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Drug Addiction and Homeostasis
Homeostasis refers to the regulation of an organism's vital functions via internal processes. The central nervous system governs the human body's maintenance of homeostasis. The introduction of any chemical substance into the body via ingestion, inhalation, or absorption can disrupt the body's homeostasis, or alternatively, create homeostasis when there was previously an imbalance. Therefore, the use of narcotic drugs can alter a body's homeostatic state, just as much as the use of psychiatric medications can. Antidepressants are designed to regulate an individual's neurological processes and responses and ideally to create homeostasis. If mood disorders such as depression are caused by organic imbalances in brain chemistry, then so too can addictions be caused by upsets in the body's homeostasis. The addict seeks to self-medicate through the use of various substances, whether alcohol, cocaine, or marijuana. For example, cocaine increases the rate of neurotransmission and is therefore called…
'The Biological Mechanisms of Addiction." Addiction. Spark Notes Health Study Guides. Online at < http://www.sparknotes.com/health/addiction/section4.rhtml >.
Deans, David Allen. "Drug Addiction." California State University, Northridge. 1997. Online at < http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/drugs.htm >.
(Cussen, 2006, pp. 39 -- 48)
The Role of the Church, Family, Community and Nonprofits
Like what was stated previously, our focus will be on those organizations that are through: the church, family, community and various nonprofits. The basic idea here is to have each one of these groups effectively reach out to various addicts and offer them a way of effectively dealing with their addiction. This is significant because, this kind of basic approach has been used consistently throughout the course of human history to address these kinds of problems. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than a direct reference from 1 Corinthians 10:13 with it saying, "No temptation has overtaken you that is not common to man. God is faithful, and he will not let you be tempted beyond your ability, but with the temptation he will also provide the way of escape, that…
About Us. (2011). West Care. Retrieved from: http://www.westcare.com/
Drug and Alcohol Addiction. (2011). Live Baptist Church. Retrieved from: http://olivebaptist.org/Addiction/
Drugs and Crime. (2010). Everything Addiction. Retrieved from: http://www.everythingaddiction.com/addiction-society/drugs-and-crime-the-impact-of-drugs-within-societies/
Fact Sheet ADAM II Report. (2008). White House Drug Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/pdf/adamii_fact_sheet_2008.pdf
Drug Addiction Treatment Instead of Jail Time
epeat drug offenders deserve mandatory jail time. However, people who are arrested for the first time for a drug offense may deserve a chance at rehabilitation within a treatment facility. While many judicial systems utilize the use of drug treatment programs within the jail system, there is currently a push for alternative drug programs-based within hospitals and clinics. Close supervision can prevent drug-addicted criminals from becoming repeat offenders. That has created a national system of six hundred drug courts that currently provide treatment and counseling to inmates as an alternative to regular jail time (Yang, 1999).
The Los Angeles Times reports (Greene, 2000) that one answer to the problem of jail overcrowding has a simple and cost-effective solution. The Orange County jail system is currently overcrowded due to sentencing drug offenders to jail time instead of residential rehabilitation. The County Sheriff cites statistics…
Bell, D.. Montoya, I., Richard, A., & Dayton. C. (1998). "The motivation for drug abuse treatment: Testing cognitive and 12-step theories." American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Retrieved April 26, 2003, from www.findarticles.com
Greene, M. (2000, January 30). "Jail alternative: Drug treatment." Los Angeles Times, pB-12.
Nazareno, A. (2002, March 24). "Drug court to offer jail alternative; Defendants would receive treatment." The Houston Chronicle), p47.
Peters, S. (Dec 15, 2000). "Drug treatment over jail." Family Practice News.
Drug Addiction: A Social Problem
The drug addiction has radically increased throughout the world over the past few years. This research study aims at analyzing the problem of drug addiction, its individual and social implications and the experts' opinion about this life-threatening practice. The paper has also discussed the current prevention measures launched at the private and public forefront along with examining their effectiveness in the practical arena. The alternatives to curb drug abuse and their potential effectiveness have also been elaborated.
Drug Addiction: A Social Problem
The problem of drug addiction has been significantly rising throughout the globe over the past few decades. The changing moral trends in society and increasing depression have radically increased the problem of drug addiction. It has strengthened its roots swiftly in all parts of society particularly among the teenagers. Numerous reports have stated the fact that all major countries of the…
DuPont, R.L., M.D. (2010). Drug addiction: An epidemic dilemma. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 42(2), 127-32. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/603183100?accountid=32521 .
Elliott, E.T., Souder, C.A., Privette, T., & Richardson, W.H. (2008). Teen Prescription Drug
Abuse. Clinician Reviews, Vol. 18(11). Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=122&sid .
Friedman, R.A. (2006). The changing face of teenage drug abuse - the trend toward prescription drugs. The New England Journal of Medicine, 354(14), 1448-50. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/223934259?accountid=32521 .
" (Leshner, 2001) According to the NIDA drug addiction, much like cardiovascular disease causes changes in the individual's biological make up as shown in the following chart.
Addiction and Cardiovascular Disease Change iology
Source: NIDA (2007)
Furthermore, the NIDA reports that recovery from drug addiction is very much like recovery from other diseases as shown in the following chart.
Recovery from Diseases
Source: NIDA (2007)
The Interim and Final Reports of the Joint Committee of the American ar Association and the American Medical Association on Narcotic Drugs entitled: "Drug Addiction, Crime or Disease?" relates: "An Authoritative definition of drug addiction is that propounded by the World Health Organization: "Drug addiction is a state of periodic and chronic intoxication detrimental to the individual and to society, produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic). Its' characteristics include:
1) an overpowering desire or need (compulsion) to continue taking the…
Leshner, Alan I. (2007) Oops: How Casual Drug Use Leads to Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse and Addiction. NIDA. Online available at http://www.nida.nih.gov/Published_Articles/Oops.html
Ploscowe, Morris (nd) Drug Addiction, Crime of Disease? Interim and Final Reports of the Joint Committee of the American Bar Association and the American Medical Association on Narcotic Drugs. Scaffer Library of Drug Policy. Online available at http://www.druglibrary.org/SCHAFFER/library/studies/dacd/appendixa_3.htm
Addiction or Chronic Disease (2005) National Institute on Drug Abuse and Addiction. Online available at http://www.nida.nih.gov/about/welcome/aboutdrugabuse/chronicdisease/
Leshner, Alan I. (2001) Drug Addiction, a Brain Disease. 11 July 2001 Issue 106. Online available at http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/skelton/Teaching/General%20Readings/Drug%20Addiction%20opinion.htm
Untrained individuals may help, but the chemical and genetic side of addiction must be acknowledged and addressed for the addict to make a full recovery.
The purpose of the justice system is to punish. The truth is, most alcoholic and addicts have already been punished, before they ever walk into a courtroom. They have lost loved ones, promising careers, and their physical health to their illness. Could prison take away more of their dignity and act as a deterrent? Incarcerating addicts without specific, substance-abuse therapy designed to treat the physical compulsions and psychological conditions (including but not limited to depression and anxiety) that motivated them to become addicts will do little to ensure that addiction, and the crimes it may have spawned, will cease.
In fact, given the levels of drug use and abuse in prison, it may only give addicts further reason to remain addicted, by normalizing the behavior,…
Addiction." DSM-IV. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association (AMA). 1994. Definition found at "Alcohol Abuse: Diagnosis." Mental Health Channel. 26 Apr 2008. http://www.mentalhealthchannel.net/alcohol/diagnosis.shtml
Increasingly, POMETA has come under close scrutiny, with several individuals and experts claming that the treatment does not achieve all that it claims to do, although there have been numerous testimonials testifying to the efficacy of the system of treatment for addiction. In one patient's own words, "I had tried everything, and nothing worked for me. But POMETA has!" (Addiction Medicine, 2006) in the words of Chicago based addiction specialist David Ostrow, there had been attempts to create hype, to an extent that was not essential, in the publicity associated with this new treatment POMETA. In fact, he reiterated, there was very little evidence presented by the promoters of the product, to show that this indeed was a form of treatment that would work for addicts and alcoholics, in maintaining their abstinence over prolonged periods of time, and in acting against the chemicals that promote the addictions in the individual.…
Addiction Medicine. (2006, April) "Dr. Raymond Johnson presents preliminary outcomes data on PROMETA addiction treatment" Drug Week, 39. Retrieved January 14, 2008, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1022559421).
Gracer, Richard I; Gracer, Richard I. (2007) "A new prescription for addiction, Subutex,
PROMETA: Subutex, Prometa, Vivitrol, and Campral..." Gracer Medical Group.
Hythiam, Inc. (2007, August) "Hythiam Announces Second Quarter Results" Drug Week, 315.
Righteous Dopefiend: The Moral Economy of Heroin Abuse
One of the first images of Righteous Dopefiend, an anthropological analysis of California homeless heroin addicts, is that of several men shooting up heroin in a dirty and unsanitary place; even though there are cleaner places to do this, the men are attempting to conceal their activity because they do not want to share their stash: this indicates the extent to which the priorities of the addicts revolve around maximizing the efficacy of the drug and not around their own personal safety. "Fear of arrest exacerbates risky injection practices; discouraging possession of syringes, encouraging injectors to hide paraphernalia in unsanitary locations, and relegating the injection process to filthy hidden locales" (Bourgois & Schonberg 9). However, despite the fact that the addicts struggle with such issues, there are also moments of tenderness, such as when Hank chooses to inject Sonny in the neck…
Bourgois, Philippe & Schonberg, Jeffrey. Righteous Dopefiend. University of California Press,
Addiction: A brain disease with a biological foundation
Addiction is a brain disease with a biological foundation, which means that it couples together the mental and physical states of the individual in an action which can lead to negative or bad behavior. There are many types of addictions but two of the biggest addictions in modern times are sexual addiction and drug addiction. Many young people develop both addictions or one or the other, either becoming addicted to Internet sexual sites or becoming addicted to illicit street drugs like heroin or marijuana. Either addiction can be damaging to the person's health, and in some cases they can even be deadly. In fact sexuality and drug addiction can sometimes even be linked (Newcomb, 2014). For young people these two issues are especially dangerous as "experimentation with addictive drugs and onset of addictive disorders is primarily concentrated in adolescence and young adulthood"…
Asamsama, O., Dickstein, B., Chard, K. (2015). Do scores on the Beck Depression
Inventory-II Predict Outcome in Cognitive Processing Therapy? Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, 7(5): 437-441.
Chambers, A., Taylor, J., Potenza, M. (2014). Developmental Neurocircuitry of Motivation in Adolescence: A Critical Period of Addiction Vulnerability. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(6): 1041-1052.
Cotto, J. (2010). Gender Effects on Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence. Gender Medicine, 7(5): 402-213.
addiction over the past several decades, that addiction, specifically drug addiction, has been present in society for most of mankind's presence on earth. Such addiction may have been known by other descriptions and may not have been known to be the result of something exactly identified as a drug but such use was still likely an addiction. The use of drugs has been recorded by historians for thousands of years (Crafts, 2009). Wine was used by the early Egyptians and narcotics and marijuana have been noted to be used as far back as 4000 B.C. But it was not until the 19th century that the active ingredients in drugs were extracted. For many years many of the drugs that are now heavily regulated and controlled were freely available and prescribed by physicians. There easy availability resulted in many becoming addicted to their use and by the early1900s there were an…
Anthony, J.C. (2000). Patterns of Co-Occurring Consumption and Dependence in the United States. Alcohol Research & Health, 201-.
Courtwright, D. (1992). A Century of American narcotic policy . Treating Drug Problems, 1-62.
Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, Pub. L. No. 91-513, 84 Stat. 1236 (Oct. 27, 1970)
Crafts, W.F. (2009). Intoxicating Drinks & Drugs in All Lands and Times: A Twentieth Century Survey of Intemperance. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Usually, both physical and psychological components need to be addressed. Byrd (2001) explains, the function of brain cells (neurons) is affected when a drug is used repeatedly over a long period of time. Each neuron produces and releases chemicals called neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters can impact the function of the nerve cell, making it produce and release hormones. "The neurotransmitters that have been associated with addiction include serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, gamma-amino-butyric acid, and glutamate" (p. 71). Drugs and the secretion of neurotransmitters can interfere with nerve cell functions and in some cases can damage them. Addiction becomes a fact when the body increases its level of resistance to immediate drug effects and develops a tolerance for the substance. As this happens, the brain tries to maintain a normal state, but the nerve cell membrane is changing. "elease of dopamine affects the part of the brain that regulates motor behavior. The destruction…
Bailes, B.K. (1998). What perioperative nurses need to know about substance abuse. AORN Journal, 68 (4) Oct. 611-622. Retrieved 16 February 2007 from Expanded Academic ASAP (Thomson Gale) database.
Byrd, P.B. (2001). Do you know if your patients, co-workers, friends, family, or you have an addiction? Journal of Dental Hygiene, 75 (1), 65-81.
Carlson, K.J., Eisenstat, S.A., and Ziporyn, T. (2004). The new Harvard guide to women's health. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Critser, G. (2005). Generation Rx: How prescription drugs are altering American lives, minds, and bodies. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
According to NIDA (2007), tobacco use resulted in the death of approximately 100 million people in the twentieth century, with a projected total approaching 1 billion by the end of this century at the current rate of usage.
Nevertheless, NIDA still currently considers "drug" addiction as a disease, despite its contradictory failure to ascribe the same characterization to nicotine addiction.
In justifying its position that addiction is a "disease of the brain," NIDA (2007) relies primarily on neurological data provided by advanced methods of brainwave studies and brain imaging technologies, which identify characteristic differences between neurological responses to the ingestion of drugs and alcohol by individuals prone to addiction and the responses of individuals less prone to addiction to the same agents.
These studies demonstrate that the brains of addicts respond very differently from those of non-addicts, in intensity, as well as in terms of regional involvement (NIDA, 2007).
Brecher, E. (1972) Licit and Illicit Drugs. Little Brown & Co.: Boston
LeGrand. L., lacono, W., McGue, M. Predicting Addiction," American Scientist (March-April 2005)
Reinarman, C. Addiction as Accomplishment: The Discursive Construction of Disease. Addiction Research and Theory; Aug 05-13(4): 307-320
Sullum, J. "The Surprising Truth about Heroin and Addiction," Reason (June 2003)
Souls is a book about drug addiction and its relation to crime. It is a memoir by Michael MacDonald and it shows how both crime and drugs have brought death to his family, as they grew up in Southie, "in the all-Irish housing projects where everyone claimed to be Irish" (2). It was, according to MacDonald, the best neighborhood in the world. That, of course, was a kind of dream -- for the reality of Southie soon became known to him as it took the lives of his brothers. This paper will explore the reality that MacDonald describes in his memoir All Souls and show how it relates to the realities depicted in two essays: William J. Bennett's "Should Drugs be Legalized?" And Linda Hasselstrom's "Why One Peaceful Woman Carries a Pistol." The relation shows this: that there is no answer to the problem of drugs, guns, crime and self-preservation,…
PAENTAL DUG ADDICTION & IMPACT ON CHILDEN
Impact of parental drug use
Neurobiological causes of drug addiction
Social support to victims of parental drug addiction
Child needs during treatment of parental drug addiction
Impact of parental drug use
Barnard and McKeganey (2004) investigated the impact that parental drug use created on their children and ways and means that can be helpful in mitigating these effects. The study was aimed at reviewing the literature on this subject. The researchers adopted 'narrative review' as the qualitative method to review the research on this subject. Intervention studies were selected for this purpose and studies published in last three decades were made part of this study sample. The authors reported some insightful findings. Primarily, the study found that problem drug use did impede the parenting ability and responsibility of parents that were drug addicts. The study found that such parents used to neglect their…
Barnard, M. (2003). Between a rock and a hard place: the role of relatives in protecting children from the effects of parental drug problems. Child & Family Social Work, 8(4), 291-299.
Barnard, M., & McKeganey, N. (2004). The impact of parental problem drug use on children: what is the problem and what can be done to help? Addiction, 99(5), 552-559.
Erickson, C.K., & Wilcox, R.E. (2001). Neurobiological causes of addiction. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 1(3), 7-22.
Gruenert, S.M., Ratnam, S.S., & Tsantefski, M. (2006). Identifying Children's Needs When Parents Access Drug Treatment: The Utility of a Brief Screening Measure. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6(1-2), 139-154.
eradicating alcohol and drug addiction from a woman offender's life is seen in the research results of aylor Correctional Institution women inmates. The research questions pertaining to increasing their knowledge of what constitutes unlawful behaviors, identifying the triggers associated with drug use, and increase their knowledge of and identification of coping skills to remain drug-free are the basis of this methodology section. Methodologies pertaining to drug treatment programs often concentrate on the externalities and easily tracked causes, neglecting the internal, attitudinal and situational factors that trigger relapse (McCusker, Vikers-Lahti, Stoddard, et.al.1995). The outcome of the initial research validates this point, showing how women offenders from aylor Correctional Institution can successfully define and identify unlawful behaviors, and can also increase their coping skills through programs. This finding is consistent with empirical studies that illustrate how residential drug treatment programs are successful in teaching drug offenders for what specific external factors to…
Chan, M., Guydish, J., Prem, R., Jessup, M.A., Cervantes, A., & Bostrom, A. (2005). Evaluation
of probation case management (PCM) for drug-involved women offenders. Crime and Delinquency, 51(4), 447-469.
Guydish, J., Chan, M., Bostrom, A., Jessup, M.A., Davis, T.B., & Marsh, C. (2011). A
randomized trial of probation case management for drug-involved women offenders. Crime and Delinquency, 57(2), 167-198.
The process of neuroadaptation
There are two main processes that do contribute to the development of addiction as well as the reinforcement and the process of neuroadaptation. The process of reinforcement occurs when a rewarding stimulus such as alcohol or other drugs such as AOD causes induced euphoria. This could also be a relief from an unpleasant condition or state such as anxiety which usually increases the chances of a behavioral response such as the use of AOD. Neuroadaptation refers to the various compensatory moves and adjustments in which the brain makes deliberate attempts to continue with its normal function irrespective of the fact that it is under the influence of alcohol. The process of neuroadaptation and reinforcement which occurs simultaneously does appear to underline the initial acute response (short-term) to the drug under use as well as the establishment of chronic (long-term) craving that is often characteristic of addiction.…
Adinoff, B.; Iranmanesh, A.; Veldhuis, J.; and Fisher, L.( 1998.) Disturbances of the stress response: The role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during alcohol withdrawal and abstinence. A l c o h o l Health & Research World 22(1):67 -- 71,
Alheid, G.F., and Heimer, L.( 1988.) New perspectives in basal forebrain organization of special relevance for neuropsychiatric disorders: The striatopallidal, amygdaloid, and corticopetal components of substantia innominata. N e u r o s c I e n c e 27(1):11 -- 39,
Benjamin, D.; Grant, E.R.; and Pohorecky, L.A.( 1993) Naltrexone reverses ethanol-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens in awake, freely moving rats. Brain Research 621(1):137 -- 140,
Charness, M.E. Alcohol and the brain. A l c o h o l Health & Research World 14(2):85-89, 1990.
drug abuse continues to be a major cause of concern in America. In fact, statistics from the most recent National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration show that by 2012, an estimated 20 million Americans above the age of 12 were using illicit drugs or abusing psychotherapeutic medication (National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIDA, 2015). While this encompasses people of every ethnicity, geographic region, racial identity, education level, and socio economic background, many Americans view it as a major health problem particularly because it is directly linked to majority of the nation's health problems, such as cancer, HIV / AIDS and heart disease. Social problems such as child abuse, drunk driving, violence, and stress are also related to drug addiction and according to NIDA (2015), it takes a tremendous toll on the society at many levels and costs the nation…
Holden, T. (2012) Addiction is not a disease. PubMed. Retrieved 22 April 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3314045/
Moal, M. & Koob, G.F. (2006) Drug addiction: Pathways to the disease and pathophysiological perspectives. European Neuropsychopharmacology Vol. (17)1, 377-393
Morales, A.M., Konho, M., Robertson, C.L., Dean, A.C., Mandelkern, M.A and London, E.D. (2015) Gray-matter volume, midbrain dopamine D2/D3 receptors and drug craving in methamphetamine users. PubMed. Retrieved 22 April 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25896164
Satel, S. (2007). The Human Factor. The American July/August, pp. 92-102. Retrieved 22 April 2015 from www.american.com
Prescription Drugs for Pain Management: Pros and Cons
One of the most controversial developments in medical science in recent years has been the development of new prescription drugs to treat pain in the opioid family of drugs. These drugs, such as OxyContin, have been linked to increasing rates of prescription drug abuse and addiction and many physicians are advocating greater scrutiny of how they are used and prescribed within the medical profession. However, opponents of greater regulation fear that this may make the lives of individuals suffering chronic pain even more difficult. According to the American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM): "Ethics drive physicians to prescribe, but fear of sanctions may affect physician prescribing behaviors, which might compromise quality of care." The decision to prescribe potentially addictive drugs such as opioid painkillers must be decided upon specific criteria, including the degree to which the patient's life is being compromised by…
Lopez, German. "The debate over prescription painkillers, explained." Vox. 16 May 2015.
Web. 2 Jul 2015.
"Opioid painkiller prescribing varies widely among states." CDC. 2014. Web. 2 Jul 2015.
"Use, Abuse, Misuse & Disposal of Prescription Pain Medication Clinical Reference." ACPM.
Substance Abuse Case Study: Levi
In recent years psychology researchers have made significant gains in developing effective diagnostic and treatment tools for compulsive and addictive behaviors. In addition, there is a growing body of research that explores the concept of duel diagnosis, with increasingly streamlined treatment plans being designed to address underling mental health disorders in conjunction with detoxification and rehabilitation from substance abuse.
The client in this case study, Levi, is an HIV positive man in his mid-30's who has disclosed an escalating pattern of tranquilizer and cocaine abuse. His case not only presents as a possible duel diagnosis of mood disorder and substance abuse, but given his HIV positive status and his declining health, it's probable he will need comprehensive care. Levi's willingness to disclose his substance abuse to Dan indicates that he may be more motivated to seek treatment at this time, and it also indicates that…
Collins, C. Coates, T.Curran, J. 2008. "Moving Beyond of The Alphabet Soup of HIV Prevention." UCLA Program in Global Health, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine;
Conway, B. Tossonian, H. 2010. Comprehensive Approaches to the Diagnosis and Treatment of HIV Infection in the Community: Can "Seek and Treat" Really Deliver? Current Infectious Disease Reports. Volume 13, Number 1, 68-74.
George W. Joe, E., Simpson, D., Dansereau, D, Rowan-Szal, G. 2001. "Relationships Between Counseling Rapport and Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes." Psychiatr Serv 52:1223-1229, American Psychiatric Association
VanDeMark, N. 2007. "Policy on reintegration of women with histories of substance abuse: A mixed methods study of predictors of relapse and facilitators of recovery." Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 2007, 2:28. Retrived from http://www.substanceabusepolicy.com/content/2/1/28 . 5 March. 2011.
Client Map for ay Charles Based on the Film ay
In the movie ay, ay Charles is depicted as using multiple types of drugs, but only his use of heroin would meet the guidelines for a diagnosis under DSM-V. Furthermore, after recovers from his heroin addiction, the movie suggests that ay became sober. In reality, Charles became a heavy drinker and used significant amounts of marijuana throughout his life. However, since that drug use is not portrayed in the film, those diagnoses are not included and will not be considered in this client map. Knowing that behavior would change the client map for him, but that knowledge and information comes from outside of the source material found in the movie.
304.00, Substance Use Disorder, Heroin, Severe.
Under DSM-V, a scale of 1 to 11 symptoms is used to determine whether a substance use disorder is mild (2-3 symptoms); moderate…
Ray (2004). Los Angeles: Universal Studios
Seligman, L. (2004). Diagnosis and treatment planning in counseling (3rd. ed.). New York:
Top-Most Dangerous Drugs
Criterion of Ranking
Presently, the globe is struggling to ensure that children in the teen and pre-teen do not abuse drugs. This is premised on the notion that some drugs are more dangerous than others are. In this study, I benchmarked the ranking of drugs based on the effects on the user and those around them. It must be appreciated that psychoactive drugs influence one's brain functioning and relationships with others in the society. Some of the effects of such drugs whether alcohol, crack or cocaine include impaired mental judgment, worsened economic status when addicted, the possible engagement in crime, and societal disturbance (Nutt 29). The level of harm to the individuals and society is the basis for classifying the drugs. The health status of the user is the most significant factor that should be considered when ranking the harm of a drug. In this case, drugs…
Nutt, David J. Drugs and the Future Brain Science, Addiction and Society. Burlington, MA: Academic, 2006. Print.
University of Otago, Wellington. Professor David Nutt - The Inconvenient Truth about Drugs. YouTube. 18 Sep 2012. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkcO_wJ9yKo
The Social Problem of Drug Abuse
Drug abuse started in my family with my brother Camilo. As a poor, migrant family, we had to move around a lot as my father was constantly looking for work. Eventually he obtained a steady job and our family settled in the suburbs. Camilo found it difficult to adjust to all the changes that the family endured, however; making new friends only to have to pick up and move and start all over again took a toll on him. In order to find something stable in his own life he started hanging around a local gang, and then is when he took up his drug habit. The drugs really consumed him and he became totally dependent on them. They changed his character: he began lying and skipping school; before long he dropped out altogether—and then he even started stealing from our parents. It…
Al-Omari, H., Hamed, R., & Tariah, H. A. (2015). The role of religion in the recovery from alcohol and substance abuse among Jordanian adults. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(4), 1268-1277.
Best, D., Beckwith, M., Haslam, C., Alexander Haslam, S., Jetten, J., Mawson, E., & Lubman, D. I. (2016). Overcoming alcohol and other drug addiction as a process of social identity transition: the social identity model of recovery (SIMOR). Addiction Research & Theory, 24(2), 111-123.
DuPont, R. L. (2018). The opioid epidemic is an historic opportunity to improve both prevention and treatment. Brain Research Bulletin, 138, 112-114.
Ghahremani, D. G. (2017). Craving, prayer, and the brain. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 43(1), 1-3.
Gilbert, D. (2014). The Novena to St. Boniface of Tarsus: A Pastoral Program for Addressing Sexual Addiction in Colonial Mexico. Catholic Social Science Review, 19, 87-109.
Hohmann, L. A., Fox, B. I., Phillippe, H. M., Marlowe, K. F., Hill, S., & Fowler, A.(2018). A Community-Wide Education Program on Drug Addiction: Stakeholder Knowledge, Beliefs, and Opportunities for Interprofessional Collaboration. Value in Health, 21, S189-S190.
Murthy, V. H. (2016). Ending the opioid epidemic—a call to action. New England Journal of Medicine, 375(25), 2413-2415.
The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. (2015). Family history and genetics. Retrieved from https://www.ncadd.org/about-addiction/family-history-and-genetics
Drug Use and Addiction
Today, tens of millions of Americans routinely use some type of illicit drugs, and the search for ways to help those who become addicted to substances continues in earnest. In the interim, growing numbers of law enforcement organizations have taken assertive steps to help individuals who have developed an addiction to drugs receive the interventions they need to overcome these potentially life-threatening behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature concerning drug use and addiction in the context of deviant behaviors, the subculture that exists among drug users and addicts, and their potential for participation in illegal activities. In addition, a discussion why an understanding of this subculture is important for those involved in law enforcement and how understanding can facilitate prevention, recovery, community service, and law enforcement is followed by a summary of the research and key findings…
Amaral, J. A. & Hess, A. (2018, January 1). The dynamics of providing support to crack cocaine addicts in open-air drug scenes: The lessons learned by the \\\\'Helpers\\\\' Intervention Project.: International Journal of Action Research, 14(1), 30-33.
Guadian, A. & Worley, R. M. (2016, October). Code of the suburb: Inside the world of middle-class drug dealers. Theory in Action, 9(4), 90-94.
Hartney, E. (2018, September 26). A guide to DSM 5 criteria for substance abuse disorders. Dotdash Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/dsm-5-criteria-for-substance-use-disorders-21926.
List, Y. (2016, July). If the barn Is burning, let the house burn as well: Patterns of drug abuse among FSU immigrant drug addicts in Israel. Journal of Drug Issues, 46(3), 247-251.
Miller, R. (2009, February). Advancing understanding of drug addiction and treatment. Science Scope, 32(6), 14.
Pereira, M. & Scott, J. (2017, January 1). Harm reduction and the ethics of drug use: Contemporary techniques of self-governance. Health Sociology Review, 26(1), 69-73.
Alcoholism and IV drug use in Rural NJ
There has been a dramatic spike in alcoholism and IV drug addiction over the past couple of months. This has been the leading cause of death in the rural community of Wantage, NJ. The health need identified aligns with the Healthy People 2020 objectives in that it is aimed at reducing the number of addicts especially adolescents. The community has seen an influx of drug addiction and this has become a problem as not many people understand the effects of drugs. Preventing and reducing the number of drug addicts within the community will lead to better outcomes and increase the mortality rate. The objectives of reducing the number of adolescents who partake of drugs and alcohol will ensure that as they get older, they will most likely keep off drugs. Teaching adolescents the negative effects of drugs will also lead to them…
Blevins, C. E., Abrantes, A. M., Anderson, B. J., Caviness, C. M., Herman, D. S., & Stein, M. D. (2018). A longitudinal evaluation of the role of alcohol self?concept in alcohol use, motives, negative affect, and alcohol?related problems among emerging adults. The American journal on addictions, 27(6), 501-508.
Grant, B. F., Chou, S. P., Saha, T. D., Pickering, R. P., Kerridge, B. T., Ruan, W. J., . . . Fan, A. (2017). Prevalence of 12-month alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder in the United States, 2001-2002 to 2012-2013: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. JAMA psychiatry, 74(9), 911-923.
Miloyan, B., Bulley, A., Brilot, B., & Suddendorf, T. (2017). The association of Social Anxiety Disorder, Alcohol Use Disorder and reproduction: Results from four nationally representative samples of adults in the USA. PLoS ONE, 12(11), e0188436.
Moss, H. B., Goldstein, R. B., Chen, C. M., & Yi, H.-Y. (2015). Patterns of use of other drugs among those with alcohol dependence: Associations with drinking behavior and psychopathology. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 192-198.
An addiction can be considered a physical and psychological incapability to avoid the consumption of drugs, chemicals, substances, or even taking part in an activity even when doing so causes both physical and psychological harm (Nutt, 2018). The Addiction term is not only applicable when it comes to cocaine and heroin use. Any person who cannot function normally without taking some specific chemical or drug is considered to be substance dependent (Nutt, 2018). The obsession with some activities such as working, eating, and gambling is considered an addiction (Clark & Limbrick-Oldfield, 2013). This type of addiction is commonly referred to as behavioral addiction. As stated by Robbins and Clark (2015) behavioral addictions have gradually become a recognized psychiatric disorder. Recently pathological gambling has been allocated to the DSM-5 category (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
There are several other disorders that have been suggested as being part of the behavioral addiction category…
In Alberta, liquor stores have been privatized, although the government still maintains strict regulations on anyone who sells liquor. It is available in liquor stores, retail outlets, and in bars and restaurants. Many people felt this would lead to widespread addiction and abuse, but studies indicate that may not be the case. In an economic study completed in 2005 comparing Ontario and Quebec's monopolies with Alberta's privatization, the results were surprising. People believe that revenues would decline if the monopolies went public, but in fact, because Alberta sets a flat rate for liquor prices, revenues actually went up in Alberta, not down. In addition, a wider variety of products and brands is available in Alberta than in either of the other two provinces, and there are more locations available to buy liquor in Alberta ("Privatization of alcohol trade"). In fact, since privatizing the liquor industry, Alberta's sales have almost doubled,…
Author not Available. 2005. Quebeckers and privatizing the retail trade of alcohol. Montreal Economic Institute. http://www.iedm.org/uploaded/pdf/sondage0905_en.pdf (Accessed February 18, 2009).
Editors. 2009. Alberta liquor privatization. Alberta Gaming and Liquor Commission. http://aglc.ca/liquor/albertaliquorprivatization.asp (Accessed February 18, 2009).
Editors. 2009. Today's LCBO. Liquor Control Board of Ontario. http://www.lcbo.com/aboutlcbo/todayslcbo.shtml (Accessed February 18, 2009).
Editors. 2005. Privatization of alcohol trade in Ontario and Quebec. Montreal Economic Institute. http://www.iedm.org/main/show_mediareleases_en.php?mediareleases_id=88 (Accessed February 18, 2009).
Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…
Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf
Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.
Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()
Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.
Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.
Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.
Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…
Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.
Therefore, a closer look at what is needed is in order.
Needed Changes, Stakeholders and Barriers to Change
The decades that followed ockefeller and Felony Offender made it clear that these laws were in dire need of change for a variety of reasons. Perhaps most importantly among the reasons for a need for change was the fact that many of those in need of recovery from drug addiction were instead being locked away in prison, burdening the justice system, breaking up families and torturing people with a definite disease. On the other side of the argument, however, barriers to change in these policies was led by staunch conservatives who, not realizing the many facets of drug addiction, were too fast to dismiss addicts as criminals who were only getting what some felt they deserved (nysda.org). In reality, however, there are effective solutions to the debate.
Effective Solutions to the Debate…
Current Developments in the Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.nysda.org/Hot_Topics/Rockefeller_Drug_Laws/rockefeller_drug_laws.html
The Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.drugpolicy.org/statebystate/newyork/rockefellerd/index.cfm
Drug Law Reform (Pro)
According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), the United States' policy on illegal drugs is threefold: stopping drug use before it starts, healing the country's drug users, and disrupting the market. The United States' war on drugs has been going on for at least the last three decades. Given the duration of this war, some have questioned the effectiveness of it, wondering if the money spent is really making a difference and bringing about results.
Actually, the effects of this policy on illegal drugs have been mixed. According to a study conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) covering current and emerging trends in drug abuse for 21 major U.S. metropolitan areas, some drugs are decreasing in use while others are increasing. For example:
C]rack accounted for a substantially greater percentage of primary admissions than powder cocaine in all [surveyed] sites.…
InfoFacts Nationwide Trends. The National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2003. http://www.drugabuse.gov/Infofax/nationtrends.html .
The Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2003. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/index.html .
14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).
By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).
Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…
1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.
Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.
Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.
Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .
Drug Abuse in Long Island, New York
With more than seven and a half million residents, Long Island, New York is a major center of commerce and education, but like many other densely populated large urban centers, this city also has a significant drug abuse problem. To determine the facts about the problem, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide epidemiological evidence concerning the incidence of drug abuse in Long Island, and what community-based resources are available to its resident. Finally, a review of a recent research study article concerning these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning drug abuse in Long Island in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Epidemiological evidence concerning drug abuse in Long Island
Like many other major American urban centers, all types of drugs are abuse in Long Island, but heroin abuse in particular has become a serious problem…
About Long Island Addiction Resources. (2017). Long Island Addiction Resources. Retrieved from http://liaddictionresources.com/.
About Long Island Center for Recovery. (2017). Long Island Center for Recovery. Retrieved from http://www.longislandcenterrecovery.com/ .
About Outreach House. (2017). Outreach House. Retrieved from http://www.opiny.org/ outreach-treatment/adolescent-residential-svcs/brentwood-long-island.
About Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. (2017). Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved from http://www.seafieldcenter.com/ about_us.
Drug legalization is a highly controversial issue, which has been given top priority in political agenda. Many oppose legalization of cocaine but there are just as many people favoring legalization on various grounds. It is important to study both sides of the problem to see if legalization is practical or not. Those who oppose legalization of drugs maintain that cocaine is a dangerous drug which if legalized will send the wrong message that "it is OK to try such drugs" (Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea: 17 A). Opponents maintain that it is the responsibility of law enforcement agencies and other authorities to maintain stricter control over drug use in order to maintain "a delicate balance on drug initiatives." (Hemenway, 2002)
Drug legalization is a sensitive issue that many regard as problematic and believe that it is not in the jurisdiction of United States to allow or disallow legalization…
Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea., USA Today, 10-11-1999, pp 17A
HEMENWAY, D. Alexandria Arguments against states legalizing drugs, Arguments against states legalizing drugs., The Washington Times, 11-08-2002.
And they can often escape into substance abuse and addiction" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).
One of the most important ways in which an increasing rate of drug and alcohol abuse and addiction affects the economy is the spiraling cost of healthcare and rehabilitation. The increase in addictions also creates a gap between the need for treatment and rehabilitation and available resources. This in turn places economic pressure on state and local government. This is especially difficult to maintain in a recessionary economic climate. "States, local governments, and non-profits are all facing tremendous budget shortfalls -- and they are cutting the resources to help this growing group of addicts in trouble, just when they need it the most" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).
The following illustrations provide a clear indication of the amounts that have been spent on alcohol and…
Allen J. ( 2006) Drugs a Factor in Many Sexual Assaults, Study Says. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/501383/drugs_a_factor_in_many_sexual_assaults_study_says/
Bennet W. (1999) the Index of Leading Cultural Indicators. New York: Broadway
Drug addiction. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Drug:addiction.htm
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.
History of Drug Use & Availability
The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.
Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://www.deamuseum.org .
Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.
Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
Drug Policies the Legacy of Outdated Moral Values and Moral Panics
A disinterested alien observer who came down to the planet Earth and saw the difference in how legal drugs such as alcohol and cigarettes were treated under the law when compared to illegal drugs would be hard pressed to explain the differential treatment. After all, alcohol and cigarettes cause or contribute to far more deaths, injuries, health problems, and social problems than illegal drugs. In fact, some illegal drugs, such as cannabis, are relatively free of side-effects when compared to those two legal substances. Furthermore, even some of the highly villianized hard drugs, such as heroin, are considered less addictive than nicotine. Therefore, it is difficult to understand why some substances are illegal and others are not. The reasons are not scientific or social; therefore, one must look at the history of drug policy in the Western world and…
Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (Eds.). (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The later stages focuses on dealing with the problems related to the drug use withdrawal like the withdrawal syndromes, the tendency to relapse. The later stages also focus on restoring the self dignity and also impacting the participant with the prerequisites to self-manage the drug abuse issue once the probation and treatment duration ends (Tara, 2007).
The drug courts are also said to be significant to the economy of the U.S. The drug courts save the taxpayer money for each participant in the treatment as compared to the same individual or one with a similar problem but going through the criminal court system. This is realized by the reduced recidivism cases among the graduates from the treatment facilities recommended by the drug court systems (Daniel, 2003).
In general, the drug use is very addictive and a problem that dealing with it in the U.S. society is very difficult. This is…
Amanda B.C., & Michael R., (2005). The State of Drug Court Research. Retrieved may 30, 2010
Belenko, S. (2001). Research on drug courts: A critical review 2001 update. National Drug Court
Institute Review, 4, 1 -- 60 www.20.drugpolicy.org/docUploads/2001drugcourts.pdf
social poblem of using and selling dugs is potayed in music. I'm inteested in studying this because music has at once been accused of gloifying dug cultue and also as being one of the few means of allowing uses to vent on the ealities of dug cultue. Clealy, the elationship between dugs and music is a complex one. This pape will seek to shed light on the motivations fo atists to incopoate dug cultue in thei songs and what they pesumably gain fom it, and what society pesumably gains fom it as well.
The fist song that this pape will examine when it comes to the teatment of dugs as subject matte fo songs is in the wok of 2 Pac in his famous song, "Changes." This song is so emakable in that it addesses a temendous amount of social injustice in that is still alive and well in the…
references. Music Ther Perspectives, 69-76.
Duff, C. (2003). Drugs and Youth Cultures: Is Australia Experiencing the 'Normalization' of Adolescent Drug Use? Journal of Youth Studies, 433-447.
Genius.com. (n.d.). Corner Bodega. Retrieved from genius.com: http://rap.genius.com/50-cent-corner-bodega-coke-spot-lyrics
Genius.com. (n.d.). The Way We Get By. Retrieved from Genius.com: http://rock.genius.com/Spoon-the-way-we-get-by-lyrics
Lyrics.com. (n.d.). Changes 2 pac. Retrieved from lyrics.com: http://www.lyrics.com/changes-lyrics-2pac.html
Decriminalization of drugs is an ineffective legal policy that has harmed millions of Americans. Since Nixon's declaration of "war" on drugs, American policy towards mind-altering substances has been as violent and futile as the term "war on drugs" would suggest. Drug use is not qualitatively different from alcohol use. The prohibition of alcohol failed miserably in the early 20th century, leading also to a proliferation in profitable black market businesses that fueled organized crime. The same pattern has been occurring with mind-altering substances of all types. Drug cartels have blossomed throughout the Americas, and the global black marketplace is teeming with criminal behaviors that are linked to protecting the lucrative but illegal drug trade. If trading in drugs were akin to trading in alcohol, then drug cartels would no longer need the massive stashes of weapons used to protect their property. The war on drugs has ruined far more…
Sledge, M. (2013). The drug war and mass incarceration by the numbers. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/08/drug-war-mass-incarceration_n_3034310.html
The Shortcomings in our Current Drug Law Policy: Research Proposal
As a major policy issue in the United States, the ar on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, America's policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the ar on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the United States has been one of prosecution and imprisonment rather than one of decriminalization, treatment and rehabilitation. As our medical and scientific communities characterize addiction as a disease, the United States government continues to characterize this disease as a crime. And in doing so, it has created an unnecessary criminal class in the United States. The research proposal will set out to prove…
Debusmann, B. (2012). Obama and the failed war on drugs. Reuters.
DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory.
DeMelo, D1. (2005). Cloward & Ohlin's Differential Opportunity Theory. Criminological Theory.
Eldredge, D.C. (1998). Ending the War on Drugs: A Solution for America. Bridgehampton, NY: Bridge Works.
Drugs in Federal Corrections
One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (uiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV /…
Chak, E., Talal, A.H., Sherman, K.E., Schiff, E.R., & Saab, S. (2011). Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver international, 31(8), 1090-1101.
Exum, J.J. (2010). Sentencing, Drugs, And Prisons: A Lesson From Ohio. U. Tol. L. Rev., 42, 881.
MacDonald, M., Greifinger, R., & Kane, D. (2012). The impact of overcrowding. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 8(1).
Ruiz, M.A., Douglas, K.S., Edens, J.F., Nikolova, N.L., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2012). Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: Implications for risk assessment. Psychological assessment, 24(1), 77.
Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts
For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…
Bean, Philip. (1996, October). "America's Drug Courts: A New Development in Criminal Justice." Criminal Law Review. 720-740.
A scholarly review of the American drug court by a British attorney.
Brumbaugh, Alex. (1994) "Why Drug Courts Work." 3 Dec. 2002. http://www.silcom.com/~alexb/drugcrts.htm
Discussion of the various counseling techniques available to drug court clients, with an emphasis on acupuncture.
Addiction as a Disease
While drug addiction may not bring about obvious physical changes like some diseases, it still causes permanent changes to the brain. Drugs circumvent the natural system of rewards generated by the brain, whereby performing a pleasurable action will cause a release of dopamine. "The natural capacity to produce dopamine in the reward system is reduced, while the need persists and the drug seems to be the only way to fulfill it. The brain is losing its access to other, less immediate and powerful sources of reward. Addicts may require constantly higher doses and a quicker passage into the brain" ("The addicted brain," 2009). Contrary to Hojung Lee's suggestion, addiction is not really analogous to a habit, despite the fact that it is often called that (as in "he has a drug habit"). The compulsion to use is irresistible to the addict, which is why addicts will…
The addicted brain. (2009). Harvard Mental Health Letter. Retrieved from:
Bevilacqua, L. & Goldman, D. (2009). Genes and Addictions. Clinical Pharmacology
Therapeutics, 85 (4): 359-361. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2715956/
Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?
While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).
Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…
Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
" American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 21(1), 111-35. A research team led by Dr. Michael French gathered to estimate the costs and benefits of residential and publically funded treatment programs for addiction issues. The team was derived from the University of Miami. Program and the client related economic cost estimates were obtained using data collected at the site with the drug abuse treatment cost analysis program (DATCAP). It was concluded that the economic benefit to society was almost four times what the cost of treating residential clients. Short-term follow-up treatment was also beneficial and the economic benefit was even higher.
Hanlon, T.E., Kinlock, T.W., Nurco, D.N. (1991). "Recent research on the relationship between illicit use and crime." Behavioral Sciences & the aw, 9(3), 221-242.
The study reviews previous research on the correlation of drug use and criminal behavior resulting in arrest since 1980. Advances were noted in crime…
Lennings, C.J., Copeland, J., Howard J. (2003). "Substance use patterns of young offenders and violent crime." Aggressive Behavior. 29(5), 414-422. This study's hypothesis was that alcohol use is a significant predictor of violent crime in committed by the youth. Researchers studied 300 juveniles that had been incarcerated in the prison system of New South Wales. Of the 300, more than 70% admitted to having committed violent crimes. Most correlated with the onset of violent crimes was alcohol use followed by cocaine use. The findings accounted for the correlation that exists between the use of substabce and aggressive, violent crime and so, further supported the "Goldstein hypothesis" which believes that substance abuse facilitates violent behavior directly.
White, H.R., Widom, C.S. (1997). "Problem behaviours in abused and neglected children grown up: prevalence and co-occurrence of substance abuse, crime and violence." Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 7(4), 287-310. The report discussed the correlation of alcohol abuse, drug abuse, non-violent crime and violence concerning children who were abused and neglected during the course of their development through childhood. The study was longitudinal (the subjects were studied over time into adulthood). It was found that abused and neglected females and males have a higher correlation in substance abuse and non-violent arrest. Abused and neglected females were found to be at a higher risk for both drug abuse or dependency diagnosis as well as arrests for violent crime.
Zarkin, G.A., Dunlap, L.J., Hicks, K., Mamo, D. (2005). "Benefits and costs of methadone treatment: results from a lifetime simulation model." Health Economics. 14(11) 1133-1150. Research examined prior studies that included the cost and benefits of methadone abuse treatment. These papers have often been written on single case studies. While valuable to society, the sample size limitation also limits the research because they view heightened problems as being able to be treated in one incident of treatment. A simulation model was created to embody the longitudinal study of the heroine use, criminal behavior, health care and employment of a population between the ages of 18-60. It was found that the model (which takes into account the dynamics of heroine use and views it as a, acute and reoccurring circumstance) finds that the benefits of treatment using this model far outweigh those produced by static models.
Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)
Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…
Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.
Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance
Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.
Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.
Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.
From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…
Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.
Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.
One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers, especially large scale makers to realize the supplies of a small number of raw materials used to make the drug pseudoephedrine is quaaludes, as this drug was successfully removed from the radar screen by the banning of the chemicals used to make it, and this may be an option for all synthetic drugs.
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.…
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.
In jails, not one of the violent criminals was under the influence of heroin at the time their crime was committed. Twenty-one percent of state inmates incarcerated for violent crime were under the influence of alcohol alone at the time they committed their crime. The number of those under the influence of marijuana alone was too small to be recorded statistically. (National 1998) These facts indicate that it is not the drug users that are committing the crimes, but the people who deal with drugs. If there was no money to be gained from dealing with drugs, these criminals would have to find legitimate jobs and the police would only have to worry about traffic.
The efforts to target youth with drug education in the ar on Drugs has fallen far short of its original goals. The ONDCP is budgeting less than 12% of the $100 million it was planning…
Drug Enforcement Division. City of Orlando Police Investigations, Orlando Police Department Website. 6 November, 2006 http://www.cityoforlando.net/police/investigations/ded.htm
Madigan, Lisa, "Strategies for Fighting Meth: Law Enforcement Strategies." Illinois Attorney General. 6 November, 2006 http://www.illinoisattorneygeneral.gov/methnet/fightmeth/law.html#content
National Center on Addition and substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA) Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population. New York: Columbia University, 1998.
McCaffrey, Barry R.. The National Drug Control Strategy, 1998: A Ten-Year Plan. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1998. p. 58.
Unfortunately, the American government has been looking in the wrong place for these models, especially in Asia and Latin America. For example, the coca plant from which cocaine is derived grows in abundance in many geographical regions of northern South America and in Central America, where growers make huge profits as compared to efforts to force farmers and peasants to grow legal crops which inevitably do not produce enough profits in order to survive.
Of course, over the last twenty years or so, the U.S. federal government has done much and at great expense to attempt to eradicate the growing of coca but these efforts have also failed miserably. As Nadelmann relates, even if foreign supplies of coca and other drugs like heroin could be cut off, "the drug abuse problem in the U.S. would scarcely abate," due to the fact that much if not most of the drugs like…
Nadelmann, Ethan a. (Jan. -- Feb. 1998). Common sense drug policy. Foreign Affairs.
Vol. 77 no. 1, 111-126.
The agents then formalize a data which helps them to stop the drug trafficking in future. By the end of year 1968, America's counter culture movement was at its peak and the trend of illegal drug use for the recreational purposes was rising. That was an alarming situation and then the President Lyndon Johnson introduced a legislation that ultimately combined the BDAC and Bureau of Narcotics into a single entity: Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs under the department of Justice (Kleiman & Hawdon, 2011).
As far as the core mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration is concerned, it is to enforce the laws and regulations regarding the controlled substances and to bring the law breakers to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) operations are not only limited to the United States but its jurisdiction is across the world as a…
DEA History. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/history.shtml
DEA Mission Statement. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/mission.shtml
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (2013). In Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Kleiman, M.A., & Hawdon, J.E. (2011). Encyclopedia of Drug Policy, Volume 1. USA: SAGE.
The benefits of ending the cycle of drug and alcohol abuse far outweigh the pain and hard work involved. Living a clean and sober lifestyle allows people to make their own decisions, not decisions based on their physical need for drugs or alcohol. They will regain their self-respect, and find happiness in the things they were neglecting during their use and abuse. Finally, their body will be free of the physical tolls of alcohol and drugs.
For someone like Jared, working to end his alcohol abuse will improve his life in many ways. First, working toward change will show his wife, his mother, and the rest of the people who love him that he does not want to hurt them and wants to change. While other problems may exist in Jared's marriage and life, he owes it to himself and those that he loves to try. He might spend more…
However, not all facilities are prohibitively costly. Serenity Lane in Eugene, Oregon, proclaims as part of its marketing and advertising plan that it accepts almost all insurance plans, and trumpets the fact that it offers value deals like the "ExSL (Long-Term Program)" that requires only a relatively modest fee of $6,495 per 30 day period, with a 60 day recommended minimum stay" and "partial financing available and a $500 discount for paying cash up front" (Treatment Costs at Serenity Lane," Official ebsite, 2007). In contrast, a stay of the same duration at the more famous Betty Ford Center is $23,000 ("Programs," the Betty Ford Center, 2007).
Quality forms of rehabilitative assistance exist for individuals in a variety of income brackets. Also, for individuals who qualify, there are Medicaid assistance programs provided by the federal government. However, less costly programs often have longer waiting lists and offer less comprehensive, quality, and…
Health Insurers Block Mental Health Parity Bill." Drug Rehabs.com. 23 Sept 2007. http://www.drug-rehabs.com/health-insurers-block.htm
How Do I pay for a Drug Rehab?" Therapist Unlimited. 23 Sept 2007. http://therapistunlimited.com/rehabs/Articles/Drug+Rehabs/How+Do+I+pay+for+a+Drug+Rehab
Oregonians Gain Benefit of Parity MH Coverage." Psychiatric News.
40(19): 2. 7 Oct 2005. APA Website. http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/40/19/12
Newspapers and magazines, if they picked up the story, could spread a large amount of information very rapidly, and whether this information was accurate or not it would still cause problems for the drug company that marketed the particular drug (Hilgartner & osk, 1988).
The media, however, is not the only problem where panic resulting from a drug is concerned. Attorneys could also add to the concern by advertising for lawsuits regarding a specific drug. Some of this is already seen with Paxil and other antidepressants, but even a new drug could easily be the object of paranoia if enough attorneys felt that class actions lawsuits were necessary to get the attention of individuals within the medical community. This much of an uproar would also get the attention of the media which would then become involved through the aforementioned news programs and other venues.
If one wanted to generate public…
Goode, Erich. (19900. "The American drug panic of the 1980s: social construction or objective threat?" The International 3 rournal of the Addictions, 25(9): 1083-98
Haines, Herbert H. (1979). "Cognitive claims-making, enclosure, and the depoliticization of social problems." The Sociological Quarterly, 20 (Winter): 119-30
Hilgartner, Stephen, & Bosk, Charles L. (1988). "The rise and fall of social problems: a public arenas model." American Journal of Sociology, 94 (July): 53-78
Levine, Harry G. & Reinarman, Craig. (1988). "The politics of America's latest drug scare." In R. Curry (ed.), Freedom at Risk: Secrecy, Censorship, and Repression in the 1980s. Philadelphia. Temple University Press, pp. 251-8
Drug Use in Adolescents
The author of this report has been charged with writing a brief scholarly report with a few key components. The author of this report has been asked to select a topic of interest. That selected topic shall be substance and drug abuse in adolescents. As part of this scholarly report, there will be three major components. The first will be a description of the area of interest and why the author of this report is interested in it. Second, there will be a brief literature review with scholarly sources that cover that same topic. Finally, there will be a reflection and reaction to the literature review including whether there was agreement, how the author of this report perceives the involved paradigm(s) and so forth. While many kids avoid the pitfalls and negative outcomes of drug use and abuse, many fall prey sometimes or many times and…
Jaynes, S. (2014). Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse
Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators. Journal Of At-Risk
Issues, 18(1), 35-40.
Lanza, H.I., Grella, C.E., & Chung, P.J. (2014). Does Adolescent Weight Status
The author of this report is to answer a few questions relating to drug trafficking. The primary focus of the questions and answers will be on two sources in particular, those being the movie Traffic and the class text authored by Thio, Calhoun and Conyers. The questions include references to the links between drugs and crime, the roles and events surrounding certain people in Traffic and so forth. There will be references other than the two mentioned above throughout the answers, as is required by the parameters of the assignment. While many depict drug use as a victimless crime, this is far from being true and the scope of the people that can be affected by drug use, drug dealing and drug trafficking literally knows no bounds or limits.
There is a heavy amount of examples of how drug use and crime are related, but the author…
Abbey, Antonia. 2011. 'Alcohol's Role In Sexual Violence Perpetration: Theoretical Explanations, Existing Evidence And Future Directions'. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5):481-489.
Helfand, Ezra. 2015. 'U.S. Says Drug Abuse Needs Treatment, Not Just Jail'. NCADD. Retrieved October 16, 2015 (https://ncadd.org/in-the-news/358-us-says-drug-abuse-needs-treatment-not-just-jail).
IMDB,. 2015. 'Traffic (2000)'. IMDb. Retrieved October 16, 2015 ( http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0181865/?ref_=fn_al_tt_1 ).
Thio, Alex, Thomas C Calhoun, and Addrain Conyers. 2013. Deviance Today. Boston: Pearson.
Drugs on the Economy
History of drugs in the United States
How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively
How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen the burden on tax-payers
Wonder drugs like morphine, heroine, and cocaine to mention but a few pose a lot of problems to the entire American society. Americans have had to grapple with the deleterious effects of drug abuse and addiction. estrictions were imposed at the beginning of the 20th Century through domestic and overseas law enforcement to contain the drugs epidemic. Such enforcements were initiated to limit opium and cocoa crops (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2012). This term paper seeks to give a brief history of drugs in the United States of America and subsequently outline how drug use affects the American economy both positively and negatively. The paper also endeavors to list how decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stands…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). Prisoners in 2010 (revised). Retrieved June 22, 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2230
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2012). Illegal drugs in America: A modern
History. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.deamuseum.org /museum_ida.html
Easton, S. (2009). Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2010/03/legalize_mariju.html
Chemical Addiction Progress More apidly in Young People than Adults?
Chemical dependency is the obsessive use of chemicals like drugs, alcohol, and tobacco and the incapacity to stop using them, in spite of all the troubles caused by their use. People with a chemical dependency can stop using for a while but find it hard to start all together. This is where professional help is needed to stop it for life. Those who quit without professional help, typically overcome with an agonizing desire to resume alcohol, tobacco or drug use. Alcohol and drug addiction are progressive diseases. In most, addictions begin gradually and grow until one's life becomes increasingly uncontrollable. As recurring efforts to gain control over the addiction are unsuccessful, life for the person who has developed a chemical dependency begins to fall apart (Chemical dependency, n.d.).
Drug addictions in young people have been found to progresses more quickly…
Chapter 2 -- The Role of PPC in a Managed Care Environment. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kap.samhsa.gov/products/manuals/tips/13b.htm
Chemical Dependency. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aboutdrugtreatment.org/chemical_dependency.htm
Chemical Dependency. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.galaxrecovery.com/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp
Drug and Alcohol Information. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at: