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coli outbreak, with no known restaurant our social event being in common with any cases. This suggests that a grocery store supplier most likely had a contaminated batch of either lettuce or alfalfa. This E. coli, was most likely transmitted by a food handler somewhere along the grocery supply chain. Produce suppliers should be targeted as the next probable source of the virus.
Finding controls for this study would require identifying people who were exposed to the possible sources of the contaminated produce but did not get sick. Controls must have been at risk to the exposure but did not acquire the symptoms seen in those who were identified.
While matching can help a study by minimizing the risk of confounding, I disagree with the studies employment of these criteria. Gender is not really specific to occurrences of E. coli and may serve to distract from…
Stehr- Green, J. (2002). A Multistate Outbreak of E. coli O157:h7 Infection. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, April 2002.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is notorious for its adverse effects on the human body. A bacterium that normally lives in the stomach, some strains of E. coli can cause illness such as diarrhea. The strains most harmful to human beings include E. coli O157:H7 (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011). Food and water contaminated with these harmful strains of E. coli are usually the means by which the bacteria is transmitted; adults usually recover but some patients with weakened immune systems including the elderly and children may die from an E. coli infection (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011). Therefore, it is important to understand the role and various manifestations of the E. coli family of bacteria. Less is known about the potential benefits of E. coli. Some strains of E. coli are touted as beneficial intestinal flora, much like probiotics such as acidophilus. For example, uud (2001) notes that the health benefits…
Ashihara, H. & Crozier, A. (2001). Caffeine: A well-known but little mentioned compound in plant science. Trends in Plant Science 6(9): 407-413.
Douky, N., Toyoda, K. & Aono, R. (2002). Indigo production by Escherichia coli carrying the phenol hydroxylase gene from Acinetobacter sp. strain ST-550 in a water-organic solvent two-phase system. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 60(6): 720-725.
"E. Coli Bacteria: A Future Source Of Energy?" (2008). Science Daily. Retrieved online: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080129170709.htm
"E. coli Has Its Benefits -- Rice University Scientist Honored for Research Converting Glycerine Into High Value Products," (2010). Business Wire. 19 May 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20100519006670/en/E.-coli-Benefits-%E2%80%93-Rice-University-Scientist
outbreaks of E. Coli arising from inappropriate handling of food. In May, 2010, for instance, an Escolar outbreak forced the recall of lettuce in 23 U.S. States, most of it destined for supermarket and restaurant salad bars. This is critical in America today in which almost 50% of meals are prepared and eaten outside the home. So many different products are used to prepare meals in fast-food and convenience restaurants that there are any number of potential contaminants. In this particular case, the FDA is focusing its research on lettuce grown in Arizona. At least 12 people were hospitalized and another 10 cases with probable cause-based specifically on romaine lettuce (Memmott, 2010).
Analysis- I remembered that in the early 1990s there was an E. coli outbreak based on food from Jack in the Box, actually causing children to die. I did some research, finding that 400 people were infected, but…
E. Coli Prevention. (2012). MayoClinic.com. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/e-coli/DS01007 /DSECTION=prevention
Escherichia coli. (2012). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/index.html
Baker, Mallen. (2002.). "Odwalla and the E-coli outbreak." Mallenbaker.net
Corporate Social Responsibility. Cited in:
The main criteria that should be considered is the type of infection based on microbiological evidence. Additionally, it is important to determine whether or not there was onsite mishandling which may have led to E. coli being present on particular products. The scope of the outbreak would also be important, as it would show either a local outbreak, or a more widespread one that would indicate a larger producer.
All steps between harvest and consumption would be needed to facilitate the traceback. Thus, the events from the time of purchase by the customer would be needed to be traced back down the supply chain all the way back to the grower. This means an investigation on the seller, wholesaler, processer, and laborers involved in harvesting the sprouts. The dates of purchase and processing, along with lot numbers, would also be helpful.
The general hypothesis…
Stehr-Green, Jeanette K. (2002). "A Multistate Outbreak of E. coli 0157: H7 Infection." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
"Elimination of these and other pathogens from the lower respiratory tract is made possible by an effective innate immune response, which is necessary yet potentially dangerous to the infected host."
E. coli Outbreak:
There have been numerous E.coli outbreaks over the years. Pakalniskiene, Falkenhorst, Lisby, and Madsen (2009) studied one of the larger single source outbreaks. On November 11th, 2006, there was an outbreak in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark. The director of a high school had contacted the regional health authority to report an outbreak of diarrhea and vomiting among guests of a school dinner party. A total of 750 people, nearly all of the teachers and students at the school, had attended the dinner. The evening, the first people became sick. Three days later, when the director made the report, approximately 200 to 300 teachers and students had reported gastroenteritis. It was found that the fresh basil used in the…
Cegelski, L., Marshall, G., Eldridge, G., Hultgren, S. (Jan 2008). The biology and future prospects of antivirulence therapies. Nature Reviews: Microbiology. (6). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from Proquest.
Hacker, J. & Blum-Oehler, G. (2007). In appreciation of Theodor Escherich. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 5(12) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
Justice, S., Hunstad, D., Cegelski, L., & Hultgren, S. (2008). Morphological plasticity as a bacterial survival strategy. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 6(2). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
Pakaliniskiene, J., Falkenhorst, G., Lisby, M., Madsen, B., Olsen, K., Nielsen, E., Mygh, A., Boel, J., & Molbak, K. (2009). A foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic E. coli and Salmonella Anatum infection after a high-school dinner in Denmark, November 2006. Epidemiology and Infection, 137(3) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
Lac Operon Genetics
Practical 2. Analysis of wild type and lac operon mutant strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli
Complete the results tables below using the data you obtained in the practical.
Describe the size, colour and eosin sheen of the colonies on the EMB plates in Table 1 below.
Large colonies purple
Strong eosin sheen
Large colonies purple
Weak eosin sheen
Small colonies pink
No eosin sheen
Small colonies pink
No eosin sheen
Fill in the fluorescence results for NA+glu and NA+lac in Table 2 below.
NA+glu within 1 minute of MUG overlay
minutes after MUG overlay
minutes after MUG overlay
NA+lac within 1 minute of MUG overlay
minutes after MUG overlay
minutes after MUG overlay
* Record the degree of fluorescence as (-) or (+) or (++) or (+++). Where…
Instituting these measures showed that the company was vitally interested in not only maintaining the company's integrity, professionalism and reputation but also in ensuring that the problems never arose again. Other methods initiated by the company included a program that would test heat cleaning of apples that would kill the bacteria while not affecting the taste of the apples. The company also introduced a process of cleaning and decontamination called "flash pasteurization, which "would guarantee that E-coli had been destroyed whilst leaving the best flavoured juice possible." (Companies 2005).
Some experts wonder why the company did not use the pasteurization method before the outbreak.
"Pasteurization, which involves heat treatment, would have killed the bacteria in the Odwalla products. Health officials said when people drink non-pasteurized juice, they run the risk of becoming sick. They suggest boiling juice first. But authorities also said most juices sold in stores are safe." (E.…
Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry
In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…
American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at www.meatami.com/content/presscentre/factsheets_infobits/FactSheetWorkerSafety.pdf. Accessed 11/28/2003
Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at http://www.res2.agr.gc.ca/orda/pubs/art8_e.htm. Accessed 11/28/2003
Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62
Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London
Amidation of Peptides in Humans
Modern biotechnology has experienced dramatic leaps in the body of knowledge concerning molecular processes in peptides and how they work. Many of these processes rely on amidation of peptides to achieve increasingly important medical and commercial applications. Peptides are created when two or more amino acids are covalently joined by peptide bonds, a process termed post-translational modification. One increasingly valuable application of post-translational modification is amidation. This paper provides an overview of peptides and their role in biological processes, how amidation of peptides works and its importance, and a description of the two functional domains of the PAM enzyme (PHM and PAL) and the roles they play in amidation. An assessment of whether amidation prevents C-terminal degradation is followed by a discussion of which peptides/proteins are susceptible to C-terminal degredation by carboxypeptidase. An analysis of whether E. coli can be modified to perform amidation will…
Allen, J.M. (1963). The nature of biological diversity. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Audesirk, T. & Audesirk, G. (1993). Biology: Life on Earth, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bradbury, A.F. & Smyth, D.G. (1988). Biosynthesis of peptide neurotransmitters: studies on the formation of peptide amides. Physiol Bohemoslov, 37(3), 267-74.
Brighton, P.J., Szekeres, P.G. & Willars, G.B. (2004). Neuromedin U. And Its Receptors: Structure, Function, and Physiological Roles. Pharmacological Review, 56, 231-248.
Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into NA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of NA. Transcription process begins with the DNA double helix unwinding as the hydrogen bonds holding the opposing bases breaks and the DNA strands are uncoupled. The process occurs within the cytoplasm of a prokaryote and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Transcription process consists of three steps; initiation, elongation, termination, and are regulated by transcription factors that include protein products of the genes. The protein products regulate at postranscriptional levels every time.
Initiation of transcription begins with enzyme NA polymerase that identifies and attaches to DNA at the promoter and transcription of the DNA template starts. An initiation complex forms by association of 50 proteins different from each other required by NA polymerase II. NA polymerase synthesizes polynucleotides of NA from the template of DNA.…
Latchman, D. (2009). Eukoryotic Transcription Process. New York: Cengage Learning.
Alvis, F. (2010). New Approach to Translation Process. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Singer, M. (2011). Genes and Genomes. New York: Cengage Learning.
Campbell, M. (2009). Biochemistry. London: Oxford University Press.
The apology should also be publicized creatively, such as by having company representatives stage in-store demonstrations of Odwalla products to underscore their inherent safety and offer free giveaways.
The "former company officials" mentioned in the case are anonymous, have no credentials, and no sources to back up their claim that chlorine washes might prevent bacterial outbreaks. Therefore, Odwalla should ignore the advice to use chlorine washes unless scientific evidences proves their efficacy. Although pasteurization would reduce the potential for future outbreaks, it would not do so with one hundred percent certainty. More importantly, the worst thing Odwalla could do would be to pasteurize its drinks. Their entire business model would go down the drain if they sacrificed the pure quality of their fresh juices.
The solution to the flawed production process is relatively straightforward: Tighter health, hygiene, and safety regulations enforced and practiced throughout the production process. When production rates…
Business Tools & Methods
Business tools and methods
Q1 Hypothesis for a local business: High employee turnover
High employee turnover is caused by the large number of part-time teenagers employed by the company who have school commitments that compete with work.
To test the hypothesis the company could determine if rates of employee attrition tended to increase at times when students tended to have other commitments (such as at the end of summer break or before midterms, finals, and the SATs). Or did attrition have a correlation with other factors, such as the opening of a new business nearby that paid better wages? Did rates spike at the end of the training period (which might highlight a problem with orientation or hiring)? It could compare the rates of attrition of teenagers compared with other employees at the company. It could also compare the rates of part-time vs. full-time workers' attrition.…
Davis, M (2011). U.S. beef consumption in decline. Reuters. Retrieved from:
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
The obesity crisis is, I believe, even more important than problems surrounding food safety-borne epidemics. Despite the recent attention given to obesity in the popular media, obesity is in some ways more difficult to treat than food safety issues. People's consciousness may be raised by a fear if becoming sick through food poisoning and throw out the offending, recalled products on their shelves if they contain salmonella or e.coli, but they seem less willing and/or able to change food habits that have been ingrained within them since childhood.
The diabetes epidemic, along with other illnesses related to obesity (like heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and osteoarthritis) will increase unless more active preventative healthcare measures are undertaken on a wide scale. Limiting the number of fast food restaurants that can be present in a specific area and near schools, along with promoting the spread of grocery stores and farmer's…
Changing lifestyles is a vital aspect of making the community healthier -- as well as the world. Sanitary and healthy cooking conditions are, of course, extremely important to observe and to know about, on an individual basis. Increasing the ease of reporting suspected unsafe conditions is also vitally important. But the relative safety of day-in, day-out food choices -- food choices that are often taken for granted -- also cannot be dismissed.
Engber, Daniel (2009). Does poverty make people poor? Slate. Retrieved November 2, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2229523/
Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.
6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)
In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.
The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…
Technology & Logistics
The author of this report has been asked to answer a fairly general but intriguing question. That question asks the author of this report to define how technology can improve the management of global logistics. Of course, technology can be used to improve logistics in any number of ways. However, the author of this report will center on a few in particular. Indeed, the use of barcodes, networking technology, wireless technology and voice recognition technology are just a few ways and manner in which technology can be used and leveraged to achieve more efficient and error-free logistical performance. While this technology can be daunting and complex, the results garnered from using them effectively is obvious and easy to see.
One example of how technology can aid logistics is through "hidden" barcodes. Most everyone is familiar with the UPC codes used in retail stores to tie an…
Albright, B. (2002). New technology reads 'hidden' bar codes. Frontline Solutions,
Cross, C.S., (2007). Everything but the kitchen. Industrial Engineer, Norcross, 39(4),
A., eynolds, Y., odriguez, G., Camesano, T.A. (2008). Cranberry changes the physicochemical surface properties of E. coli and adhesion with uroepithelial cells. Colloids Surf B. Biointerfaces. 2008 Feb 26 [Epub ahead of print]. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378432?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_esultsPanel.Pubmed_VDocSum
Mirkin, G. (2003). Acid/Alkaline Theory of Disease Is Nonsense. Quackwatch. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryelatedTopics/DSH/coral2.html
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Cranberry. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://nccam.nih.gov/health/cranberry/
Natural Standard esearch Collaboration (2006). Cranberry. MedlinePlus. etrieved April 6, 2008 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-cranberry.html
az, ., Chazan, B., Dan, M. (2004). Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 May 15;38(10):1413-9. Epub 2004 Apr 26. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15156480?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_esultsPanel.Pubmed_VDocSum
Schmidt, D.. & Sobota, a.E. (1988). An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Microbios. 1988;55(224-225):173-81.
Sobota, a.E. (1984). Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment…
The Cranberry Institute. Emerging research. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.cranberryinstitute.org/emerging.htm
Duthie, S.J., Jenkinson, a.M., Crozier, a., Mullen, W., Pirie, L., Kyle, J., Yap, L.S., Christen, P., Duthie, G.G. (2006). The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Eur J. Nutr. 2006 Mar;45(2):113-22. Epub 2005 Jul 20. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16032375?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA
Greenberg, J., Newmann, S.J. & Howell, a.B. (2005). Consumption of sweetened dried cranberries vs. unsweetened raisins for inhibition of uropathogenic Escherichia coli adhesion in human urine: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct;11(5):875-8. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16296921?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA
Liu, Y., Black, M.A., Caron, L. & Camesano, T.A. (2006). Role of cranberry juice on molecular-scale surface characteristics and adhesion behavior of Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006 Feb 5;93(2):297-305.
Corynebacterium diphtheria. The answered . The pdf file attached referenced. The paper written format a scientific paper a microbiology . These textbooks great sources reference: Willey, J.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a bacterium that is pathogenic and is the leading cause of diphtheria. Due to the resemblance in their shape and sizes, bacteria and archaea were earlier classified as one but on discovery of their metabolic and biochemical differences, it was determined that they had different evolution histories. The bacillus falls under the nonlipophilic fermentative bacteria in classification. Structurally, it possesses cell membranes formed from a combination of the hydroxyl group and fatty acids. Unlike the bacteria, the archaea has linkages that contain ether bonds (Willey, 2003). The cell wall of C.diphtheriae is made up of peptidoglycan bonds which is a great variance from that of the archaea which contains no such bonds. Another major cutting edge factor that classifies C.diphtheriae…
Lammert, J.M. (2007). Techniques in Microbiology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
McClane, B.A., & Mietzner, T.A. (1999). Microbial pathogenesis: a principles-oriented approach: Fence Creek Pub.
Willey, J.M., Sherwood, L.M., & Woolverton, C.J. (2003). Prescott's Microbiology (8 ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
(De Leon, 2010)
Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). Retrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCRFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFERDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html
Middle school officials have been reporting a rash of mysterious absences recently. Upon examining information given by those officials and corellated by health department staff there appears to be a pattern to the absences. In the month of April there were only minor similarities in time and occurence of these absences in two schools. In contrast, in the month of May there were quite a few absences in two of the schools, Jackson and Truman, but not in the others.
The similarities first appear in the period of late April to early May, but those are few in number. The spike in absences occurs in May, from the 19th to 25th. There are two hypotheses for these occurences. The first hypotheses is that the absences are due to something as simple as the common cold. The second hypotheses for the spike in absenses is food poisoning or a…
Community Health dept. Intranet Kaplan.edu
Food Poisoning. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.livestrong.com/article/17793-common-causes-poisoning/#ixzz1E6UcQg57
West Nile Virus. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm
Due to the fact that Odwalla does not pasteurize its products and, therefore, it preserves the initial texture, but also internal microorganisms (E. Coli), an unfortunate incident occurred in Florida, leading to the sickness of 60 persons. Specialists made a connection between the sickness and the Odwalla fruit juice, so the Corporation was somehow made responsible for the situation created.
Action plan: The consultancy company that handles this case submits you the following action plan:
1. Organize a formal press statement that would be later on made public through all media and communication channels. The aim is to:
a) Apologize and explain to customers the reasons that led to this situation (the desire of the company to offer natural products, in contrast to synthetic ones);
b) Highlight once again the positive implications of using Odwalla products - offering strength, more energy, vitamins, etc., as well as enumerating the negative consequences…
Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…
Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical
Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).
Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,
Whee Google elies on seach tems to tigge the display of a given
AdWods advetisement, it can be seen how Facebook wanted to ceate the
equivalent advetising business model though the use of social netwoking
and inteactions tiggeing which ad was shown. The ethics howeve of
tacking visits and activities on affiliate sites of cuent and pevious
Facebook membes, in addition to monitoing those visitos who have neve
opted in to Facebook yet ae being monitoed based on affiliate site click-
though taffic, is toubling. The lack of tanspaency about the entie
pogamme and the use of Beacons to become the foundation of a social
netwoking equivalent of Google AdWods is also toubling. In shot, all
these factos detact fom tust that Facebook visitos and uses have of
the site and thei futhe lack of communication on the issue just adds to
the deteioating tust visitos and paticipants on the…
references due to perceived
superiority combine to create a major roadblock in Nokia's efforts to re-
enter the market. When these factors are taken into account the key
obstacles Nokia needs to overcome in order to gain entry into the North
American market are made all the more difficult to overcome.
These key obstacles Nokia has to overcome in order to successfully enter
the North American market include addressing their weakness at successfully
partnering with service providers in general and content providers
specifically; the need for speeding up new product development and
Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon
Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (owen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (owen).
Insulin and Glucagon
The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…
Biomed (2002). Insulin/glucagons. Brown University. Retrieved on November 25, 2013
Bowen, R.A. (2001). Hormones, receptors and control systems. University of Colorado.
Retrieved on November 25, 2013 from http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/index.html
Lifebuoy saves the Day": The importance of hand-washing
There is an old nursery rhyme: "for want of a nail, the shoe was lost, for want of a shoe, the horse was lost, for want of a rider, the horse was lost." This rhyme's meaning is simple: seemingly inconsequential carelessness can be very significant and ignoring proper precautions can have grave consequences. This principle can clearly be seen in the importance of hand-washing with soap. Soap is a simple, everyday commodity but it is vitally necessary to remove the dirt, oils, and residue that carry viruses and bacteria from the outside environment into our bodies.
Nurses, doctors, and food service personnel are all required to wash their hands by law, to avoid spreading communicable diseases. Diseases spread due to a lack of proper sanitation span from influenza to E. coli and salmonella poisoning to drug-resistant bacteria. The consequences of not washing…
lost book. The idea is to have a sticker that contains a code, by which an item can be located. If you are looking for an item, it will be equipped with a signal that, when you ask for it, will respond.
A variation on this technology already exists in the logistics field, where the FID concept was adapted to use Bluetooth and smartphone apps. Bluetooth Low Energy technology that sits dormant is utilized. Apple has its iBeacon, and commercial uses for this are in development stages already (Swedberg, 2013). If a model can be developed that will support some sort of signal that can ping back to the phone when the app calls it, this will allow people to locate any strip. They can then put the strip on anything they don't want to lose, be in a book or a laptop, or a wallet or car keys. The…
"America in the 1920's" (2014). HistoryLearningSite.co.uk Retrieved December 8, 2014 from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/America_economy_1920s.htm
EPA. (2014). Drinking and wastewater infrastructure protection. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved December from http://www2.epa.gov/homeland-security-research/water-system-security-and-resilience-homeland-security-research
GSL. (2014). GSL Rainwater harvesting. CCRWH.com. Retrieved December 8, 2014 from http://www.ccrwh.com/earthship-biotecture.html
Orenstein, D. (2000). Application programming interface. Computer World. Retrieved December 8, 2014 from http://www.computerworld.com/article/2593623/app-development/application-programming-interface.html
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Water is very important for life. Indeed, the processes of life, both external and internal even, at the cellular and the molecular level, are governed by water. Without water, most living organisms suffer from what is known as water stress.
This water stress can be due to the loss of water or dehydration. Desiccation is a special case of dehydration where drying takes place in air. Alternatively, another form of water stress is due to the excessive accumulation of salts. This is relatedly called osmotic stress. Osmosis seeks to reduce this accumulation by moving fluids across a concentration gradient. While most living beings cannot survive without water, lesser species belonging to the eukarya group -- that includes both bacteria and a more primitive organism archaea show remarkable tolerance to water stress.
Responses to water stress takes place at a supracellular level as well as a cellular…
Bartels, D., & Salamini, F. (2001). Desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. A contribution to the study of drought tolerance at the molecular level. Plant Physiol, 127(4), 1346-1353.
Billi, D., Friedmann, E.I., Hofer, K.G., Caiola, M.G., & Ocampo-Friedmann, R. (2000). Ionizing-radiation resistance in the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis. Appl Environ Microbiol, 66(4), 1489-1492.
Breeuwer, P., Lardeau, A., Peterz, M., & Joosten, H.M. (2003). Desiccation and heat tolerance of Enterobacter sakazakii. J Appl Microbiol, 95(5), 967-973.
DiRuggiero, J., Santangelo, N., Nackerdien, Z., Ravel, J., & Robb, F.T. (1997). Repair of extensive ionizing-radiation DNA damage at 95 degrees C. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. J Bacteriol, 179(14), 4643-4645.
TACO BELL CASE STUDY.
A2034298 Taco Bell Case Study
On 30th November 2006, officials of Taco Bells Corporation learned that many of their customers had gotten sick with a virulent strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from eating in one of their restaurant chains in New Jersey. Many cases of E. coli bacteria relating to the Taco Bell kept popping up throughout the Northeast in New Jersey, Delaware, New York and Pennsylvania. Majority of the victims infected were vegetarian, making authorities focus on the produce instead of the ground beef. Green onions got suspected to be the cause of these outbreaks; there was extensive testing of Taco Bell ingredients determined to be the source. As word of this quickly reached the media, more cases continued to be seen. People started asking if the food in Taco Bell would be safe to eat. What caused the E. coli? What were the…
Allison A. Perry, Cynthia G. Reimer, Ross R. Swanes, James O'Rourke and Eugene D. (2004). Taco Bell E. coli Outbreak: Dealing with the News Media. Fanning Center for Business Mendoza College; University of Notre Dame. Available at:
http://business.edu/uploaded files/Academic centers/fanning center for business- communication/cases/TacoBellecolioutbreakDNC.pdf
Intensity is directly correlated due to what E.coli poisoning does to the individual affected by it. Symptoms of E. coli include stomach cramps that may be severe and diarrhea that may turn bloody within one to three days. E. coli sometimes can lead to complications including kidney failure. (MSNBC, p.2) the response by the government is a massive recall of the tainted product, and news reports to let product consumers know that there is cause for concern and a need to be aware of current product conditions. If this were a shipment of tainted meat to a store in somewhere, Al. there would only be a need for local officials to make a small recall and deal on a local level. This directly correlates to the model.
Kim, & Lee, (2001). Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management (1st ed.). New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc..
MSNBC.online (2007, 06/09/07). Meat…
Kim, & Lee, (2001). Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management (1st ed.). New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc..
MSNBC.online (2007, 06/09/07). Meat recall expands again on E. Coli Fears. Breaking News, pp.1-2. Retrieved 06/09/07, at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19092079/
Such biodegradable batteries have the ability to last 3 to 4 times longer than the lithium ion batteries in use today. It is not just the average consumer who is interested in these products but the military is also extremely interested in using such sugar-powered batteries. The portability of such devices would be appropriate for the extreme mobility required in the battlefield. It would also be suitable in emergency situations when access to electricity and other vital gasoline supply lines are cut off. Using any kind of sugar source available in the vicinity would be enough to charge up the batteries. (Fuel cell batteries that run on sugar) The energy needs of the U.S. Armed Forces are extremely high and the Department of Defense requires a constant supply of fuel for its military jets. Therefore, as per the instructions of the U.S. Congress, DOD and DAPA have also evinced interest…
Centi, Gabriele; Santen, Rutger A. van. Catalysis for renewables.
Dinham, Barbara; Hines, Colin. Agribusiness in Africa.
Africa World Press. 1984.
prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…
1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.
3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/actionplan/html/
4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
Mass Culture and Popular Culture and Studying Bestsellers Books
This paper takes into account the differences in the best sellers written in the 1980's and in the 1990's. It also focuses on the themes of the best sellers from the two decades and what makes them appealing to the society.
Mass culture and popular culture and studying bestsellers books
In this day and age, books are being written with a motive to inculcate motives, teaching the readers a lesson every time they open the book.
Good books always serve as a constructive way to provoke idle thoughts. Women started writing as a profession back in the early 1800's. They started off writing articles for magazines, containing information on fashion, science, household tips, and covering other domestic issues. These magazines trained every woman with the proper code of etiquette, style and manner of dressing nicely even motivated women from the lower…
Barbara Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed
Dave Pelzer, A Child Called it
Eric Schlosser, Fast Food Nation
Validation of Commercial Baking as an Effective Step to Control/Inactivate Salmonella in Baked Products
Major findings, analysis and conclusions
Description of the baking industry and baking emphasis in the United States.
Purpose and structure of importance
Description of the problem being addressed and its importance to the practice of applied food safety
Process of Consultation
Outline how the client (ABA) will be engaged and carefully define the problem
Identification of key stakeholders
Overview and feedback of findings and results
ecommended actions and dissemination of these recommendations
Plans for implementation and measurement
Major findings. The U.S. had approximately 167,600 baker positions available in 2012 and around 6% of these were self-employed (Bakery business, 2016). Although industry analysts project sustained growth in the U.S. baking industry, this growth will not be on par with other industries (Bakery business, 2016). Currently, the U.S. baking industry is a nearly $310 billion industry that has…
About us. (2016). American Bakers Association. Retrieved from http://www.american bakers.org/.
Albion, R. G. & Williamson, H. F. (1944). The growth of the American economy: An introduction to the economic history of the United States. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Bakery business. (2016). SBDC Net. Retrieved from http://www.sbdcnet.org/small-business-research-reports/bakery-business-2014 .
Baking industry economic impact study, 2016). American Bakers Association. Retrieved from http://www.americanbakers.org/industry-data/.
Health experts declared that if Jack in the ox Inc. restaurants had obeyed Washington State's set of laws, the outbreak of an epidemic would have been prevented. Jack in the ox, on January 22, 1993, guaranteed "to do everything that is morally right for those individuals who had experienced illness after eating at Jack in the ox restaurants as well as their families." Due to the negative publicity the company was facing, Robert Nugent substituted his public relations firm. Moreover, they instantaneously stopped their hamburger production, "recalled meat from distributors, increased cooking times and temperatures, and pledged to pay all medical costs related to the disaster." Jack in the ox used the services of Dr. David Theno, in order to come up with a brand new food-handling method.
In 1994, they instituted the fast-food industry's first comprehensive food-safety program, the Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points system. Today, they…
ADVFN PLC. (1999-2007) Stock Charts for Jack in the Box (JBX). Retrieved Jan 31, 2008 from ADVFN Web site: http://www.advfn.com/nyse/StockChart.asp?stockchart=JBX
Sellnow, T.L.&Ulmer, R.R (1995). Ambiguous argument as advocacy in organizational crisis communication. Argumentation & Advocacy. Retrieved Jan 31, 2008, from Department of Defense USA Web site: http://www.ou.edu/deptcomm/dodjcc/groups/02C2/Jack%20in%20the%20Box.htm
Crisis Communication Strategies. (2008) Analysis Case Study: Jack in the Box E. coli crisis. Retrieved Jan 31, 2008 from Department of Defense USA Web site:
SWOT esource and Capability
Ethics and Social esponsibility
Fundamental principles of ethical leadership comprise of having honesty and integrity, taking note of all stakeholders, building community, and respecting the individual. Leaders ought to seek solutions to a sequence of significant questions prior to reaching a decision regarding an issue that is not clearly either ethical or unethical (DuBrin, 2016). The leader in question is Mary T. Barra, the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of General Motors Company. Barra is considered to be a fantastic leader that is extensively respected around the industry, trusted by consumers across the globe, admired by the company's board and well-regarded by her personnel. Meticulously and transparently, Barra has restored trust and vivacity in the organization when it had been destroyed by a number of inconsiderate predecessors. In addition, Barra shaped General Motors' global footprint by bringing an end to Chevrolet sales in Europe and…
Giang, V. (2013). The 7 Types of Power That Shape the Workplace. Business Insider. Retrieved from: http://www.businessinsider.com/the-7-types-of-power-that-shape-the-workplace-2013-7?IR=T
Schneer, J. (2010). The Balfour Declaration: the origins of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Bond Street Books.
The salmonella bacteria had been the twentieth century’s archetypical organism causing food poisoning, highly notorious for the 1988-89 crisis of salmonella in eggs. By that time, however, it had already been a topic of scientific and public health focus for more than a hundred years. Previously linked to animal foods, phage typing’s introduction during the 1940s started revealing the complex nature of its associations with its environment (Hardy, 2004).
The salmonella bacterium resides in living beings’ intestines. A majority of individuals contract salmonella infection after consuming feces-contaminated foods. Salmonella is an umbrella term referring to the cluster of bacteria giving rise to salmonellosis or salmonella infection within the intestinal tract. Different forms of salmonellosis include typhoid fever, enteric fever, food poisoning, and gastroenteritis. Salmonella poisoning has typically been associated with contaminated foods or water, particularly eggs, meat, and poultry. Disease symptoms, which typically manifest…
Fast Food Nation
The Ramifications of Technology on Health Care and elfare of Animals and Meatpacking orkers in "Fast Food Nation" by Eric Schlosser
In the book "Fast Food Nation" by Eric Schlosser, newfound information about the behind-the-scenes operations of fast food establishments such as the well-known McDonald's, had been discussed critically. In revealing the 'hidden operations' behind the production of merchandise associated with the fast food industry such as meat production, Schlosser was able to convey his message that technology had been more of a detriment than beneficial to consumers of these fast food establishments.
In arguing his position that the fast food industry was detrimental to consumers, he provided examples in which the technology of machinery had led to developments that only increased the chances of dangerous diseases to spread and thrive and worsened the conditions in which meatpackers worked. Moreover, these detrimental effects of technology had important…
Schlosser, E. (2002). Fast Food Nation: the dark side of the all-American meal. NY: Perennial Books.
Food Supply Safe and Adequate?
The question to be answered in this essay is whether or not America's food supply is adequate and safe. The two issues are related.
One of the reasons America has an ample food supply is because of advances made in the biochemistry of agriculture. This affects food coming from both animals and plants.
New advances in herbicides have helped farmers increase the size of their crops. The newer herbicides are biodegradable and rapidly change from something that poisons some living things to chemicals not known to cause harm to plants or animals. Some people worry any time chemicals are added to the food chain, but farmers will argue that they need to make the most effective use of their efforts and their land.
Similar arguments can be made about fertilizers. Most people know that unless farmland is enriched, eventually it will become so depleted that…
Vaccines have all but eliminated some diseases that were once pandemics or epidemics like polio and smallpox. The power of vaccines to control infectious diseases cannot be underestimated, and can promote public health worldwide. However, new strains of existing diseases like influenza and potent viruses like HIV continue to plague researchers. Of the various epidemics and pandemics currently facing the international community, all are concerns but it is possible that influenza will become the gravest threat to humanity because of its continual mutations and changes.
The international research community needs to respond to influenza by more aggressive programs in vaccine development, designing new vaccines using methods like those described by Berkeley in his Ted talk. Every few years, a new type of infectious disease becomes a pandemic, according to Berkeley, and this means that the research community around the world must work tirelessly to target new expressions of the same…
Berkeley, Seth. "HIV and Flu: The Vaccine Strategy." TED Talks. Retrieved online: https://www.ted.com/talks/seth_berkley_hiv_and_flu_the_vaccine_strategy?language=en#t-35482
Campbell, Patricia J., MacKinnon, Aran and Stevens, Christy R. An Introduction to Global Studies. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
On the other hand, induced mutations are caused by natural or man-made mutagens, which alter the structure or sequence of DNA. The spontaneous mutation frequency, which is the mutants/viable cell, is relatively low.
It is essential to understand the nature of mutations because they contribute to genetic variance in a population to ensure its survival. Bacteria are easy to study because they very short reproductive and life cycles. This lets an observer study multiple generations in a very short period of time. The relatively low frequency of mutations in a population will only result in the survival of a few in the event of a biological calamity. However, the progeny of the survivors will inherit the mutant strain as well, ensuring the continuity of the species. This would be a boon to humans; to know that the species will survive even global pandemics.
However, this phenomenon also has an adverse…
Bouchelion et al. "Newcombe Experiment Biol302" 23 November 2008. 22 February
2011 http://userpages.umbc.edu/~bueltod1/index.html .
Team UPS. "Newcombe Experiment: A study of mutation in Escherichia Coli." 26
November 2008. 22 February 2011 http://upsbiol302.wordpress.com .
The Flint, Michigan water crisis has become a poster child for environmental injustice, environmental racism, and inequitable resource distribution in the United States. It has also represented a case of bleak mismanagement of precious natural resources and the inability of the United States to adequately respond to the most basic human needs. The water crisis was but a grim manifestation of decades of racist land use policies and political realities, which can be traced back to periods of segregation and the white flight to the suburban sprawl. Moreover, the Flint water crisis showcases the role government plays in colluding with polluters, with issues related to the not in my back yard (NIMBY) phenomenon also relevant in this case. As Bell (2012:28) points out, “environmental justice...concerns patterns of inequality in the distribution of environmental goods.” Flint residents lacked access to environmental “goods,” such as clean drinking water given the long-term contamination…
The typical American diet is one high in sugars and processed foods. Accordingly, The United States has earned the unfortunate nickname of "Fast-food Nation." The initiation of the rapid growth in fast-food consumption rates in America is likely a result of this country's lack of a widely embraced and highly diverse national cuisine. The United States as a country is truly a melting pot for cultures, religions, ethnicities and beliefs. This vast assortment has certainly carried over into the world of food. That is, most Americans have easy access to a large array of different cuisines on a daily basis and this chronic presence of other cultural food choices has virtually destroyed any possibility of creating a truly American cuisine. Therefore, American citizens along with the rest of the world have transfixed fast-food into this national category. Without question, on the global stage, McDonald's and urger King are…
Allison, C. (2010, May). Barbecue Master. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://barbequemaster.blogspot.com/2010/05/chopped-pork-bbq-sandwich-with-sam-dog.html
Baker, E.A., Schootman, M., Barnidge, E., & Kelly, C. (2006, July). The Role of Race and Poverty in Access to Foods That Enable Individuals to Adhere to Dietary Guidelines. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research Practice and Policy, 3 (3).
Bedell, J. (2008). Food, Fitness, Obesity and Diabetes in the Bronx. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from New York City Department of Health: www.phanyc.org/files/food-fitness-obesity-in-bronx-bedell.ppt
Block, J.P., Scribner, R.A., & DeSalvo, K.B. (2004). Fast Food Race/Ethnicity, and Income: A Geographic Analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27 (3).
In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:
Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.
Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.
American Cancer Society.: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.
Brown, J. (2001) Nutrition During and After Cancer Treatment A Guide for Informed Choices by Cancer Survivors. Ca Cancer J. Clin. 2001; 551: 153.
Doyle, Leonard (2009) New Film Exposes Unsavory Side of U.S. Food Industry. 14 Jun 2009. Telegraph online available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/film-news/5533075/New-film-exposes-unsavoury-side-of-U.S.-food-industry.html
Jemal, A. et al. (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 27 May 2009.
Public Health Preparedness
The concept of 'public health preparedness' (PHP) has been garnering recognition worldwide, given the global-scale threats which are constantly encountered by professional healthcare organizations, including bioterrorism, Ebola, the West Nile Virus, and influenza. Preparedness approaches have brought about improvements in the overall healthcare system, by enabling swifter responses to diverse kinds of hazards across the globe. A majority of PHP measures adopted in America are government-judged; this gives rise to concerns pertaining to militarization. Still, preparedness programs in other country-level settings don't essentially indicate comparable implications. The global significance of health sector preparedness has served to increase governmental need of resolving the concern by means of financing, advances, and maintenance approaches which aid speedy response to every kind of crisis. However, akin to all other ideas, the PHP concept is also accompanied by certain major challenges, like the threat of public health militarization. Yet the associated advantages…
Eisenstein, R., Finnegan, J. R., & Curran, J. W. (2014). Contributions of Academia to Public Health Preparedness Research. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 4), 5 -- 7.
Khan, Y., Fazli, G., Henry, B., de Villa, E., Tsamis, C., Grant, M., & Schwartz, B. (2015). The Evidence Base of Primary Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Scoping Review and Stakeholder Consultation. BMC Public Health, 15, 432. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1750-1
Moore, S., Mawji, A., Shiell, A., & Noseworthy, T. (2007). Public Health Preparedness: A Systems-Level Approach. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(4), 282 -- 286. http://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2004.030783
Nelson, C., Lurie, N., Wasserman, J., & Zakowski, S. (2007). Conceptualizing and Defining Public Health Emergency Preparedness. American Journal of Public Health, 97(Suppl 1), S9 -- S11. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.114496
popularity of foreign restaurant: consumer attitude and behavior toward foreign cuisines in Bangkok
Thailand as a tourist destination
Thailand has become a tourist destination hotspot for its scenic beauty, the humble nature of their people, and the relative value of foreign currencies relative to the baht. According to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Growth in the tourism industry in recent years was the result of the depreciation of the baht against non-Asian currencies (which improved competitiveness relative to destinations outside the region), aggressive marketing campaigns and an increase in the number of airlines offering flights to Thailand." (EIU ViewsWire, 2003)
Additionally, according to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Tourist arrivals rose by 5.8% to just over 10m in 2001, despote the global economic downturn and the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S., bringing in Bt 295bn (U.S. $6.6 bn) in revenue. Thailand benefited from its reputation as a safe and stable society and…
"A century of certification," 2003, Health and Hygiene, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 12-12-13.
Anne-Mette Hjalager & Magda, A.C. 2000, "Food for tourists -- determinants of an image," The International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 281-281.
Asia's Biggest Sourcing Event for Foods and Beverages Ever Kicks Off This Week 2011,, PR Newswire Association LLC, United States, New York.
Chen, M. 2009, "Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle," British Food Journal, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 165-165-178.
And in response to big power lobbying, Senate and House Republicans on the Agriculture appropriations inserted a provision in 2005 into the department's budget, which would allow the use of certain artificial ingredients in organic foods. Many players in the organic industry today also argue that they are willing to use some synthetics in producing organic food. Joseph Mendelson and other advocates of strict organic standards argue that these provisions will open a "Pandora's box," allowing big organic food producers to lobby for further loosening of the USDA standards (arner).
The downsides of big food producers going organic is well-illustrated by the experience of hole Foods Market. It grew out of a small vegetarian store opened by Mackay and his girlfriend in 1978 in a garage in Austin, Texas. In 1992, the company went nationwide, opening stores in several cities. Now, the company owns more than two hundred stores across…
Cloud, John. "Eating Better Than Organic." Time Magazine. 2 March 2007. Web. 22 March 2011.
"It's Easy Being Green: Organic vs. Conventional Foods -- the Gloves Come Off. Center for American Progress. 10 September 2008. Web. 22 March 2011.
"Organic Foods: Are They Safe? More Nutritious?" MayoClinic. Web. 22 March 2011.
"Organic Food Sales See Healthy Growth: Mainstream Food Companies Promote Natural Brands" MSNBC. 3 December 2004. Web. 22 March 2011.
While this is a future that is heralded by some as the next logical step in our own evolution -- why let it occur haphazardly and slowly if it can be accomplished through careful planning and design? -- others see this stance as full of dangerous hubris, and an insistence that humanity knows best despite the fact that it has shown itself time and time again willing to grossly misuse available technologies to detrimental ends. The synthetic creation of other "persons" and even the alteration of existing human beings is fraught with many ethical considerations, not the least of which is the fact that we simply don't know what we don't know -- the effects of such synthesis are likely to be surprising and unexpected, despite the best of intentions and the most careful planning.
This is no surprise to you, of course; you played your hand very close to…
Other possibilities using the techniques of synthetic biology are not so certain. AMny fear that such knowledge and capabilities will lead to the eventual genetic altering of mankind, and perhaps even the purposeful creation of an alternative being that will supplant humanity with a new race of "persons," possibly humanoid but in reality synthetically designed to be better than humans in their interactions with the world, use of resources, et cetera (Oxford 2008). While this is a future that is heralded by some as the next logical step in our own evolution -- why let it occur haphazardly and slowly if it can be accomplished through careful planning and design? -- others see this stance as full of dangerous hubris, and an insistence that humanity knows best despite the fact that it has shown itself time and time again willing to grossly misuse available technologies to detrimental ends. The synthetic creation of other "persons" and even the alteration of existing human beings is fraught with many ethical considerations, not the least of which is the fact that we simply don't know what we don't know -- the effects of such synthesis are likely to be surprising and unexpected, despite the best of intentions and the most careful planning.
This is no surprise to you, of course; you played your hand very close to your chest with evolution for years, fearing the effects it would have on society and on science. History has definitely shown that caution is prudent, and the way you lived your life is excellent evidence of this as well. Before folks go rushing off armed with your ideas, they ought to take a moment to get to know you, as well.
Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).
There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…
CDC. (2009). "Malaria." Accessed 22 September 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/Malaria/index.htm
But after local wastewater plants were "...upgraded and farms' management practices were improved, the amount of phosphorus declined and the copper sulfate was no long considered necessary" (Royte, 2007). The Times' story reports that to prevent the dumping of partially treated sewage water into the waterways, septic tanks need to be upgraded and "cleaning the water in sewage treatments plants even more thoroughly before it is discharged into the watershed..." is necessary. That will be quite a job, because "more than two dozen of the roughly 100 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the city's watershed use a suboptimal cleaning process."
TO: The flooding problem. hy has it become a more serious problem in recent years? Taking New York City as an example of the problem and its roots, the New York Times article alluded to in the previous section points out that recently, as developers began clearing more and…
Clausen, Jan. (2000). Northwest Tribes Fight Against Formidable Odds to Save Endangered
Salmon. Nation. 270(3), 22-24.
Gelt, Joe. (2005). Managing the Interconnecting Waters: The Groundwater-Surface Water
Dilemma. University of Arizona. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2007, at http://cals.arizona.edu/axwater/arroyo/081con.html .
Recalls of tainted meat by government authorities
Consumers don't know when and where it's being recalled from III. The Solution -- Disclosure
The Case Against Disclosure
hy Disclosure, ethically, is the right thing to do.
"Tastes like (the California State Legislature is being) Chicken"
Public threats to health and safety in the food industry pose unique ethical quandaries for public health officials. On one hand, full disclosure seems to be the best option. No one wants people, especially children, becoming ill, from tainted food. Even from a capitalist's potentially self-interested perspective, nothing was worse for the fast food industry when a child died from e.coli poisoning from a Jack n' the Box hamburger. Eric Schlosser's landmark Fast Food Nation, the expose of the hamburger and fast food industry was the result, and sales of the chain have been plummeting since the revelation.
However, on the other hand, no…
Lee, Mike. (October 2, 2004)"Recall data to remain secret: Bill to release details on retail sales of possibly tainted meat vetoed by governor." The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved on October 3, 2004 at http://www.sacbee.com/content/business/story/10948904p-11866241c.html
Schlosser, Eric. (2001) Fast Food Nation. Houghton Mifflin, 2001.
USDA treats those details as confidential business information and says secrecy is the key to getting cooperation from meat companies.
Immunology - Toll-Like receptors
The family of Toll-like eceptors has gained in importance since the discovery that they could be potential regulators and controllers of the immune response system in the human body as they are capable of recognizing the molecular patterns that are associated with pathogens. It was found that Toll-like eceptors are capable of recognizing endogenous ligands, as well as microbial components and those Toll-like receptors are activated by small-molecular-mass synthetic compounds and for these reasons the Toll-like eceptors are significant in that they are potential targets for the development of new therapies for several diseases. (Toll-like receptors as potential therapeutic targets for multiple diseases)
Toll eceptors were first found in an insect, the fruit fly Drosophila and these receptors were found to play a significant part in the innate immunity by the recognization of microbial particles and also by triggering the immune cells against the source of…
Cohen J; Hopkins P. (April 6, 2002) "Toll-like receptors: the key to the stable door?" Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& ; db=PubMed& list_uids=11983029& dopt=Abstract Accessed on 12/20/2004
Imler, Jean-Luc; Zheng Liangbiao. "Biology of Toll receptors: lessons from insects and mammals" Retrieved from http://www.jleukbio.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/1/18 Accessed on 12/20/2004
Lin-fu Zhou; Kai-sheng Yin "Toll-like receptors: function and roles in asthma." Retrieved from http://www.cmj.org/information/full.asp?id=1817 Accessed on 12/20/2004
"Multidisciplinary UI Team Awarded Grant to Study Innate Immune System" (November 24, 2003) Retrieved from http://www.uihealthcare.com/news/news/2003/11/24microbes.html Accessed on 12/20/2004
Schlosser: Fast Food Nation
The fast food industry has been infused into the every nook and corner of American Society over the last three decades. The industry seen to have originated with a few modest hot dog and hamburger of Southern California have been perceived to have extended to every nook and corner of the nation, marketing an extensive range of food products to which affordable customers are found widely. Fast food is presently provided at restaurants and drive-through, at stadiums, airports, zoos, high schools, elementary schools and universities, on cruise ships, trains, and airplanes, at K-Marts, Wal-Marts, gas stations, and also at hospital cafeterias. As per an estimate the total expenditure of Americans on fast food during 1970 was about $6 billion. (Introduction: Fast Food Nation - The Dark Side of the All-American Meal)
The expenditure had a massive increase to about $110 billion in 2000. Americans presently perceive…
Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser: A Book Club Reading Guide. Retrieved from http://www.bookbrowse.com/reading_guides/detail/index.cfm?book_number=769 Accessed on 25 May, 2005
Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal by Eric Schlosser. Retrieved from http://www.readinggroupguides.com/guides3/fast_food_nation1.asp Accessed on 25 May, 2005
Introduction: Fast Food Nation - The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /books/first/s/schlosser-fast.html Accessed on 25 May, 2005
Rosenberg, Matt. T. Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser. February 2, 2001. Retrieved from http://geography.about.com/library/misc/blffn.htm Accessed on 25 May, 2005
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…
Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our
World. Boston: Conari Press.
Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:
Houghton Mifflin Company.
Describe theory rationale selecting theory. 2. Discuss theory works support proposed solution. 3. Explain incorporate theory project.
Self-efficacy theory and the promotion of hand-washing
According to the Centers for Disease Control, hand-washing is one of the most important ways in which to curtail the spread of a wide range of infections and bacteria. Hand-washing can reduce the risks of contracting the common cold, influenza, and other viruses (Wash your hands, 2012, CDC). It can also lessen the chances that bacteria such as E.coli and salmonella will be transmitted from the preparer of food to the diner, or that contaminants from raw poultry and other meats will be spread to fruits, vegetables, and other components of the meal. Hands should be washed thoroughly after preparing food, using the toilet, dealing with animals or children, or handling garbage. But many people fail to take this simple step.
Hand-washing is one…
Cherry, Kendra. (2012). Self-efficacy. About.com. Retrieved:
Wash your hands. (2012). Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved:
Search for 'Nutrition for a Healthy Body' could lead to Analysis Paralysis!
There has been a lot of social attention on 'right nutrition' in recent years, leading to experimenting in different types of foods including herbal preparations. hile I have no doubt that such heightened social consciousness and continued scientific investigation will ultimately benefit humankind, right now one can't help feeling that too much information can be self-defeating. hy or how am I saying this? Ah! Herein lies a story. You see, the spotlight on 'healthy living' had initially led me to doubt as to whether I knew enough about nutrition.
So, I decided to embark on a quest for more information on healthier nutrition and living. I did my research on the web, where I found approximately 221,000 results to my query. Never one to back away from a task that I set my mind on, I sallied forth…
Organic Foods: Growers, Buyers and Bugs." "Safe and Sound." November-December 1998. Resource web site. URL:
Tea may help protect against heart disease, cancer and osteoporosis." Healthy eating club newsletter. June 2002. URL:
Proctor and Gamble's Distribution System of Tide channel of distributing a product refers to the product's "sequence or marketing intermediaries" that begins after the product has been formulated and created that then pass on the product to the consumer. (Principles of Marketing, 2004, p.5) Proctor and Gamble as a company has recently been commended for using agent-based distribution system modeling. This system is credited with transforming the company. (Anthes, 2003)
According to the HIDC.NewsLetter of 5 May 2004, in an article on distribution systems entitled, "Intelligent Agents "as competition increases and product life cycles shorten" traditional distribution systems "are no longer sufficient for many companies today. Instead, more and more of them are turning to collaboration in supply chains and forming networks of organizations to ensure a competitive advantage. But in such organizational networks, dense and tightly coupled activities increase the difficulty and costs of coordination. Moreover, as the…
Anthes, Gary H. (January 27, 2003) "Agents of Change." Computer World. Retrieved on June 16, 2004 at WWW.COMPUTERWORLD.COM" (COMPUTERWORLD
Case Study: Proctor & Gamble. (20040 New Chain Solutions Newsletter. Retrieved on June 16, 2004 at http://nutechsolutions.com/newsletter/#a4
Happi.com. (May 2002) "The Laundry Detergent Market." Retrieved on June 16, 2004 at http://www.happi.com/current/Jan024.htm
Intelligent Agents." (May 5, 2004) HIDC. Newsletter.
Challenges faced by farmers of a particular food commodity:
The future of the American beef industry (cattle)
Beef is a commodity that has literally defined the American West and thus defined American ideology for many years. But today, "in the meat industry -- beef -- you have four [processors] that control over 80% of the marketplace…it's become much, much more concentrated" (Glickman 2014). Cattle ranchers are under increasing pressure to produce more and more beef, more cheaply. Yet there is also criticism of the industry for being insufficiently concerned about its effect upon human health. Quite simply, the industry cannot survive the dual demands for inexpensive food in America and yet simultaneously meet concerns for greater safety and 'naturalness' in beef handling.
There is a rush to speed the trajectory of feedlot-to-table for calves. The faster calves are produced and the less time they spend grazing…
Broken Harvest. CBC. Retrieved from:
Galvean, M, Ponce, C., & Schutz, J. (2011). The future of beef production in North America.
Animal Frontiers, 1(2) 29-36. Retrieved from: http://www.animalfrontiers.org/content/1/2/29.full
Federal Government Funding
Federal funding has been at the heart of many breakthroughs in medical research in the 20th century (Angela & Chris, 2000). The NIH takes credit for leading the research campaign for many years. The achievements by NIH are many. They include (Angela & Chris, 2000):
educed time frames for the discovery and development of new cures
Lowered the incidence of disease rates among the sick
educed disability levels
Better quality of life through pain reduction and suffering.
Sustaining University research, education and future leading scientists through support
The federal government, through NIH, funds 36% of all the biomedical research in the U.S. The Non-Profit Organizations contribute 7% while the private sector funds 57% (Angela & Chris, 2000).
Although the federal government funds both basic and applied research, it has focused most of the resources on basic research. Basic research is essential in the discovery of…
Angela Ritzert & Chris Edwards. (2000). the Benefits of Medical Research and the Role of the NIH
Wendy H. Schacht. (2011). Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship
Classification of Microorganisms
The world is rife and full of what are known as microorganisms. These microorganisms, also known as microbes, come in a number of different forms. Five in total, these groups are viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi and protozoa. It is important to know why these different groups are classified differently and what each of them do. As is clear to most people, these groups range from the harmless to the useful and even the dangerous. Some groups are combinations of two or more. This brief response will cover each of these at a somewhat detailed level. hile microbes are not visible to the naked eye, they certainly have an effect on our lives.
As noted in the introduction, there are five groups when it comes to microbes. A virus, at its heart, is a microscopic organism that is a tiny bundle of genetic material. That material is shrouded…
Prince Edward Island. "The Microbe World." edu.pa.ca. N.p., 2016. Web. 26 Sept. 2016.
Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…
Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm .
Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.
Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.
Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214 .