Advancing Equity and Achievement in America's Diverse Schools: Inclusive Theories, Policies and Practices. New York, NY: Routledge.