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The statue, including its clothing, recalls the Hellenistic period of Greek sculpture, where older, non-athletic, and more emotional forms became in vogue, but were still depicted with a kind of elevated classicism and authority.
St. Mark's form is not characteristic of what might be called 20th century realism -- the old man is not wrinkled, and his body, although not as powerful as Michelangelo's David or ancient Greek statues of Olympic athletes and gods, is not withered or bent with infirmity. Mark represents spiritual and moral strength. The folds of his gown suggest his inverted hip position, but there is still elegance in the way he moves. This was radical during Donatello's day -- in contrast to the era immediately previous to the generation of this statue of St. Mark, human beings were often shown in fallen, twisted, and hideous ways, to indicate the morally bankrupt state of Man. In…… [Read More]
Raphael / Michelangelo / Donatello
Raphael's School of Athens is considered a high point of humanism. e can understand this by considering some basic facts about the work: it is a fresco painting done on a wall in the Vatican, arguably the center of Christianity in the world, and yet it depicts a large number of figures, the vast majority of whom had never even heard the name "Jesus Christ." This is not to imply that humanism was somehow a pagan phenomenon (although various humanists ranging from Marsilio Ficino to Giordano Bruno did their best) but rather that one of the most salient effects of Renaissance humanism was the revival of classical learning and the rediscovery and publication of Greek and Latin texts. For example, Plato -- depicted centrally in Raphael's School of Athens, pointing his finger upward toward God and the heavens -- had gone mostly unread for centuries,…… [Read More]
As compared to Donatello and Michelangelo's representation of DAVID,
that of ernini is very different, due to being almost frozen in action
after slaying Goliath. Julie mentions that this sculpture is a combination
of the heroic and the romantic, an observation that is supported by the
fact that during the aroque period, circa 1623, "the pose and attitude of
sculptures like ernini's David were created to express the heroism of the
age and the ideals of romanticism which would come of age during the
Enlightenment" (de la Croix, 587).
Thus, it clear that these magnificent works of art symbolize the
relationship between man and his place in the natural world via "a new
search for forms capable of expressing the ideals of humanism and the role
of man in the universe" (de la Croix, 578).
"David." Galleriaorghese. 2007. Internet. Retrieved from
de la Croix, Horst. Gardner's Art…… [Read More]
The rococo was aimed towards the French court and nobles. The main message was not a religious one, but aimed the upper classes and focused on their lives, houses and celebrations. In France this style gave way to the austere neoclassic style at the end of the xviii century and disappeared with the French revolution in 1978, suddenly and completely.
Neoclassicism appeared as a return to the classical ideology in art. It was designed to serve political interests as a form of propaganda, to portray the greatness of the government by copying the great style of the masters of the past. It was also a change in ideology as the royalty fell with the French revolution, as well as the aristocracy, two major clients that artists would no longer deal with. Color achieved a secondary importance and drawing became the main expressive key for paintings. Contrasting with the aroque style,…… [Read More]
David / Rembrandt
Michelangelo's David was commissioned as a public monument by the government of Florence. In this context we might be invited to imagine David as a symbol of Florence itself: the Tuscan city is tiny compared with Rome, and in Michelangelo's lifetime Florence was also much smaller than the closer Italian city of Venice. Although Florence is the larger city in the twenty-first century, this was not true in Michelangelo's day. The population of Florence was estimated at 37,000 in 1427 and 60,000 in 1552: while Venice had a population of 180,000 in 1490. (Sources: John Najemy, A History of Florence 1200-1575; J.J. Norich, A History of Venice.) In other words, the idea of a physically-unprepossessing hero favored by God to defeat a much larger enemy -- the story of David and Goliath -- might very well have appealed to Florentines as a civic symbol of themselves. Florence…… [Read More]
As a result, both works of art share this similarity, as they want to instill the audience with a sense of awe and respect for this person. (Stokstad, 2011)
When you step back and analyze both statues, it is clear that Donatello as well as Michael Angelo is trying to impress upon the audience a sense of: strength and respect for their statues. This is illustrated by the way they are using his physique, to underscore his physical strength and sexual prowess. However, both artists have different interpretations about what this character should look like. As far as Donatello is concerned, he is highlighting these momentous changes that are occurring (through a graphic depiction of the aftermath of the battle). Where, he shows David posed victoriously, with his foot on top of Goliath' severed head. This is important, because Donatello is trying to instill in the audience a sense of…… [Read More]
hen discussing with regard to the Old Testament figure of David and to how he was represented during the Renaissance, one would have to consider the current as a whole in order to gain a more complex understanding of why artists directed their attention toward the character. Artists during the Renaissance were determined to restructure social values for the masses to be able to acknowledge the significance of classical values. David had been a symbol of the classical era and artists in the Renaissance wanted to create works that glorified both him and the idea of the natural man in general.
It was probably David's legendary character that influenced artists to express particular interest in wanting to portray him. By looking at how each artist depicted him, one can understand the cultural elements that inspired these respective artists. All things considered, it would be safe to say that…… [Read More]
Art (History Art ages) Discussion question 1 page long follow directions carefully youtube lectures provided
There is no denying the fact that one of the hallmarks of embrandt's works of art is his copious usage of elements of light, dark and shadow to great effect. This sort of tenebrism is deployed by the artist initially to give a sense of contrast to his works. Light and dark are antipodes of one another, and by involving both of these elements the painter was able to create striking counterpoints within his works of art. This fact is seen quite prominently in his self-portrait circa 1629. Not only does the artist use both light and dark elements to illustrate his face and the brimming future which he saw in front of himself as an artist, but this portrait is also characterized by loose brushwork which is distinct from the crisp strokes of the…… [Read More]
Question 2: Which of the Davids could Americans adopt as symbolic of the time in which we are currently living -- and why?
Bernini's "David" is a man of action, not a static ideal. Bernini demonstrates why the Biblical figure of David is a hero and a future king of consequence. Michelangelo's beautiful "David" clutches the sling half-heartedly, and seems to justify his reputation through his youth and physical gifts, not his activity or struggle. His muscles are strong, but for what purpose? Young people must not justify their future reputations through beauty -- or fine clothes, like Donatello's "David." Bernini's "David" is willing to take risks, and willing to act. He does not think of himself, or admire his musculature or clothes, he thinks only of exercising leadership and slaying Goliath. This is the man we require today in America, this David. Young people may act more like Donatello's…… [Read More]
Many people today still have trouble interpreting and understanding some of his works, thus proving that his thinking was way ahead of his time. Da Vinci's works are probably among the most parodied ideas that have ever existed, as a series of individuals reproduced them and introduced diverse concepts in an attempt to put across certain messages.
Michelangelo Buonarroti is yet another Florentine who changed the world as a result of his brilliance. Although people tend to consider that da Vinci was much more impressive because of his lavishness and because his works are more extravagant, Michelangelo is actually comparable to him when considered the wide range of fields in which he excelled. In contrast to other artists contemporary to him, he experienced much suffering and he was forced to perform many of works without actually having time to appreciate life to the fullest. Even with this, he focused on…… [Read More]
Notable religious events and figures often serve as the inspiration and subject matter for great works of art across human history and across every culture. Events and notable figures from the Judeo-Christian Bible have inspired a great many of some of the most famous works of art in the Western world. Within the Bible, there are two primary sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament.
One of the many significant figures of the Old Testament is the man David, who was a simple boy who herded sheep, who ultimately led his people and others to triumph over a tyrant warrior, Goliath. David was a young man, armed with a slingshot and brought the vicious leader down. David was quite a popular figure artists depicted during the enaissance era in the arts, particularly in the area of sculpture. There are three most notable sculptures created in Florence during the…… [Read More]
art period's styles represent a theme art. Your comparison focus artists period styles. The pair choose drawn period styles. For essay, I compare a High Classical Greek artwork Early Italian Renaissance artwork.
The Artemision ronze vs. Donatello's bronze David
While most people are inclined to look at the Italia Renaissance as being innovative and as bringing new concepts to society, the artistic movement actually inspired from Ancient Greece. y looking at the Early Renaissance period and at the Classical Greek artistic movement one is likely to observe a series of parallels, as the more recent artists did not hesitate to inspire themselves from individuals that they considered to be particularly refined in producing artwork. To a certain degree, one can consider the two movements to have had a similar effect in individuals living contemporary to them, considering that they both brought on artistic revolutions. The Artemision ronze and Donatello's bronze…… [Read More]
He is one of the few artists that were recognized for his work while he was still living.
One of Michelangelo's most exquisite pieces is Pieta. In this sculpture, we can see how Michelangelo was moving away from the traditional form of sculpting. Creighton Gilbert notes that how Mary and Jesus are depicted in the statue is not typical of Michelangelo's day. Mary is seated with the dead Jesus in her lap and this image "first emerged as an abbreviation of the scene of Christ mourned" (160). Harold Keller maintains that the piece is filled with contrasts, horizontally and vertically. e also have the opposites of the clothed and the naked. The position of Jesus' body is different from most pietas of the day in that it is horizontal, producing a "step-like composition based on the sharp right able between the corpse and the upper body of the Madonna towering…… [Read More]
One the right is a statue of Athena, god of wisdom, light, and the city. On the left is Apollo, sun god, holding a lyre. Arching over the top of the painting is a great, wide semi-circle in a space resembling a basilica annex.
Philosophy in the Middle Ages was obsessed with the analytical procedures of Aristotle, whose treatises on many subjects generally worked inductively, determining truth from other truths. A feature of the high Renaissance was the shift towards Platonic thought, but also a continued influence by papal authority. In The School of Athens, Raphael has drawn a portrait of classical philosophy but sanctified it by putting theists and atheists alike in a religious setting.
Thematically, The School of Athens presents Renaissance Humanism, linking the Athenian scene of people together in a fluid, personal picture. The personalities of each philosopher mix in a jumble of activity and motion. Whereas…… [Read More]
Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.
The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…… [Read More]
statues of David
I choose the two contrasting statues of David, the one created by Michaelangelo, the other created by Bernini. They seem to me to represent two juxtaposing poses and two variants of the same mythical figure, David.
Both statues are nude only that of Bernini's is covered with a loincloth. The most dramatical difference is that Michaelangelo's David stands in a contemplative pose looking to the right with hand slung over his shoulder as though seizing up and contemplating his circumstances and opponent, whilst Bernini's David is in active position intent on, and in the very act of, slinging his foe.
Michaelangelo's David is a 5.17 m marble slab of statue created between 1501 and 1504. His statue was placed in a public square, outside the Palazzo della ignoria, which was the seat of civic government moved to the Accademia Gallery in Florence in 1873 and…… [Read More]
At the same time, copper, usually in its bronze form, had an important use as an element of art in Antiquity. Even today statues of the Roman emperors, made from bronze, can be admired in the museums of Rome. This trend continued 1,000 years later, in the Renaissance period. Artists like Donatello used bronze to cast their statues. Even earlier than that, copper and bronze had been used for the doors of churches and baptisteries, as is the wonderful example of the aptistery of Florence.
Again, diversification of man's activities implied new uses for copper. Ships were protected from the water erosion, as well as from potential rocks and other obstacles, with copper used on their hulls. With the discovery of electricity and its main laws, copper began to be used extensively as an excellent conductor, a use still valid today in many parts of the world.
Copper is generally…… [Read More]
Even his paintings are different in that he took painting to another level. e read that Leonardo believed that "art should be considered a form of creative knowledge, on the same level as science and philosophy" (Pedretti). As a result of this different approach to painting, Leonardo's art stands out because his method was that of a master. He incorporated sfumato in his painting, which is the technique of "placing colours next to one another rather than demarcating contours with clear cut lines" (Leonardo Online) and by doing so, he reached a "point that nobody before had reached: a way of representing living and vivacious reality" (Leonardo Online). The Mona Lisa, Leda and the Swan, and the Virgin of the Rocks illustrate Leonardo's technique that brings his subjects to life. His genius was not limited to thought and because he was able to organize his thoughts and put them on…… [Read More]
Thus, the invention of perspective by the artists of the Renaissance reflected the emergence of science and the mathematical ordering of man's observations of the physical world.
The manifestation of perspective can clearly be observed in the paintings of many Renaissance artists. For instance, da Vinci's masterpiece the Last Supper, rendered between 1495 and 1498 as a wall fresco, portrays the figure of Jesus Christ sitting in the center of the picture with his body framed by a central window in the background and a curved pediment, the only curve in the architectural framework serving as a halo, arching above his head which serves as the focal point for all the perspective lines/axis in the composition, a system not invented by da Vinci but one copied from earlier master painters.
Another earlier example is Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to St. Peter by Perugino, rendered as a wall…… [Read More]
Lorenzo de Medici especially helped doubling the art collection of the family and provided a liberal and generous material support for the artists. Moreover, his great critical thinking ensured that the true artistic values of the time were promoted. He constructed schools for painting and sculpture and monitored the artists that attended them in his search for artistic value. Under his rule, some of the greatest painters produced their greatest work entirely for him: "Verrocchio did almost all his work for him; that sculptor's graceful tomb in San Lorenzo over Lorenzo's father and uncle, his bronze David, and his fountain of the Boy with a Dolphin, were all executed for Lorenzo."(Young, 205) Botticelli's works in his second period were also produced in totality for Lorenzo the Magnificent. Another dimension of the family's influence over art is the fact that the atmosphere at the court clearly left its mark on the…… [Read More]
In Hamlet's case, the dark Ages conquer the light and the last scene displays before Fortinbras'(the Prince of Norway, whose father was killed by Hamlet's father) eyes. Fortinbras seems to be the symbol for the rebirth of Denmark, in the light of a young king that lacks the putrid inheritance of an alienated royal family, like Hamlet's. The Renaissance man, Prince Hamlet, seems aware of the inutility of trying to restore the reign of his royal family in Denmark, since its members are proved to be corrupt and not suitable any more to lead a country in the spirit a new born world. His acts could also be in the spirit of sacrifice, suitable for a Renaissance man, in the name of restoring the dignity of his subjects and the glory of his country. People like Galileo and Savonarola were ready to give up their most precious possession, life, for…… [Read More]
A Comparison between the Italian and Northern European enaissance
World history is a fascinating subject, especially when one takes into account the multi-dimensional, often heavy impact changes that are constantly taking place, and that often change the course of history in a way in which it could have never been imagined. After the Dark Ages, for instance, the enaissance or "rebirth," a period of artistic-related growth across Europe, was one such change that literally pulled Europe out of the deterioration in which it found itself after the fall of the oman Empire, and put it on a path of regrowth that was so replete with creativity that many scholars are still talking about it today. In order to better understand these historical changes, this paper will examine the enaissance, for it was a very complex movement, in order to understand it better, and will do so by comparing the…… [Read More]
This was partly because there was wealth enough to patronize the arts, and partly because the Medicis made it fashionable to commission public and private works from local artists. For example, the architect Brunelleschi created buildings that were testaments to the ancient buildings of Rome and Greece, which he studied. He designed the dome of the cathedral in Florence with these classic buildings in mind, and changed architecture from the gaudy medieval cathedrals to a more stately and dignified portrayal of religious belief and utility. Michelangelo rose to prominence under patronage by the Medicis, and his classic statue "The Pieta" was commissioned by a French cardinal, who originally planned to use the piece as a memorial on his own tomb. This is quite common of art at the time; it was commissioned by the powerful and the wealthy for their own enjoyment, but began to be shared with everyone. Thus,…… [Read More]
A large range of the academic literature centering on the sociological as well as the cultural and linguistic properties of nicknaming can be found. This literature mostly focuses on only sociological and/or cultural properties and/or the linguistic properties but mostly with varying working definitions of the term nickname. For example, some researchers (e.g., Slater and Feinman 1985) notice the structural and sociological commonalities among both the formal and the nicknames whereas, according to some (e.g., Alford 1988) only the descriptive forms are the nicknames. The definition of the term nickname used in this paper may overlap with some of the categories however; there should be no surprise at the commonalities found between the informal and the formal names. As Pulgram (1954, 11-14) has said; the nicknames are the antecedents of many formal names.
Social meaning of nicknaming
The social meaning and function a nickname basically depends on the society…… [Read More]
Cosimo De Medici
e know all about the de Medici family - one of the most important dynastic families in Europe and in particular concerning the cultural and artistic life of Italy and so of the continent. And yet, as Dale Kent makes clear in her authoritative (and fascinating) account of the family and in particular of the life of Cosimo De'Medici, we actually know less about the family than we think. Kent argues that common ideas - and common misconceptions -- about the De'Medicis reflect not only flawed knowledge about this family in particular but also more general flawed assumptions about their era and about prevailing attitudes of the time towards artistic patronage and indeed towards art.
Kent's book is as much an ethnographic exploration of the culture and society of fifteenth-century Florence as it is about Cosimo de'Medici himself - although in her telling the man and the…… [Read More]
High enaissance Movement and Its Most Celebrated Artists
The enaissance is referred to as a period of time where there was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 1300's. It spread into other countries such as England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain. This era continued into the late 1400's and ended during the 1600's. The enaissance times were a period of rebirth and during this time many artists studied the art of ancient Greece and ome. Their desire was to recapture the spirit of the Greek and oman cultures in their own artistic, literary, and philosophic works. The cultures of ancient Greece and ome are often called classical antiquity. The enaissance thus represented a rebirth of these cultures and is therefore also known as the revival of antiquity or the revival of learning.
The artists' works include many aspects of the medieval times and incorporated…… [Read More]
Fillipo Brunelleschi: Classical Architect and Visionary
Fillipo Brunelleschi might be known as a famous Italian architect, but in reality, the work that he does is so much more comprehensive than that. In reality, Brunelleschi is really more of a visionary than just an architect. "He was the first modern engineer and a problem-solver with unorthodox methods. He solved one of the greatest architectural puzzles and invented his way to success. Only now is he receiving deserved recognition as the greatest architect and engineer of the enaissance" (pbs.org, 2014). Scholars are aware of the indelible impact that he had on the Italian enaissance and how important it was, many seeing him as the father of the Italian enaissance.
A famous architect during his lifetime, Brunelleschi was born in Florence in 1377 and studied goldsmithing with Benincasa Lotti, an experience which taught him the essential skills of mounting, engraving and…… [Read More]
preliminary analysis of a piece of art titled "The Birth of Venus." "
Artist: Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510)
Genre: history painting; Mythological
Medium: Tempera on canvas
Movement: art of the Early enaissance
Location: Uffizi Gallery in Florence.
The Birth of Venus Analysis
The Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli is an ingenious piece of art. It remains a great piece of art after 500 years since its creation. It is still one of the highest prized art masterpieces of all time. The difficulty in interpreting its meaning is, perhaps one of the reasons why the piece of art has been a subject of discussion among many analysts of works of art. The painting is a portrayal of a nude and relatively large female standing gracefully on a wide and big seashell. The female seems to show up on land, coming from the sea (The Birth of Venus). To the left…… [Read More]
Botticelli's Birth Of Venus And Duccio's Maesta
The representation of women in estern art has changed throughout history, and for much of estern history this representation was oriented around the dominant female figure in contemporary society; that is, Mary, mother of Jesus. However, the gradual shift away from a dominantly monotheistic cultural hegemony seen in the Renaissance and eventually the Enlightenment brought with it new (and the case of this study, old) means of representing women beyond the confinements and discourse of the Madonna and Child. By comparing and contrasting Duccio di Buoninsegna's Virgin and Child Enthroned Amidst Angels and Saints (which is the main altarpiece of the artist's Maesta) with Sandro Botticelli's The Birth of Venus, one is able to see how the changing cultural standards which came about during the shift from the conservative, Eastern-influenced Late Gothic art of Duccio to the freer, more naturalistic art of Botticelli's…… [Read More]
Even in Catholic France, the Protestant sentiment that God's grace alone can save His fallen, human creation was evident in the humanist king, Francis I's sister, Margaret, Queen of Navarre's novel when she wrote: "We must humble ourselves, for God does not bestow his graces on men because they are noble or rich; but, according as it pleases his goodness, which regards not the appearance of persons, he chooses whom he will."
Shakespeare's Hamlet is haunted by the ghost of his father from Purgatory. Purgatory was a Catholic concept. But rather than trusting the vision of the divine on earth, Hamlet is suspicious about the ability of fallen human beings to enact justice. Rather than finding good in the face of women, Hamlet sees only evil. "In considering the cultural conditions that allow tragedy to revive, we may also want to consider that the plays occurred in Christian Northern Europe;…… [Read More]
Hamlet clearly melancholic view of the future of humanity, although he is capable of acknowledging goodness, as he does when he praises Horatio's character before the play-within-a-play, and he even praises Fortinbras' action in the name of the Norwegian's own father, although it goes against the interest of the Danish state. Finally, Hamlet admits that Laertes has a right to be angry on Polonius' account, as Hamlet's rash actions killed Laertes' father, even while Hamlet strove to avenge his own father. Thus, rather than a desperate view of human morality, Hamlet's inaction seems to arise from a combination of paralyzing depression about the nature of acting in a meaningless world and internal self-doubt. He also has an over-active intellect that enables him to rationalize both the murderous instincts of people going against his own interests like Laertes, and as well as his own revulsion at murder, as when he foolishly…… [Read More]
Western Art and Christianity
During the past millennium, Western art has been heavily influenced by Christianity. Art is an extension of the many complex thoughts and images that swim within an artist's mind. Because many Western artists have traditionally been raised in a Christian environment, it is difficult for their religious beliefs to be fully separated from their artwork, and oftentimes it is embraced in the works, or a patron has requested it be the specific subject matter. Although this heavy Christian influence would see a swift departure during the Renaissance, it would remain engrained in Western culture until the present day.
The Reformation heralded a swift separation between Christians in Europe, as Roman Catholics and Protestants divided roughly along a North to South split. Protestants seemed to dominate the North while the South remained dominated by Catholic countries. While much of the art in Protestant countries retained a secular…… [Read More]