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Description, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments
Also known as the Ebola Virus, this an extremely fatal disease found among humans as well as the non-human primate such as chimpanzees, gorillas and monkeys. The disease was discovered in 1976. The disease was named after the river in Democratic epublic of Congo where this disease was first found.
What is Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever?
This is one of the two viruses which originate from the family of NA viruses also known as Filoviridae. There are five clearly defined sub-types of this Ebola Virus which are found among humans. These are known as the Ebola Sudan, Ebola Zaire, Ebola Coast and Ebola Bundibugyo. The last one which is known as Ebola eston is also a subtype but by far it has not been found in the humans and has only affected the non-human primates (Mahy & Peters, 1996).
The exact location or place…… [Read More]
In fact, four workers tested positive for the Ebola virus, but it did not make them sick, and eventually the virus passed from their bodies. The scientists do not know why this occurred, but they did learn that Ebola travels through the air, as well as being spread by blood and blood contact.
At first, it seems as if the people working on the Ebola project are doomed. The virus is extremely deadly, and almost impossible to cure. Fifty to 90% of people infected with the disease will die from it, and death is not quick, it is quite long and extremely painful. The body's blood supply begins to clot, and then not clot, and the virus takes over major organs, such as the liver and intestines, literally destroying them. It is a nasty virus, and in Africa when it broke out in 1976, it wiped out entire villages. Scientists…… [Read More]
An attack of Ebola Virus as a terrorist after an attack.
The Ebola virus can spread through the air if someone coughs or sneezes and their phlegm or liquid comes in contact with someone’s eyes, inside of their mouth, nose or some broken skin on the body like a cut or scrape (WHO, 2014). As a terrorist, the best way to get many people infected would be in a hospital setting or a place where people will sweat a lot and breathe more heavily like inside a gym. This would allow the contamination to be more effective. By sending someone to a gym and coughing around people working out, they would be more likely to contract the virus.
Sweat is also another way to transmit the pathogen, along with semen, vomit, and urine (WHO, 2014). In terms of who would be affected, if the clear choice is a gym,…… [Read More]
Ebola Epidemics – Challenges & Containment In Nigeria
Ebola and Its Origins
There is no known origin of the Ebola virus that emerged with a vengeance in 2014 in West Africa. And while there had been numerous other documented cases of Ebola in Africa, the outbreaks had always been much smaller and confined to a particular locale. In 2014, however, tens of thousands of infections occurred, ranging across seven different African countries (Mari-Saez, Weiss & Nowak, 2015). What caused the outbreak is unclear, though some researchers have speculated that the fruit bat may be, if not the primary source of the virus, at least a transmitter of the virus to humans (Hassanin et al., 2016).
Transmission, Symptoms of Ebola
The fruit has been shown to be a host carrier of the Ebola virus in Africa (Hassanin et al., 2016). As the fruit bat is a source of food in Africa…… [Read More]
Today, there are dozens of deadly diseases in the world, but the Ebola virus disease (alternatively “EVD” or “Ebola”) is among the most virulent and lethal. Although intensive research is underway, there is no cure currently available for Ebola and the death toll attributable to this disease continues to increase. To date, there have been nearly 30,000 cases of Ebola infections that caused more than 11,000 deaths, primarily in West Africa, but the disease has the potential to spread worldwide unless first responders, emergency management managers and the health care community take aggressive steps to identify infections and contain outbreaks. The main purpose of this study is to provide a systematic and critical review of the relevant juried, scholarly and governmental literature about the Ebola virus disease to create an awareness manual that is targeted at educating Nigerian citizens concerning this disease. A secondary purpose of this study is…… [Read More]
Indigenous Environmental Studies
For this assignment, we choose the problem of deforestation in Africa and it potential link to the outbreak of the Ebola virus. There have been scientific discussions and debates about whether deforestation was the primary cause of the rise and spread of the Ebola virus which is yet to be conclusively proven but there are enough indications to this end. Hence, for this paper, it is proposed to study the possible link between deforestation in Africa to the spread of the deadly virus that resulted in one of the greatest natural disasters for mankind.
Was deforestation the case of west Africa's Ebola outbreak?
Deforestation in Africa -- especially in sub-Saharan Africa is a major problem and a cause of concern for environmentalists as well as for the local population. However, this problem turned out to be a care for the global population after the rapid…… [Read More]
What are Bacteria and Viruses?
The most palpable variance between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which implies that they can be solely perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to proliferate. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release toxins into the blood stream whereas…… [Read More]
Writing a paper about a complex issue such as the Zika virus can be a challenging enterprise, but the model essay presented below provides some useful guidance concerning how to get started, including developing an appropriate thesis, writing an outline and locating relevant content from reliable and legitimate sources. Writing an abstract, introduction and conclusion becomes easier once the preliminary research for the body of the essay is completed.
The Effects of Zika virus on pregnant women
How the Zika virus is spread from country to country
Identifying opportunities to reduce Zika virus infections
Will the Zika virus become a pandemic?
The Epidemiology of the Zika Virus
The Origins and Transmission of the Zika Virus
The Zika Virus: Who is at Risk and What Can be Done?
II. Review and Discussion
A. Background and overview
B. Recent and current trends in…… [Read More]
, 2001). These two simple measures can drastically increase the subsequent spread of infectious disease throughout the country.
In Outbreak, the military institutes martial law to quarantine the infected populace in the town of Cedar Creek. Eventually, the military begins plans to bomb Cedar Creek in an attempt to eradicate the virus, which had thus far proven untenable. hile the concept of the United States government destroying a small town and murdering its populace is likely superlative Hollywood movie-making, the institution of martial law is a realistic and effective approach toward preventing further spread (Yassi et al., 2001).
In addition to the non-medical measures which can be taken to deal with the spread of an infectious agent, there are several medical actions which could be utilized to treat infected invididuals, including antivirals, antibiotics, or vaccines (Yassi et al., 2001). For example, antivirals and vaccines are both being utilized in an…… [Read More]
What are Bacteria and Viruses?
The most basic difference between bacteria and viruses is their size. Whereas both bacteria and viruses are too tiny to notice with the naked eye, most bacteria are about one micrometer in length and can be perceived with a good optical microscope. On the other hand, viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light, which suggests that they can only be perceived by using an electron microscope (Nursing Times, 2006). Infection, every so often the initial phase, takes place when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter the human body and start to multiply. Disease comes about and ensues when the cells in the human body are damaged, as a result of the infection, and signs and symptoms of a disease appear.
Bacterial and viral infections are contaminations caused by bacteria and viruses. Bacteria release poisons known as toxins into the…… [Read More]
" Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .
Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Guillemin, J. "Germ arfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BT Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kellman, B. "Bioviolence: A Growing Threat." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 25-30. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Littlewood, J. "Biological eapons: Much Ado and Little Action." Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning & Policy 45(2) Apr 2007: p. 191-203. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of…… [Read More]
Dr. Paul Hunter's efusal
The Case of Dr. Lukwiya
Justification of the Pressure of health Care
Dr. Paul Hunter's efusal:
Dr Hunter was very straightforward about admitting that he was afraid to treat the patient with monleypox. He did not mince words in saying that he was concerned that if he touched the patient he might get infected with the disease and in turn would end up infecting his children who were under the age 11. He was in fact happy that when the patient tasked himself to be transferred. The doctor tried and stayed away from the patient as much as possible and hence he did not even touch the patient even though he made regular visits to the isolation ward of the hospital. His primary concern was the safety and the life of his children because being doctor he very well knew the threat to life that…… [Read More]
The two most important operations that are executed during a successful response effort are evacuation and hazard or threat containment. Communication is essential to both responses and neither can be achieved without an effective communication effort; however, communication by itself is not a sufficient goal. In an emergency response situation, the two most critical steps are to safely evacuate anyone potentially still in danger and to then effectively contain the threat so that the danger does not spread to other places and risk the lives of others. Victim treatment and apprehension of the perpetrators are important—but in the first stages of response, they are secondary to the immediate goal of getting people to safety, which is always going to be the first and foremost initial concern in any emergency response approach (Haddow, Bullock & Coppola, 2017).
As Ding, Tong, Zhang and Mao (2018) point out, evacuation is one…… [Read More]
isk Analysis and the Security Survey
The following risk analysis and security survey report will be centered on the hospital as an organization. Vulnerabilities can be classified as crime opportunities, opportunities for breaking rules and regulations, opportunities for profiting and also for loss. By definition, vulnerability can be a gap or a weakness inside a security program that might be exploited by opponents to acquire unlawful access. Vulnerabilities include procedural, human, structural, electronic as well as other elements that offer opportunities to damage assets (Vellani and Owles, 2007).
A vulnerability assessment can be classified as a systematic method utilized to evaluate an organization's security position, assess the efficiency of current security infrastructure, as well as, recognize security limitations. The basic approach of a Vulnerability Assessment (VA) first measures what precise assets require protection. Subsequently, VA recognizes the protection measures previously being used to protect those assets, as well as what…… [Read More]
It starts with 2 broad branches -- Psychopathic rapists and Non-psychopathic rapists. In this category, Homolka can be classified to be a Psychopathic rapist. The next classification under psychopathic rapists divides them into opportunistic, pervasively angry and sadistic rapists. Here, the behavior of Homolka can be thought to be sadistic in nature. Under sadistic, there are 2 categories of rapists who are the overt and the muted rapists. Here, Homolka is classified as a muted rapist since her actions were not well pronounced and they were hidden and secret. The acts of rape only came to be known when they came clean to their uncle under the fear that their separation would lead to the rapes being discovered. Therefore according to the MTC:3, Homolka can be thought to be a type 5 rapist.
Under the gross typology there are various categories of rapists. There is the power reassurance rapist who…… [Read More]
The per capita health care expenditures for the United States are exorbitant, particularly when compared to those of other countries. In fact, the spending on health care per person in the U.S. is much more so than that of other developed countries. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), the U.S. led the world in healthcare expenditures per capita at a rate of $8,508 for each person-which translates to approximately 17.7 percent of its Gross Domestic Product (OECD, 2011). Neighboring Canada, meanwhile, spends approximately half of that amount, $4,522, which translates to nearly 11 percent of its GDP. The country that comes the closest to the United States in these two areas of spending is Norway, a developed country in Europe, which spends about $5,669 per person or 11 percent of its GDP. It is interesting to note that a country such as Mexico, which is still…… [Read More]
Future Strategies of eBay
eBay was founded in 1995 by Pierre Omidyar as "AuctionWeb," part of a larger personal site that included, among other things, Omidyar's tribute to the Ebola virus (Wikipedia, 2004). The site belonged to Echo Bay Technology Group, Omidyar's consulting firm. He had tried to register the domain name "EchoBay.com" but found it already taken, so he shortened it to his second choice, "eBay.com." eBay is headquartered in San Jose, California. Meg Whitman has served as eBay's president and CEO since March 1998.
eBay has transformed traditional businesses through technology and understanding consumer needs (Cohen and Lopez, 2002). eBay transformed the ideas of low growth, private party newspaper classified businesses into an auction business. eBay has also revitalized traditional automotive advertising. ecognizing that businesses needed to move obsolete or slow-moving items, but not to "advertise" broadly, eBay created new outlets for major business-to-business and business-to-consumer players.
The…… [Read More]
goal of their ethical calling, physicians, nurses and other health care workers are obliged to treat the sick and potentially infectious patients and, in so doing, they are to take some personal risk (Murray 2003). This was the bottom line of the assessment and stand made by Dr. Henry Masur and his colleagues at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), particularly during the outbreak of dread global SARS in Canada and Hong Kong last year. They also referred to other epidemics, such as the HIV / AIDS.
Masur emphasized that this primary goal and obligation is voluntary and sets the medical profession apart from other professions, precisely because of the involvement of some personal risk in fulfilling that obligation. esides physicians, medical professionals are nurses, dentists and health workers. Records of the first SARS outbreaks in Toronto and Hong Kong showed that a huge 50% of those…… [Read More]
The question to be addressed in this paper is: should society hold back technology in order to protect those workers that are unskilled? It is true that many unskilled laborers have no opportunity to learn digital and other kinds of technology, and indeed many workers who lack skills in modern technology struggle to learn when they are given the opportunity. Hence, in order to protect unskilled workers and their potential, should technology be somewhat scaled back so those unskilled workers are not left out of the economy, and basically denied the opportunity to make a livable wage?
First of all, there can be no holding back of technology no matter how just and fair the reasons might be for doing that. Technology has done so much in a positive light to enhance communication and information worldwide, it would make no sense to attempt to hold it back. Secondly, the…… [Read More]
chief economic principle that must be confronted in the horrifying picture Steven Brill paints in "Bitter Pill: Why Medical Bills Are Killing Us" is the devastating effect caused by economic monopoly. Brill tiptoes around the issue, and basically defines monopoly by the concept of "powerless buyers" -- -but the economic conditions that render buyers powerless are economic conditions that restrict a buyer's freedom of choice, which is precisely the problem with American medicine in Brill's article. Doctors -- or by extension the Medical Industry -- represent a monopoly. There may be a plethora of pharmeceutical companies that exist, and which ostensibly compete under heavily regulated industries (which include a close government supervision on potentially monopolistic new inventions, such that copyrights and patents in pharmaceuticals are guarded under law for a mere fraction of the time that the copyrights and patents, for example, involved with Walt Disney's trademark cartoon character Mickey…… [Read More]
ExxonMobil invested in and assessed its corporate social responsibility?
In recent years, ExxonMobil (hereinafter alternatively "the company") has invested in a wide range of corporate social responsibility (CS) initiatives (Batruch, 2011). For instance, in 2014, the company invested around $1 billion in research and technology development for existing and next-generation energy products and sources (CS at ExxonMobil, 2015). In addition, besides remediating sites that are no longer used by the company, ExxonMobil also manages 7,200 acres of land exclusively for wildlife conservation and environmental awareness programs (CS at ExxonMibil, 2015)
Where has the company invested?
Interestingly, many of the company's CS initiatives have been focused on African nations, including ongoing efforts to combat infectious diseases such as the Ebola virus and promoting women's economic opportunities (CS at ExxonMobil, 2015). In addition, the company, together with a joint partnership (the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation) recently donated millions of dollars worth of…… [Read More]
The state response to Ebola should be a coordinated communications effort. This will serve a number of purposes. First, it will maintain fiscal discipline. Second, communication is key to maintaining public order should there be an outbreak of Ebola. Third, communication helps to reduce the risk of an outbreak, because all members of our community will know how to avoid spreading Ebola.
The recent revelations that the World Health Organization and others botched their response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has done little to calm the public here at home regarding this disease. A government that deals in evidence and has a realistic world view does not need to address irrational panic, but the fact that global and national-level bodies seem challenged to come up with a plan to deal with Ebola places the onus on the state to devise such solutions. Already, some states, such as…… [Read More]
These efforts include: expansion of international efforts to prevent terrorist acquisition of biological agents, initiated Bioatch program to detect initial releases of biological weapons within the environment, launched food programs to carefully inspect foods for potential bioagents (with greater focus on foreign foods), expanded bioterrorism research (including Project Bioshield, a program to develop medical ripostes to biological agents), and increased medical stockpiles and training for dealing with bioterrorism attacks (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, & Korch; Petsko; Fidler & Gostin). These efforts will help to both prevent the initial release of any biological agents within the general populace or environment, as well as effectively treat afflicted individuals and slow spread through appropriate treatments.
Once biological agents are released into the general population, the extent of disease spread and number of individuals afflicted will be significantly affected by the role and effectiveness of the government through quarantine and treatment (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, &…… [Read More]
She is said to have refused to stop being a cook and this led to infection of people in a New York maternity hospital consequently she was re-arrested by the health officers and taken back to quarantine in 1915 till her death in 1938. This sparked a lot of human rights issues concerning quarantine as never before.
The typhoid pandemic in New York went hand in hand with the poliomyelitis pandemic that began in 1916. The health officers began to separate parents from their children in chagrin of many. This saw the wealthier families provide isolation rooms and treatment for their children right at home. However, in November of the same year when the pandemic subsided, it was after well above 2,300 lives claimed by the pandemic, a vast majority being the young.
It was not long until the world war brought with it another challenge of prostitution and consequent…… [Read More]
In 2002, "President Bush signed into law the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, which, among other things, eliminated the need to convene an advisory committee to amend the list of diseases" listed as quarantineable (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004).
This law became significant during the SARS scare. Before 2002 "the list of federal quarantinable diseases in the United States had not been revised since 1983. It included cholera, diphtheria, infectious tuberculosis, plague, smallpox, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola, and Congo-Crimean" fevers (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). The CDC was able to quickly ad SARS to the list. In the past, the CDC "generally deferred to state and local health authorities...to restrict the movement of persons within their boundaries" with such diseases (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). Its greater legislative ability to move quickly in classifying the…… [Read More]
Public Health Preparedness
The concept of 'public health preparedness' (PHP) has been garnering recognition worldwide, given the global-scale threats which are constantly encountered by professional healthcare organizations, including bioterrorism, Ebola, the West Nile Virus, and influenza. Preparedness approaches have brought about improvements in the overall healthcare system, by enabling swifter responses to diverse kinds of hazards across the globe. A majority of PHP measures adopted in America are government-judged; this gives rise to concerns pertaining to militarization. Still, preparedness programs in other country-level settings don't essentially indicate comparable implications. The global significance of health sector preparedness has served to increase governmental need of resolving the concern by means of financing, advances, and maintenance approaches which aid speedy response to every kind of crisis. However, akin to all other ideas, the PHP concept is also accompanied by certain major challenges, like the threat of public health militarization. Yet the associated advantages…… [Read More]
Perhaps the public has become somewhat desensitized by nuclear war, but the idea of unseen agents loosed in the water supply, or used to burn without fire, causes panic to a greater degree (Tucker, 2008, 112-15).
An interesting paradigm regarding the fear factor involved in chemical and biological terrorism may surround the psychological issues that have surrounded the possibility of nuclear fear for decades, almost desensitizing people to it -- and the thought that they would either be instantly vaporized, or at least face a quick death. With biologics and chemicals, though, the fear is more of slowly dying, sick, bleeding, etc. such as shown in the films Outbreak or the Andromeda Strain (Smithson, 2004).
hemical Weapons -- hemical warfare and weaponry is nothing new to the scene of terrorism and war, especially after the advances made during World War I. The destructive effects of chemical weapons are their toxic…… [Read More]
Did America justly fulfill its manifest destiny? Explain your opinion.
America did fulfill its destiny. This occurred with the country uniting as one nation embracing these ideas of personal freedom and equality. While at the same time, it went from a series of small backward colonies to becoming a world power. These objectives were realized over the course of American history. (Kennedy, 2012)
The biggest reasons for the westward expansion were based upon the desire to obtain land and have access to various natural resources (i.e. gold, silver, coal and oil). This was a part of America's expansion into becoming a new nation that embraced the ideas of personal freedom. A classic example of this peaceful expansion occurred with the purchase of Alaska from ussia in 1867. To this day, it is continuing to contribute economically and militarily. (Kennedy, 2012)
However, the westward expansion often involved the use…… [Read More]
The city of Denver, not to mention the wider state of Colorado, is blooming in terms of demographics and population. Whether it be the scenic views or the legalization of recreational marijuana, Denver has seemingly become a "go to" place in terms of places to move. This quick report shall discuss the population of the town, whether the population is increasing or decreasing, the age distribution of the town and how that compares to the wider United States, the ethnic composition of the area, the educational level of the population and how it compares to the wider population of the United States and the public health problems that are prevalent in Denver. While Denver's cost of living and other factors might dissuade some from moving there, the good seems to outweigh the bad for more and more people.
As a metropolitan area, Denver has a population of…… [Read More]
Vaccines have all but eliminated some diseases that were once pandemics or epidemics like polio and smallpox. The power of vaccines to control infectious diseases cannot be underestimated, and can promote public health worldwide. However, new strains of existing diseases like influenza and potent viruses like HIV continue to plague researchers. Of the various epidemics and pandemics currently facing the international community, all are concerns but it is possible that influenza will become the gravest threat to humanity because of its continual mutations and changes.
The international research community needs to respond to influenza by more aggressive programs in vaccine development, designing new vaccines using methods like those described by Berkeley in his Ted talk. Every few years, a new type of infectious disease becomes a pandemic, according to Berkeley, and this means that the research community around the world must work tirelessly to target new expressions of the same…… [Read More]
The most common cause is blockage of an artery, usually by a piece of atherosclerotic plaque in one of the brain's main arteries that ahs broken off and gotten stuck "downstream." TIA are also caused by blood clots that originate in the heart, travel to the brain, and become lodged in a small artery there. By definition, the symptoms of a TIA last less than 24 hours, in contrast to the symptoms of a stroke, which last longer -- and are often permanent. (Komaroff, 2006, p. 88)
An individual may have one or more experiences with a TIA, though they may have none, prior to the actual stroke vent, often leading up to it, within a year or more of the stroke event. If these symptoms are noted, and even if they go away an individual should still seek care to begin treatment for medical stroke prevention. Individuals should also…… [Read More]