) Analysis of Heterogeneous Panels with Unobserved Common Effects
a) Baltagi, Badi H. 200. Narrow Replication of Serlenga and Shin (2007) gravity models of intra-EU trade: application of the CCEP-HT estimation in heterogeneous panels with unobserved common time-specific factors. Journal of Applied Econometrics 25 (3): 505-506.
2) Panel unit root tests.
a) Pesaran, M. Hashem. 2007. A simple panel root test in the presence of cross-section dependence. Journal of Applied Econometrics 22: 265-32.
b) Chang Y. 2004. Bootstrap unit root tests in panels with cross-sectional dependency. Journal of Econometrics 20: 263 -- 293.
c) Choi I. 200. Unit root tests for panel data. Journal of International Money and Banking 20: 249 -- 272.
d) Choi I. 2002. Combination unit root tests for cross-sectionally correlated panels. Mimeo, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.
e) Im K, Pesaran H, Shin Y. 995. Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels. DAE…… [Read More]
Econometrics of University Selection
Type of Curriculum
Attending college, and the selection of colleges, is one of the most important decisions individuals can make in their youth. Future college students base their decision making criteria on a wide range of information. Some consider whether or not the school is a party school, others consider the history and the level of prestige that the school has obtained, and others may select a school based on the cost or the proximity to their homes. However, one metric that will eventually affect all students is the level of income they will obtain during their career. In most cases graduates will seek employment after graduation and be selected and compensated based upon factors including the school they attended, their major, and their performance while attending the school. This research will attempt to determine some of the factors that have the…… [Read More]
Chapter two of the proposed study will be used to deliver a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the relationship between unemployment, money supply and inflation, and how the Indiana University model can be used to model these relationships. Chapter three of the study proposed herein will be used to more fully describe the methodology, including a description of the study approach, the data-gathering method used as well as the databases of study that will be consulted to achieve the study's research objectives. Chapter four of the study will be comprised of an analysis of the data using the Indiana University model and the concluding chapter will be used to present the study's conclusions, a summary of the research and recommendations for economic policymakers.
Chow, G.C. & Medgal, S.B. (1978). An econometric definition of the inflation-unemployment tradeoff. The American Economic eview, 68(3), 446-453.
Duo, Q. (1997).…… [Read More]
multiple liner regression to determine the time taken to dispatch daily subscription newspapers from the New York Times Printing Plant to several offices and homes in New York City and its neighborhood. The newspaper delivery routes are to be the shortest and most efficient in terms of conserving fuel that would otherwise be wasted on traffic jams. The Logistics Manager suggested that the variables that are most crucial are the distance to be traveled by the delivery vans and total number of newspapers to be delivered in any particular area. The logistics Manager pooled observations from 25 offices and homes on the average newspaper delivery times. This data was then used to model the econometric model and an analysis carried out.
This paper concludes with recommendations to the New York Times CTO on the most important changes on the logistics department of the firm. This paper prescribes the best possible…… [Read More]
economic analysis of the operating cost that are incurred in the running of a metro station. The paper also reveals the variables that are tied to the cost efficiency of the whole process of running a metro station. The cost of operating the stations is however grouped under the semi-fixed costs that are involved. This is because these costs do not vary proportionately with the output of the metro business. This paper seeks to shed light on some of the main factors that affect these costs. Empirical analysis reveals that very strong system specific factors influences costs but it is worth mentioning that there are other station specific details that also influences the costs. These include the number of platforms in the station, the length of the passageways, the interchange demand, availability of toilet facilities etc.We also discover that presence of air-conditioning has a great effect in the propulsion of…… [Read More]
What kind of regional and international cooperation is needed to respond to emigration pressures in many low and medium income countries within EU? In addition to the existing EU standards on migration, what other measures could be taken at the national, regional, and international levels to better protect migrants? Answers to these questions inexplicitly have direct implications for the growth environment and have become more pressing issues as the enlargement continues.
A balanced budget exists when tax revenues equal government spending. Within the EU, economic policy dictates that efficiency is achieved when the amount of revenue collected by the government is what is spent in a given period. Hence budget deficits and/or surpluses represent a misallocation that can lead to macroeconomic stability within an economy. As the growth cycle within Europe continued and deepened in 2008/2009, it was clear that macroeconomic objectives for all member states became misaligned and inefficiencies…… [Read More]
The combintion of the complexity of the forest model nd economic needs from forest products results in the need for greter mrrige of ecology, sttistics, economics, nd lnd nd forestry mngement. There re severl connections between forest nd ecosystem mngement. By plnning nd reserching forest growth nd forest stnd tending this industry cn form the bsis for vrious politicl guidelines nd policies to ensure tht timber resources re vilble for future genertions. The forests lso provide hundreds of benefits to mny people living in forested res cross the world. These include thousnds of jobs, lumber, pper products, clen ir, wter filtrtion nd mny recretionl opportunities. In order to ensure tht these benefits will exist for future use, studies of the growth rtes of tended nd untended trees re crried out. For exmple, trees cn be thinned out (removing unwnted or less desirble trees) llowing the best trees to…… [Read More]
While it was generally agreed that the increase in prices was due mainly to an insufficient offer as the stock house was limited, opinions have also been forwarded according to which the buy-to-let purchases have contributed to the inflation of the house prices (Property Mark).
The debate concerning the reasons for the massive price increases for residential properties (materialized mostly between 1996 and 2005) is however still ongoing. On the one hand, there are the property bulls, who argue that the increase in the prices of residential builds is the result of natural processes of economic growth and development. In other words, they state that the increase in prices was the natural reaction to higher levels of employment, economic stability and lower interest rates. On the other hand however, sit the property bears, who claim that the increase in property prices is not linked to any economic processes, but is…… [Read More]
" Of these respondents, over 50% of them stated that they lack a disaster recovery plan (Anthes, 1998). However, most of the problems stem from the lack of communication at the corporate level. (Hawkins, et al., 2000).
Business Continuity Plans (BCP) and other forms of strategic planning are no longer a luxury, but a must-have factor and an important element of any organisation's risk management system. Organisations are increasingly dependent upon it systems and infrastructure and eventually subjected to many risks, so business is inherently risky. How long can your organisation afford system downtime? How long does it take to recover a disaster; and, what does it cost? These kinds of questions are the ones that have to be addressed for BCPs. Also important, however, is using strategic planning to look toward the future and determine where a business wants to be at a specific point, so that plans to…… [Read More]
To reduce inventory management costs and errors, enterprise must form a strong, galvanizing connection with suppliers, buyers, internal production, and customers most of all. In conclusion, inventory management will always be part art and science, as tacit & implicit knowledge is needed to provide greater insight into the analysis generated fro enterprise software applications specifically designed to streamline inventory management. The inherent unquantifiable aspects of demand management will also make inventory management a continually difficult, complex problem enterprises must confront daily to stay profitable and grow.
Forecasting and Demand eferences
Leung, S. (2003, Oct 01). Where's the beef? A glutted market leaves food chains hungry for sites; finding spots for new outlets takes heaps of research and an eye for details; hint: Move next to Wal-Mart. Wall Street Journal, pp. a.1-a.1.
Meng, F., Tepanon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2008). Measuring tourist satisfaction by attribute and motivation: The case…… [Read More]
Career Preliminary Questionnaire
It is in line with the advert that appeared in the national daily paper concerning the vacancy in your organization that I wish to express my wish to feel the advertised position. I strongly believe I have adequate skills that meet the threshold requirements for a financial advisor trainee in your organization. I have a bachelor's degree in Economics (Honors) from Queen's University-Kingston, Ontario. This implies my vast knowledge in economics related fields such as Accounting, Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, Econometrics, and Statistics among other fields. Apart from this, I have a certificate in Canadian Security Course (CSC) and Investment Funds in Canada (IFIC) from the Canadian Securities Institute. I completed my high school level studies from the Langley Secondary School- Langley, British Columbia with Honors in Grade 11 and 12. Presently, I work with the CIBC Langley Banking Center as a Customer Service Representative (since 2012). Working with…… [Read More]
However, the numbers used to report murder rates only tell us the number of crimes that have occurred. They tell us nothing about crimes that were never committed because of fear of the death penalty. The conundrum is that there is no realistic way to measure something that did not happen in the general population, at least in a way that would be credible from a scientific point-of-view.
Those that support the death penalty tend to place more emphasis on the credibility of econometric methods of analysis. They can find many studies to support their position among this group of analyses. They discredit comparative methods of study that do not support their position. Both proponents and their opposition have attempted to reduce the issue of whether the death penalty acts as a deterrent to murder to one of credibility of the research findings. However, this argument fails, as there are…… [Read More]
This means they set medium term goals may be up to five years. This requires that they make detailed and precise judgments, so that their medium term goals are met. This has made the methodology require sophisticated business statistical applications. (Statistical Thinking for Managerial Decisions) Long-term planning in business normally makes it necessary to make estimations regarding the future and extrapolations of the past, is used for this. The trends can be identified, but these may be accurate for a short time and in it lay the danger of forecasting by extrapolation of the past, since data cannot be expected to forecast something that has not happened. It is here that the importance of strategic planning has relevance. Strategic planning adds more control into a situation where the outcome is more likely to be taken on the probable occurrence of an event or set of events in the near or…… [Read More]
forward discount in predicting exchange rate modifications. The conclusion of the literature review is that the forward discount is a biased predictor and that are two possible explanations for this situation. One cause would be the presence of a time varying risk premium, and the other the failure of agents to make rational expectations (the inability to use all available information in an efficient manner).
The forward discount puzzle (as a predictor of exchange rate modifications) is a very discussed puzzle in the international finance literature, since its importance is quite high. As a result, numerous studies have concentrated on this issue, i.e. On the causes on the bias. Some authors (Fama, 1984), believe that this problem is traceable to the existence of a time-varying risk premium. Others connect it to learning effect (Lewis, 1989) or irrationality (Bilson, 1981) the "peso problem" (Krasker, 1980),
The "peso problem term" was introduced…… [Read More]
Research conducted to date for example suggests that, for consortia-based procurement exchanges and Sector Procurement Collaboratives the bargaining power of representing multiple groups of buyers and their collective purchasing power provides economies of scale and leverage in bargaining with suppliers (Devine, Dugan, Semaca, Speicher, 2001). The motivations of purchasing consortia are primarily focused upon gaining expected cost savings and collect information on supply markets (Tella, Virolainen, 2005). Although perfectly in line with accepted marketing views and strategies, there is a gap in this research, which does not take into account the long-term effects of inter-process maturity and transaction velocity over time.
According to Johnston et al. (2003, p. 23), the recognition of trust as an important part of the buyer-supplier relationship does not preclude fact of paucity of empirical evidence to suggest the level of such importance. Trust and its dependent behaviors, as well as its impact on inter-organizational activities,…… [Read More]
The abstract presents a summation of the methodology however, what could be added for greater emphasis is the author's definitive conclusion on why cooperatives are different than investor-owned firms and why they are chosen in agribusiness. The conclusion is of course interesting however, the why which is elucidated in the analysis will compel the reader to read on. The literature review is thorough and sets up a fundamental reason for the author's undertaking of the project; the available research is fragmented and not conclusive in its determination of why cooperatives and investor-owned models are different and why they are used. The author's strength in presentation is not in its subtlety but in its direct statement of fact, rationale, and logic. Citing pages five six, the discussion of profit maximization as the objective of firms is contrasted with evidence that this is not always the case, particularly for cooperatives. In creating…… [Read More]
There are many potential actions that could have been taken to help prevent the closing of GM and the job losses, plant closings, and economic catastrophe that is likely to occur as the once unstoppable giant collapses (Wolff, 2009).
The UAW won above subsistence level wages for GM employees, which should have theoretically had the same effect as an economic stimulus in the traditional Keynesian sense. However, rather than being rewarded with increased demand, GM workers found themselves displaced when the company decided to move production to countries where the workers did not attempt to cut into company profits by demanding fair wages. The company profited and these changes had little affect on demand. The world still demanded GM cars, regardless of where they were produced.
The impact of displaced workers should have created the affect of decreased demand according to both Keynesian and Marxian economics. However, when one takes…… [Read More]
" (Sinha and atra, 1999)
Sinha and atra state that "most researchers now content that a generalized price -- quality relationship does not exist" although the "degree to which a higher price implies higher quality" has been examined and as well has been the "topic of considerable research in marketing." (1999) Therefore for the purpose of this study this antecedent relating to price consciousness will not be a variable in understanding the questions posed in this study.
Sirha and atra (1999) state that this inference "is widely accepted as being context-specific, moderated by situational characteristic such as the extensiveness of a consumer's cognitive schemes and his/her product class knowledge" and cite the work of Peterson and Wilson (1985). Therefore, it can be understood that while the consumer might believe that a higher price being paid obtains the same equal receipt of quality in some categorical purchases but yet not in…… [Read More]
Tourism Demand esearch & Analysis
International Tourism Demand Estimation
Tourism Attraction Sales
Tourism Attraction Sales
Tourism & Employment
Tourism may be defined as, "The sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers, host governments and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitors," (McIntosh and Goeldner, 1990, p. 4).
From the above definition, it can be seen that the development of tourism in any area involves multiple players. In addition, tourism is made of up numerous activities, services, and industries that contribute to the tourists' experience. These include the provision of transportation and accommodation; eating and drinking establishments; entertainment facilities; and shops, among others (McIntosh and Goeldner, 1990). Edgell (1990, p. 12) adds that,
"The full scope of international travel and tourism, therefore, encompasses the output of segments of many industries.…… [Read More]
The increased expectation of lawful income will reduce the temptation of illegitimate activity.
This is referred to as the 'motivation effect. The opportunity effect is a long- term influence that is positively correlated with crime, while the motivation effect is more short-term and has a negative correlation with crime. Thus, in years when people increase their spending by very small amounts or reduces it altogether, notably quickly. In contrast, during year when people rapidly increase their expenditure, property crime tends to grow less rapidly or even fall.
In relation to San ernardino, Miguel (2006) argues that with the recent renewal of the city by industries, the unemployment rate has been reduced to a large extent. The number and value of goods available as a result of this growth in income can be linked to the upsurge in robbery cases in homes and public places such as banks.
Economic growth, unemployment…… [Read More]
According to Stevensen and Wolfers, marriage is far from a static phenomena, and in subsequent research they contend that this specialization is far less likely, that women and men both work outside the home, marry later marriages are formed without the specific purpose of procreation. (Stevensen & Wolfers, 2007, p. 27)
Lastly, this work looked at another issue, associated with marriage and divorce, which looked at the period between 1980 and 2000 and determined that several basic trends are true of marital quality, between 1980 and 2000; marital interaction declined significantly. A decomposition analysis suggested that offsetting trends affected marital quality. Increases in marital heterogamy, premarital cohabitation, wives' extended hours of employment, and wives' job demands were associated with declines in multiple dimensions of marital quality. In contrast, increases in economic resources, decision-making equality, nontraditional attitudes toward gender, and support for the norm of lifelong marriage were associated with improvements…… [Read More]
Houston's large supply of land means that demand growth primarily results in more construction, not higher prices" (McCullagh & Gilmer, 2008).
However, it is important to realize that land supply is only one part of the reason that new home construction formed such a large part of the Houston housing market. Yes, Houston has more available surrounding land than almost any other major metropolitan area in the United States, but it also applies different rules to its surrounding areas, making development more of a possibility than in other areas:
In Houston, developers can create a munici-pal utility district, or MUD, to provide these [water, sewage, and drainage] services on their properties and can finance these with tax-free bonds. Houston requires developers to build MUDs in such a way that they eventually could be connected to the city's corresponding infra-structure, but they begin as self-sufficient enterprises.
In other cities, develop-ments must…… [Read More]
This could have a negative impact on the ability of the new economy to survive.
There are advantages and disadvantages to joining the EU, depending on how ready the country is to make the leap into a competitive market. Differences forced former Czechoslavakia to separate. Now, each of the fledgling republics must be evaluated on their own merits. The Velvet evolution of 1989 destroyed the socialist republic. By the 1990s, the Czech epublic's GDP per capita was 20% higher than Slovakia's. This may indicate better readiness to move into the European Union and the capital market system. Prior to 1991, transfers were made from the Czech budget to help finance Slovakian interests. This indicates a greater state of readiness for the Czechs than for Slovakia.
Feelings in the country are mixed as to whether the two countries should be completely independent or whether they should continue with shared interests. The…… [Read More]
The Large Cargo Freighter (Dreamlifter) delivered major assemblies in the first half of 2007, and the company expects final assembly of the first 787 later in the second quarter of 2007. Boeing also expects to fly 787 engines on an airplane test bed sometime in the first quarter of 2007.
In summary, the three dominant factors of commercial aircraft demand, business jet demand, and supply chain planning, forecasting, and manufacturing fulfillment are central to Boeings' strategic and contingency planning. In addition to all of these significant new opportunities, the role of the Internal Governance Officer to provide a higher level of oversight and ethical guidance is making the audits from the Justice Department less intrusive on daily work in the company. The governance office now has 90 employees full-time working on ethics programs and preventative action plans to keep the company out of the ethical problems faced in the past,…… [Read More]
In their view, the assumption of indexation to past inflation is the key factor driving this result. According to them, when viewed in the light of indexation to long-run inflation, the optimal inflation volatility often moves closer to zero. They equally showed that for the welfare rankings of policies, the initial conditions do matter to a very significant extent.
In their work, Leeper Erik et al. examined how the conventional dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, including the Christiano-Eichenbaum-Evans model is affected or impacted by government investments. As a way of explaining the effects of government investments in this regard, they considered two main factors, namely, the future fiscal adjustments to debt-financed spending and implementation delays for building public capital projects. In their work they demonstrated that, in the short run implementation delays can produce small or even negative labor and output responses; while for both a qualitative and quantitative positive…… [Read More]
Finance-dominated proponents also maintain that boom economic periods generate a more varied divergence of valuations that fuel merger activity (Medlen 2007). In this regard, Medlen concludes that, "Taken collectively, these understandings may explain some of the merger activity in booms, but they involve certain asymmetries that undercut their explanatory power. High stock valuations allow stock to be utilized as currency and collateral for takeovers; yet stock booms also make targets expensive" (p. 202). Moreover, despite the commonly held perception that mergers are a "quick and dirty" way to grow a business and achieve organizational goals, there remains a lack of convincing empirical evidence in support of this perception (Medlen 2007). As Medlen points out, an "anomalous fact about mergers concerns the lack of evidence that mergers are profitable. This fact begs the question: why then are mergers carried out with such frequency and with such large levels of capitalization?" (p.…… [Read More]
In addition, repeating ACSI can provide trend data (Hall, 2002, p. 23+), important to government agencies, but also to new industries. Hall notes that, "Besides the ability of the ACSI to maintain a pulse on customer satisfaction, the ACSI is an index, not just a survey. This means it groups all participants and provides an integrated score, or index" (2002, p. 23+).
Schay et al. reported that the United States federal Office of Personnel Management uses a similar instrument that measures nine core dimensions underlying customer satisfaction. "These dimensions were distilled from 139 dimensions identified in the management, marketing, and organizational psychology literature. The dimensions are empirically related to organizational effectiveness and relevant to all service sectors" (Schay et al., 2000, p. 30), and therefore would need to be developed specifically for each industry.
hile ACSI is the dominant measuring tool in much of U.S. consumer satisfaction research, the Kano…… [Read More]
What happens at this point is the issues are then prioritized, and the death penalty can potentially be considered less important than personal taxes, abortion, or whatever other issue the voter deems as important. This results in an extremely clouded concept of what the majority of the population actually supports in this country -- not just on the death penalty, but any issue. Ultimately this point of this argument, though not invalid in a humanistic point-of-view, is invalid because of its lack of solid, empirical ground to stand on. In fact, it is in danger of being ignored all together if we are to take a macrocosmic view of the country in terms of the constitution and the freedoms from religious policy that we enjoy. Of course if we take this point-of-view then we have to ask how we come to any decisions about our laws at all if not…… [Read More]
LAN and WAN Analysis
OS X Mountain Lion
Linux kenel 3.4; GNU C. Libay
Windows Seve 2008 R2 (NT 6.1.7600)
IBM AIX Vaiant
(UNIX System V Release
Range of compatible hadwae
High fo fine-tuned applications to the pocesso and O.S. API calls (1)
Vey High fo natively-witten applications
Medium fo applications using emulation mode; vey high fo 64-bit applications
Slow fo applications emulating MS-Windows; fast fo diect API-call based applications
Vey high fo applications witten diectly to the UNIX API; suppot fo emulated API calls slows down pefomance
Millions of Uses
Millions of Uses
Millions of Uses
Thousands of Uses
Millions of Uses
Diectoy Sevices Powe
Medium; not as well defined as Micosoft
Vey Stong; suppoting taxonomies
Vey Stong with Win64-based Diectoies
Vey High; the opeating system is based on this
Stability…… [Read More]
This also implies inadequacies in fiscal sustainability, which influences investments in private sectors.
The second channel happens through the level, composition and quality involved within the public investment, which shows the level at which the public investment replaces the private investments (Schmidt- Hebbel, Serven, & Solimano, 1996).
The final channel regards the level of taxation on the corporate earnings and the rules applicable in depreciations.
There have been arguments that fiscal policy and public expenditure reduces the private investments in two different manners. These include increasing the interest rates or lowering the private funds involved in financing the investments.
According to the neoclassical theory, the interest rate is also an imperative variable in finding the level of investment. Consequently, it results into a negative effect because it upsurges the interest payable in investments. Concurrently, McKinnon and Shaw, contends that this is likely to cause a positive relationship between the investment…… [Read More]
Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).
Leades in Bitish Engineeing
Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…… [Read More]
Global usiness Cultural Analysis: Singapore
The objective of this study is to answer the questions how the major elements and dimension of culture including religion, ethics, values, attitudes, manners, customs, social structures, and organizations integrated in Singapore by local conducting business. As well, this work will answer how these elements and dimensions compare with United States culture and business. Finally, this work will examine the implications for United States businesses that wish to conduct business in Singapore.
The work of Abeysinghe and Choy (2009) reports that the economy in Singapore has been undergone a transformation that has turned it into "…an Asian powerhouse…" due to the "far-sighted economic policies. The economy of Singapore is proof of the outcome of a market-driven economy taking place during fast development of high per capita income, and an environment free of corruption in which the workforce is both motivated and educated. The financial infrastructure…… [Read More]
Low Cost Airline in Thailand
The Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand
Geography of Thailand
Nature of Airlines
Variables under Study
The Profitability of Low Cost Airlines in Thailand
Operating esults, Selected Airlines, Financial Year 1999
The Economies of Scale Attained By Airline Industry
Human esource Practices
The future of low cost Thailand Airlines
Contrasting Qualities of State Owned and Non-State Owned Airlines
The Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand
Thailand is a global source for customers seeking cheap labor or material inputs. The country is rich in natural resources -- tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, and timber being a few examples. The country is a major source for agricultural products1a.
Thailand also has an abundant supply of low-skilled labor with high participation rates in the workforce 86% for males and 67% for females in 1995. At the same time, the country…… [Read More]
the Williams case settlement and methods of evaluating the cost of adequacy level of education
The Williams case settlement has several important provisions that should be mentioned before we assess the settlement and evaluate the future consequences and its impact.
The most important of them are:
Provision of $138 million for textbooks and instructional materials
million for "assessment of facility needs" at critical condition schools
Investments of close to $1 billion in repairs of school deficient facilities
These figures will directly and positively affect 2400 "low- performing schools." Obviously, the most important thing that comes to mind when evaluating this final settlement is the fact that pupils from low-performing schools have a better and improved chance because they will benefit from more books and higher attention, including better prepared educators. It is, if you like, a moral decision and a moral settlement because the idea of equality of…… [Read More]
Health Information System
Promoting Action Design esearch to create value in healthcare through IT
ecently there has been varying proof showing that health IT reduces costs while improving the standard of care offered. The same factors that had caused delays in reaping benefits from IT investment made in other sectors (i.e. time consuming procedural change) are also very common within the healthcare sector. Due to the current transitive nature of the Healthcare sector, new IT investment is likely not going to provide maximum value unless this new investment is backed up with a total reform of healthcare delivery. The overall ability of healthcare IT value researchers to add value to practice will be severely limited as a result of the traditional ex-post approach to measuring IT and the fact that government spurs significant investment. It may be risky to generalize or compare results from traditional IT value research with those…… [Read More]
Over the next twenty-five years, however, the digital divide will be decreased. Despite the slow pace of change in much of the developing world, change will occur over the next twenty-five years. In addition, the younger populations of most of these countries will mean that the opportunity to replace citizens with little likelihood of adopting modern telecommunications with young ones who will know of nothing else. As the pace of innovation slows in the est over the next twenty-five years, the developed world will have a chance to catch up, particularly in the countries where strong economic growth rates promise to bring those nations in the developed world in that span of time.
M. & Farlie, R. (2006). The determinants of global digital divide: a cross-country analysis of computer and Internet penetration. Oxford Economic Papers. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://oep.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2006/12/03/oep.gpl024.abstract
Dasgupta, S., Lall, S. & heeler,…… [Read More]
This is because, the efficiencies in the market are: providing no kind of leverage to these individuals. At which point, any kind of advantage that they may have would be eliminated. This is important, because it provides good insights, as to how efficient the markets really are. As a result, this is what will reduce the underlying returns every single year. The author is an economist with Oxford University. (urton 2005)
The article that was written by Chen (2005), discusses how the EMH theory can be able to provide the most relevant information surrounding stocks. Yet, when this was compared against computer-based programs, they were able to identify changes in prices at least 50% of the time. This is important, because it is showing how the changes in the expectations for stocks, can be more accurate when using various programs. Once this takes place, it meant that traders and investors…… [Read More]
Your supervisor has asked you to review current research on public sector customer satisfaction. Explain what Fountain (2001) means when she discusses the paradoxes of public sector satisfaction. What, if anything, should your supervisor learn from Fountain's analysis?
Fountain (2001) shows my supervisor how to achieve a more genuine, more ethical and, hence, possibly more enduring level of customer satisfaction, at the paradoxical cost of losing the ACSI rate in popularity.
Qualities of service can often become confounded one with the other. Fountain (2001) gives three instance of this. In the first, the quality of the actual service may become obscured by the intangible treatment that the customer may receive from service transaction or encounter. In other words, qualities such as cordiality, genuineness, friendship, and the reverse may result in client rating quality of service according to the intangible treatment received.
Secondly, consumers receive the end product through service delivery…… [Read More]
The Delphi Method also can provide an entirely new perspective on the goals of the research and put the areas of primary focus into a context that would take years of study to attain. The expert panels recruited for this type of research can also define emerging trends no one has written about or discussed in the fields of interest. Due to all of these factors, the Delphi Method is considered one of the most effective in qualitative research. Studies completed using this technique have led to the development of entirely new business models at General Electric for example (Daud, Ismail, Omar, 2010).
An example of quantitative research is the use of online surveys to measure customer satisfaction with a new car. .L. Polk or J.D. Power & Associates, two of the most well-known companies in the area of auto satisfaction, often do this type of survey. This data is…… [Read More]
Assumptions were made regarding the individual state-level view about the punishment -- it is far more utilitarian to support capital punishment in states that have rising crime rates and proportionally higher rates of murder. Further, because the racial aspect of the death penalty is so controversial, and for some the main focus of the debate, the study measured racial composition in the data as the percentage of nonwhites to the overall state population. Factors regarding levels of urbanization and religion were also factored into the results. Despite these rather rigorous variable sets being included, any sociologist will confirm that cultural factors like urbanization, religiosity, and even political leanings have undergone a massive shift since the 1940s and 1950s; in most cases liberalizing the population factors that approve of the death penalty.
Certainly, this study is both robust and detailed in the sorting and statistical applications run on the data. The…… [Read More]
Their basis of criticism is that it had very expansionary monetary policy in the early days that gave room for misallocation of various capital resources. This lead to various undesirable economic scenarios such as the support of a massive stock price bubble. It has been argued that even though the Federal reserve did not cause the Great depression, it mitigated it through the unnecessary contraction of the money supply which was not necessary at that time since the markets by that time needed to be liquidated (Friedman, 1985).He argued that the Fed should be overhaulead and then replaced by a specialized computer system whose role would be to set rates that are derived from the standards econometrics. However, the Australian School economists have argued that the Fed's manipulation of the supply of money in order to put a halt on "gold flight" away from England lead to serious financial malinvestment…… [Read More]
Justice Kennedy, writing for the majority, warned about broader problems with the capital punishment. "When the law punishes by death, it risks its own sudden descent into brutality, transgressing the constitutional commitment to decency and restraint." He took into account the many dangers of the death penalty and concluded it should be restricted to homicides (Death Penalty Information Center, 2008).
The main question regarding the research for or against capital punishment as a deterrent is whether to continue the death penalty because the findings are inconsistent or to stop it for the same reason. esearchers adelet and Borg (2000), in fact, say that the findings impact how Americans perceive the death penalty. They showed how the conclusions of the research over the past several decades have influenced the debate pro-or con capital punishment. Their literature review in relationship to historical events "suggests changes in the nature of death penalty debates…… [Read More]
Another statistical measure that should be implemented is the use of statistical techniques to measure the side effects of certain drugs and medications given to patients.
Possibly one of the most important statistical aspects that should be applied to modern nursing is the creation of clinical pathways in hospitals. The development of clinical pathways are related to "…attempts to reduce hospital utilization" and "cost-containment initiatives" ( Lagoe, 1998) There are many variables that have to be statistically considered in this regard and statistical analysis of data provides insight into the clinical pathway; for example, an analysis of the variables relating to the hospital population.
While data and information collection processes are important, they are dependent on accurate and dependable analysis techniques to be effective and of use in nursing. While nursing is known as a profession that stresses qualitative aspects, there is an increasing emphasis on the accurate quantitative side…… [Read More]
Subsidies involve help that is given to other countries so that they can reap more profit from what they are creating and exporting, while countervailing duties work to ensure that the taxes and tariffs that are paid by these countries are not excessive so that profit can still be made. Small businesses contribute a great deal to the exports that are created in these countries but if they cannot get the financing that they need to continue to prosper then they will not be able to contribute to the overall exports of the country.
Third World development is gaining in importance today and a lot of the multilateral trade negotiations which are taking place are changing prospects for many of these countries. It is, therefore, important to look at trade negotiations and what they will cause as they relate to the subsidies and countervailing duties for these countries. For purposes…… [Read More]
This would be only natural for central bankers, as wealth effects may be a very relevant factor in determining fluctuations in aggregate demand. Studies on wealth effects have been conducted in recent years, also in the ank of Italy, making use of household surveys. For a given level of net worth, the wealth effect may be defined as the extent to which household consumption changes in response to a change in asset prices relative to the general consumer price level. Conceptually, this is no different from the old Pigou effect, but while that worked through changes in consumer prices that reduced the "value" of money balances in real terms, we now have asset prices rather than consumer prices as the main factor. While consumer prices may be relatively stable, asset prices could move substantially, and the wealth effect could actually be a destabilizing rather than, as was once thought, a…… [Read More]
he white paper cites several other studies as the basis for the argument, but does not provide a Reference List
Quendler, S. "Link Between Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Academic Achievement." Vienna University, Austria. (August, 2002): 1-2/. Available at http://chp.ilsi.org/NR/rdonlyres/AFE7EC1D-17D0-494C-BC0B-4E0E065627A8/0/linkbetweennutritionachievement.pdf Accessed 23 October 2008.
his study confirmed the connection between poor nutrition and academic performance. It also identified low-income children as being at particular risk of poor nutrition. his study supports the need for programs to improve childhood nutritional status.
Schultz, . "
Productive Benefits of Health: Evidence from Low-Income Countries,"
IZA Discussion Papers 1482, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (2005). Available at http://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp1482.html
Investment behavior and combined income of two people makes it difficult to link better health with economic prosperity. Heterogeneity in the sample also affected the survey results. his study highlights some of the factors that may affect this research study.
homas, D. And Frankenberg, E.…… [Read More]
Recently, entrepreneurship has been seen to be one of the key driving forces for economic development and growth since it is able to provide literally millions of opportunities for jobs. It also helps to offer a large variety of goods and services to consumers and in general helps to increase the prosperity and competitiveness in a nation (Stanworth, lythe, Granger, & Stanworth, 1989). However, there is also a lot of debate on the technical knowledge transfer that takes place from universities to industries and on how these universities can continue to support the economic and technological development of countries.
It is very important to look at how significant this spinoff issue actually is to those in the United States and in Europe (Roberts, 1991). This is necessary because spinoffs seem to be growing at a rapid rate and entrepreneurship is getting extremely lucrative in many areas of the country (Roberts,…… [Read More]
Insofar as many
of the nations now impacted so drastically by the food scarcity crisis are
also those developing theatres in which globalizing companies have sought
to operate, it is becoming more difficult all the time to find an
appropriate context for operation. Thus, organizations pursuing offshore
production interests, outsourced service laborers and overseas contract
management must immerse themselves in many settings where poverty,
instability and widespread suffering are all increasingly characteristic.
Forecasting organizational performance and opportunity under these terms is
marked by challenge.
So too is this case in navigating the uncertainties of legal policy
concerning environmental conditions. Under the Bush Administration, we
have experienced a significant decline in standard protections for both
dumping and emissions, due to the president's composition of ironically
entitled bills such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean ater Act. Both of
these, in spite of their titles, were marked for their historical…… [Read More]
This helps to establish the case that a gap exists between that which science accepts about biofuels and that which politicians present on the subject.
This is complimented by Thornton's (2006) concise detraction of ethanol, this article serves as reinforcement for the recurring case that the process of yielding energy from ethanol is too consuming of time and energy, and thus, should be disregarded as a means to developing an alternative fuel source.
The certainty that the world community must attend with urgency to a transition to a clean-burning and effective alternative fuel source dominates discourse today on oil production and energy efficiency. And there is a dominance in this discussion, as well as in current implementation, of the endorsement of biofuels. A clear-burning energy source derived from the fermentation of sugars found in various plant-cellulous, for some time this has been sought as a possible alternative fuel to…… [Read More]
The first is by demographically-based segmentation attributes, and the second is through services offered. Neither of these is optimal for understanding and responding to unmet needs in the users bases, a point discussed in the following section of this paper.
Demographic segments include the following:
General Consumer/Residential: The largest segment of users, this is the segment that also generates the highest level of price competition and pressure in the market as well. Churn is highest in this segment.
Small and Medium businesses:
The primary segment where bundling is used for generating high loyalty due to the ability of members of this segment to overcome price pressure due to the need to have services in place to support their business models.
The most profitable of segments and also the more difficult to penetrate and sustain customers, AT&T Wireless has successfully served this segment with Wide Area Networks (WLAN) and hotspot…… [Read More]
"Attending a college with a 100 point higher average SAT is associated with 3to 7% higher earnings later in life." (e.g., Kane, 1998, cited by Dale, and Krueger 1999, 1) as higher education constitutes up 40% of total U.S. educational expenditures, understanding "the impact of selective colleges on students' labor market outcomes is central for understanding the role of human capital," Dale, and Krueger (1999, 1) stress.
Previous literature cited by Dale, and Krueger (1999, 1) includes work by "Hunt (1963), Solnion (1973), ales (1973), Solmon and achtel (1975), and ise (1975),...Brewer and Ehrenberg (1996), Behrman et al. (1996), Daniel (1997), Kane (1998), and others." c. BACKGROUND:
To remove the effect of unobserved characteristics that influence college admission, this study considers information on the set of colleges where students were accepted and rejected.
A difficulty interpreting past estimates a many estimates of the effect of college quality on students' subsequent…… [Read More]
The short-term factors of being able to react more responsively with seasonal fashions that become "break out" fashions are critical, and to accomplish this, greater supply chain coordination both with designers and their production centers are critical;. This tighter integration to designers in the short-term will allow for greater variation in forecasts of new, seasonal lines. In addition, the need for better capturing of Point-of-Sale (POS) data is critical to better understand quickly the needs of customers and respond to them (Moin, 2). This added insight of using POS data in conjunction with the CM system that Lord & Taylor has purchased from Harte-Hanks will also lead to more accurate forecasting.
In forecasting for the long-term, Lord & Taylor needs to track purchasing history of its top customers and better understand what is driving customer loyalty within the customer base attracted by the new branding. In addition, there is the…… [Read More]
The political situation in the Middle East is extremely volatile. The political situation in the Middle East can have a dramatic impact on oil supplies. However, threats to the oil supply are beginning to emerge outside of the region as well. For instance, there are political situation beginning to arise in Russia, Venezuela, and Nigeria (Federal Reserve, 2004). Political instability can disrupt the supply of oil from a particular region.
eather can also take a toll on the production and distribution of oil and oil products. For instance, hurricane Katrina disrupted oil production in the Gulf of Mexico. This caused a temporary shortage until the services could be restored. There are other external factors that can effect oil prices that are beyond the control of the companies.
Oil futures represent clamed to oil to be delivered at a specified price and at a specified date and location. If the price…… [Read More]
59-84). A lack of rule of law equates to lawlessness and high levels of violence and theft.
In aggregate the factors of investment, fertility, schooling, and socio-political openness to new venture create statistically significant differences in economic performance between the regions. What De Gregorio (et. al.) also found was Latin American nations are continually coming in and out of economic crises, which makes their banking system, money supply and balance-of-payments highly risky and difficult to invest in even when there is a growth opportunity. Latin America's greatest challenge will be in overcoming the tendency to continually cycle from one economic crisis to another.
De Gregorio (2004) - "Growth and Adjustment in East Asia and Latin America"
Econom'a Journal. Jose De Gregorio - Volume 5, Number 1, Fall 2004, pp. 69-134.
Brookings Institution Press. Accessed from the Internet on February 7, 2007 from location: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/economia/toc/eco5.1.html
De Gregorio (1992). "Economic Growth…… [Read More]
Bardhan, P. (1997) "Corruption and Development: A Review of the Issues." Journal of Economic Literature 35: 1320-46.
Barro, R. (1996) "Determinants of Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study." NBER orking Paper No. 5698.
Barro, R., and Lee, J. (1993) "International Comparisons of Educational Attainment." Journal of Monetary Economics 32: 363-94.
Bhagwati, J.N. (1982) "Directly Unproductive Profit-Seeking (DUP) Activities." Journal of Political Economy 90: 988-1002.
Buchanan, J.M.; Tullock G.; and Tollison, R., eds. (1980) Toward a Theory of the Rent-Seeking Society. College Station: Texas a & M. University Press.
Campos, J.E.; Lien, D.; and Pradhan, S. (1999) "The Impact of Corruption on Investment: Predictability Matters." orld Development 27 (6): 105967.
Cheung, S.N. (1996) "Simplistic General Equilibrium Theory of Corruption." Contemporary Economic Policy 14 (3): 1-5.
Davies, B. 2001. "Making macaroni out of Marconi." Centaur Communications. [online] http://www.ideasociety.co.uk/marconi.htm
Easterly, ., and Levine R. (1997) "Africa's Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions."…… [Read More]
There are many more challenges involved in the development of forecasting models and the development of predictive analytics as they relate to the impact of both CoffeeTime's and competitor's advertising spending. The following are additional considerations in the development of more thorough predictive analytics and statistical forecasting models of the Indian market for CoffeeTimes' beverages and sandwiches:
Advertising spending increasing overall market growth or cannibalizing competitive sales? This is a major question that needs to be addressed through more econometric modeling, specifically looking at the aggregate impact of industry-wide spending on increasing the total market size for served coffee in key segments of the market vs. forcing consolidation of the market and cannibalization of sales. This dichotomy of market direction could best first be tested from the standpoint of attempting to predict aggregate demand and consumption for coffee in India for three to five years. Next taking the approach of…… [Read More]
This suggests that fine-tuning the model may be required in order to identify optimal approaches. For instance, Gionnani and oodford add that, "It is only if we ask whether the same policy continues to be optimal when we vary the statistical properties of the disturbances that we can hope to find an advantage of one representation of the policy rule over the other (1427).
Gionnani points out that rather than restricting the analysis to the Taylor rules component of the new Keynesian model, an optimal model should determine a robust optimal monetary policy rule within a larger family of rules that is sufficiently flexible to implement the optimal plan in those cases where the parameters are known with certainty. A study by Leeper reports that optimal monetary policy behavior in the simplest forward-looking version of the popular class of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models with nominal rigidities. oodford (2003) exhaustively…… [Read More]
Just as Sarbanes-Oxley legislation created significant opportunities for management consultancies, the same holds true for sustainability requirements in European nations.
In conclusion, all management consultancies are attempting to position themselves as trusted advisors to firms looking to stabilizing existing sales while growing into emerging markets. Of the five included in this analysis, all also have social media channels that are well-populated with content meant to convey their thought leadership in specific areas as well. Yet in the area of equating strategies to IT investments, the majority take the approach that more IT spending is potentially the path out of strategies not performing well. Only the Boston Consulting Group takes a more strategic view of systematic change to businesses, choosing to layer in TI after the frameworks have been created. Their legacy strengths in the BCG and Growth/Share Matrices could be the impetus for this approach. Despite that fact, Boston Consulting…… [Read More]
Death Penalty+ Annotated Bibliography
It has been theorized and even proven that many laws that are in place in America are the product of JudeoChristian religious beliefs, practices and writings, that have over the years been toned down to better meet the needs and standards of the U.S. society. here is a clear sense that some penalties for breaking the law have little if any effect on crime committed in the future, i.e. act as deterrents to crime and penalties for crime range from paying small fines to capital punishment. Opponents of capital punishment have always claimed that it does not deter crime while proponents have claimed that it does. Opponents have also claimed that the death penalty is a violation of the 8th amendment, cruel and unusual punishment and that it does not belong in any civilized society. Proponents on the other hand state that it is important to…… [Read More]
The topic of finance and managerial accounting inclusively, are broad and incorporate a critical skill set in the modern day business student. Finance involves corporate and investment finance and managerial accounting is complimentary as it involves cost accounting and essentially stresses cost management. Together, these topics provide a comprehensive financial analysis skill set yielding capability in solving the day's most critical business financial quandaries. The literature review will seek to narrow down the literature and funnel the topic into the main financial analysis area.
According to Musvoto, (2011), "Studies in accounting measurement indicate the absence of empirical relational structures that should form the basis for accounting measurement. This suggests the lack of objectivity of accounting information. Landmarks in the development of finance theory indicate the use of accounting measurement information as a basis for their development. This indicates that subjective accounting information is incorporated in finance theory. Landmarks…… [Read More]