Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
McGregor's Theory X and Y:
Douglas McGregor developed Theory X and Theory Y as models in behavioral science approach after assessing the existing theories regarding people's behavior at when working. The theories, which have become significant concepts in understanding individuals' behaviors, describe two opposing opinions regarding human behavior at work. McGregor introduced these theories in mid-1940s and became one of the most famous behavioral theorists because of his significant contributions to the emerging field of organizational development. While he introduced these theories following his examination of the existing concepts, McGregor's contributions were also informed by his experiences. During this period, the theorist had worked as a service station attendant and taught at various universities including Harvard in several subjects like industrial management and psychology. This article examines the importance of these theories in the criminal justice field through the use of various sources whose credibility is based on their contributions…
Cronkhite, C.L. (2007). Criminal justice administration: strategies for the 21st Century.
Mississouga, Ontario: Jones and Bartlett Publishers Canada.
Hall, A. (2003, October 31). Behavioral Management Theory: Applied to the Field of Criminal
Justice. Retrieved July 8, 2013, from http://www.arichall.com/academic/papers/jus250-behavioral-mgt.pdf
Mcgregor heory X and Y
Douglas McGregor came up with two contrasting theories in 1960 that he called heory X and theory Y for lack of a more suitable title. hese two theories have had a profound impact on management studies as they tend to focus on managerial approaches which are grounded in certain beliefs and attitude towards the employees.
hese two theories should not be confused as being the two extremes of the same spectrum because they are inherently different as they focus on two different managerial styles that emerge from two different organizational structures and cultures. On the surface the differences are stark and clear and when we go beneath the surface, we can dig out the reasons for these differences.
heory X is not very positive in nature. It tends to see employees as lazy beings who would want to avoid work every chance they get. his…
This approach is preferred by McGregor while the conventional approach no longer works in the globalized environment today. It is not suitable for a workplace that is dispersed and no longer centralized. With people connecting with each other remotely and teams working in dispersed geographical locations, it is no longer possible to control every employee or use sticks to guide them I the right direction. Instead this is the time when it is best to hire the most motivated employees, give them directions and believe in their capabilities to carry out the task independently. Thus Theory Y is more popular in organizations today than Theory X
McGregor, Douglas. Human side of Enterprise. Retrieved online April 11th 2011 from
The company may not see the benefits of having a fully Theory Y managerial style, or the managers involved may not fully be able to implement such a style as it demands a high level of trust in the employees.
In theory, the survey results should reflect fairly accurately on my work experience. However, the conclusion is that my company has a management style that is skewed towards Theory Y I would actually argue that this is overly generous, that my company is more towards Theory X What I see is that some of the high scores -- for example my boss finding extra responsibility for me or calling me by my first name -- are overly generous in their weighting. These elements do not necessary reflect the openness and trust inherent in a Theory Y organization as they do not reflect management granting more trust to the employees, not…
McGregor, D. (1960). Theory X and Theory Y Google Scholar. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from http://www.sanandres.esc.edu.ar/secondary/BusinessEconomics/Business/BY9%20Notes%20Motivation%20McGregor.doc
NetMBA. (2010). Theory X and Theory Y NetMBA.com. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/mcgregor/
( Place security above other factors-to reiterate increased pay seemed to be the primary motivational factor in improving work and this was rarely and option, so security was a primary concern but responsibility was not sought. Most lacked the confidence to attempt to obtain higher levels of responsibility. Ultimately most simply followed the rules to ensure they would still have their job on the next pay period.
The X theory aspects served as an introduction to work for many people. Teaching them the boundaries of the work environment as well as work ethic they may not learn otherwise. This transitional type job is an essential one in any capitalistic society as it shows people why they should seek higher order actions and thoughts, while it allows a place for those who never recognize this.
Theory Y Setting
Conversely, I have worked in settings were skilled individuals were sought to perform…
Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2008). Organizational Behavior: Motivation Concepts. Washington DC: PHI.
Shah, K. & Shah, P.J. (2008). "Theories of Motivation." Referenced 18th February, 2010 from: http://www.laynetworks.com/Theories-of-Motivation.html
Mind Tools (2010) "Theory X and Theory Y: Understanding team member motivation" Referenced 18th February, 2010 from: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_74.htm
Organizational Behavior and Teamwork
Southwest Airlines, Inc. has become an example of notable success. One reason for its significant achievement is its application of Reinforcement Theory to its employees. These applications have resulted in a highly motivated workforce, which is intimately tied to Southwest's success among business leaders. Even so, not even Southwest can satisfy its employees' needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy; rather, Southwest can only give some raw materials for satisfying those needs.
Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's Needs Theory stages?
Abraham Maslow's 5-stage needs theory, developed in the United States during the 1940's and 1950's (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010), includes the following stages: biological and physiological needs; safety needs; belongingness and love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualization (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010). The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…
Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/careers/career_opportunities.html
Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Sustainability. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/index.html
Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. (2010). Organizational behavior. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from students.flatworldknowledge.com Web site: http://students.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/study/4?e=
IWon. (n.d.). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www1.iwon.com Web site: http://www1.iwon.com/home/careers/company_profile/0,15623,1310,00.html
It is difficult to show which theory works best in practice, as every company has a unique environment and workforce (Daft, 2004). However, few would argue that Theory X is an outdated leadership style that does not promote success. According to Kopelman et al. (2008): "At the heart of McGregor's argument is the notion that managers' assumptions/attitudes represent, potentially, self-fulfilling prophecies. The manager who believes that people are inherently lazy and untrustworthy will treat employees in a manner that reflects these attitudes. Employees, sensing that there is little in the job to spur their involvement, will exhibit little interest and motivation. Consequently, and ironically, the manager with low expectations will lament that 'you can't get good help nowadays,' oblivious as to the actual nature of cause and effect. Closing the serf-reinforcing cycle, the manager feels vindicated; that is, his low expectations were warranted. Conversely, the manager who believes that…
Benson, Gary L. (1983). "How Employee Assumptions Influence Managerial Behavior." Supervisory Management March: 2(7).
Bittel, Lester. (1989). McGraw-Hill Management Course. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Braden, Pamela. (2007). West Virginia University, Division of Business and Economics. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.wvup.edu/jcc/mgmt410/TheoryZ.pdf .
Daft, R.L. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management." Academy of Management Executive 18, no. 4: 117-122.
Previously the element of interest and personal motivation were found missing, the technical capabilities of the employees have never been a matter of debate, however the personal and mental capacities and limitations are either ignored or not respected which resulted in the poor performance of the organization. Apparently, the rise in the demands pertaining to the particpation of the employees and the industrial democracy has also distorted the professional environment. Such all complains were lately resolved and answered through the unique approach of the organization, the organization has understood the significance of the employees, and had realized that their performance is not based upon their professional capabilities, but rather it is the function of the mental capability of the employee related to the friendly and conducive environment offered to the employees occasionally. The need of the employees that focus upon peaceful, conducive and liberal environment has been ensured, which required…
Hamel, G. Leading the Revolution. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 2000. Pp. 123-124.
Keely, L. Strategic Choices. Dublin Group presentation materials, unpublished. 1999.
Mahler, W., & Drotter, S. The Succession Planning Handbook for the Chief Executive, Midland Park, NJ: Mahler Publishing Co. 1986.
McKinsey and Co. The War for Talent Survey, New York, NY: McKinsey and Co. publication. 1997.
Theory Z Management Style on IT Project Completion
Incomplete projects in the IT industry are responsible for significant losses in time, money and creative energy (Boehne, 2000; Mokhtari, et al., 2010). This is very often a result of inadequate project management (Glaser, 2005; Humphrey, 2005; Kimball, 2000). One well-accepted approach to project management that has received considerable attention in the scholarly literature is the contingency management concept known as "theory Z," devised by William Ouchi in 1981.
Theory Z is a management philosophy based on goal setting and achievement. It utilizes a structural motivational strategy based on employee participation combined with an authoritative process of motivation to achieve specific objectives. It was developed as a means of integrating Japanese management philosophies into Western managerial strategies (England, 1983). Essentially, theory Z posits that the structure of the decision making hierarchy must be in alignment with the level of employee participation. Thus…
Blackstone, J.H., Cox, J.F. & Schleier, J.G. (2009) A tutorial on project management from a theory of constraints perspective. International Journal of Production Research. 47(24) 7029-7046
Boehne, D. (2000). Deciding whether to complete or terminate an unfinished project: A strong test of the project completion hypothesis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 81(2),178-194.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) Occupational employment statistics, Retrieved from http://data.bls.gov:8080/oes/search.do;jsessionid=6230f0cca7c57f5b5d67
England, G.W. (1983) Japanese and American management: Theory Z and beyond, Journal of International Business Studies, 14, 131 -- 142
Abraham H. Maslow and Douglas M. McGregor both believed that in order for people to work to their full potential, they're basic needs have to be satisfied. (Herzberg, 1964) Douglas McGregor also put forth the concept that people's management-behavior is dependent upon their view of human beings and work. (McGregor, 1960) rganizational design concepts have been constantly evolving since the last fifty years. Change is good and should be used as a strategy for organizations to achieve their goals and objectives. (McNamara, 2003)
This thesis will be based on primary as well as secondary research. Initially an extensive secondary exploratory research will be conducted on the topic of management styles used globally, the culture and values of the Middle East and management styles that were used in the past and those that are currently used. This phase of the thesis is expected to take about a month and…
Osterman, Paul. "Supervision, Discretion, and Work Organization." The American Economic Review 84.2 (1994): 380-84.
Porter, Michael E. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press, 1990.
Tannenbaum, Scott I, and Lisa M. Dupuree-Bruno. "The Relationship between Organizational and Environmental Factors and the Use of Innovative Human Resource Practices." Group & Organization Management 19.2 (1994): 171-202.
Management STYLE IN THE United States
Cultural Values and Business
Theory X vs. Theory Y
Management the High Tech Way
Management STYLE IN THE DOMINICAN EPUBLIC
CULTUAL VALUES AND Business
ole of Entrepreneurship
In the United States, management values, beliefs and attitudes have undergone a gradual shift away from the simplistic stance of planning, organizing and directing. Valuable managerial skills, no matter what culture is being considered, have traditionally been masculine skills, highlighting the dominant, assertive, and decisive elements of management behavior and downplaying the team and supportive aspects that are more readily identified with women. This traditional view is now giving way in the United States to an approach where team behaviour is seen as increasingly important to a truly successful management style.
The global leadership skills of the future will evolve from a combination of individual/group and masculine/feminine traits involving strategic thinking and communication skills. The final result…
Arnold, D.J. & Quelch, J.A. (1998). "New strategies in emerging markets." Sloan Management Review, 40, 7-20.
Bakhtari, H. (1995). "Cultural Effects on Management Style: A Comparative Study of American and Middle Eastern Management Styles." International Studies of Management & Organization, 25(3), 97+.
Barham, K., Fraser, J. & Heath, L. (1988). Management for the future. Foundation for Management Education/Ashridge Management College.
Bennis, W., Heil, G. & Stephens, D. (2000). Douglas McGregor, revisited: Managing the human side of enterprise. New York: John Wiley.
3) Information Technology
4.3 Data collection method
I will distribute the following surveys to the employees and employers in my sample population. I will give them two weeks to complete the surveys, after which I will collect them and analyze them.
4.4 Sample size and sampling method
The sample size will be between 40-50 people. The sampling method include surveys as well as direct conversations. The employee surveys will gauge satisfaction with salary, job security, work environment, feedback, training, and other factors relating to job satisfaction. The employer surveys will ask employers to rate Saudi employees in areas such as work ethic, ability, attitude, and skills, especially as compared to workers of other nationalities.
4.5 Method of Data Analysis
The surveys should yield a set of simple, definite answers which be compared on the same criteria. The open-ended interviews should yield a deeper, more diverse set…
Maslow, Abraham. 1962. Towards a Psychology of Being, Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand
Maslow, Abraham. 1970. Motivation and Personality, 3rd ed. (1954) Chapter 6: Unmotivated Behavior. New York: Longman.
Cziksentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1990. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper.
JPK Management Leadership
Understanding Roles of Management and Leadership
Managerial roles are primarily reactive and based on getting results or fixing a problem. The situation often dictates the role a manager takes on. However the employees, the organizational culture including skillsets and character makeup of the workforce, as well as the needs of the client or customer all play a part in the manager's influence and success. The need to restructure an organization to meet market demands often causes changes in the cultural makeup which in turn require an adjustment in the managerial style or role. During the industrial revolution and up to the 1990s, for example, the authoritarian management role, based on control was the primary mode of the majority of organizations. Today, management is often based on empowerment and teams working together. The role of managers is often given to those with technical expertise who then coordinate…
The first leadership role is based on expert power this is identified by intelligence, proficiency, skill and knowledge of a person. Someone with the aptitude to share a command of subject matter as a result of advanced experience and ability. This person is able to achieve results or teach others to reach superior standards due to their capabilities and have gained the respect and recognition of others according to French (French & Raven 1960).
For example when JPKenny assigns a mentor to work with a person newly hired in a position. Though the newly hired person is qualified, they have not yet reached their full potential in accordance with JPKenny processes and therefore need the support and direction of a mentor. In this case the mentor has trained several of his team members who have gone on to support other departments. The mentor is called on by managers to train their new people due to his experience and ability to share knowledge in a
Today's international world of business is too complex and competitive for an authoritative approach to management. In order to succeed, companies need the support and expertise of its employees. Businesses are being redesigned to be flatter, so decisions are made by people close to the action. A more loosely created organizational structure can quickly adapt to changing business conditions and current projects. Overall, this belief in employee involvement is called participative management. It has been discussed and implemented for many years by scores of corporations, since empowered employees will feel better about their jobs and be more productive.
The foundation of participative management is recognized as early as the late 1920s with the work of Elton Mayo, whose basic thesis was that "our understanding of human problems of civilization should be at least equal to our understanding of its material problems." In the absence of such understanding, the…
Ackoff, Russell L. 1999. Re-Creating the Corporation: A Design of Organizations for the 21 Century. New York: Oxford University Press.
Braksick, Leslie (2000). Unlock Behavior. Unleash Profits. New York: McGraw Hill.
Collins, Denis. 1997. "The Ethical Superiority and Inevitability of Participatory Management as an Organizational System." Organization Science 8(5):489-507.
Grossman, Jack (1996). Managing with Wisdom. Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican Press.
Long-Term Employment -- Japanese organizations tend to have longer employee cycles than U.S. companies. Many U.S. companies treat employees as replaceable parts. It is far more cost-effective and efficient to retain expertise than continually retrain. This keeps the knowledge base inside the company. Providing incentives for long-term employment, then, is an essential component of Theory Z
Consensual Decision Making -- hen employees feel that they have input into decisions that affect them, their jobs, and their daily processes, they are more likely to buy into those decisions and support change management.
Individual responsibility -- Moving away from 'the union mentality' and accepting measurement based on individual performance is tough for many Americans, but the balance between the group and the individual's participation actually empowers both.
Slow Evaluation and Promotion -- Rather than taking the short-term approach, as many American company's do, it is about the long-term strategy, not the monthly…
Barney, J. (2004). "An Interview with William Ouchi." Academy of Management
Executives.18 (4): 108-117.
Daft, R. (2004). "Theory Z: Opening the Corporate Door for Participative Management."
Academy of Management Executives. 18 (4): 117-22.
Paul Minneapolis states that the conference asked three individuals to join the conference and to share "their experiences in guiding non-profit organizations to achieve greater results for the common good, whether it is in a new organization, organizations that have reached stability and are looking to move to a higher level, or organizations that are experiencing tough and challenging times." The speakers at this conference each offer what they believe defines the 'transformational' leader. One of the interviewees referred to as Mr. Graham states that transformational leaders are leaders who "do the right thing." (ennett, Dorsey, and Graham, 2006) the transformational leader is said to be the leader who has a 'vision' and who is able to communicate that vision with a passion. This conference greatly provides insight to the myriad of issues of leadership that are inclusive in the non-profit organizational repertoire of necessary skills for the organization's leader.…
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (2007) Human Relations Contributors. Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity. ACCEL Team. Online available at http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_02_maslow.html
Bennett, Stephen; Dorsey, Cheryl; and Graham, John H. (2006) Transformational Leadership. Independent Sector Annual Conference, St. Paul Minneapolis. October 24, 2006.
Chang, Heng-Yu (2005) Qualitative Research on Leader Speech Communication Content, Leader Behaviors and Subordinate's Trust. eThesys 26 Jan 2005.
Chris Argyris (2007) Human Relations Contributors. Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity. ACCEL Team. Online available:
Transformation leadership is 'authentic' leadership which "builds genuine trust between leaders and followers." Furthermore transformational leadership "concentrates on terminal values such as integrity and fairness. They see the responsibility for their organization's development and impact on society." (Ibid)
Homig and MacGregor in the work entitled:" Transformational Leadership" state that the following ten 'tenets' are inclusive in the transformational leader's style of leading:
1. Leaders have high moral and ethical values.
2. Leaders express genuine interest in followers.
3. Leaders have an inspirational vision.
4. Genuine trust exists between leaders and led.
5. Followers share leader's values and vision.
6. Leaders and followers perform beyond self-interest.
7. Participatory decision-making is the rule.
8. Innovative thinking and action is expected.
9. Motivation is to do the right thing.
10. Leaders mentor. (nd)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
While all of these theories were valid at some time or in relation to some…
Creating Futures (nd) Online available at http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:k13BWFbu_wIJ:u wfoundation.org/newsletter/June2005/43565Camp NewsletterFI NAL.pdf+Jeffrey+H.+Brotman,+Leadership&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9
Costco Wholesale Investor Relations (2006) Online http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=83830&p=irol-govBio&ID=13292
Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity (2006) Section 2: Basic Approaches Used to Improve Productivity. Accel Team Online available at http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_03_mcgregor.html
Costco -5th Largest Retailer in U.S. And 11th Largest in the World (2006) http://www.customer-service.com/newsletter/126E.aspx
FOX Case Study
Analyzing the Practice of Management:
A case study discussion of the Fox elocation Management Corporation
There is an ancient Greek aphorism, "Know thyself." Nowhere is this statement truer than in analyzing the role management plays in a company. Every leader of an organization seeks to define his or her role and address the issues of the day as well as those that will inevitably arise. An academic approach to management theory allows for calibrations of structure, culture and client focus that can allow a company to focus. This paper will focus on the Fox elocation Management Corporation and how its CEO Gretchen Fox directs and organizes the business with the goal of providing a better understanding of management theory.
In Drucker's pivotal essay "The Practice of Management" the fundamental managerial skill of feedback analysis is held up as a critical commodity. One can see from Gretchen's progress…
Dean, J. And Bowen, D. 1994. Management theory and total quality. Academy of Management Review. 3(392-418.)
Gomez-Mejia, L., Balkin, D. And Cardy, R. 2008. Management: People, Performance, Change (3rd edition). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Johnson, R. 1976. Management, systems and society: an introduction. Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear Publishing.
Koontz, H. 1961. The management theory jungle. J of the Academy of Management. 4(3).
Secondly, development programs may prove enticing enough to potential employees. Therefore, the company can use them in order to attract the desired staff capable of inducing the organization's growth.
Thirdly, if existing employees are trained for different or more complex tasks, these may become eligible for vacant positions or may handle a wider range of activities. In this context, the company saves money by reducing its need to hire.
Another benefit of development consists of rewarding loyal employees who after learning new skills are promoted to higher positions. This also accounts for a company's performance.
Last, but not least, development strategies allow employees to be more independent or, in other words, they give them wings to fly. This autonomy cuts off the supervision costs, thus increasing the company's efficiency, and inherently, performance (http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/careers-job-training/1151-1.html).
Employee training also plays a major part in maintaining a work/life balance. This is essential for the…
1. Goldstein, S., 2003. Employee Development: An examination of service strategy in a high-contact service environment, [Online], Available:
2007, January 30].
2. Gross, B., 2000. Effective Training Programs for Managers, [Online], Available:
Incentives and Performance
Kopelman, ., et al. (2012); Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal of Managerial Issues. 24 (4): 450-62.
Certainly, there is no one best way to ensure that either employees or managers are properly motivated. Most scholarship, in fact, indicates that motivation is a balance between the task-relevant behavior and the maturity and acumen of the group in which the individual manages or participates in. In fact, motivation is the basic driving force that helps individuals work, change and actualize to achieve their goals. This motivational behavior may be intrinsic or extrinsic, depending upon the individual and the manner in which that individual's personality uses different sets of motivation to incur actualization. Much of the basic theory of motivation tends to be based on the work of Benjamin Maslow, not only on human needs, but on the manner in which those…
Heil, G., et al., (2000). Douglas McGregor Revisited: Managing the Human Side of the Enterprise. New York: John Wiley.
Hersey and Blanchard (1977). Management of Organization Behavior, Utilizing Human Resource. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Kopelman, R., et al. (2012); Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal of Managerial Issues. 24 (4): 450-62.
Martin, A. (2009). Motivation and Engagement in the Workplace. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling and Development. 41 (1): 223-43.
" (Herbig et al., 563) These motivational priorities, manifesting concretely in such terms as pay rate and personal interest, are relatively common throughout the working world. However, a point of distinction in this discussion may be raised from the fact that different cultures often produce distinct motivational forces. To this extent, the differences that are accounted for betwixt nations and demographics may be seen as directly pertinent to specific cultural realities within each of these contexts. Moreover, as our reading on the subject of significantly culturally divergent nations suggests, "the type of work goals whose pursuit is encouraged and rewarded depend in part on the prevailing cultural value emphasized in society." (Jaw et al., 2) This is consistent with our findings here thus far, including the intrinsic ideals of Maslow, which may be read to suggest that the exact manifestation of work values will be reflected on a larger social…
Becker, Brian & Barry Gerhart. (1996). The Impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance: Progress and Prospect. The Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 779-801.
Boeree, C. George. (2006). B.F. Skinner. Shippensburg University.
Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Springer.
Herbig, Paul & Alain Genestre. (1997). International Motivational Differences. Texas A&M International University: Department of Management and Marketing.
you pick 2 companies write their motivation techniques. I pick intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. And compare companies. Do papers have database, searches people pulled web. You find UOPHX Website writes companies listed, pick.
Motivating employees at two companies:
Ben & Jerry's versus Southwest
Motivational theories by their very nature address companies in a fairly generic, prescriptive format. However, two corporations exist that continue to be very successful, after many years of impressive financial growth, seem to break all molds, yet confirm one of the most noteworthy theories regarding what motivates employees -- intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation. Ben & Jerry's began as a small company based in Vermont that, despite or because of its ethical ideals, has become an integral part of American culture. Ben & Jerry's changed the way Americans consume ice cream, shifting the focus from quantity to quality. Southwest Airlines is a largely regional airline…
Activism. (2012). Ben & Jerry's. Retrieved:
Bailey, Jeff. (2008). Southwest. The New York Times. Retrieved:
Healthcare management (Discussion questions)
How do you plan to develop and motivate your team?
One common model of team engagement is Bruce Tuckman's famous delineation of team development called 'forming, norming, storming, and performing' (Chapman 2013) Tuckman believed that all teams go through several stages, gradually attaining independence from the leader, as they become more functional and eventually reach the goals they were originally created to fulfill. However, motivating a team, particularly during the initial, difficult stages of formation can be challenging. It is essential to establish ground rules and goals to create a harmonious team composed of members that are respectful of one another. Ultimately, a team which works well together is the first, most important motivating factor. All of the rhetoric in the world will not create a functional team if this critical interpersonal foundation is not built.
The leader must adjust his or her managerial…
Riley, J. (2012). Motivation theory -- McGregor. Tutor2u. Retrieved from:
Another critical component of motivating a team goes into its composition. Teams should ideally be composed of meshing personality types and there should not be too much overlap in terms of critical skills, to avoid conflicts over positions. Responsibilities should also be established early on to minimize conflict. If conflicts do arise, there should be predetermined methods of dealing with them rather than allowing them to fester. Having constant communication through email and texting, even if only to touch base, also ensures that the project remains 'on track' and gives people a sense of motivation as they are made aware of the benchmarks that have been reached on a regular basis. Two of the greatest motivators are having a sense of genuine enthusiasm about the work that is being done and also a sense that the project is heading in a successful and productive direction. Motivation begins with team formation and must be sustained throughout the project.
This should also be performed by the department managers and by shift supervisors. The company should also discuss with cashiers advancement opportunities. If they know that by doing their job well, by meeting the quality standards imposed by the company, by improving customer service, helping reduce theft, and maintain cleanliness at normal levels, they could be advanced to higher positions, they might find this stimulating and might improve their behavior. However, the company should also make it clear that behavior that does not sustain the requirements of StopNShopNow cannot be tolerated.
The cashiers' situation is not the only area that must be improved. It seems that the motivational strategy within the entire company must be improved. A great way of motivating important employees that have potential is represented by investing in training programs. If the company sends some of its employees to such training programs, they would consider that the…
1. Douglas McGregor (2010). Accel Team. Retrieved February 26, 2011 from http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_03_mcgregor.html.
However, as Murphy (2008) notes, these original scores, and the weightings, are given by biased humans who may have another agenda than simply giving the most accurate appraisal possible. In addition, there is also the question about whether a truly accurate (when negative) appraisal is the best course of action due to the possible negative consequences.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Sudarsan (2009) surmises that, in the past, researchers have concluded that there are primarily three approaches to performance appraisals. The first approach -- the results focused approach -- is centered on determining whether a specific job has been performed or not. If these performance targets are met or exceeded, the employee is rewarded. The second approach -- the behavioral approach -- focuses on employee behavior. The actual output of the employee is ignored, but instead the methods the employee is using is evaluated. This approach has the benefit of being…
Addison, J. & Belfield, C. (Sept 2008). The determinants of performance appraisal systems. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(3). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Addison and Belfield compare the findings of Brown and Heywood's analysis of the Australia Workplace Industrial Relations Survey with their findings in Britain, using the Workplace Employment Relations Survey. Of particular interest for this paper was the conclusion from both studies that tenured employees are not strongly motivated by performance appraisals. This shows the ineffectiveness of appraisals, no matter what system is used, for those employees with tenure.
Banu, C. & Umamaheswari, P. (Jul 2009). A study on 360 degree performance appraisal systems in Reliance Life Insurance, Udumalpet. ICFAI Journal of Management Research, 8(7). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Banu and Umamaheswari research the use of the 360-degree performance appraisal system on a life insurance company. It was found that this appraisal system was helpful in identifying training needs, in addition to evaluating the performance of employees. It was also found to be useful in determining rewards and incentives, as well as promotions. However, the authors failed to acknowledge the challenges inherent in this system, as found be other researchers.
Management Theory and Associated Urinary Tract Infections
Infection of the urinary tract constitutes a great share of all infections acquired in hospitals (Klevens, Edwards, & ichards, 2007); of these, most cases are of CAUTI or catheter-associated urinary tract infection, which is "reasonably preventable," according to the CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). CMS doesn't reimburse medical facilities for this disease any more. Of the best strategies to reduce CAUTI is ensuring never to employ urinary catheters unless one perceives an appropriate symptom.
Several research works, some even dating back many decades, can be found, of ways to decrease or prevent the development of CAUTI. Over the years, a few of the recommendations have reformed; for instance, at one time, routine catheter irrigation was recommended; however, presently, the medical profession deems it as a practice that must be avoided. Therefore, it is imperative for healthcare organizations to make sure their…
Barnard, C.I. (1952). Leadership and the law. New York University Law Review, 27(1), 112-116
Fanning, M., & Oakes, D. (2006). A tool for quantifying organizational support for evidence-based practice change. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 21(2), 110-113.
IHCI. (2011). How-to guide: Prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Cambrige, MA. Retrieved from http://www.mnreducinghais.org/documents/CAUTI_How_to_Guide.pdf
Klevens, R. M., Edwards, J. R., & Richards, C. L. (2007). Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Rep, 122(2), 160-166.
Learning Growth Perspective
The success or failure of any business entity is greatly dependent on how well align its goals and management systems are with its strategic plans. There have been cases reported where businesses failed to make it big despite of having excellent strategic plans. This was because they failed to keep their management systems and activities in line with their strategic plans. While management in itself is a small term, it covers various dimensions of business activity that include both internal and external influences. These include management of business processes, financial management, customer satisfaction, human resource management and the internal and external communications pertaining to the business. All these management aspects must be integrated into a well balanced management system such that it keeps the overall business activity in line with the strategic plans of the business. Many businesses get on the…
Gumbus, A. & Johnson, S.D. (2003). The balanced scorecard at Futura Industries. Strategic Finance. Retrieved from http://www.allbusiness.com/finance/3591611-1.html
Balanced Scorecard Institute (n.d.). Balanced Scorecard Basics. Retrieved from http://www.waikato.ac.nz/library/learning/g_apaguide.shtml#Webpages
Niven, P. (n.d.). Learning and growth perspective. EPM Review. Retrieved from http://www.epmreview.com/Resources/Articles/Learning-and-Growth-Perspective.html
Business Balls (n.d.). Balanced Scorecard. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/balanced_scorecard.htm
Despite their supposed differences, all of the foregoing organizational management techniques and approaches share some common themes involving getting a better handle of what is actually being done in companies and how better to manage these things. Unfortunately, another common theme these management approaches share is the inappropriate or misapplication of these approaches by managers who either do not understand how they work or by rabid managers who insist on absolute conformity with these processes and procedures without any room for flexibility according to the unique needs of the organization. In fact, according to Mills (2003), "Analysis of the data suggests that the implementation of organizational change, particularly selected change programs such as Culture Change, TQM and BP, does not follow the rational, orderly decision-making processes indicated by advocates" (p. 2). Nevertheless, some of the more recent management approaches do provide a more comprehensive analysis of what can reasonably be…
Ashkenas, R.N. (1994). Beyond the fads: How leaders drive change with results. Human Resource Planning, 17(2), 25-27.
Bailey, J. (1996). After thought: The computer challenge to human intelligence. New York: Basic Books.
Bennis, W. & Mische, M. (1995). The 21st century organization: Reinventing through reengineering. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
Leadership and Human esource Management in the Public Sector
The public sector consists of the section of the government, which attends to matters of production, ownership, sales, provision and delivery and allocation of services and goods to the government and the citizens of the state, nationally, regionally and locally. The public sector conducts activities such as delivering of social security services, overseeing urban planning and organizing the national defense among other services. The organizational structure takes various forms, which dictate the leadership formula of the countries sectors. Some of these forms of organization include the direct administration founded on the lines of direct taxation; in this form, the government does not have particular requirements but to meet the commercial success and production decisions of the country. Another structure of organization under public sector is the publicly owned corporations. These differ from the direct administration of the government as they have…
White, J.D. (2007). Managing information in the public sector. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe.
Raffel, J.A., Leisink, P., & Middlebrooks, A.E. (2009). Public sector leadership: International challenges and perspectives. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Berman, E.M. (2010). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Berman, E.M. (2013). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Los Angeles: SAGE.
McDonald's: Total ewards
Introduction to and purpose of the organization
Historically, the fast food industry as a whole has a very high rate of employee turnover. Employees tend to be quite transient in their loyalties to these organizations, in part because fast food corporations often make very little investment in their workers and strive to give employees minimal benefits and pay. McDonald's has struggled in recent years with criticism for how it treats its employees. "A reliance on cheap labor has been crucial to the fast food industry's success. It's no accident that the industry's highest rate of growth occurred during a period when the real value of the U.S. minimum wage declined by about 40%…The chains are willing to put up with turnover rates of 300 to 400% in order to keep their labor costs low. It doesn't really matter to them who comes or goes, since this system…
Getting to know us. (2014). McDonald's. Retrieved from:
Interview with Eric Schlosser. (2012). Readers Read. Retrieved from:
Kurt Lewin. The influence of his theories on the field of psychology and obstacles faced by social psychologists are also dealt with. Lastly, a personal evaluation of how Lewin's theories may be applicable to daily life is included. The paper discusses and reviews all theories founded and furthered by Lewin in his career as psychologist and researcher. It allows scope for assessment and criticism, followed by response.
Theorist Kurt Lewin (1890 -- 1947) can be counted among the most prominent psychologists of his time. His works laid the groundwork for organizational development and are even now regarded as pivotal to the field. It has been aptly stated that almost no questions can be raised with regards to Kurt Lewin being the intellectual founder of modern applied behavioral science theories, as well as planned change and action research. Lewin's groundbreaking planned-change research works on different styles of leadership. Many of his…
Ash, M.G. (1992). Cultural contexts and scientific change in psychology: Kurt Lewin in Iowa. American Psychologist, 47(2), 198-207. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.2.198
Written by Ash, this article follows Kurt Lewin's partial biography after his move to America from Germany in 1933. While working for Iowa Child Welfare Research Station, Lewin had to encounter several challenges. Lewin attempted to reproduce his scientific group, like the one he had established in Germany. Unable to accomplish this, Lewin's tactic changed, and he adapted himself to the new world. He transferred his life stories to his cultural- change adaptation theories, formulated successful research systems and transformed the bases of psychology in the U.S.
Burnes, B., & Cooke, B. (2013). Kurt Lewin's Field Theory: A Review and Re-evaluation. International journal of management reviews, 15(4), 408-425.
This work describes field theory, with sufficient examples. A pedestal to evaluate all arguments regarding it is granted to the author. This theory is reviewed, along with other facts. Finally, re-evaluation is carried out in the end.
Flight crew resource management is the science of training flight crews to interact and communicate in a highly authoritarian environment while at the same time making use of the intelligence and professional resources of all the members of a flight crew. In the cockpit, the captain is in unquestionable control of the airplane because he is ultimately responsible for all aspects of the flight, including hardware, equipment and personnel on board. However, Each member of the crew can make important contributions, especially during in flight crises, and their input can be thwarted because of the highly authoritarian command culture. This paper examines the issues of fright crew resource management, and seeks to expand the definition of crew resource management to include personal communication style in order to further facilitate professional, accurate and open communication between the flight staff and commander.
According to Wilson (2001) aviation accidents and mishaps…
Alkov, R.A. (1991). U.S. Navy aircrew coordination training -- A progress report. In R.S. Jensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th international Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 368-371). Columbus: Ohio State University.
Alliger, G.M., Tannenbaum, S.I., Bennett, W., Jr., & Traver, H. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341-358.
Baker, D.P., Prince, C., Shrestha, L., Oser, R., & Salas, E. (1993). Aviation computer games for crew resource management training. international Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3, 143-156.
Butler, R.E. (1993). LOFT: Full mission simulation as crew resource management training. In E.L. Wiener, B.G., Kanki, & R.L. Helmreich (Eds.), Cockpit resource management (pp. 231-259). San Diego, CA: Academic.
The level of subject matter knowledge and argumentative ability an individual involved in an argument possesses determine rationality. Finally, the rational world paradigm presupposes that the world is composed of logical puzzles that human beings solve through rational analysis. As can be seen both paradigms offer highly differing presuppositions over what constitutes human beings and how they communicate among one another.
Although Fisher has not explicitly mentioned it, the conduit metaphor can be said to share certain similarities with the rational world paradigm. The conduit metaphor stresses that thoughts and feelings are transferred via language between individuals. This entails that senders of information put their thoughts and feelings into words, which have to then be extracted out by receivers using objective interpretation (eddy, 1979).
The metaphor's assumption that receivers will be objective while interpreting the message is similar to the rational world paradigm's assumption that individuals will objectively examine how…
Axley, S. (1984) "The study of management in terms of the conduit metaphor." AMR, 9, 428-437
Berman, D. And Russell, G. (2005, July 5). "As rancor mounts, CNOOC needs to push its offer for Unocal." Wall Street Journal. P. C1.
Conduit Metaphor Paper." Retrieved Oct. 27, 2005:
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
Society also ingrains many values and ideas into its populace, for instance, by gender conditioning. oys are told they should not cry or display feeling while it is okay for a girl to do it. oys are also expected to be tough and aggressive and told from a very young age that they need to be "strong." The worst insult for a little boy generally is that he is acting like a girl. This fact is observed in almost all societies irrespective of geographical location. Parenthood, marital status and involvement in social circles also influence values and attitudes.
Franken defined motivation as a multifaceted phenomenon. (Franken, 1998) He associated motivation as an internal state of need, desire or want that serves to activate or energize behavior as well as to give direction to behavior. Motivation is also defined as a factor that helps people get energized towards attaining a goal…
Ashforth, B., & Humphrey, R. (Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity). 1993. Academy of Management Review, 18(88-115).
Franken, R.E. (1998). Human motivation (4th ed.). vrPacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.
Gove, W.R. (1994). Why We Do What We Do: a Biopsychosocial Theory of Human Motivation. Social Forces, 73.
Jackson, K.M., Mannix, E.A., Peterson, R.S., & Trochim, W.M.K. (2003). A Multi-faceted Approach to Process Conflict. Paper presented at the IACM 15th Annual Conference.
An eligible employee shall be entitled to a total of seven days of leave because of the death of a parent, spouse, son, daughter, or person for whom the employee serves as designated representative... If the deceased died in the line of duty as a member of the uniformed services. Such leave is intended to permit the employee to prepare for or attend the burial ceremony of the deceased member of the uniformed services and may be paid or unpaid leave.
Conversely, however, the United States Federal government presently has no laws in place to similarly (or otherwise, in comparable and appropriate ways) formally acknowledge and honor the passing of federal government personnel other than military personnel.
According to U.S. Code Title 5, Part III; Subpart E; Chapter 63; Subchapter II (2005), the federal government does in fact authorize, according to three separate sections of Title 5: (1)…
Acuff, J. (c2004). The relationship edge in business: Connecting with customers and colleagues when it counts. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Andrus, P. (2005). Grief in the workplace. Martin & Castille. Retrieved February 3, 2005 at http://www.mourning.com/your_grief_workplace.html .
Banusiewics, J.D. (2004). Customs of military funerals reflect history, tradition.
United States Department of Defense. Retrieved January 31, 2005, at http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jun2004/n06102004_200406106.html .
Further, coercive and reward power are often highly distributed through the more agile organizations and as a result must be applied immediately to behavior to be effective.
In the context of Dr. Edgar Schein's (1983) analysis and presentation of results in his working papers referenced in this document, an industry's growth and culture is well defined in the following quote. In the working papers, Schein (1983) writes:
For an organizational culture to exist, there must be a definable organization in the sense of a number of people interacting with each other for the purpose of accomplishing some goal in their defined environment. The founder of an organization simultaneously creates such a group and, by force of his or her personality, begins to shape the culture of that group. But the culture of that new group is not there until the group has had its own history of overcoming various crises…
Azize Ergeneli, Guler Sag, Iam Ari, Selin Metin. 2006. Psychological empowerment and its relationship to trust in immediate managers. Journal of Business Research 60, no. 1 (December 1): 41. (Accessed December 6, 2007).
French, J.R.P., & Raven, B.H., 1959. The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Geert Hofstede, 2006 - Summary of Ideas about Cultural Differences. From Geert Hofstede's personal website: Accessed on December 7, 2007:
change agent -- internal or external -- has to evaluate the organization as a whole. The problems and difficulties experienced by any company may be unique to the company or to the type of business. Change implementation generally requires a change in the behavioral strategies -- either of the organization, the process used or the individual.
Attempts at changing the motivation of the organization have to be tackled by changing the motivation of the employees at all levels of the organization. Abraham H. Maslow and Douglas M. McGregor both believed that in order for people to work to their full potential, they're basic needs have to be satisfied. There are various factors that affect motivation: achievement in a specific field, recognition of the value of the work, pride in the work, responsibility, advancement and growth in the workplace act as a stimulant and motivator.
In recent times, the manager has…
Harvey, Donald F. And Brown, Donald R., 1976. An Experimental Approach to Organization
Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentiss-Hall Inc.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs; extracted from "Motivation and Personality"; A.H. Maslow. New York: Harper and Row, 1954
Theory X: extracted from "The Human side of Enterprise"; address delivered to the MIT School of Industrial Management.
American today, works more that an American worker of even a generation ago. A 1999 Government report stated that workers worked 8% more hours than the previous generation. This translates to an average workweek of 47 hours. Twenty percent of workers today work more than 49 hours. The work place has been constantly changing -- the revolution from agronomies to industrialization having had its origins in the industrial revolution. Most of the industrialized regions of the world have attained better standards with significant improvements in quality of life as a result of the industrial revolution. In turn, however, the workplace became more formal and restrictive. Any personal skills of an individual worker were generally ignored. These abilities were not essential a worker's role in the "new" work environment.
Mass production was the next phase of change in the workplace. It made standardization the norm. Greater emphasis was placed on conforming…
Armour, Stephanie. "Workers Seek Compensation from Employers for Job Stress." USA TODAY May 15, 2002.
Barsade, S, and B. Wiesenfeld. Attitudes in the American Workplace Iii. New Haven, CT: Yale University School of Management., 1997.
Bond, J.T., E. Galinsky, and J.E. Swanberg. The 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce. New York, NY: Families and Work Institute, 1998.
Briggs, Susan. To Think or to Do? 2001. Available. December 8, 2002. http://www.pacpubserver.com/new/business/3-12-01/motivation.html
departments, police officer a generalist. Discuss inconsistent Max Weber's theory division labor? 2) Police departments written protocols including general orders procedures.
Max Weber promotes the idea of specialized division of labor, thus meaning that his theories are against instances such as a police officer taking on generalist roles. By carrying out specialized roles, individuals are more likely to assist the community as a whole in achieving positive results. This would also make it possible for the system to be better organized and for the idea of hierarchy to be less problematic.
Police departments need to encourage officers to take on open minded attitudes in spite of the fact that their role is to enforce laws whenever this is required. Officer discretion involves a law enforcement agent being able to properly understand the situation that he or she is in. Decision space is the information concerning the options that he or…
What is Public Administration?
Marc Holzer -- in the good company of thousands of colleagues in public administration and business -- embraced the box. The box serves to as a frame to our thinking, acts as scaffolding to our decision-making, and serves our innate tendency as human beings to create meaningful patterns from our experience. And how better to improve on the box, than to further divide it into four boxes -- each of which represents the tensions we experience regarding whatever we have put into the box. The box is familiar as it serves many disciplines. Economists may love the box more than any other group, save management consultants. That said, quadrants are a useful heuristic, and I utilize that attribute here in my version as applied to public administration and the management of non-profits.
The four quadrants I describe are, on the vertical axis,…
Buckingham, M. And Coffman, C. (1999). First, Break All the Rules. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Follett, M.P. (1996). The giving of orders. In Shafritz, J.M. & Ott, J.S. (Eds.). Classics of organization theory (pp.156-162). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Gulick, Luther. 1937. Notes on the Theory of Organization. In Papers on the Science of Administration, edited by Luther Gulick and Lydal Urwick. New York. Institute of Public
Administration, Columbia University.