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Domination According to Weber and Marx
Three types of domination or authority are distinguished by Weber. Below is a discussion of each, together with how they fit together with some of the theories by Marx.
Traditional authority depends upon the perceived "sanctity" of established traditions of authority. Also, those exercising the authority are seen as legitimate, and thus unquestioned. Thus both the institution of traditional authority and the persons working under this tradition are respected without question, based upon the collective social perception that such systems are correct as a result of their previous establishment.
Thus the administrative structure associated with this kind of domination is particularistic and diffuse. Patriarchalism and feudalism are characteristics of such a structure, not giving much room for negotiation to those being dominated.
Rational-legal authority is based upon the perception of "legality." A set of rules are established for the exercise of such…
Vietnamese domination by other countries. Specifically it will compare the Vietnamese experience of domination by France and China. Vietnam's relative recent history has been marked by domination and colonialism, mainly by France. Most westerners know Vietnam as the location of one of America's only unsuccessful wars. However, Vietnam has a long history, and much of it consisted of domination and colonialism at the hands of foreign invaders. China and France played heavily in this domination, and Vietnamese relations with China have been strained throughout its' history.
Domination and control by others fills Vietnam's history. The first country to control and dominate them was China, who ruled over Vietnam from 111 BC to 939 AD, and again from 1407 to 1428. One author notes, "China has been the longest-running enemy of Vietnam. Most of the heroes in Vietnamese history have been people who have fought against China" (Suter 2005). In fact,…
Hensmen, J. 1986. Vietnam 1945: The Derailed Revolution. Marxist.com.
SarDesai, D.R. 2005. Vietnam Past and Present 4th edition. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Suter, Keith. 2005. Vietnam: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Contemporary Review, June, 351+.
transition imperial domination national independence characterized history states Third World 1950s 1960s. To extent change political status transform economic status places? If, ? If, ?
The decolonization process has been one of the most important phenomena of the 20th century. This is largely due to the impact this process had on the reshaping of the political spectrum at the international level as well as the changes that took place as a result of the process in terms of economics.
The process can be defined as being the "undoing of a colonial relationship. The decolonization process operates at four levels. First, an independent government with full power within the boundaries of the colony is created. The colonial power will no longer control the political structure of the colony. A new elite takes over. Second, the provision of public goods and government services is decided and managed by the new government. The…
Garoupa, Nuno and Juao E. Gata. War and Peace: The European Decolonization Process. 2000. Available at http://www.polarizationandconflict.org/Papers/garoupa.pdf
Sylwester, Kevin. "Decolonization and economic growth: the case of Africa." Journal of economic development. Volume 30, Number 2, December 2005. Available online at http://www.jed.or.kr/full-text/30-2/J05_694.PDF
The hunger and the dishonor provoked across the country by orld ar One were too much for them to put up with.
Hitler's plans involved conquering Eastern Europe in order to turn the territory there into parts of a greater Germany. In his opinion, his actions were not wrong, as he thought that would simply united all of the lands presumably belonging to Germany under one nation. However, he knew that several other European powers would interfere with his preparations. Consequently, he realized that he also had to weaken France and even England for his arrangements to work properly, hence his desire to extend his power over all of Europe.
It is possible that Adolf Hitler did not understand the consequences of his actions, as he believed that everything needed to be done in order for German people to "survive."
In wanting to dominate Europe, Germans can be regarded as…
1. Vermeil, Edmond, Germany in the Twentieth Century: A Political and Cultural History of the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich (New York: Praeger, 1956).
Edmond Vermeil, Germany in the Twentieth Century: A Political and Cultural History of the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich (New York: Praeger, 1956)
Edmond Vermeil, Germany in the Twentieth Century: A Political and Cultural History of the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich (New York: Praeger, 1956).
Roman Empire in Greece & the East
The gradual "Romanization" of the Hellenistic world is attested to solidly by material culture: architectural, archeological and numismatic evidence abounds to show that the Romans would have a real and substantial presence in those eastern areas which had once been the dominions of Alexander the Great. ut in order to assess the Hellenistic response to this Romanization, we need to look beyond the material artifacts to a certain degree. I am inclined to agree with Greg Woolf that to a certain extent this is a distraction from the real rhetorical and psychological process whereby Romanization was effected: as Woolf notes, "to explain why some Roman material culture was nevertheless adopted by some Greeks it is necessary to invoke a second factor, namely the very marginal role played by material culture in Greek self-definition" (Woolf 1994: 128). I would suggest that the historical facts…
*Dio Chrysostom, Orations 13, 31-51 [Lacus Curtius]
*Plutarch, Precepts of Statecraft [Lacus Curtius]
*Dionysius of Halicarnassus 1.89 [Lacus Curtius]
* Preston, Rebecca. "Roman Questions, Greek Answers: Plutarch and the Construction of Identity." In Goldhill, S. (2001). Being Greek under Rome: cultural identity, the second sophistic, and the development of empire. Cambridge, Chapter 3 [WEB-CT]
Female Freedom in the 19th Century: Two Short Stories
The short story entitled the “Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin and “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman both approach the subject of female sanity and wellness from different angles. Both stories suggest that society and those closest to the woman have really no idea about the inner life of the female, nor what is best for her mental health and overall well being. The incorrect assumptions of those around them are precisely what contribute to the ultimate tragedies and unraveling of mental states present within each story.
Chopin’s famous “Story of an Hour” demonstrates the ill-conceived presumption that so many of the era project on to the heart and mind of a woman. We are told of Mrs. Mallard’s fragility in the opening of the story. As a result of this fragility, “Knowing that Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a…
Marital Power U.S." discuss describe advantages disadvantages married U.S. How role gender plays Education, Earned Income, (Professional: Occupational / Title) Does wage difference explains subordination home ? discriminating women, Is a systematic pattern dominates women men?( include race differences describing discrimination) Does domination public sector private sector? How ? Include discussions couples inherited wealth powerful status divorce rates types marriages average married couples? type family formation pattern affects continues future generations (children involved type families).
Marital power in the U.S.
Advantages and disadvantages of being married in the U.S.
Marriage is a wonderful union of two people who are bonded in love. One advantage of marriage is that it gives the two people in love the ability to love and to be loved in return. Marriage gives the two people an avenue to channel their love and attention towards a greater feeling. A second advantage of marriage is that it…
Bednarek, L.B. (1998). The Gender Wage Gap: Searching for Equality in a Global Economy. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 6(1), 213-236.
Davies, P.T., & Cummings, E.M. (1994). Marital Conflict and Child Adjustment: An Emotional Security Hypothesis. American Psychological Association Psychological Bulletin, 116, 387-411.
Kerckhoff, A.C. (1976). Patterns of Marriage and Family Formation and Dissolution. Journal of Consumer Research, 2(4), 261-275.
PolitiFact. (2012). Steve Sweeney claims two-thirds of marriages end in divorce, from http://www.politifact.com/new-jersey/statements/2012/feb/20/stephen-sweeney/steve-sweeney-claims-more-two-thirds-marriages-end/
" Soon thereafter Marian begins struggling with eating and acting more feminine (out of character) due to the pressures imposed by the expectations of society. Atwood's implication is that this expectation of femininity dehumanizes woman, restricting their potential to self-actualize and personal freedom. The author's portrayal of Marian as feminine and weak indicates she is programmed to act this way and unable to consciously behave in any other manner. Marian is dehumanized by society.
As the story progresses Marian begins to grow into a stronger person. She begins to discover who she is and what she wants and take control over her life. Marion understands she does not want Peter and the life her has to offer. She takes her ring off places it in her change purse next to her nickels and dimes, coins of low value. Ultimately she overcomes the oppression of her culture, literally devouring a cake…
Atwood, Margaret. The Edible Woman. New York: Warner Books, 1969. Print.
Moore, Charlotte. "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Philosophy Now, March/April 2013. Web. 15 May 2013.
Warren, Karen. Ecofeminist Philosophy: A Western Perspective on What it is and Why it Matters. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000. Print.
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…
The only thing that is missing is the freedom to make that choice, the freedom to do it without pain or sacrifice. But freedom always comes with a price, especially for women. In the process of gaining her choice, Ada loses a finger, loses her piano, and almost loses her life.
We have to also look at history in the film. The Piano seems historically correct because women didn't have the right to choose their mates during this time. Love almost always came at some price. Ada chose to express her love the only way she knew how -- through her piano. But she is not making the right choice, because in the process she is sacrificing herself. She is unable to stand up for what is right because the pain is too great and too lonely to bear.
While I think Hook's view of male supremacy seems somewhat harsh,…
arxist or Neo-arxist Research
Critique of Theory
According to ax Weber the state is a special entity that possesses a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence. Weber believes politics is a required activity of government used in order to influence and control the relative distribution of force and power in the country.
Weber wrote of three main types of authority and political leadership domination that is present in society. These three types are charismatic, traditional and legal domination.
Weber also developed a theory of stratification where he explained and used such ideas as class, status, and party. According to his theory class is determined by an individual's economic situation. The notion of status is similar to prestige and honor. And the main purpose of parties is to gain domination in certain spheres of life. Like Weber, arx saw society as the struggle for class…
Marxism identifies only 2 types of production, Two types of production can be used, human and material. These two aspects have interrelation and they depend on each other. However, Mao tried to prove that such an interrelation is not essential. In his opinion both types of production should be included in the economic plan. He also took care and observed the process of population growth. Initially, China's post-1949 leaders were ideologically disposed to view a large population as an asset. Mao said an army of people is invincible. During Mao's rule, from 1949 to 1976, China's population increased from around 550 to over 900 million people. Mao believed that family planning should be integrated as a part of the overall plan for the development of the national economy, and that people should learn how to manage material production and how to manage themselves.
Karl Marx, Max Weber, Antonio Gramsci and Pierre Bourdieu all conceptualize culture power in different ways. Each identifies the agent (the specific social group) which acquires and makes use of cultural power as well as the means by which the agents acquire and maintain cultural power.
As Marx and Engels observe in The German Ideology, "The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time over the means of mental production, so that thereby, generally speaking, the ideas of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to it" (64). Thus, for Marx, laborers were the specific group that needed to acquire power from the elites (capitalists), owners of the means of production. The means of production were, of course, the laborers. Communism was the ideology that would free the laborers from subservience to the owners of capital.…
Because concealment is provided, hidden transcripts, which in most cases are contrary to the public transcript, are unrestrained performances within the safety provided offstage and the assumed like-mindedness of the audience.
The difference between the public vs. The hidden transcript is the "impact of the domination on public discourse" (5). Thus, Scott illustrates the contradiction between the public and the hidden transcripts as he illustrates George Orwell's experience in colonial Burma (10-11). For the dominant, failure to perform his role could very well threaten his autocratic position, which may open for questioning the legitimacy of his authority and power. Because he needs to maintain his position of authority, he chooses to perform his public transcript despite his hidden transcript. While public performance has much bearing on the dominant's position of authority, Scott shows that decisions that truly matter are made in the realm of the private rather than in public…
Scott, James C. "Behind the Official Story." Domination and the Arts of Resistance:
Hidden Transcripts. Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1990. 1-16.
Scott, James C. "A Saturnalia of Power: The First Public Declaration of the Hidden
Transcript." Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1990. 202-227.
R's of American Racism:
Representation, Rejection, and Realization
Racism is a system of meaning that promotes and legitimated the domination of one racially defined group over another. Racism assigns values to both real and imagined cultural and physical differences, benefitting the dominant party and making negative claims about the subordinate, so that this dominance may be justified ideologically. The seeming illogical or even counterproductive nature of racism may be explained in that it comes in the wake of more concrete oppression. (Shohat & Stam, 1995) Through the last five or six centuries, and possibly earlier if one includes the history of the Crusades and anti-Semitism, light skinned Europeans have had a history of oppressing other nations and ethnicities through conquest, colonization, and enslavement. As the thin justification of religious zealotry wore increasingly thin through the ages, the justification of inferior race was no doubt especially important. So, the theory holds,…
Modern America lacks a true love ethic. riters like M. Scott Peck and Bell Hooks argue that our confusion about love stems from an inability to see love as an action rather than a noun, and the confusion of romance and sex with love. Instead, they argue that true love is based on choice and the desire to nurture the self or another spiritually.
Hooks specifically argues that much of our confusion about love stems from our paternalistic culture that teaches men that to love is to be weak and inferior. As such, love has become associated with what is feminine and weak in our culture. In their works, June Jordan and Sonia Sanchez describe the gamut of what is considered love in our culture, from the sensual and romantic, to the understanding that love of humanity can help create a more meaningful and functional relationship with ourselves, others,…
Jordan, June. 2003. Some of Us Did Not Die: New and Selected Essays. BasicCivitas Books
Hooks, Bell. 2001. All About Love: New Visions. Perennial.
Peck, M. Scott. 2003. The Road Less Traveled, 25th Anniversary Edition: A New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values and Spiritual Growth. Touchstone Books.
Sanchez, Sonia. 1999. Like the Singing Coming Off the Drums. Beacno Press.
Managerialism in Advanced Industrial Societies
According to Weber there are three options of structural power available to the entrepreneur in advanced industrial societies. These include the bureaucracy, charisma and tradition, or feudalism. These three options are discussed below in terms of organizations and elites, rationalization and bureaucratization, stratification, authority, and domination.
The bureaucratic option is also referred to as transactional in nature. Bureaucratization occurs as a result of knowledge.
Rationalization in this option occurs in the form of legality, where there is a rational legal hierarchical power; this is built on the basis of rational knowledge. All other aspects is subject to rationalization. Elites are chosen according to their merits based on knowledge, as are stratification, authority and domination.
Legal authority is therefore carried out in terms of issuing rules. The leader also must submit to systematic and impersonal discipline. Rational values and rules are determined by agreement among…
Summary of the Book
As 21st century is drawing to an end, the United States has emerged as the sole superpower with no rival in the international system based on its superior economic and military powers. However, a critical issue still remains with reference to the U.S. global strategy and its exceptional position in the international system. Zbigniew Brzezinski has been able to address this issue in his path-breaking and an incisive book titled "The Grand Chessboard." (Brzezinski, 1998 p 1). Brzezinski analyzes the American provocative and bold geostrategic vision in the 21st century, and its supremacy on the Eurasian landmass. Brzezinski, (1998) pointed out that Eurasia was the center of world power five-century ago, and during this period, Eurasia dominated and penetrated the international system, dictating the world order, and attaining the special status of being the premier power. However, in the 20th century, the world witnessed a tectonic…
Namely, the institutions of
slavery and Jim Crow that were used to constrain the growth and advancement
of African Americans are today disregarded as being directly relevant to
the fortunes and opportunities of blacks in America. This is both
unrealistic and unethical, with the denial of its lasting impact casting
American racism in an historical light rather than one which is still
present and problematic. It is thus that the social contract today serves
the interests of dominance even as it feigns to have disavowed these
aspects of itself.
A true resolution to the failures of the social contract may only
really occur when the discourse on America's racialist past and the lasting
effects of this on the current fortunes of African Americans is resolved.
In that regard, Mills regards it as largely a fiction that racial
discrimination ended in any meaningful way after the Emancipation
Proclamation; rather, racial prejudice…
Mills, C.W. (2000). Race and the Social Contract Tradition. Social
Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.
Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…
Finlayson, R. (2003). We Shall Overcome: The History of the American Civil Rights
Movement. Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, MN.
King, Jr., M. And Jackson, J. (1963). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classic, New York,
State Domination and Financial Markets
The Chinese government has characterized its involvement in economic development as "serving rather than supervising the private economy" since 2008 (Xinhua, 2009). ith this shift in focus a number of changes to Chinese management can be expected. The paternalistic approach will remain, as it is part of Chinese culture, but there will be further estern influences, particularly with respect to the desire outcomes of management behavior.
In their efforts to serve business, the Chinese government will inevitably work harder to attract foreign investment and to allow business to set the terms by which they can seek investors. This will shift the desired outcomes of management behavior towards those sought by a wider range of investors, both domestic and foreign. Asia Aluminum provides an example of this, as foreign investor outcry over the bond scandal forced the company to consider other options. Management at that point…
Gang, Fan. (2005). China is a Private Sector Economy. Business Week. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_34/b3948478.htm
Zhu, Cherrie Jiuhua. (2005). Human Resource Management in China. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=mOBwfLzp7boC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=china+management+economic+reform&source=bl&ots=NRJMQ-pIY-&sig=rIgeR5smWqFufALsTdK5P8AHZxY&hl=en&ei=uHktSuLtHo6fsgb2m6meDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10
Green, Stephen. (2003). 'Two-thirds privatization': How China's listed companies are -- finally -- privatizing. Royal Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://se1.isn.ch/serviceengine/FileContent?serviceID=ISN&fileid=0C55BCE1-85E3-F567-3F79-E6B47296364E&lng=en
Foley, John & Beales, Richard. (2009). A Hard Lesson for Foreign Investors in China. New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/02/business/worldbusiness/02iht-views03.1.20523651.html
Interestingly, the Politics of Passion proves that just the opposite is true. Women who reject traditional paradigms also reject Western idealisms about sexuality, marriage, families, desire and identity. Through their sexual activities, the mati women described by Wekker embody each of these elements, and liberate themselves sexuality, which in turn leads to greater power, greater autonomy and greater independence. Women are encouraged in this environment to rely on their own instincts, knowledge and expertise to do what they feel is best for them. They are encouraged, contrary to what most women experience, to do what makes them feel good. In this way they escape the chains that bind and subordinate many women living in other cultures who are brought up to believe gender distinctions exist and women have certain responsibilities and places.
If one were to adopt the mati perspective and apply it to their life, they would find that…
Beagan, Brenda. (2001). Micro inequities and everyday inequalities: "Race," gender, sexuality and class in medical school. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 26(4): 583.
Wekker, Gloria. (2006). Politics of Passion. New York: Columbia University Press.
Power of Passion
FIGHT AGAINST TEOISM
A similar crime was witnessed on September 11, 2001. The United States of America saw the sad death of thousands of innocent people just because some people wanted to acquire their goals. This followed an economic crisis and many innocent civilians faced unnecessary loss of jobs. The political environment has ever since been changing constantly and the United States went into war against Afghanistan. After Afghanistan there was a pre-emptive action on Iraq against the regime of Saddam Hussein who was accused of possessing weapons of mass destruction.
With terrorism becoming more organized, the law enforcement bodies try to formulate more laws to provide security to their citizens. There have been many congressional debates on the Antiterrorism and the Immigration policies of the United States. The immigration laws have been made stricter with a better screening of who comes in and who does not. ecently the citizens…
(1) The History Guide -- Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History [ http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(2) Frank Elwell - The Sociology of Karl Marx [ http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Marx/#Printable%20Version ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(3) Conflict Theories [ http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(4) Council on Foreign Relations [ http://cfrterrorism.org/home/ ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
This fear is intensified in the close quarters of prisons. Also, as noted in "Police Control of Juveniles" of Donald J. Black and Albert J. Reiss, Jr. both groups use techniques of fear and intimidation to deal with such a hostile environment. The police use their authority to intimidate prisoners or potential convicts on the street, while convicts use their potential menace and the real or threatened use of violence to assert authority against one another.
The process of "prisonization" and "policization" thus both involve the entry of the individual into a unique subculture, different from those ordinary persons inhabit. Like all human beings, there is a desire for survival, group approval, and esteem, all of which are met, according to the dictates of prison life, by obeying the rules of the social hierarchy. Prisoners are continually watched and monitored for deviant behavior, and these prisoners watch the police to…
ashington Rules: America's Path To Permanent ar
ritten by a former Army Colonel, ashington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) is a striking analysis of America's pro-military psyche and determination to "to lead, save, liberate, and ultimately transform the world" (Bacevich, 2010, p. 12) through worldwide militarism. Commencing post-orld ar II, the global military presence that has become a fact of American life has been supported by Democrats and Republicans alike, though it has significantly drained our resources. hile some critics and this reader take issue with some aspects of Bacevich's book, in many respects it provides a voice of sanity in the face of the U.S.'s now-unbearable global pro-war stance.
Bacevich's book is anything but the compliment, "ashington Rules!" ashington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) relates his own educational journey from a pro-military conservative soldier to a questioner who attacks the American…
Bacevich, A.J. (2010). Washington rules: America's path to permanent war. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books.
Bass, G.J. (2010, September 3). Book review - Washington rules - America's path to permanent war. Retrieved on May 31, 2012 from www.nytimes.com Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/05/books/review/Bass-t.html
Boston University. (2012). Andrew J. Bacevich | International Relations | Boston University. Retrieved on May 31, 2012 from www.bu.edu Web site: http://www.bu.edu/ir/faculty/alphabetical/bacevich/
Burns, K. (Director). (2007). The War [Motion Picture].
In general Marxists tend to focus on the role of the mass media as being concerned with the proliferation of the status quo as opposed to pluralists who focus on the role of the media as one of promoting free speech. Marxists tend to view capitalistic societies as societies of class domination and the media is viewed as the arena where clashing views with the status quo are quashed. Control is increasingly concentrated in capital and the media is one tool used for the maintenance of the situation due to its ability to relay messages/propaganda that foster the interests of the dominant or ruling class. The media has a special type of power to keep things as they are. Yet the academic view of how powerful or how direct the effects of the media's messages on audiences actually are appears to vary depending on the times. McQuail (1987) discusses…
Blumer, H. 1951. Collective behavior. In: Lee, A.M. ed. New outline of the principles of sociology. New York: Barnes & Noble, pp. 167-219.
Chomsky, N. 1989. Necessary illusions: Thought control in democratic societies. Boston: South End Press.
Curran, J., M. Gurevitch, and J.Woollacott. 1982. The study of the media: Theoretical approaches. In Gurevitch, M. et al. eds. Culture, society and the media. London: Routledge, pp. 11-29.
Davis, D.K. And Baron, S.J. 1981. A history of our understanding of mass communication. In: Davis, D.K. And Baron, S.J. (eds.). Mass communication and everyday life: A Perspective on theory and effects. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing, pp. 19-52.
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
France, too, had its borders subtly bur firmly redefined.
Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich was the host and one of the chief negotiators at the Congress; along with Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, who developed the Congress plan for Europe, he was one of the most prominent figures of the Congress. he French negotiator alleyrand was instrumental in securing leniency or his country and restoring the House of Bourbon. his restoration was accomplished in 1814 after alleyrand convinced the other European powers that it would provide the most security and stability in the region. Other factors that contributed to this were the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, which had contained more than 300 States, into a loose German Confederation of 39 states, and several smaller kingdoms. Russia and Prussia gained the most land, with Austria not far behind, and Great Britain's non-Continental colonial holds would be a major factor in…
The Congress of Vienna was a meeting of delegates from the Great Powers to determine the future boundaries and direction of Europe in the wake of the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the breakup of the Holy Roman Empire. Napoleon, after a brief return to power, was finally defeated at Waterloo and exiled to Elba. The Bourbon Restoration refers to the Bourbon dynasty of French monarchs being re-established after Napoleon's original defeat and exile in 1814, who maintained some power even during the "Hundred Days" of Napoleon's return and continued to rule after. The domination of the monarch over the State had ended, however, and Louis XVIII had to make many democratic concessions.
Part of the issue addressed at the Congress of Vienna was dealing with the former German States that had allied with Napoleon in a group known as the Confederation of the Rhine. Various rulers were restored or deposed based on their connection to Napoleon, and the results of the Congress of Vienna can be traced to the formation of a unified Germany. Other countries borders were altered or newly formed in the peace settlements between the Great Powers; Austria, Prussia, and Russia all gained or regained territory, and the beginnings of Great Britain's colonial empire were confirmed. France, too, had its borders subtly bur firmly redefined.
Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich was the host and one of the chief negotiators at the Congress; along with Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, who developed the Congress plan for Europe, he was one of the most prominent figures of the Congress. The French negotiator Talleyrand was instrumental in securing leniency or his country and restoring the House of Bourbon. This restoration was accomplished in 1814 after Talleyrand convinced the other European powers that it would provide the most security and stability in the region. Other factors that contributed to this were the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, which had contained more than 300 States, into a loose German Confederation of 39 states, and several smaller kingdoms. Russia and Prussia gained the most land, with Austria not far behind, and Great Britain's non-Continental colonial holds would be a major factor in nineteenth-century development. The major advancement here was the use of negotiation and treaties to divide and after the wars, instead of claiming the "Divine Right" of victory.
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
Corporations to be Ethical and Responsible
Over the last several years, the issue of corporate ethics has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been a transformation in how firms are interacting with various stakeholders. In most cases, there has been a shift in which parties will receive the greatest benefits from particular activities (i.e. The shareholders, board of directors, managers and analysts). This has increased the underlying amounts of mistrust that the public will have in the actions of firms.
To address these challenges, the majority of organizations have been adopting a code of ethics. This is a part of larger effort, to create a series of guidelines that will help everyone to determine the best course of action in a variety of situations. The results are that most people believe this has helped to create a standard which is transforming the work environment. Evidence…
Crosson, S, 2008, Principles of Accounting, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Fernando, M, 2008, 'Ethical Ideologies,' Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 82, 145 -- 155.
Ferrell, O, 2012, Business Ethics, South Western, Mason.
Garber, P, 2008, The Ethical Dilemma, HRD, Amherst.
Brand Names: Will 'iPad' Become Generic Word for Tablet?" was published by the U.S.A. Today, with the central premise concerning a relatively unknown yet ubiquitous phenomenon known as genericide. According to the article, which was compiled by the Associated Press (AP), Apple Inc. And its proprietary iPad tablet computing device is poised to alter the English lexicon through its supremacy within a particular market segment. Like the Band-Aid and Kleenex before it, the iPad has become so synonymous with a niche product that consumers invariably refer to competitor's offerings by the same name, and Apple Inc.'s executive management structure must now wade through the quagmire of intellectual property rights and trademark protection law to determine the course of action that preserves the company's duly earned domination of the market. The article presents the iPad's emergence as the standard bearer for tablet computing devices as a mixed bag of sorts for…
Associated Press. (2012, April 08). Brand names: Will 'iPad' become generic word for tablet?. USA Today. Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/companies/story/2012-04-07/apple-iPad-generic- name/54110024/1
Coverdale, J.F. (1984). Trademarks and Generic Words: An Effect-on-Competition Test. The University of Chicago Law Review, (51), 868-891. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1599488?uid=3739552&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739 256&sid=21101868846423
McKenna, M. (2007). The normative foundations of trademark law. Notre Dame Law Review, 82(5), 1839. Retrieved from http://www.inta.org/Academics/Documents/finalndlawreview.pdf
Kate Braverman wrote an award winning story called "Tales of the Mekong Delta" in 1991. Ten years later, Ted Demme directed and released a film called Blow. The paper will explore, analyze, and compare themes of the two texts. Specifically, the paper will focus on issues of identity, self-esteem, respect, alienation, predatory behavior including domination (and submission), addiction, as well as moral & ethical behavior. Both stories center around the consequences of illicit substances in the personal lives of the characters.
The protagonist in the short story is most often referred to as "she." She meets Lenny at an Alcoholics Anonymous meeting. Lenny essentially begins stalking her. Lenny is the figure for dominance and aggression in the story. She is the figure for submission and vulnerability in the story. She tries to deviate from her routine and essentially change her life, but Lenny tracks her down and shows up at…
Braverman, Kate. "Tales of the Mekong Delta." The Braverman Archive, Web, Available from: http://www.katebraverman.com/talltalesfromthemekongdelta.html , 1991. 2013 March 28.
IMDB. "Blow." Web, Available from: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0221027/ , 2001. 2013 March 28.
Thomason, Michael. "Blow (2001)." BBC, Web, Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/films/2001/04/30/blow_2001_review.shtml , 2001. 2013 March 28.
Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty
Major Schools of Thought and Actors
In Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty, Elaine L. Graham addresses Traditional, Postmodern, Empirical, Liberation and Feminist perspectives on Theology and ultimately on Pastoral Theology. In order to address these perspectives, Graham traces the historical development of each, current theological realities, and prospective "horizons." The result is an extensive review of the Pastoral Theolog (y)(ies) of the Church and its faith communit (y)(ies), viewed very strongly through the feminist pastoral perspective.
As presented by Graham, the Traditional perspective is built on Scripture that is rife with patriarchy and an overarching patriarchal hierarchy. hile providing conventionally binding values and norms, the Traditional perspective is decidedly male-centered: traditionally-based pastoral theology tended to focus on the traits of a good male pastor and was essentially restricted to the pastoral ministry of ordained males.…
Graham, Elaine L. Transforming Practice: Pastoral Theology in an Age of Uncertainty. London: Mowbray, 1996.
French Quebec Nationalism
A major turning point in the history of Canada was the fall of Quebec which resulted in the transformation of a French colony into a ritish colony. Had it not happened, English would never have become the first language of the country. The battle of Quebec was one of the numerous wars fought between the ritish and the French over fur and land during the 18th century. The fall of Quebec ensured the control and domination of ritish in major parts of North America. New ideas were brought forward by new generations who came in power and redefined the political scenario of the province. The Quebec Act was drafted by the ritish government which motivated the growth of nationalism in Quebec and since then, the nationalist movement has remained powerful and dominated the politics of the province.
Troubles in Manitoba
In 1870, the ritish government introduced the…
Belanger, D. (2004). Henri Bourassa (1868-1953). Informally published manuscript, Department of History, McGill University, Montreal, QC. Retrieved from http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/bios/henribourassabio.htm
Crunican, P.E. (2012). Manitoba schools question. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/manitoba-schools-question
Gall, G.L. (2012). Quebec referendum (1995). Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/quebec-referendum-1995
Rene Levesque. (2012). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/337886/Rene-Levesque
To me, art is a concept that is impossible to define, because any definition of art necessarily limits art, and art should be limitless. I would say that art is what separates humans from other animals, because I feel like the ability to create and appreciate art is one of the defining elements of humanity, but I have seen examples of animals creating artwork, so I do not know that it is a uniquely human concept. However, whether art is unique to humans or is something shared by other highly intelligent animals, I know that art is essential to the human experience. I agree with Dr. Cornell est that, "You can't talk about the struggle for human freedom unless you talk about the different dimensions of what it means to be human" (est). Therefore, to me, art is about, not only being human, but also about creating the social…
Hegel, George. "Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics. Volume 1." Marxists.org. N.p. Unk. Web.
17 Oct. 2013.
Hooks, Bell. "Beauty Laid Bare: Aesthetics in the Ordinary." Feminish.com. 157-165. 1995.
Web. 17 Oct. 2013.
Male Domination of Hospitality Industry in Canada
As in much of the world, Canada operates in ways that lead to discrimination based on gender. This often results in women being denied "a fair share" of benefits and opportunities relative to their actions and contributions.
Female employees dominate Canada's service and retail trade industries, but the wages and promotional scales do not reflect this fact. In one four-year study, females earned an average of forty percent less than males in the service industry and only 34% were promoted to managerial positions.
This report aims to establish an understanding of gender inequality in the hospitality industry in Canada. The objectives of this reports include: identifying the reasons why men dominate managerial positions in Canada; discussing reasons for preferential treatment for men in the hospitality industry; and examining potential motivations for females to pursue managerial positions and any obstacles they face.
Gender Inequality in Canada: A Status Report for 2001 National Action Committee on the Status of Women and the CSJ Foundation.
Statistics Canada's Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics.
Hennig, M. & Jardin, A. (1977). The managerial woman. Anchor Press:Garden City, New York.
Gaia and God
Rosemary R. Ruether's book, Gaia and God: An Ecofeminist Theology of Earth Healing presents a thorough look at the relationship between Christianity, patriarchal society, and the destruction of the environment. She argues that the Christian concept of sin is at the root of the domination of women, the environment, and the need to dominate other humans. In order to overcome this destructive tradition, Ruether argues that as a society we must learn to move toward "earth healing, a healed relationship between men and women, between classes and nations, and between humans and the earth" (1). A number of practical suggestions that derive from the ethical implications of Ruether's thesis provide a solid basis for changes in public policy.
In Gaia and God, Ruether offers a critique that is solidly based upon Christian theology. In examining three cornerstone creation stories of estern thought (the Enuma Elish, Plato's Timeaus,…
Ruether, Rosemary R. 1994. Gaia and God: An Ecofeminist Theology of Earth Healing. Harper SanFrancisco.
Moreover, the global neglect of women (in terms of science) is reflected in the fact that women have been excluded as experimental subjects in drug research, Rosser continues. Certainly pregnant women have been excluded from experiments with pesticides and radioactive materials, but beyond that Rosser explains that "…these drugs and materials are then used without ever having been tested on women" (1991, p. 143). And yet notwithstanding their exclusion from testing, women's research has led to a vast resource of knowledge vis-a-vis the natural environment.
To wit, Rachel Carson correctly extrapolated the deadly effects on the environment due to agricultural pesticides (DDT in particular), and in fact changed the way the government approached pesticides (1991, p. 144). Indeed, Carson's books ("Silent Spring," "Under the Sea-Wind," and others) had an enormous impact on the nation's grasp of environmental dangers and led eventually to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency…
Alldred, Pam, and Dennison, Sarah, 2000, 'Eco-Activism and Feminism: Do Eco-Warriors and Goddesses Need it?', Feminist Review, No. 63, 124-127.
Biehl, Janet, 1991, Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics, South End Press, Cambridge MA.
Eaton, Heather, 2005, Introducing Ecofeminist Theologies, Continuum International Publishing Group, New York.
Kheel, Marti, 1993, 'From Heroic to Holistic Ethics: The Ecofeminist Challenge', in Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature, G. Gaard Ed., Temple University Press: New York.
Death of Nature" and "The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism"
This essay will provide a critical summary and response of the books "The Death of Nature" by Caroline Merchant and "The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism" by Karen arren. The summary will summarize the main argument of each ecofeminism author. The response will argue the position that nature is defenseless matter and thus subject to human domination and that women and men should be viewed as complimentary of one another rather than oppositional.
The book "The Death of Nature" by Caroline Merchant seeks to explain the historic correlation between the supremacy of nature and women. Merchant asserts that the scientific revolution fashioned a society that perpetuates a mechanistic view of nature rather than an organic view of a feminine natural world that was in existence before the revolution. The former views nature as inert matter that…
Armitage on Merchant's; Death of Nature. http://www.mail-archive.com//msg07778.html
Merchant, Carolyn. "The Death of Nature." In: Zimmerman, Michael (Ed.) (1993): Environmental Philosophy. From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. S. 268-283.
Warren, Karen. "The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism" (Online)
Manual War Gaming Methods
The American military frequently employs manual war gaming methods as key analytical techniques. War gaming itself provides situational models that can reveal ideal decision-making processes and illuminate the pros and cons of potential courses of action. Conflict situations are generally framed in scientific or mathematical terms, offering clues for troop maneuvering, combat situations, and taking into account situational or interpersonal variables. In spite of tremendous and helpful advancements in technology and the tools of technology applied to war gaming, manual war gaming remains a core component of military preparedness. Manual war gaming methods enable the conceptualization of skills and resources possessed in light of the realities on the field. Moreover, manual war games provide a transparent, accessible means for visualization. The three primary manual war gaming methods include deliberate timeline analysis, operational phasing, and critical events/sequence of essential tasks. Each of these three manual war gaming…
Department of Military Strategy, Planning, and Operations (2008). U.S. Army War College. Retrieved online: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army-usawc/campaign_planning_primer.pdf
Joint Operation Planning (2011). August 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp5_0.pdf
Consumption, Society and Culture
There are two social processes which are linked with each other and provide the basis of popular culture in modern capitalist societies. These two processes are related with production and consumption of cultural goods. In the first step, the commodities are produced in the light of customers' desirable features and packaged in culturally acceptable methods. In the second step, the products are used by their respective target markets as status symbols to satisfy self-esteem needs. The identification of the target market as a considerable portion of society is largely based on its presentation in fine arts particularly TV programs, music shows and films (Benjamin, 1968).
Social system is a comprehensive study, whose knowledge is mandatory to understand the popular culture. Artifacts represent the cultural symbols, yet these artifacts are strongly influenced by the taste and choice of professionals and cultural elites. There are many…
Adorno, Theodor W., "Art, Autonomy and Mass Culture," in Art in Modern Culture: An Anthology of Critical Texts, ed. By Francis Frascina and Jonathan Harris (New York: Icon Editions, 1992), 74-79.
Adorno, Theodor W., Critical Models; Interventions and Catchwords, trans. By Henry W. Pickford (New York: Colombia University Press, 1998).
Adorno, Theodor W., "The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture, " (London: Routledge, 2001).
Adorno, Theodor W. et al., The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row Publications, 1950).
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557
Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923
Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
Biographies of Selected Organizational Theorists
1. ADAM SMITH (Wealth of Nations, 1723-1790)
Born on June 5, 1723 in Kirkcaldy, Scotland, Adam Smith’s father died before his birth and he survived being briefly kidnapped by “gipsies” when he was just 4 years old to become one of the most prominent and influential economist theorists in history who is known today as the “Father of Economics” (Rae, 2009). Although his contributions were multiple, Smith is most famous today as being the author of An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth Of Nations (1776) which maintained that a laissez faire approach to commerce was in everyone’s best interests and the extent to which governments intervened is the extent to which the numerous benefits of free trade are diminished (Butler, 2019).
In sum, Smith did not conceptualize international commerce as a zero-sum enterprise but rather an opportunity for all stakeholders to…
Butler, E. (2019). About Adam Smith. Adam Smith Institute. Retrieved from https://www.adamsmith.org/about-adam-smith.
Donnelly, D. G. (2014, February). The basic theoretical contribution of Chester I. Barnard to contemporary administrative thought. Doctoral Dissertations 1896 - February 2014. 3816.
Dowding, M. (2019). Frederick Taylor and scientific management. MindTools. Retrieved from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_ Taylor.htm.
Horgan, M. (2014, October 1). Durkheim, development and the devil: A cultural sociology of community conflict. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 39(4), 741-752.
Lincoln, J. R. & Guillot, D. (2004). Durkheim and organizational culture. IRLE working paper no. 108-04, 1-15 Retrieved from https://www.irle.berkeley. edu/files/2004/Durkheim-and-Organizational-Culture.pdf.
Max Weber and the idea of bureaucracy. (2021). Science. Retrieved from https://science.jrank.org/pages/8499/Bureaucracy-Max-Weber-Idea-Bureaucracy.html.
Mihalache, D. (2015). Karl Marx biography. United Architects. Retrieved from https://danassays. wordpress.com/encyclopedia-of-the-essay/marx-karl/.
Munger, M. C. (2020, April 1). Was Karl Marx a public-choice theorist? Independent Review, 24(4), 509-515.
In some regards, the idea of 'culture' is highly mutable and subject to widespread variations in characterization. Quite in fact, the concept of culture is highly implicated in the weaponzation of words that may be used by one nation to subjugate another. Ideas about how cultures interact, about which cultures are superior and indeed about whether or not the practices of some peoples should even be called 'cultures' have been subjected to rationalization as colonialist nations have subjugated various parts of the developing sphere. It is this understanding that inclines Said's (2002) perspective in "The Clash of Definitions."
Here, Said opposes the idea that there are distinct incompatibilities which persist between civilizations. Instead, he argues that this is the impression which has been foisted upon us by the shifting notions of what is meant by culture, particularly as this depends upon the perspective of hegemonic ethnic groups. This…
Bederman, G. (1995). Manliness & Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bender, T. (2006). A Nation among Nations: America's Place in World History. New York: Hill & Wang:
Cabral, A. (1973). National Liberation and Culture. In Return to the Source: Selected Speeches of Amilcar Cabral. New York: Monthly Review Press: 39-56.
McClintock, A. (1995). Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. London: Routledge.
By nationalism they meant not only the cultivation of love for their land and nation but also the development of an identity -- A sense of who Africans were and what they stood for which would be based on nothing that white people had been teaching but on something that would be exclusive to Africa and African consciousness.
The new sense of self would then reflect in all the actions of African people including their writings. It was believed that oppressors so dominate the minds and souls of the conquered people, that the latter start believing in their inferiority and try to please their oppressor by producing work that would be more universal in its subject. However that had to change if Africans wanted to believe in themselves. They would need to address their own people, their own problems and their own cultures and write for their own audiences which…
This was largely because the resistance was split along racial lines. For instance, the Afrikaans National Council wanted freedom from foreign oppression without taking into consideration the needs and demands of the Colored. Similarly, the Non-European Liberation League, another group that opposed the current practices, were the proponents of the issues of immediate concern to Colored but African people. This lack of unity proved decisive, taking into consideration the immediate rise to power of the Nationalistic Party in 1948 and the subsequent inability to immediately react to the measures that would be taken in the following years.
The South African society, following the war was left without a well-defined national identity because of the continuous struggle to face the conquering forces of the Dutch and the ritish. Consequently, the rise to power of a nationalistic party can be seen as predictable, taking into consideration the general trend existing in the…
Goldin, Ian. Making race, the politics and economics of colored identity in South Africa. London: Longman. 1987.
Heribert, Adam, and Kogila Moodley. South Africa without apartheid. Dismantling racial domination. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986.
Hofmayer, I., Building a nation from words: Afrikaans language, literature and ethnic identity. University of London, MA thesis, 1983.
Nowak, Michael, and Luca Antonio Ricci. Post Apartheid South Africa: the first ten years. Washington: International Monetary Fund. 2005.
Middle East countries, and also former colonies around the world, struggled to find their freedom and independence from any imperial forces. Therefore, being once again in charge of their own natural resources became "paramount to the extent that dictators and human rights abusers were supported"(Shah, 2000). People were sensitive to radical messages and a violent, anti-foreigners speech. Dictators and terrorist groups speculated that "weak spot" and provided the right set of words. Concentrating their message on the fight for liberation and independence from the "invasive" West, cleverly giving it a religious and profound spiritual meaning, fundamentalist rulers became popular and managed to take control over countries like Iraq, Iran or Syria, sponsoring the planning and performing of terrorist acts against symbols of Western civilization. Terrorism cannot do without the help of dictatorial regimes in the region, or without the tacit approval of the people, explained by the common religious beliefs…
Global Connections -- the Middle East. (2002). Retrieved February 12, 2007, from PBS Web site: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/questions/resource/index.html
Levitt, M., a. (2002). The Political Economy of Middle East Terrorism. MERIA Journal, 6(4). Retrieved February 11, 2007, from MERIA Web site: http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2002/issue4/jv6n4a3.html
Middle East. (1993-2006). Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Web site: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579298/Middle_East.html
Shah, a. (2000). The Middle East. Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Global Issues Web site: http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast.asp
All these scenarios are finally reinforced with the debate of multiculturalism in present day America creating a very believable and understandable racist America.
American History has always been an idealist view of events. Students have read about the power of democracy and equality. However, events like slavery and the eradication of the Native American race are proof of the fact that equality and democracy do not always go hand in hand. As the founders took into play the concept of Manifest Destiny where Americas role in the world was seen as a conquering force the values of democracy were at times undermined.
However, because the dominant race always writes history the interpretation was not as clear. The present book by Spring highlights and traces American history in a manner that is multi-dimensional in view. Adapting a narrative style, Spring relates systematically the domination of the Anglo Saxon race. He does…
Tea was the third most important commercial product, and was also sold to the mainland. Research indicates that the Japanese, as well as other foreign powers, deeply coveted in Taiwan's wealth (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).
In 1886 Taiwan's defenses against foreign aggression were modernized, the government implemented tax reforms to make Taiwan financially independent, and educated its indigenous peoples. A general trade office was established to encourage foreign trade, and Western-style schools were set up (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).When Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the locals declared independence on May 25, 1895, and formed the Democratic Taiwan Nation to resist the Japanese take-over. A total of 7,000 Chinese soldiers were killed in the conflict and civilian casualties numbered in the thousands (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).These events also assisted in the creation…
Ballantine, Joseph. Formosa: A Problem for United States Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1952.
Chih-ming, Ka. Japanese Colonialism in Taiwan: Land Tenure, Development, and Dependency, 1845-1945. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc., 1995.
Government Information Office in Taiwan. "History of Taiwan." Taiwan.com. 2005.
Taiwan.com. 10 June 2005 http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html.
The impact of slavery on the sexuality of African-American women has been largely overlooked for many years. In addition, the negative manner in which African-American Women are portrayed in the media has been a topic of debate in recent years.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore how the experience of slavery shaped the development of African-American women's sexual identity and self-esteem. In addition, we will examine how the larger American public views and portrays black women in the media.
How the experience of slavery shaped the development of African-American women's sexual identity and self-esteem
How slavery impacted the Family Unit
The Slavery in America is one of the most heinous events in history.
What many fail to realize is that the experience of slavery has fashioned the way that African-American women view their sexuality and body image. efore we can fully understand the impact that slavery had…
Bay, Mia. The White Image in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas about White People, 1830-1925. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Davis, Olga Idriss. "A Black Woman as Rhetorical Critic: Validating Self and Violating the Space of Otherness." Women's Studies in Communication 21.1 (1998): 77+.
The primary distinction between the perspectives of Patricia Hill Collins and Esther Chow on feminism and gender consciousness stems from their diverse interpretations of the influence of culture. Chow assumes a near apologist stance in her justifications for the slow uptake of feminist theory by Asian-American women. Chow cites the many barriers to the gender consciousness and ability to organize around women's issues, and suggests that they have been particularly difficult to overcome and were won't to locate feminism in the midst of larger, more generic issues that garnered the attention of Asian-American women. But Chow's argument is not persuasive, as the same issues are endemic to Collins' treatment of feminist thought, but are clarified by the construct of intersectionality, as posed by Kimberle Crenshaw (2004, and as cited in Collins, 1990).
Intersectionality is the study of the intersections that occur between various forms of oppression, and that…
Chow, E. (n.d.). Gender consciousness and women's groups. [lecture notes.]
Collins, P.H. (1990). Black Feminist thought. [lecture notes.]
Collins, P.H. (1990). Black feminist thought in the matrix of domination. In Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Though: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Boston, MA: Unwin Hyman, pp. 221-238.
Crenshaw, K. (2004). Intersectionality: The double bind of race and gender. Perspectives Magazine, p.2.
Indigenous societies existed in North America in the period between 1600s and 1800s. The roles and responsibilities of men and women during this period were clearly identified despite the hundreds of cultures that dominated indigenous societies. Despite the existence of separate cultures, indigenous men in North America were primarily responsible for hunting and warfare while women were mandated with the responsibility of handling the internal operations of the community. In this case, indigenous women were responsible for taking care of households and upbringing of their children. However, indigenous women in North America during this period were mostly considered as slaves to men. Indigenous men had more visible, public roles, while indigenous women served as slaves to men. Indigenous women depended on men for decision-making and had relatively minimal control of their bodies. In this essay, I argue that indigenous women benefitted from the interactions with Europeans who arrived North America…
There was much political turbulence and the Jews hoped for national liberation. The Maccabaean revolt set the stage for all future hope of the restoration of God's people from exile. One thing the different groups of Jews generally agreed upon was that as long as there was Roman occupation, everyone would remain in exile. Most all of them agreed that it was Israel's sin that had led them to this exile. One group of Jews, the Pharisees, committed themselves to strict purity with hope for a reconstituted and restored Israel.
The Jewish people were monotheistic -- that is, they believed in one God, and they believed in one God at a time in history when surrounding cultures -- including the ones dominating them (specifically the Romans during Jesus' time) -- were polytheistic (they believed in many gods) and they used idols to represent their gods. The Jews never used idols…
In other words, he changes, and for Marx, the capitalist cannot change until forced to do so, specifically by the revolution he and Engels call for in the Communist Manifesto. Marx sees the economic development of history as a matter of class struggle, following the dialectic of Hegel as opposing forces fight and through that revolution produce a synthesis, or a new social order. Dickens sees change as possible more simply by showing people the error of their ways and so getting them to change to a different way of behaving. Marx sees the need for a revolution to force any change into existence.
Again, the England described by Dickens was the England that helped produce Karl Marx and that contributed to his social theory. Both Marx and Dickens see the social ills of the time and ascribe these to the greed and single-minded pursuit of money on the part…
Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol. Provided.
Marx, Karl. "The Duchess of Sutherland and Slavery." 1953. Provided.
Tucker, Richard C. The Marx-Engels Reader. New York: W.W. Norton, 1978.
Related to the above is the view that the origins and history of the development of Rap music are strongly related to the resistance to various forms of colonialism and oppression that Black people have experienced and which has shaped the style and form of Rap music. This also refers to ideological and colonial hegemonies and perceived racial and cultural prejudice that has been a major motivating force in this form of artistic expression.
This can be linked to theories of ideological hegemony that are seen as pivotal aspect in the development of Black consciousness and consequently in the musical expression of that consciousness. According to theorists like Gramsci, ideological hegemony functions by control and domination not only through force but also through cultural forms of persuasion. In other words, the best way to achieve control over a subordinate group is by "...means of cultural domination among all sectors…
KEYES C.L. (2002) Rap Music and Street Consciousness. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Kopano, Baruti N. "Rap Music as an Extension of the Black Rhetorical Tradition: "Keepin' it Real." The Western Journal of Black Studies 26.4 (2002): 204+. Questia. 31 Mar. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001926756 .
There were was much more to the conflict than a small battle
over Sicily exploding into an all out Naval conflict. It just so happened
that a local conflict involved two powers, but like many other wars
throughout history, it only took a spark to ignite a much bigger battle
that was waiting to be instigated.
From the perspective of an ancient historian Polybius leaves out very
little necessary information and his level of information is consistent
with that of ancient histories. However, to modern historians it would be
helpful if other information was included. Some statistics as the nature
of Rome's growth and expansion perhaps would help to show how Rome was a
burgeoning power rising to the level of the Carthaginians. There must have
been much more to the conflict than just the military tactical maneuvers
and subsequent domestic responses that were made to the events of the…
Polybius: the Histories. LacusCurtius. 18 Apr. 2007
"Roman History Timeline." UNRV History. 2007. 18 Apr. 2007
The fact that a novel in the sentimental and seduction genre attained such heights of popularity is, in the first instance, evidence its impact and effect on the psyche and minds of the female readers of the novel. As one critic cogently notes:
hy a book which barely climbs above the lower limits of literacy, and which handles, without psychological acuteness or dramatic power, a handful of stereotyped characters in a situation already hopelessly banal by 1790, should have had more than two hundred editions and have survived among certain readers for a hundred and fifty years is a question that cannot be ignored.
The initial question that obviously arises therefore is what made this book so popular and in what way does this novel speak to the feelings and aspirations of the readers to make it such a perennial favorite. As Fudge ( 1996) notes,
Barton, Paul. "Narrative Intrusion in Charlotte Temple: A Closet Feminist's Strategy in an American Novel." Women and Language 23.1 (2000): 26. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Fiedler, Leslie A. Love and Death in the American Novel. Rev. ed. New York: Stein and Day, 1966. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Fudge, Keith. "Sisterhood Born from Seduction: Susanna Rowson's Charlotte Temple, and Stephen Crane's Maggie Johnson." Journal of American Culture 19.1 (1996): 43+. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Greeson, Jennifer Rae. "'Ruse It Well": Reading, Power, and the Seduction Plot in the Curse of Caste." African-American Review 40.4 (2006): 769+. Questia. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)
Hemlet and Postcolonial theory
Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…
Aragay, Mireia, and Gemma Lopez. 2005. "Inflecting Pride and Prejudice: Dialogism, Intertextuality, and Adaptation." Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Ed. Mireia Aragay. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p201-19.
Aragay, Mireia, ed. 2005. Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p88-96.
Baetens, Jan. 2007. "From Screen to Text: Novelization, the Hidden Continent." The Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen. Ed. Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, p226-38.
Balides, Constance. 2000. "Jurassic Post-Fordism: Tall Tales of Economics in the Theme Park." Screen 4 I .2: p139-60.
It maybe suggested that the American Revolution was inevitable. America was far from its colonial master, and unlike colonies in Africa (for example) most of the colonists were both here by choice and considered this new land to be a true home, which weakened their loyalty to the former homeland. America was a huge land rich in natural resources, and as the colonies grew it seems certain that eventually their citizens might resent having these resources co-opted by a little island across that Atlantic. Moreover, the settlers in America were an independent sort, a tendency encouraged by the vast frontier and predicted by their own or their ancestor's willingness to cross oceans to escape the control of an authoritarian state. So it seems most likely that the revolution would happen some day. Yet there must be a specific reason why it happened in 1775 rather than, say,…
S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.
Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html
Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version
World War II -- Battle of Midway
The Battle of Midway was fully intended by the Japanese to be a key to Japanese military domination in the Pacific and a further crippling blow to merican naval forces merely six months after the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. However, Midway ultimately exposed and deepened the weaknesses of the Japanese war effort. More than a mere defeat, the Midway had far broader effects on the Japanese war effort.
The Implications of the Battle of Midway to the Japanese War Effort
The Battle of Midway's destruction of Japan's offensive capability in the Pacific had far-reaching implications for the Japanese war effort. somewhat surprising result of research is the lack of emphasis on the Japanese Navy's specific losses at Midway. Legend has it that the losses of ships and trained personnel at Midway crippled the Japanese for the duration of the War. However, John…
All three sources agree that the Japanese deemed the Battle of Midway a key to domination of the Pacific. According to Weinberg, the Japanese Navy's intended landing on Hawaii required victory at Midway; consequently, the loss of Midway rendered an invasion of Hawaii impossible.[footnoteRef:6] Keegan agrees that Midway was Japan's strategic objective in mid-1942[footnoteRef:7] and Overy calls the Battle of Midway "The most significant fleet engagement of the War."[footnoteRef:8] Weinberg concludes that if Japan had won at Midway, "the course of the War could have proceeded very differently."[footnoteRef:9] [6: Ibid., p. 330.] [7: Keegan, p.88.] [8: Overy, p. 43.] [9: Weinberg, p. 339.]
The assertions about the importance of Midway for Japanese expansion are supported by the authors' explanations of the Japanese adjustments after Midway. After Midway, the Japanese could not expand their domination of the Pacific. Weinberg maintains that the Japanese expansion to the East, South and in the Indian Ocean ended with the loss at Midway.[footnoteRef:10] According to Weinberg, Japanese expansion into the Indian Ocean, which the Japanese had promised to the Germans and wished to pursue, was decisively crippled by the American counterattack on the Solomon Islands that kept the Japanese preoccupied.[footnoteRef:11] Consequently, the Japanese defeat at Midway did not merely result in a stalemate; rather, it forced the halt of Japanese efforts to expand their domination of the Pacific Ocean. [10: Ibid., pp. 329, 339.] [11: Ibid., p. 339.]
Japan's loss at Midway also meant that the U.S. could take an offensive position in the Pacific, forcing the Japanese into a defensive position. As mentioned previously, Japan's initial plans to push further into the Indian Ocean were crippled by preoccupation with the American counter-attack on the Solomon Islands.[footnoteRef:12] According to Weinberg, that very American offensive, that