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Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Describe the effective health promotion strategies.
Effective Health Promotion Strategies
Best practice is a concept that has evolved from continuous health service improvement strategies. Lately, the name of the programs has been altered to 'leading practices'. The focus of this paper is to provide realistic strategies that will help decision makers and those who provide health care service. The idea that drives leading practices is hinged on the benefits that emanate from sharing non-proprietary information, apps, ideas and processes in a structured manner. This approach will facilitate faster spread of successful and proven practices and limit the use of guess work in the provision of the service (Organization, 2012).
Involvement of Participants
It is essential to enlist the participation of community members in the process of identification of the needs of the community, planning and implementation; and even the evaluation process. Such involvement allows for…
Disease Management and Health Promotion Programs . (2016, June 27). Retrieved from The Health Plan: http://employeewellness.wvu.edu/r/download/32708
Kumar, S., & GS Preetha. (2012). Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Health. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 5-12.
Organization, W. H. (2012). Health education: theoretical concepts, effective strategies and core competencies. Cairo: WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean.
Tzenalis, A., & Chrisanthy Sotiriadou. (2010). Health promotion as multi-professional and multi-disciplinary work. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 49-55.
Transition From Disease Prevention to Health Promotion
Health issues have been addressed in the past from the perspective of disease prevention rather than focusing on health promotion. Health promotion deals with a wide array of issues that establish the well-being of individuals and society as a whole including policymaking, social factors, health services, individual behavior as well as biology and genetics. These are the determinants of health. (Department of Health and Human Services, 2010).
In 1986 the first International Conference on Health Promotion was held in Ottawa, Canada as a response to the growing concerns and expectations for the improvement of public health throughout the world. The resultant Ottawa Charter defined health promotion as "the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. To reach a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify…
Center for Disease Control [CDC] (2010). Healthy Community Design. Healthy Places. Feb 19, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov /healthyplaces/healthy_comm_design.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Senior Citizens and the Growing isk of HIV / AIDS
HIV and AIDS are widely recognized as posing a serious challenge to the public health.
Efforts at outreach, dispersal of information and prevention are extensive and have targeted high-risk groups such as sexually active teenagers, minority groups and women.
Outreach has overlooked fastest growing population of HIV / AIDS sufferers in senior citizens
The discussion here is intended to illuminate the dangers posed to this particular demographic both by the condition and by the relative failure of the healthcare community to effectively reach out to this demographic regarding said dangers. In addressing this population and its relationship to the spread of HIV / AIDS, the discussion here will consider the social, cultural, epidemiological and environmental conditions defining the issue.
Several factors will be considered as causes for the growing risk to seniors:
The implications of longer life expectances.
Anderson, M. (2005). HIV / AIDS and the Elderly. Final Call.com.
Bane, S.D. (1996). National Resource Center for Rural Elderly, Center on Aging Studies. CAS.umkc.edu.
Chiao, E.Y.; Ries, K.M. & Sande, M.A. (1999). AIDS and the Elderly. Clinical4
National Institute on Aging (NIA). (2012). HIV, AIDS, and Older Adults.. WEBMD.
The statistics in the article show that vaccination levels during 2003 were substantially below the objective set for 2010. Various factors may play a role in this phenomenon, including vaccine supply delays and shortages (MMWR, 2005, p. 8).
The article suggests a variety of strategies to help meet the goals set by Healthy People 2010. The benefits of meeting this goal particularly relate to more hours at work and thus greater productivity and a growth in economy, fewer disruptions in essential services, as well as fewer deaths and other complications related to influenza (MMWR, 2005, p. 12). The benefits to the country then relate to the general well-being of the population and its economy.
Beato, Christina. (2003). Healthy People 2010: Progress Review Focus Area 14: Immunization and Infectious Diseases. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/otheract/hpdata2010/focusareas/fa14-immun.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization…
Beato, Christina. (2003). Healthy People 2010: Progress Review Focus Area 14: Immunization and Infectious Diseases. http://www.cdc.gov /nchs/about/otheract/hpdata2010/focusareas/fa14-immun.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 54 (No. RR-8)
National Center for Health Statistics (2004, December 16). Healthy People 2010: Focus Areas at a Glance (28).
(Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…
Berkowitz, Bobbie and Borchard, Marleyse (2009) Prevention of Childhood Obesity Advocating for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Call to Action for Nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. ANA Periodicals Vol 14 -- 2009 No 1 Jan'09http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.aspx
Dehghan, Mahshid, Akhtar-Danesh, Noori, and Merchant, Anwar T. (2005) Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal 2 Sept 2005. Online available at: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24
National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 http://obssr.od.nih.gov/news_and_events/news.aspx
Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity (2009) Institute of Medicine. September 2009. Report Brief. Online available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090901iombrief.pdf
One possible explanation for the differences observed in the studies could be that the strengths of the chlorhexidine solution were different. It could also be that over time more effective techniques have been developed in the application of the solution, as the results do appear to improve over time.
There are limitations to the methodology of the study which are centered on the use of secondary data for analysis. The use of secondary data allows a wider range of data to be gathered from across the U.S. than would be practical from primary data collection which is the reason for the choice in this study. However this puts the control of several variables beyond the researcher. The results of the techniques may have been affected by the application of different individuals, departments and hospitals, all of whom may vary techniques and other factors influencing the success of these techniques. The…
Adams, D., Quavum, M., Worthington, T., Lambert, P., & Elliott, T. (2005). Evaluation of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropyl alcohol skin disinfectant. Journal of Hospital Infections, 61 (4), 287-290.
Brungs, S., & Render, M. (2006). Using Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Central line Infections. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 10 (6), 723-725.
CDC. (2002). Guidelines for Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Recommendations and Reports, 51 (RR-10), 1-34.
CDC Mission. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2006, from CDC Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /about/mission.htm
The most common cause is blockage of an artery, usually by a piece of atherosclerotic plaque in one of the brain's main arteries that ahs broken off and gotten stuck "downstream." TIA are also caused by blood clots that originate in the heart, travel to the brain, and become lodged in a small artery there. By definition, the symptoms of a TIA last less than 24 hours, in contrast to the symptoms of a stroke, which last longer -- and are often permanent. (Komaroff, 2006, p. 88)
An individual may have one or more experiences with a TIA, though they may have none, prior to the actual stroke vent, often leading up to it, within a year or more of the stroke event. If these symptoms are noted, and even if they go away an individual should still seek care to begin treatment for medical stroke prevention. Individuals should also…
Better Control of Hypertension Has Reduced Stroke Deaths. (1987, July/August). FDA Consumer, 21, 2.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Division of Heart Disease and Stroke (2008). Stroke Fact Sheet. Retrieved, December 5, 2008. http://www.cdc.gov /DHDSP/library/fs_stroke.htm
Ha, M., Lee, D., & and Jr.,. R. (2007). Association between Serum Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Self-Reported Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(8), 1204.
Health; Blood Pressure Drugs Can Prevent Strokes, Heart Attacks - Studies. (2008, April 2). Manila Bulletin, p. NA.
Alzheimer's Disease currently affects more than four million Americans. Alzheimer's is a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of areas within the brain, resulting in cognitive and physical decline that will eventually lead to death. It is important to emphasize that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not a normal part of aging. Although AD typically appears in those over sixty-five, it is a neurodegenerative disease, quite distinct from any aging-related cognitive decline. ecause Alzheimer's is eventually fatal, and because the decline typical of an Alzheimer's patient is so devastating, much research is currently being done to investigate potential treatments. With the elderly population the fastest growing segment of North American society, Alzheimer's threatens to be an even greater health concern in the future decades.
For patients exhibiting mild cognitive impairment, research is being done on ways to slow the disease's progression. The two main thrusts of Alzheimer's research are biological, which…
Cohen-Mansfield J. (2001). "Nonpharmacologic interventions for inappropriate behaviors in dementia: a review, summary, and critique." American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,
Cummings, J. (2004). "Alzheimer's Disease." New England Journal of Medicine, 351(1),
Gerdner L.A., & Swanson E.A. (1993). Effects of individualized music on confused and agitated elderly patients. Archive of Psychiatric Nursing, 7, 284-291.
Klunk, W. E et al. (2004). "Imaging brain amyloid in Alzheimer's disease using the novel positron emission tomography tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B." Annals of Neurology,
The risk of a pandemic disease spreading throughout the globe is higher than it has ever been in the history of the world. The massive population boom and rapid travel methods have combined to demonstrate that germs and diseases are potential weapons against the health and welfare of the population. To help remedy this cause, technology has shown us that, with its proper implementation, it can have a great benefit to those who are designated to protect the population from such threats.
The purpose of this essay is to highlight the importance of surveillance in the fight against such communicable disease outbreaks. To accomplish this task, this essay will detail the benefits and limitations of the surveillance system HealthMap. This essay will discuss how this particular piece of technology contributes to minimizing and eliminating potential threats.
The HealthMap system is recognized by the Centers for Disease Control…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (nd). Appendix D; The HealthMap System. Viewed 17 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/appendices/appendix-d-the-healthmap-system
HealthMap.org. Viewed 17 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://healthmap.org/en/
Schlipkoter U, Flahault A. Communicable diseases: achievements and challenges for public health. Public Health Reviews 2010;32:90-119. Retrieved from http://www.publichealthreviews.eu/show/f/33
Health Promotion Lesson Plan
The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.
Prevention has become a major issue…
References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web. http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…
Ahuja, Gitika, & Salahi, Lara. (11, February 2010). School nutrition program takes up obesity fight. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/school-nutrition-program-takes-obesity-fight/story?id=9802468
CausesofChildhoodObesity.org, Initials. (2010). Causes of childhood obesity. Retrieved from http://causesofchildhoodobesity.org/
Facts about obesity in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /pdf/facts_about_obesity_in_the_united_states.pdf
Mayo Clinic Staff, Initials. (2011, May 06). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=risk-factors
From the Communicable Disease Prevention and Control Act (Section 27), venereal diseases refer to ailments like gonorrhoea, granuloma, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis, lymphopathia venereum and inguinale (Public Health Law Research, 2014). Established by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), the California Regulations and Reportable Disease Information Exchange refer to a safe system used for automated disease diagnosis and monitoring. A number of certain conditions and diseases are authorized by State regulations and rules to be stated by laboratories and healthcare providers to the state healthcare agencies. The mission CPDH pursues is the enhancement of the efficacy of surveillance exercises as well as the quick identification of health occurrences amid public via the gathering of timely and up-to-date surveillance information across the State. This provides a platform for reporting as well as collection of health conditions in real time throughout the year. CPDHs and LHDs (or Local Health Departments) are both…
Coronary Artery Disease
Development of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Coronary artery disease represents an obstruction or constricting (stenosis) of vessels and arteries which supplies the heart with oxygenated blood. The cause for CAD is atherosclerosis (arterial hardening), or a fatty plaque buildup on inner arterial linings. The resultant obstruction impedes blood flow across coronary arteries. The complete cut- off of blood flow leads to a heart attack (or myocardial infarction, in medical terms). CAD takes place when coronary arteries are partly obstructed or hindered, thus cutting off oxygen supply to heart muscles (i.e., myocardial ischemia). When the blockage is temporary or partial, angina (chest pain or pressure) may occur. The sudden, complete cut- off of blood flow due to the blockage leads to myocardial infarction (Milto, Costello, Davidson & Lerner, 2013).
CAD is a condition that sets it from a rather young age, a fact not many are aware of.…
The impact of stress on physical health has been fairly well documented, with emerging research detailing possible pathways or mechanisms of action. Such research has a tremendous impact on disease prevention strategies and best practices in healthcare. One of the areas revealing the strongest connection between stress and physical health is cardiology, with a strong correlation between environmental, psychological, and psychosocial stress and the etiology or exacerbation of heart disease. The following five articles provide an overview of recent research into the link between stress and cardiovascular disease.
Cohen, B.E., Edmondson, D. & Kronish, I.M. (2015). State of the art review. American Journal of Hypertension 28(11): 1295-1302.
Stress contributes to the etiology of cardiovascular disease, even in patients who had previously shown no other risk factors. Chronic stress—whether exposure to daily life stressors over time or the chronic stress associated with posttraumatic stress disorder—may be particularly damaging to heart health.…
Obesity in Los Angeles County
The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…
About Health People. (2012, December 17). Retrieved from HealthyPeople.gov: http://healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx
Executive Order on Physical Fitness. (2010, June 22). Retrieved from The President's Council on Physical Fitness: http://www.fitness.gov/about/order/index.html
Overweight and Obesity, (2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Retrieved
from: http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/dnpa / obesity / economic_consequences.htm
Children and young adults often have a much harder time adhering to dental hygiene routines that prevent decay and the progression of caries. Often times, they fail to understand the importance of the routines and the damage that could be caused. In order to strengthen primary prevention strategies, many local municipalities have begun adding fluoride to water sources. This is a great way to augment other prevention strategies because it requires no extra effort on behalf of those benefiting from its treatment. This current research aims to explore whether or not this secondary strategy has been successful in reducing rates of untreated caries in children and young adults, ages 6 to 19. The research used regression, z-Test, and t-Test analysis in order to test the hypothesis that adding fluoride to water does help prevent caries. All three tests suggested that this is true and that ultimately; adding fluoride…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Water fluoridation data & statistics. Community Water Fluoridation. Web. http://www.cdc.gov /fluoridation/statistics/index.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
chronic and ongoing diseases and disorders have become an epidemic in the United States. It is also without a doubt that the treatment and mitigation of thos diseases and disorders is something that must be a primary focus of family practice. Even better, though, than properly treating the disorders when they emerge is helping to prevent them in the first place. After all, so many of the disorders and diseases in question are created by poor lifestyle choices. The diseases and disorders in question include diabetes, heart disease and many forms of cancer. While genetics and environmental factors have an effect on the emergence and aggravation of diseases and disorders, lifestyle choices are quite often the difference between quality of life and lack thereof.
One major roadblock when it comes to lifestyle choices is teaching people and making it stick. Within the family practice realm, things are made more…
Perusse, R., Kailimang, L., & Krell, M. (2009). Closing the Obesity Achievement Gap:
Evidence-Based Practices that School Counselors Can Help Implement. Journal Of
School Counseling, 7(23),
Rappange, D. R., Brouwer, W. B., Hoogenveen, R. T., & Van Baal, P. H. (2009). Healthcare
3. BMR stands for basal metabolic rate. It generally refers to the body's metabolism at stasis: while doing nothing. The BMR is the basic energy level needed to sustain life. A person's basal metabolic rate usually decreases with age. The best way to increase the BMR is to exercise regularly. Eating less does not raise the BMR but rather, usually lowers it. Therefore, exercise is in many ways more important than eating less if a person hopes to lose weight. A higher body fat percentage is also correlated with a lower basal metabolic rate. Therefore, individuals with a lot of muscle mass tend to have higher basal metabolic rates than individuals who do not because muscles are metabolically more active than fat. Fat is burned off when muscles are used, during intensive exercise when the intake of calories is less than the expenditure of energy.
Centers for Disease…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Obesity and Overweight: Health Consequences." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/consequences.htm
Metabolism." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.fatfreekitchen.com/weightloss/metabolism.html
Focus Group esults to Inform Preschool Childhood Obesity Prevention Programming and Developing a Coordinated School Health Approach to Child Obesity Prevention in ural Appalachia: esults of Focus Groups with Teachers, Parents and Students
These research projects, conducted by McGarvey et. al (2006) and Schetzina et. al (2009) respectively, use focus groups to promote healthy weight and improved health status in children. The McGarvey study recruited volunteers from WIC clinics in Northern Virginia, while the Schetzina study used a local elementary school in northeast Tennessee as entry points for their intervention models. The aims of both studies was to enhance the community knowledge base about the negative effects of unhealthy eating habits as well as promote the health effects of physical activity and to mitigate the current epidemic of childhood obesity.
The McGarvey et. al (2006) intervention employed Social Cognitive theory and Self-efficacy theory as the theoretical framework for their…
McGarvey, EL, Collie, KR, Fraser, G, Shufflebarger, C, Lloyd, B & Oliver, MN 2006, 'Using focus groups to inform preschool child hood obesity prevention programming', Ethnicity and Health, Vol. 11, No. 3 August, pp. 265-285.
Schetzina, KE, Dalton III, WT, Lowe, EF, Azzazy, N, von Werssowetz, KM, Givens, C, & Stern, HP 2009,'Developing a coordinated school health approach to child obesity prevention in rural Appalachia: results of focus groups with teachers, parents and students', Rural and Remote Health, 9: 1157, October, viewed 17 June 2011,
World Health Organization
Advocating Universal Access to Primary Care
One major goal of primary health care is better health for all. Furthermore, the major international initiative to foster this goal is from the World Health Organization who has advocated since the late seventies to improve global public health by improving access. The WHO has created a coalition calls for a (WHO, N.d.):
"A new global coalition of more than 500 leading health and development organizations worldwide is urging governments to accelerate reforms that ensure everyone, everywhere, can access quality health services without being forced into poverty. The coalition emphasises the importance of universal access to health services for saving lives, ending extreme poverty, building resilience against the health effects of climate change and ending deadly epidemics such as Ebola."
The statement calls something other than common conceptions of what is referred to as "universal healthcare" in the West. However, "access"…
Evans, D., Hsu, J., & Boerma, T. (2013). Universal health coverage and universal access. Retrieved from WHO: http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/91/8/13-125450/en/
WHO . (N.d.). Neglected Tropical Diseases. Retrieved from World Health Organization: http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/diseases/en/
WHO. (N.d.). Univesal health coverage . Retrieved from World Health Organization: http://www.who.int/universal_health_coverage/en/
Childhood Obesity Intervention
Since the early 1980s childhood obesity has increased three-fold and during the 2005-2006 school year an estimated 16% of merican children were obese (reviewed by Gleason and Dodd, 2009). Childhood obesity and weight problems predispose a child to physical and behavioral problems that can extend into their adult years (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010) and for this reason health researchers and educators are attempting to curb this epidemic.
K-12 schools provide between 35% and 47% of a child's daily nutritional requirements (reviewed by Gleason and Dodd, 2009), providing an opportunity to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity the United States. Towards this goal a coalition of nutrition and educational researchers conducted a 2-year pilot study to test the efficacy of a broad-based intervention strategy targeting obesity in 3,769 children attending grades 1-6 in a public school district in central Florida (Hollar et al., 2010).…
Another primary outcome measure was academic performance, as measured by the FCAT (Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test). A number of studies have found an association between being overweight or obese and poorer K-12 academic performance (Roberts, Freed, and McCarthy, 2010), which could be related to the psychological problems that accompany this condition (Krukowski et al., 2009). In support of this association, children attending intervention schools experienced a significant improvement in their math scores (p = 0.0005). Reading scores trended towards significance (p = 0.08).
Summary and Critique
A comprehensive program to reduce the prevalence of obesity in school-aged children was shown to be effective in this pilot study. Enhanced BMI reductions were observed and
Prevention and Control of the Flu
The flu is a serious illness but one of its great advantages is that a vaccine does exist to contain its spread and prevent or at least mitigate its symptoms. The flu is a virus and available antiviral medications like Tamiflu are not as effective as treating, for example, a bacterial infection with an antibiotic. The most effective method of treating the flu is to not get it at all -- which is why vaccination is so essential. However, even flu vaccinations are not particularly effective on a seasonal basis: "A flu virus mutates at an exceptionally high rate as it reproduces, and some mutations will change the tips of the surface proteins. The antibodies cannot grab tightly to the altered tips, so the virus is able to proceed with its invasion. From one flu season to the next, the evolution of the flu…
Mwangi, T. Bethony. J. & Brooker, S. (2006). Malaria and helminth interactions in humans: an epidemiological viewpoint. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 100(7): 551-570. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1858631/
Zimmer, C. (2013). The quest to end the flu. The Atlantic. Retrieved from:
Public health screening activities in programs are also essential in ensuring this level of prevention is ensured. A good example is organized screening programs targeted at the community.
The third level of prevention, tertiary prevention, involves bother rehabilitative and therapeutic measures once the person already has the symptoms and signs of the disease. Tertiary prevention has several goals, which include preventing damage and pain that may arise from the disease, slowing down the progression of the disease, preventing the disease from causing complications, giving optimum care to people with signs of the disease, and helping those with the disease to live healthy lives afterwards. A quintessential example of tertiary preventive activities includes treating diabetics to prevent complications that occur as a result of the disease such as liver and kidney failure. Other examples are management of patients with chronic heart disease with therapy and medication, physical and occupational therapy as…
Baker, J.E.L. (1992). Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention in Reducing Pesticide-Related Illness in Farmers. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(4), 245-254. doi: 10.2307/3427201
Flaskerud, J.H. (1992). HIV Disease and Levels of Prevention. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(3), 137-150. doi: 10.2307/3427251
Green, M.M. (1971). The Expanded Role of the Public Health Nurse. Canadian Journal of Public Health / Revue Canadienne de Sante'e Publique, 62(2), 147-152. doi: 10.2307/41984635
Ureda, J., & Yates, S. (2005). A SYSTEMS VIEW of HEALTH PROMOTION. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 28(1), 5-38. doi: 10.2307/41288055
Communicable Disease - HIV
Since its discovery as a wasting disease, "gay-related immune deficiency" and "slim" in the mid-1980's, HIV has posed a significant health problem for the United States and the World. Initially considered mysteriously devastating, HIV ultimately caused the deaths of hundreds of thousands, yet failed to attract sufficient funding and attention. hrough the efforts of health professionals and activists, HIV was finally accorded the funding and attention it deserved. oday, HIV is addressed globally, federally and locally through multiple well-funded programs/groups and agencies.
History of HIV
According to the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, blood analysis showed that the HIV virus existed in humans as early as the 1940's and that HIV-1 -- the most common viral strain -- was transmitted from chimpanzees to humans at some point in the early to mid-20th Century (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). In the early 1980's medical professionals noticed that a "wasting disease"…
The nurse's role in education about and prevention of HIV stems from his/her core value of becoming a knowledgeable, effective advocate for the highest attainable quality of patient care. This core value requires several key activities by nurses, presented here numerically but in equal order of importance. First, the nurse must become educated about HIV-related issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012). Secondly, the nurse must make his/her voice heard. Nurses can make their voices nationally and regionally heard by: joining professional organizations that exert greater impact on the response to HIV / AIDS issues (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); contacting public officials (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2012); calling media attention to HIV / AIDS to the epidemic and in pressuring for a more aggressive governmental response (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 4); taking a clear-cut stance on effective education and prevention (Association of Nurses in Aids Care, 2012). Nurses can make their voices locally and specifically heard by: participating in community programs, organizations and support groups dedicated to education, prevention and high quality treatment. In their professional lives, nurses can contributed to prevention by educating patients about the causes, prevention, treatment and day-to-day aspects of living with of HIV / AIDS. Some use a widespread approach, such as published materials like What nurses know…HIV and AIDS (Farnan & Enriquez, 2012); others directly address those issues with their individual patients, such as forming an alliance with the patient to enhance adherence to treatment (Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 2010, p. 47).
Community Programs / Organizations / Support Groups
As HIV / AIDS awareness increased, the numbers of community programs, organizations and support groups also increased. Given San Francisco's large at-risk gay/bisexual male population, for example, there are several key programs, organization and support groups. There is, of course, the San
Communicable Disease: Influenza
Description of the Disease
Influenza or "the flu" is a common illness in the winter months, all throughout the United States and many other countries. Both birds and all mammals can contract influenza (Brankston, et al., 2007). In recent years there have been scares regarding "bird flu" and "swine flu," both of which are simply different strains of influenza. The cause of the flu is an NA virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae (Eccles, 2005). Once people contract the flu, they present with common symptoms such as chills, fever, a runny nose, muscle pains, a sore throat, and a headache. The headache is quite often severe, and flu sufferers may also have weakness, fatigue, severe bouts of coughing, and a general feeling of overall discomfort. People with the flu can also become nauseated and vomit, although that is more typical in children and not nearly as common in…
Ballinger, M.N. & Standiford, T.J. (2010). Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia: Host defenses gone awry. Journal of Interferon Cytokine Research, 30(9): 643 -- 52.
Brankston, G., Gitterman, L., Hirji, Z., Lemieux, C., & Gardam, M. (2007). Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(4): 257 -- 65.
Eccles, R. (2005). Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(11): 718 -- 25.
Harper, S.A., Fukuda, K., Uyeki, T.M., Cox, N.J., & Bridges, C.B. (2005). Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendation Report, 54(RR -- 8): 1 -- 40.
Communicable Disease: Measles
Although measles has been almost completely eradicated from the Americas, dozens of cases still occur each year in the United States due in large part to transmissions of the disease from travelers returning from abroad. Because it is highly contagious, outbreaks of measles must be addressed as quickly as possible. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to describe a communicable disease outbreak of measles, and the epidemiological indicators associated with the disease. An analysis of the epidemiological data on the outbreak is followed by a discussion of the route of transmission of the disease causing the outbreak and how the attack could affect the community. Finally, an explanation concerning the appropriate protocol for reporting a possible outbreak is followed by an assessment of a community health nurse's role in modifying care of patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases when the…
Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, H. & Britton, T. (2013). Mathematical tools for understanding infectious diseases dynamics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Johnson, T.D. (2011, September). Measles cases abroad linked to increase of disease in U.S. The
Nation's Health, 41(7), 1-3.
Knorr, R.S., Condon, S.K. Dwyer, F.M. & Hoffman, D.F. (2004, October). Tracking pediatric asthma: The Massachusetts experience using school health records. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(14), 1424-1427.
Alcoholic Liver Disease
CAUSES AND IMPACT
Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact
Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…
Bruha, R., et al. (2009). Alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 110 # 3m Prague Medical Report:
PubMed Central. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655694
EASL (2012). EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 51 # 1, Journal of Hepatology: European Association for the Study of the liver. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.easl.eu/assets/application/files/5e1b5512fb2cabb_file.pdf
Frazier, T.H. (2011). Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 4 # 1, Therapeutic
The disease commonly known as "Elephantitis" is actually scientifically termed Elephantiasis. It is a disease of the skin that is caused by a number of crucial factors which, when working in conjunction with one another, cause human tissue to thicken and swell. This paper will examine Elephantiasis, provide a background of the disease, and describe current methods of treatment.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Elephantiasis cannot occur without the help of a small parasite, which may be passed into the blood stream through contact with mosquito carriers. Such parasites which assist in the onset of Elephantiasis are B. timori, uchereria bancrofti, and Brugia malayi ("Lymphatic Filariasis"). Yet, while these parasites help in the onset of the disease, they are not the sole cause. On the contrary, Elephantiasis requires a number of factors before it can actually develop. First, it requires the introduction of the parasite…
Hajdu, Steven. "A Note from History: Elephantiasis." Annals of Clinical & Laboratory
Science, vol. 32, no. 2 (2002): 207-209. Web.
"Lymphatic Filariasis." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Web. 6
June 2013. < http://www.cdc.gov /parasites/lymphaticfilariasis/index.html>
Typhoid fever disease is a global health phenomena or problem with approximately 20 million incidents and 700,000 adult deaths every year. Notably, a huge portion of these cases and deaths occur in developing countries, especially in South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. While the infection was traditionally treated with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, serious public health program has emerged in the past decades because of the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhi or S.typhi. Moreover, typhoid fever disease caused by MD organisms can also be considered as a significant public health and therapeutic issue. This is primarily because there are a huge number of cases of MD typhoid fever that occur in childhood and are coupled with considerably high mortality and morbidity rates. Since the disease has developed to become a significant public health issue in the past few decades, it's important to conduct a research about it and…
Arjunan, M. & Al-Salamah, A.A. (2010, April 29). Typhoid Fever with Severe Abdominal Pain:
Diagnosis and Clinical Findings using Abdomen Ultrasonogram, Hermatology-cell Analysis and the Widal Test. Journal of Infections in Developing Countries, 4(9), 593-596. Retrieved from http://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/download/1010/445
Hammad et al. (2011). Ceftriaxone vs. Chloramphenicol for Treatment of Acute Typhoid
Fever. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 100-105. Retrieved from http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life0802/14_4757life0802_100_105.pdf
Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem
Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.
This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…
references for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.
Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.
Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Contraception, 5(87), 655-60. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23040135
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…
ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site: http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention
CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/aboutDHAP.htm
HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
FIBOMYALGIA OUTLINE and PAMPHLET
Introduction to Fibromyalgia
Symptoms of Fibromyalgia
Effects of the symptoms on the body.
isk factors and preventive steps.
Diagnosis and Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Therapeutic and diagnostic methods for fibromyalgia.
Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Having many physical and clinical symptoms, Fibromyalgia is a syndrome whose effects are felt in form of extreme musculoskeletal pain. It is believed that many environmental, genetic and biological factors are responsible for the start and progress of this infection although its etiology is undermined. In many industrialized countries, its rate of occurrence is 0.7-4.7% amongst the general population. It is incidentally seen more in women than men and the general female-to-male ratio being 9-1. Due to the diverse nature of its symptoms, those infected experience major difficulties adapting to their working environment, family or their life. It also subjects the sufferers to use consultative health services and social resources…
Arthritis and Fibromyalgia.Plos ONE, 9(2), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088740
Derrer, David, T.,2014, understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, webmdmd,2014,understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/fibromyalgia/understanding-fibromyalgia-symptoms .
Fibromyalgia | University of Maryland Medical Center http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/fibromyalgia#ixzz3HSyCkaXF
KengenTraska, T., Rutledge, D., Mouttapa, M., Weiss, J., & Aquino, J. (2012). Strategies used for managing symptoms by women with fibromyalgia. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 21(5/6), 626-635. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03501.x
But people cn help protect themselves by stying wy from known risk fctors whenever they cn (Cncer Risk Fctors, 2012).
In order to contin spending, the U.S. helth cre system needs to ddress rising rtes of treted disese insted of requiring higher cost shring from consumers (Thorpe, Florence, Howrd ∓ Joski, 2005). There re mny things tht the stte of Cliforni is doing in order to help prevent Cncer in the stte. The Cncer Prevention Institute of Cliforni (CPIC) ws strted in 1974 s the Northern Cliforni Cncer Progrm. This institute works cross ll communities in order to:
investigte the cuses of cncer by exmining the genetic, environmentl, nd virl origins of cncers, nd, once these cuses hve been recognized,
id prevention by clssifying where suitble intervention cn stop cncer before its begins, nd they mke sure tht cncer prevention nd tretment strtegies benefit ll people everywhere by: wtching the…
aid prevention by classifying where suitable intervention can stop cancer before its begins, and they make sure that cancer prevention and treatment strategies benefit all people everywhere by: watching the occurrence of cancer amid the general public, examining racial or ethnic-based disparities in cancer prevention strategies or care choices, educating the public in regards to cancer prevention, treatment and survivorship alternatives, and reaching out to underserved populations in order to make sure that they have equal access to these advances (Cancer Prevention Institute of California, 2012).
The state of California spent $15,199,092 on Cancer in 2011(Key Health Data about California, 2012), which appears to be helping as can be seen by the overall decrease in Cancer rates over the last several years. The knowledge gained by these types of programs aids in the development of interventions, awareness and education campaigns, and other outreach activities that target cancer (Fairley, Pollack, Moore & Smith, 2009).
Cancer is a topic of great concern across the country but especially so
Norovirus Etiology, Epidemiology, And Prevention
Acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea) can be caused by viruses, bacteria, and parasites, but in the United States the most common cause is the norovirus (CDC, 2012b). The norovirus contributes to 800 deaths and 70,000 hospitalizations in the U.S. each year, but unless a person is elderly, very young, severely ill, or immunocompromised, most people suffer only minor symptoms. Since the estimated U.S. health care burden of norovirus infections around $2 billion annually (CDC, 2012a), this report will examine what is known about norovirus etiology and how these infections can be prevented.
Norovirus Etiology, Epidemiology, and Prevention
The norovirus belongs to the virus family Caliciviridae and contains a single-stranded NA genome encased within an envelope-free protein isocahedral capsid (Morillo and Timenetsky, 2011). Based on recent sequencing information, noroviruses can be grouped into five genogroups: G1, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV. Only GI, GII, and GIII infect…
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2012a). Burden of norovirus illness and outbreaks. CDC.gov. Retrieved 19 Sep. 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov /norovirus/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Alzheimer's, on the other hand, directly affects brain cells, and if there is uncertainty, patients and their families should certainly ask for a second opinion.
The population most likely to suffer from the disease is the elderly, but this is not always the case. esearchers note, "Alzheimer's disease is not part of the normal aging process, although it affects predominantly elderly people. Whereas only 10% of those 65 years of age and older are affected by this disease, the percentage may be as high as 48% in those 85 years of age and older" (Handy, Turnbull, Edwards, & Lancaster, 1998, p. 1-2). In addition, there are more rare forms that strike patients in middle age. These researchers write about, "a rare form of Alzheimer's that strikes in middle age and is passed down to 50%, on average, of offspring" (Tanzi & Parson, 2000, p. xiii). This form of the disease…
Editors. (2004). About Alzheimer's. Retrieved from the Alzheimer's Association Web site: http://www.alz.org/AboutAD/WhatIsAD.asp12 Nov. 2004.
Edwards, a.J. (1994). When memory fails: Helping the Alzheimer's and dementia patient. New York: Plenum Press.
Handy, R.C., Turnbull, J.M., Edwards, J., & Lancaster, M.M. (Eds.). (1998). Alzheimer's disease: A handbook for caregivers. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Keltner, N.L., Zielinski, a.L., & Hardin, M.S. (2001). Drugs used for cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Perspectives in psychiatric care, 37(1), 31.
" This drug has already won approval for use in Europe and the United tates. tudies conducted show that the drug "targets the tumor to control in four areas: in the site where hypersecretion starts, in GH secretion, IGF-1 and in the symptoms associated with the disease (Unknown, 2004)." While the drug has been approved, there are still contraindications to taking it such as a patient who has an irregular or slow heart rate, or blood sugar levels which are either too high or too low.
Although gigantism begins prior to puberty, the "majority of giants eventually demonstrate features of acromegaly, of which the mean age for the onset is within the 3rd decade of life. Even a congenital onset of GH excess has been suggested by linear growth acceleration occurring within the first few months of life in young children with documented gigantism (http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/84/12/4379)." Although there is no…
Simmons, Kirt E. (01 October, 1999). "Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Changes: Preliminary Data From Studies in Turner's Syndrome." Pediatrics.
Skatssoon, Judy. (21 May, 2002). "NSW: New discovery could lead to cure for dwaftism, gigantism." AAP General News (Australia).
Unknown. (01 June, 2004). "Novartis Sandostatin LAR approved in Japan for Acromegaly. Worldwide Biotech.
In conclusion, although the anthrax bacterium is relatively low on the list of possible contaminants, future research on this potentially fatal disease should continue, particularly when considering the ever-growing threat from terrorist actions and the possibility that as the world population increases, the presence of the anthrax bacterium will also increase, due to the growth of farming, land clearing and many agricultural activities aimed at increasing the world's food supply through planting in soils already containing Bacillus cereus, not to mention the possibility of this and other types of the anthrax bacterium mutating into unknown strains which could create pandemic outbreaks.
"Anthrax." CDC. Internet. 2008. etrieved November 9, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/anthrax_gi.html.
"Anthrax." World Health Organization. Internet. 2009. etrieved November 9, 2009
"Einstein Scientists Move Closer to a Safer Anthrax Vaccine." Science News. Internet. September 4, 2009. etrieved November 9, 2009 from http://esciencenews.com/articles/
Glanze, Walter D., Ed.…
"Anthrax." CDC. Internet. 2008. Retrieved November 9, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov /nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/anthrax_gi.html.
"Anthrax." World Health Organization. Internet. 2009. Retrieved November 9, 2009
from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs264/en .
"Einstein Scientists Move Closer to a Safer Anthrax Vaccine." Science News. Internet. September 4, 2009. Retrieved November 9, 2009 from http://esciencenews.com/articles/
What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions
There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.
Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002
Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
The Japanese government has taken measures to prevent this from happening again, settlements have been reached, and today the national government is the body that certifies a person as afflicted by the disorder.
Harada, Masazumi. M.D., Ph.D. "Minamata Disease and the Mercury Pollution of the Globe." (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.einap.org/envdis/Minamata.html)."
Minamata Disease Archives. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.nimd.go.jp/archives/english/tenji/a_corner.html).
Minamata Disease, The History and Measures. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch2.html).
Political Settlement of Minamata Disease Issues. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch5.html).
The Chisso Minamata Disease Kansai Lawsuit. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www1.odn.ne.jp/~aah07310/english/index-e.html).
Unknown. "Supreme Court holds state responsible for Minamata Disease." Kyodo orld News Service. (2004): 15 October.
Harada, Masazumi. M.D., Ph.D. "Minamata Disease and the Mercury Pollution of the Globe." (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.einap.org/envdis/Minamata.html )."
Minamata Disease Archives. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.nimd.go.jp/archives/english/tenji/a_corner.html).
Minamata Disease, The History and Measures. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch2.html).
Political Settlement of Minamata Disease Issues. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch5.html).
Huntington's disease affects families
What is Huntington's disease, and how does it affect the patient and his family? How does one deal with the patient? Is there any cure for the disease, and what is it? When was the disease discovered? Who discovered it, and how was it discovered? What way is support offered from external sources for the disease, and how can one avail of the support? What, exactly is Huntington's disease? It is a genetic disease that affects the central nervous system, in individuals who are thirty years and above, though it does occur sometimes in people younger than this. When the disease occurs, it occurs as an inherited autosomal dominant condition, and it affects all or most of the family members within the same family. The onset of symptoms and of the rate of the progression of the disease may differ between the different family members, and…
A Brief History of Huntington's disease. 8 July, 2004. Retrieved From
http://www.stanford.edu/group/hopes/basics/timeline/r2.html Accessed on 22 March, 2005
Abuse of the patient. Retrieved From
http://www.kumc.edu/hospital/huntingtons /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Von Hippel Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…
He's FJ, Hoppener JW, Lips CJ (2003). Clinical review 155: pheochromocytoma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 88: 969 -- 974.
Johnston LB, Chew SL, Trainer PJ, Reznek R, Grossman AB, Besser GM, Monson JP, Savage MO (2000). Screening children at risk of developing inherited endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 52: 127 -- 136.
Lindau A (1927). On the question of angiomatosis retinae and your brain complicatio. Acta Ophthalmol; 4: 193 -- 226.
Lonser R, Glenn G, Walther M, Chew EY, Libutti SK, Linehan WM, et al. (2003). Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Lancet;361:2059-67.
Sexually transmitted disease [...] Chlamydia, a disease that can lead to female infertility if not treated, and as a health care worker how would you approach the problem. Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can lead to many problems, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is a leading cause of infertility in women, and it is caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea or Chlamydia. Chlamydia is treatable, but it is hard to detect, and so sometimes goes untreated and leads to much more serious health concerns. Chlamydia is also one of the biggest health issues in STDs, because so many people get it each year, and so many people do not know they have it.
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that causes inflammation and adhesions in the vagina. It can be detected with a penile swab or a urine sample, and it is…
Author not Available. "An Introduction to Sexually Transmitted Infections." National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.org. July 1999. 25 July 2005.
Nordenberg, Tamar. "Chlamydia's Quick Cure." FDA Consumer July 1999: 24.
Tomlins, Jacqueline. The Infertility Handbook: A Guide to Making Babies. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 2003.
Diabetic Vascular Disease state caused by the deficiency of a chemical in the body called insulin which is a hormone is called Diabetes. There are two forms of diabetes. In the type-one diabetes no insulin is formed and people require insulin injections for existence. This was once thought it would affect only children, but now it can occur at any age. The type2 diabetes is due to the resistance of the body towards the effects of insulin. This also includes insulin which is insufficient. ut in this type there is some amount of insulin produced. In both the types the blood glucose levels is increased. When compared to people without diabetes, people with diabetes are prone to certain problems. These problems occur in the nerves (neuropathy), kidney (nephropathy) and eye (retinopathy). These people are prone to early heart attacks and stroked due to the hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). With…
Diabetes Basics-About Diabetics," Retrieved from www.orthop.washington.edu/faculty/Hirsch/diabetesAccessed on March 3, 2004
Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research" retrieved from www.medstv.unimelb.edu.au/Research/DCVDR/. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Haptoglobin: A major susceptibility gene for diabetic vascular complications," retrieved from www.pulsus.com/europe/07_02/szaf_ed.htm. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Pathophysiology of Diabetes" retrieved at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/diabetes/manual/DMOverview.pdf. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Rosacea is a skin disease that affects millions of people. The chief cause of rosacea is still unclear and hence all treatment is based on a preventive basis rather than a curative one. The management of this chronic condition is made easier by a combination of different therapies, which includes oral antibiotics, topical gel and latest laser treatments.
Rosacea is one of the chronic skin diseases which affects an astounding 13 million people in the United States alone. Initially characterized by reddening of the face, the disease may gradually develop eruptions on the face giving a totally distorted look. While we are aware that some external factors like food and temperature trigger a flushing we still don't have a clue as to what is the root cause of Rosacea. Apart from the damaging effects on the skin, in a majority of the cases the disease also affects the eyes in…
Fred Wilson "Laser Offers relief in diminishing Rosacea," July 1st, 2002 http://www.dermatologytimes.com/dermatologytimes/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=24834
2) Jonathan Wilkin, "Standard Classification of Rosacea" "A Special report,"
Journal of American Academy of dermatology" April 2002, Vol 46
3) Designed by "Simon Darken," "What is Rosacea," Accessed on 27th February 2003, http://www.about-rosacea.com/overview.htm
Pathogens and Diseases:
Pathogens are common characteristics of everyday environment as soil contains huge number of bacteria per cubic centimeter while air contains fungal spores. The existence of pathogens in everyday environment emanates from the fact that microorganisms are deposited through touching of various surfaces like tables. Pathogens can be described as disease-causing agents such as infectious microbes, and parasites. While the infectious microbes include viruses and bacteria, parasites include protozoa and fungi. Notably, microbes are only considered as pathogens if they cause harm or diseases since not all microbes are harmful (Koo, 2009). There are opportunistic pathogens, which are organisms that are normally part of the natural flora of the body. These organisms become harmful or pathogens after an invasion like the occurrence of an accidental injury or surgery.
Spread of Pathogens:
Since pathogens are common disease-causing agents, they spread in various ways to cause harm or illnesses. Some…
ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), How Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,
ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,
Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (2007), Infection Prevention and Control Best
Practices, Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance, viewed 17 April 2012,
Prevention and Treatment
HIV / AIDS is one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases in the world today. It has already killed millions throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Africa. I chose this topic due to the importance of HIV for world heath issues and because of the larger social issues that this virus has for many countries. The statistics over the last decades are evidence of the growth and devastating effect of this virus. The total number of recorded deaths due to HIV / AIDS, between 1981 and 2003, was a staggering 20-million. The number of children in Sub-Saharan Africa who were orphaned by the end of 2003 was an estimated 12-million. Later figures indicate that the situation in Africa is not improving, with these figures increasing in 2004, especially among women in Africa. "y December 2004 women accounted for 47% of all people…
Approved Medications to Treat HIV Infection. 2004. Accessed January 3, 2004 http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/other/cbrochure/english/05_en.html
Acute HIV Infection. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet. 2004. http://www.thebody.com/nmai/acute_infection.html
Background Information on Fourteen FDA Approved HIV / AIDS Drugs. Consumer projects on technology. 2000. Accessed January 4, 2004. http://www.cptech.org/ip/health/aids/druginfo.html
Death Stalks a Continent. Time Magazine, February 12, 2001
Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times
Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004).
In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions.
There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…
ASHA. "National Herpes Resource Center." (2001). American Social Health
Association. 27, October 2004, http://www.ashastd.org/hrc/index.html
CDC. "Epstein Barr Virus." (October 26, 2002). National Center for Infectious Diseases.
28, October 2004, http://www.cdc.gov /ncidod/diseases/ebv.htm
Women and AIDS in New York City:
Hidden Cases, Hidden Problems
Ask most people what group of people you think of when you think of AIDS, and most people will name gay men. While it's undeniable that the AIDS epidemic was first noticed among gay men, AIDS has become an equal opportunity illness, and currently women represent the fastest growing sector of people with HIV / AIDS in the United States. This fact is true in New York City as well.
The growth in the rate of HIV / AIDS among women in New York City is a growing concern for a variety of reasons. Worse than the increase in infection among women is the death rate. Although overall, the death rate from AIDS has dropped significantly, the death rate for women with AIDS is significantly higher than that of men.
How widespread is the problem?
A look at recent…
Author not available. Fall, 1998. "The Children Left Behind. Harvard AIDS Institute. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/hai
Author not available. "It Helps To Know." Brooklyn AIDS Task Force, Inc. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.batf.net/ .
Cadman, Jill. Spring 1998. "Strategies for Interrupting Mother-to-Child Transmission." CRIA Update: Vol. 7, No. 2. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.criany.org/treatment/treatment_edu_springupdate1998.html
Center for Disease Control. "CDC: National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention." Divisions of HIV / AIDS Prevention." Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.cdcnpin.org/topic/stats.htm .
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…
CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov /std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf.
CDC. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2011. Altlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:
History of Pediatric Hemolytic Monitoring
Retrospect to the career of physician, Dr. James A. olff I and his early progress in treatment of Rh hemolytic disease as described in Pochedly (1984), looks at the development of interest in hematology in European field hospitals during orld ar II. After the war period, the transformation of olff's research in this area was advanced by research conducted during a pediatric residency at the Boston Children's Hospital, between 1945 and 1947. During his tenure at Children's he was engaged with Dr. Louis Diamond in his seminal investigation on treatment of erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion.
Collaborative efforts with Drs. Diamond and Farber focused on preliminary clinical trials of aminopterin for the treatment of acute leukemia, of which olff was in observation. Instrumental to the development of the concept of treating erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion; collaborative in the area of pathophysiology of disease where…
Al-Eisa, A. And Al-Hajeri, M. Hemolytic uremic syndrome in Kuwaiti Arab children. Pediatric Nephrology 16.12 (2001): 1093-1098.
Blouin, P. et al. Syndrome d'Evans: etude retrospective de la societe d'hematologie et d'immunologie pediatrique (36 cas). Archives De Pediatrie: Organe Officiel De La Societe Francaise De Pediatrie 12.11 (2005): 1600-1607.
Feldman, S.D. And Tauber, A.I. Sickle Cell Anemia: Reexamining the First "Molecular Disease." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71.4 (1997) 623-650
Friedmann, A.M. et al. Fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a child due to warm-reactive immunoglobulin M. antibody. Journal Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: Official Journal Of The American Society Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 20.5 (1998): 502-505.
Obesity a Disease?
Introduction, Background, and Definition
Persuade the scientists
Persuade the advocacy groups
Persuade the federal agencies
Persuade the insurance companies
Persuade the drug makers
Recommendations & Conclusions
Is Obesity a Disease?
hat is a disease? According to the Merriam-ebster Online Dictionary, the second two definitions of "disease" are "2: a condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning: SICKNESS, MALADY; 3: a harmful development (as in a social institution)" (Merriam-ebster OnLine, 2003). Definition number two describes how the being is personally affected by a disease, and definition number three describes how society as a whole is affected by a disease. It is recommended that the epidemic of obesity in America be given a disease status to confront this "harmful development" that "impairs normal functioning" in society.
By declaring obesity a disease, American society can face up…
Body Mass Index Charts. Partnership for Healthy Weight Management. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.consumer.gov/weightloss/bmi.htm .
Brownell, Kelly; Liebman, Bonnie. "The pressure to eat: why we're getting fatter." Nutrition Action Health Newsletter. July-August 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0813/n6_v25/21128354/p1/article.jhtml?term= .
Critser, Greg. "Let them eat fat." Harper's Magazine. March 2000. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1111/1798_300/60102141/p1/article.jhtml .
Knoll Pharmaceutical Company begins nationwide distribution of new anti-obesity agent, MERIDIA." Business Wire. February 12, 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0EIN/1998_Feb_12/20231879/p2/article.jhtml?term=
HIV testing/Screening be made part of Primary Prevention?
This analysis backs up research on behavioral interventions that lower HIV transmission. The aim of the analysis are to reinforce interdisciplinary research that develops, implements, and evaluates practically and theoretically based interventions intended to prevent HIV transmission. This knowledge needs to progress understanding of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, biological and social factors that influence the acquirement of HIV in our populations. The analysis supports research that acts as the base for an empirically-based public health policy plan to prevent several new HIV infections as possible. Similarly, ASPQ supports basic prevention and intervention research that tackle multiple levels factors that facilitate or obstruct lowering of HIV risk.
Immense progress have been made over the ancient times decade in behavioral research on how to assist people prevent contracting HIV infections (primary prevention) and how to reduce or alleviate unfavorable consequences among individuals…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). HIV / AIDS Surveillance Report. Vol. 19. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
CDC (2004). Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States
HIV / AIDS, Surveillance Report 2005; 16:16 -- 45.
CDC. (2001) Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR; 50(No. RR-19):63 -- 85.
Moreover, EBSCO, U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, PubMed, and Sage Publication databases also contain thousands of research articles on the TEDs, DVT, Pulmonary Embolism, Anti-Embolism Stockings and the safe use of TEDs within the clinical units.
To identify the articles and research papers relevant to the study, the paper uses the keywords to search for data from the database and the keywords include:
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT )
TEDs (thromboembolic disease stockings)
PE (Pulmonary Embolism).
TEDs Anti-Embolism Stockings
Prevention of DVT,
The goal of using the keywords is to search the articles and research papers relevant to the study. When the author submits the keywords to the database, numerous articles come out from the database and the study only selects the articles that relevant to complete this study. Using the relevant search strategies, the author has been able to source for the quality research papers to…
Agu, O., Hamilton, G., and Baker, D. (1999). Graduated compression stockings for the prevention of venous thromboembolism. British Journal of Surgery, 86- 992-1004.
Covidien. (2012).T.E.D. ™ Anti-Embolism Stockings. Fastus Library. Covidien Company.USA.
National Health and Medical Research Council (2009). Guideline of Clinical practice for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) in patients admitted to Australian hospitals. Commonwealth of Australia 2009.
Miller, J.A. (2011). Use and wear of anti-embolism stockings: a clinical audit of surgical patients. International Wound Journal. 8 (1):74-83.
ates and Preventative HIV / AIDS Policy: A Disconnect in African Countries
The primary focus of research in HIV / AIDS has been on the disease itself: transmission, prevalence, prevention, treatment, etc. (Aldashev & Baland, 2013). The responses to the HIV / AIDS academic have varied widely and are not intuitive, showing no logical patterns with regard to prevention policies and prevalence (Aldashev & Baland, 2013). That is to say that high prevalence rates in regions or nations do not trigger more aggressive policies. A key example of this phenomenon can be seen in Senegal's response to early proactive education programs for AIDS prevention that was completely out of proportion to its very low prevalence rate of 1% of the population of Senegal in 2003 (Aldashev & Baland, 2013). In comparison, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, countries that experienced extremely high prevalence rates of 24.6% in 2003 and 42.6%, respectively, exhibited limited…
Aldashev, G. And Baland, J. (2013, October). Awareness and AIDS: A political economy perspective.
Alsan, M. And Cutler, D. (2010). The ABCDs of health: Explaining the reductionin AIDS in Uganda. NBER working paper 16171.
AVERT (2012). HIV and AIDS in Uganda. Retreived from http://www.avert.ogr/aids-uganda.htm.
McElroy, A. And Townsend, P. (1989). Medical anthropology in ecological perspective. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series, 3(4), 405-407.
oral chlorhexidine as preventative agent in of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in adults who are critically ill and mechanically ventilated in intensive care units (ICUs). The process of critiquing published studies leads to higher level of comprehension of empirical and evidence-based research. The discussion devotes some consideration to the way the authors addressed the protection of human participants, the research methodology -- including data collection, data management and analysis -- the research findings, and the conclusions drawn from the study outcomes.
Protection of Human Participants
isks to human participants in this research were minimal since the study is retrospective review of research. The original research studies protected the identity of the research participants, and data was presented in the aggregate form. The current research article is yet another layer away from the original studies and further still from the original information about the participants, none of which was presented in disaggregate…
Snyders, O., Khondowe, O, Bell, J. (2011). Oral chlorhexidine in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill adults in the ICU: A systematic review. South African Journal of Critical Care, 27(2). Retrieved from http://www.sajcc.org.za/index.php/SAJCC/article/view/123/127
S Gubbels. Talks about how obesity is a major problem of our society and how it is affecting the children and adults. The article talks about the causes and the consequences of obesity and provides certain prevention for this problem. The article relates the problem of obesity with the Health Belief Model and talks about how the Model contributes in motiving the people to bring Health behavior change in their lives. It point out the reasons for people in bringing behavior changes associated with the Health Belief Model. (J.S Gubbels, 2013)
In the article "Health Belief Model in the Town of Obese Elderly Women use Health Education" by Zeng Gui Ying, the writer talks about how the Health Belief Model is a major source of information and education for the obese women living in towns and villages .It tells that how the model motivates and encourages the obese women to…
Baranowski, T. (2012, September 6). Obesity. Are Curent Health Behavior Change Models Helpful in Guiding Prevention of Weight Gain Efforts.
Boskey, E. (2010, 24 March). Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Health Belief Model.
Galletta, G.M. (2012). Medicine Health. Obesity.
J.S Gubbels, M.J. (2013). ISRN Obesity. Health Beliefs regarding Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity.
ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov.
Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.
The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.
3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:
Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;
Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;
Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…
Hubacher, D., R. Lara-Ricalde, D.J. Taylor, F. Guerra-Infante and R. Guzman-Rodriguez. (2001). "Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. New England Journal of Medicine 345: 561-67 in Mckay at 259.
Klein, Rupert and Barbel Knauper. (2003). "The Role of Cognitive Avoidance of STIs for Discussing Safer Sex Practices and for Condom Use Consistency." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12(3-4): 137-138.
Macdonald, Noni E. And Robert Brunham. (1997). "The Effects of Undetected and Untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Canada." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 6(2): 161.
Mcglynn, Elizabeth a., Eve a. Kerr, Cheryl L. Damberg and Steven M. Asch. Quality of Care for Women: A Review of Selected Clinical Conditions and Quality Indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
Community Teaching Proposal for Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
The objective of this study is to create a community teaching proposal for primary prevention and health promotion. The work of Kulbok, wet al (2012) reports that public health nursing practice is "population focused and requires unique knowledge, competencies, and skills." (p.1) Public health nursing makes the requirement of working with communities and populations "as equal partner and focusing on primary prevention and health promotion." (Kulbok, et al., 2012, p.1)
Community teaching for primary prevention and health promotion involves educating community members about what is required to address primary prevention and promotion of health. This can be accomplished through community-wide meetings held at a central location in the community. As noted by Kulbok et al. (2012) "In the 21st century, public health nurses practice in diverse settings including, but not limited to, community nursing centers; home health agencies; housing developments; local…
Anderson, DR, et al. (2012) Primary Care Nursing Role and Care Coordination: An Observational Study of Nursing Work in a Community Health Center, The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17 No. 2. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Primary-Care-Nursing-Role-and-Care-Coordination.html
Connor, N. et al. (2012) Healthy People 2020 from Theory to Practice in a Nursing Program. The University of Central Florida. Retrieved from: http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.aptrweb.org/resource/resmgr/tp2012_presentations/conner_aptr_tp12.pdf
Kulbock, PA, et al. (2012) Evolving Public Health Nursing Roles: Focus on Community Participatory Health Promotion and Prevention. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17. No. 2. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Evolving-Public-Health-Nursing-Roles.html
Obesity Prevention Nonprofit Organizational Marketing Plan
The primary purpose of this report is to help investors understand the need for a program which will help reduce obesity throughout the UK and then less developed countries in Eastern Europe. The problem is that the environment that many developed countries have created for themselves advances obesity without intending to. There is also the danger among less developed countries, that are beginning to see some amount of prosperity, that they could have the same issues that the rest of the developed world is having (Hill, Wyatt & Peters, 2005).
The goal is to use a program that has been proven to be effective to make sure that people have the tools that they need to be able to combat obesity. The issue is that the predominance of obesity is among the poor and especially with women and children. Therefore,…
Arozian, M. (2003). Branding for nonprofits: How a community nonprofit can establish a presence among those it serves and those it depends on for support by linking its name to a very recognizable symbol. The Public Manager, 32(2), 9-11.
Barreto, R.A., & Hughes, A.W. (2004). Under performers and over achievers: A quantile regression analysis of growth. Economic Record, 80(248), 17-33.
Colls, R., & Evans, B. (2010). Challenging assumptions: Re-thinking the "obesity problem." Geography, 95, 99-104.
Frumkin, P., & Kim, M.T. (2001). Strategic positioning and the financing of nonprofit organizations: Is efficiency rewarded in the contributions marketplace? Public Administration Review, 61(3), 266-277.
Childhood Obesity and prevention: Action by parents and children.
Obesity, also known as overweight is defined by WHO (2018:1) as the excessive accumulation of fats that can cause harm to the health of an individuals. Obesity or overweight metrics are measured through the use of internationally accepted formula Body Mass Index (BMI). This involves the juxtaposition of body weight in kilograms against the body height in Meters. Simply put dividing the weight of an individual in KGs by the Square of the Height in Meters. Once the result is obtained, the individual can be classified as either normal weight, overweight or obese. For instance, an adult whose BMI is between 25 and 29.9 is said to be overweight, but when it goes beyond that then he is considered obese as observed by the WHO.
The audience of immediate interest in this case is the parents and the children both of…