These factors mean that the old economic theories are not always working properly and are not always properly adapted to the current globalization conditions.
Following from this, as more importance is weighted towards behavioural economics, the old theories and rational behaviours of population are believed to weigh less now and thus give misleading guidance to the market players.
4. a. I believe that economic terms can be used for both examination of political actions and such notions as discrimination, marriage, fertility, divorce and the like, or in general the sociological actions. The reasoning for this is the situation in which the economy is currently. Though the business cycles theory have been criticised heavily, I believe that when economy is booming and people have generally positive expectations to the economic development and their personal well being, they are driven away and treat any sociological phenomenon (such as decision to have kids…… [Read More]
For example, if apple prices are higher than orange prices, consumers are likely to buy more oranges, since the fruits are virtually substitute goods for one another. So long as the apple growers can still make a profit, they will very likely lower their prices to meet consumer demand, until demand for apples increases again. Another example is that of gas prices. hile gas 'gouging' certainly exists, it is difficult for one gas station to have prohibitively high costs for its product than other nearby suppliers, given that consumers will vote with their dollars and go to the more inexpensive station right down the highway.
Fully explain what is meant by the concept of transfer payments and how the government uses transfer payments to redistribute income in society. Give a concrete example of how the government is doing this.
Transfer payments are often thought of as the government taxing the…… [Read More]
Explain the theory of Social Darwinism. hat elements of truth are in the theory? How do you refute it?
The theory of Social Darwinism is simply asserts that only the fittest survive in the wild or in society as it exists today. Thus, this theory was based heavily on the ideas of Charles Darwin and his views on plants and animals in nature. Thus, this theory specified that the weak would ultimately not flourish but diminish, whereas those who were naturally possessing fortitude of strength and mind would exert influence and ultimately flourish. The ideas of Charles Darwin are view life as essentially a battle for existence which was ruled by the law of the common phrase, that most have heard which is "the survival of the fittest." Darwinists believed that nature would simply select those who were meant to survive, and those who were not -- hence the…… [Read More]
Economists Ideas on Value Theory:
Value theory has been interpreted and described in many different manners throughout the course of history. There are classical theorists, early classical theorists and socialists, and even those who are categorized as late Ricardians. This essay will focus on the definition of value theory as defined by the following theorists: Marx, Menger, Ricardo, Say and Smith. Each of these economic theorists presented a slightly different take on how value is derived in an economic environment. For some, value is created from labor exerted by workers. For others supply creates demand and subsequent value. Some have argued that value is created in the marketplace, as consumers exchange goods and services; buyers and sellers create demand supply and demand, and any good is only as valuable as the time the producer puts into it. All of the theorists explored have both positive and negative aspects…… [Read More]
Deficit and Economy
Today, economists generally agree that high budget deficits reduce the ability of the economy to grow in the future. So, the general question is, why do high budget deficits matter? In order to understand this, we need to understand the concepts of economic growth and decline. What is economic growth: "Economic growth occurs primarily with the increase in value of goods and services produced by an economy" (Case et. al, 2009) while growth measurement" happens through the computation of the percentage increase in inflation adjusted, real growth in Gross Domestic Product" (Case et. al, 2009). Furthermore, the GDP is "the total market value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given year, equal to total consumer, investment and government spending, plus the value of exports, minus the value of imports" (Case et. al, 2009). Therefore, we can define an economic slowdown in…… [Read More]
Economists prefer to advance many reasons for the push from centralized planning to market mechanisms. First, centralized planning often worked well in the early stages of developing industry, but with the enormous growth and complexity of economies and technologies, centralized planning falls short in taking into considerations all of the variables that may affect the economic system (Alchian and Demsetz, 776). In such a complex economic system, therefore, centralized planning becomes inherently flawed because it cannot acquire all of the required information for the decision-making. The centralized planning cannot deal with the self-interest of people, so people do not feel motivated. However, public services are never better performed than when their reward comes only in consequence of their being performed, and is proportioned to the diligence employed in performing them. Therefore, capitalist market is considered to be superior not only to planning in the socialist countries but to all…… [Read More]
It is useful to look at the general state of the economy and assess how this could impact the entity of interest. The general theory is that "in the absence of evidence to the contrary, […] the business will continue to trade in the normal way into the foreseeable future. This enables the account to assume that stock will eventually be sold, that fixed assets will continue to be used, and so on" (Alexander and Britton, 2004).
A relevant example for this scenario is given by the situation encountered throughout the past two years within the American automobile industry. The market was on the one hand characterized by a growing customer focus on small size vehicles incorporating fuel efficient engines. This situation occurred due to the impending occurrence of a global crisis and the scarcity of natural resources. At an industry level, the Japanese manufacturers were able to foresee these…… [Read More]
They state that the FOEX market represents "the market in which participants are able to buy, sell, exchange and speculate on currencies. The forex markets is made up of banks, commercial companies, central banks, investment management firms, hedge funds, and retail forex brokers and investors. The currency market is considered to be the largest financial market in the world, processing trillions of dollars worth of transactions each day" (Investopedia, 2009). Otherwise put, the foreign exchange market represents the place where one currency is being sold and another is being bought, such as an American selling his dollars and buying euros in exchange.
The foreign exchange market is the largest single market on the globe. Its median trade is of $1.5 trillion per day, almost 100 times more than the daily trades of the New York Stock Exchange. Upon entering the Forex market, the investor has to meet several criteria, such…… [Read More]
As economic crisis in the United States has caused families to save rather than spend, which will cause exports from these countries to decline. While these economists certainly understand the concepts of demand, the article suggests that economic pain for developing countries might not necessarily be the case. Instead, the article suggests that countries who have the ability to stimulate their own economies through savings will be able to better cope with the decreased demand from the United States. Finally, the article suggests that, in the long run, the forecasts for emerging economies are positive, speculated to grow at an annual rate of over four percent from 2010 to 2015. Thus, while developing economies rely on American demand to some degree, their ability to grow economically is left, in the majority, to their own volition.
Stumble or Fall? (2009, January 8). The Economist. etrieved January 12, 2008, from: http://www.economist.com/finance/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12896793.… [Read More]
This is one of the fears that many people share, and that the Economist article deftly points out.
The Fed's argument about keeping interest rates low as a mechanism for job creation has also been rather unproductive. The Fed argues that by offering low interest rates on borrowed money that businesses will take loans to grow. But in this recession, there is no reason to grow when there is decreased demand for goods and services. One reason for this decreased demand is that the unemployment rate is so high, and people are unwilling to buy things they don't need. Also, as banks shrink available credit, people have less money to spend on credit cards and other instruments of credit. The Fed has also tried to keep interest rates low while fighting what it calls a major threat to economy and jobs stability, which is deflation. Deflation is the lessening of…… [Read More]
The author noted that this was an important step to help ease the problems created by the collapse of non-bank funding.
The author concludes by noting that the proposed package's tremendous size combined with its lack of clear details or forceful regulation leave the program open to criticisms that it is both too vague and too timid. Furthermore, he points out that the plan's failure to fully account for the disposal of toxic debt may have helped contribute to recent sharp falls in the stockmarkets. The author noted that it was not only that the plan was insufficient, but that Geithner had led people to believe that the plan would be both bold and detailed, and that the dissonance between the promised plan and the plan unveiled by Geithner helped contribute to a decrease in confidence. The author clearly disagreed with Geithner's failure to really consider the issue of nationalization…… [Read More]
The production and sale of alcoholic beverages contribute a small share in national product in the United States and in other advanced economies. However, the damaging effects of alcohol consumption on health and safety constitute a very significant economic burden, reducing our overall standard of living. Chronic heavy drinking causes organ damage that result in disability and early death. Other possible consequences include cognitive impairment, addiction, reduced productivity, neglect of family responsibilities, and birth defects. The acute effects of alcohol abuse are still more costly: traumatic injury and property damage from accidents, criminal victimization, domestic violence, unwanted sexual encounters and venereal diseases, and hangover. In sum, alcohol is not just another commodity. Around the world, historically and currently, public concern about the consequences of excess alcohol consumption for individual health and community well-being has been incorporated in cultural norms, which are often reinforced by private rules and government…… [Read More]
3. At its heart, this editorial promotes the underlying principles of free market capitalism. Trade is assumed to be a net generator of wealth by the authors; therefore the reduction of trade will result in a reduction of wealth. One of the key points they authors make is with regards to capital flows. Economic nationalism, they point out, will alter and in some cases diminish global capital flows to the detriment of the nationalists.
Global trade, they argue, needs leaders that strongly support its institutions and mechanisms. They advocate the completion of the Doha Round, and reduced trade sanctions. Such sanctions are the inevitable consequence of economic nationalism, and will reduce trade overall.
The issue of sovereignty also comes up in this piece. Each nation must deal with its own crisis, but to put sovereignty and local interests ahead of global economic development would be a mistake - sovereignty itself…… [Read More]
reporters from the Economist discuss the possible effects of climate change on corn crops. A researcher from Stanford University, David Lobell, entered into an accidental collaboration with the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre in Mexico. The latter organization had been researching the potential for expanding corn production into parts of southern and eastern Africa. In particular, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre "had been running an ambitious set of field trials designed to look at what sorts of maize (corn, to Americans) grow best in various parts of southern and eastern Africa, paying special attention to drought resistance," (The Economist). Lobell and the Stanford University team provided the financial and human resources to help the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre compile data by amassing and aggregating results culled from over one hundred different research stations in the field. The project morphed into one larger than either party…… [Read More]
But how does this scarcity principle translate into conditions other than droughts and produce surpluses, or the pricing decisions of marketers in the general world economy? Take a local movie theater, where an artificially induced scarcity of other food products allows the movie theater to charge more for popcorn and soda, or a bar or a restaurant to charge more for wine.
In areas with high levels of tourist foot traffic, the principle of scarcity can also be induced, even though theoretically tourists could gravitate to other areas to eat. Because tourists don't know where to find good restaurants that are cheap, they tend to eat at the first place where they can find a table, near tourist attractions. Good restaurants don't locate to these areas, because even if they are able to charge high prices, they won't draw in the sort of local clientele that wishes to sample higher-end…… [Read More]
Native populations never had such concepts. That many nations are artificial creations incapable of food self-sufficiency undercuts the self-sufficiency argument. Nations around the world may need, at the very least, to organization into larger, more diverse blocs the way Europe has in order to have any hope of attaining food self-sufficiency.
Inefficient and illogical colonial-era boundaries are just one externality that is impacting the ability of the world to feed itself. Trade regulations are another. No matter the justification, trade barriers and tariffs reduce the efficiency of the global food trade. hen nations protect certain industries with these barriers, they fail to take advantage of comparative advantages. orse, such regulations stifle innovation. hen regulations are removed, innovation allows industries to find a new equilibrium. An example of this can be found with Canadian wine production. Prior to the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Act, the Canadian wine industry was subsidized heavily.…… [Read More]
Health Care Through the Eyes of the Economist
The health economics discipline holds great value. Economics is based on the assumption that resources available will always prove inadequate (i.e., scarce) when it comes to comprehensively satisfying human desires. This theory underlies all aspects of economics. Consequently, resource utilization in any one area implies, inevitably, that these cannot be used elsewhere, and that, the profits that could have been gleaned from their utilization in these other areas have to be sacrificed. Clinical research administrators are constantly making choices with regard to how they must allocate time, the activities into which their energies ought to be channeled and where to spend the funds available to them. Making choices is fundamental to their profession. Health care providers are increasingly faced with very emotive and powerful choices. Health economics fails to solve these tricky and challenging problems. Instead, it offers a way of thinking,…… [Read More]
George Magnus is a leading Economic Advisor at the UBS Investment Bank and has been a rebel around different systems in the world. George was employed in the UBS investment bank from 2004 till 2012. Along with being the senior economic advisor, he also played the highest level economist from 1997 till 2004. Prior to working for the UBS, he was working as a chief economist in SG Warburg from 1987 till 1995. Magnus is known for his work and cooperation with famous banks of both America and United Kingdom. The economist has authored many books and uploaded regular reviews which can be found at his website. George Magnus did his Masters in economics from the School of Oriental and African Studies from the University of London. He is also known for teaching the subject at the University of Illinois and University of Westminster.
The way he put out his…… [Read More]
The recession of 2008-2009 and the subsequent government responses provides a good test for economic theories. There are no controlled experiments in economics, so we can only work with case studies in order to understand how economies work. A good starting point is to consider the issue through multiple different lenses, so that we can understand how the crisis occurred and what prescriptions might be best suited for response either to address the root problems or to engage in prevention. This paper will consider the works of Marx, Schumpeter and Keynes in analyzing the financial crisis. All three of these men would have been able to understand its causes, but likely would have taken very different approaches to solving the problem.
The second issue at hand is the question of the future of capitalism. We have a pretty good sense at this point of what the response of…… [Read More]
2005, the British publication, The Economist, published an article regarding immigration and the parties who benefit from it. At the time, a decade ago, Prime Minister Tony Blair failed in his attempt to rally support against illegal immigration throughout the European Union (EU). Countries across the continent experienced intense political division regarding this issue. Those who favored politics argued for illegal immigration to cease; those who prioritized economics supported immigration, legal or otherwise. The article explains that to ease tensions within the British government, Blair proposed official supporting of legal immigration and the intensification of stopping illegal immigration. Blair ensured that the administration and bureaucracy regarding legal immigration was streamlined. The article then proceeds to question which parties in society benefit from immigration and how.
Immigration, from the perspective of The Economist is an occurrence that should be calculated, regulated, and firmly enforced. The article questions who benefits from immigration;…… [Read More]
Lincoln and leadership" in the Economist discusses Lincoln's leadership skills, showing how, occasionally, in American -- and general history a leader arose who had unconventional leadership skills and was, indeed, an outsider to the system. Sometimes, in fact -- and extraordinarily as it was -- the outsider was better than the insider: more skilled, knowledgeable. He could see it with a fresh eye. Schumpeter (2012) therefore proposes that it may be this very skill of the outsider: the ability to see the situation with a certain freshness that enables him to succeed and makes him so fitting for the task.
Lincoln was one of these outsiders
In May 1860, candidates for the presidency included two very experienced politicians called William Seward and Salmon Chase. Instead, a one-term congressman who had failed to win a Senate seat for his native state, Illinois was chosen. And Lincoln more so suffered from debilitating…… [Read More]
Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics" by William Easterly. In it he talks at great length about the various methods used by global banking institutions to promote growth in poor and developing countries. He describes several panaceas, or approaches, which have been used over the years by these financial institutions, such as the World Bank and the IMF. In most of the cases, there is a spotlight shone upon the shortcomings of each of the approaches.
Throughout his book, Easterly uses the expression "people respond to incentives."
The primary problem facing poor countries is the policies of institutions that should be helping them. Throughout Easterly's book he gives multitudes of examples in which the facts do not support the methods of aid that are currently being used. Some of the methods are even based on outdated or false economic theories.
One prime example is Domar's…… [Read More]
Suggest Economic Approach
Suggest how an economist would approach the problem of alcohol abuse. Provide two (2) possible solutions to this problem. Include the four (4) elements of the economic way of thinking in your analysis.
Analyze how prescription drugs affect the demand and supply of other products and services in this country
Formulate a reason why the elasticity of demand is an important consideration when analyzing the impact of a shift in supply and why the elasticity of supply is an Important Consideration When Analyzing The Impact Of A Shift In Demand Include At Least One (1) Example In Each Scenario
Provide two (2) examples of increasing-cost industries in your state and propose why they would have a positively sloped supply curve.
Suggest how an economist would approach the problem of alcohol abuse. Provide two (2) possible solutions to this problem. Include the four (4) elements of the…… [Read More]
solutions for the alcohol abuse problem from economists' point-of-view. The second section of the paper addresses the situation of prescription drugs and how they can affect the demand and supply of other products and services. The paper continues with a section that explains the relationship between supply modification and elasticity of demand, and between demand modifications and elasticity of supply. There is also a section that discusses increasing-costs industries. Another section of the paper address the conditions required for competitive markets to be economically efficient.
There are several solutions that economists can offer when addressing the alcohol abuse problem. In this case, the problem is regarded as a negative externalities situation of the production and consumption of alcohol. The assumption in this case is that alcohol abuse is a negative externality because of its consequences, like drunk driving and the effects on consumers' health and on relationship with other individuals.…… [Read More]
A b) Consider the articles on behavioral economics at http://myweb.liu.edu/~uroy/eco54/histlist/behav-econ/index.html. Summarizethe main thrust of some of these articles. Based on these articles, what's your opinion of behavioral economics? Do you think behavioral economics represents a return to Veblen's ideas?
In many respects it can be agreed that behavioral economics has much in common with Veblen's theories. Behavioral economists agree with Veblen that in most cases humans act illogically, because they are driven by instincts rather than by pure reason.
Thorstein Veblen stated that economic processes are mainly affected by evolution, social relations, political situation and other factors which are more global than circulation of money and accumulation of wealth. His ideas of social relations domination in economics have much in common with ideas of behavioral economists, who state that economy is much affected by psychological factor, or behavior of social groups.
It's proved by a number of applied researches held…… [Read More]
The governments of China clearly believe that if they do not ban shows where the premise is based on the voting then it could lead their citizens to want the right to vote in the government on their own opinions. The influence that television has, in this case by indirectly helping Chinese citizens move in the direction of being slightly more "democratic," is seen as a threat- it is hard to believe that television could threaten the national security of a world super power.
The current influence that television has on individual's lives is only growing stronger as technology continues to develop. Recent developments have shown that television will now be in "three-dimensions," so that individuals who view TV can be full immersed in the movie or show they are watching ("ho Needs It"). But is that even necessary when nine out of ten homes have televisions in their homes…… [Read More]
Hilsenrath, suggests that there are several inferences, which can be drawn from the growing view that poorly informed investors can make markets less efficient than suggested by the "free market" theories of the 1980s. According to the author, the first major implication is that behaviorist theories were now gaining wider acceptance in mainstream economics. Second, the fact that investors can be irrational implies that governments may have to re-evaluate issues such as market regulation and Social Security privatization. Third, if markets are sometimes inefficient, corporations would now have to rethink the way they judge management performance and compensation so that executives become less focused on stock price movements. Fourth, the fact that irrational investor behavior can lead markets astray does not, however, mean that the global emphasis on free markets and open economies will be reversed. For, all it really signifies is that the efficient market theory does not hold…… [Read More]
.." The Federal Reserve continues to keep a watch on both "current and potential exposures..." And are in the process of a review of the collateral valuation methods of the banking industry." (Kohn, 2008)
Kohn states that disruptions in liquidity in some financial markets have resulted in banking organizations facing challenges and specifically at present "significant liquidity demands can emanate from both the asset and liability of the bank's balance sheet." (Kohn, 2008) Kohn relates that when liquidity is reduced in the markets specifically for "certain structured credit products the creation of challenges and concerns relating to valuating spreads into other sectors and "illiquidity in some credit markets may make it difficult for some market participants, including banking organizations, to hedge positions effectively." (Kohn, 2008) Kohn states that the banking industry in the U.S. is up against some very serious challenges however, the Federal Reserve in cooperation with banking agencies…… [Read More]
Full creativity allows the production of greater wealth, for a stronger and more evolved society.
Further in defense of the moral systems or perceived lack thereof in terms of newly created wealth, D'Souza asserts that most wealth currently created is the result of personal effort, rather than means such as inheritance. The wealth can then indeed be seen as the reward for effort, rather than wealth as a result of luck in its pure sense. Morality's role should then not be concerned so much with justifying the accumulated wealth, but rather with using it wisely for the benefit of humanity, creativity, freedom and evolution.
Another characteristic of freedom, as seen above, is the recognition of new and revolutionary ideas, and implementing those when they are superior to the old. In terms of economy this is as true as in terms of morals. Those in power for example refuse to accept…… [Read More]
Future of the Outsourcing of British White-Collar Jobs
Outsourcing is the term given to the work that is done by anyone other than the full time employees of an organization. Outsourcing is the activity whereby certain elements of the processes in an organization are divested by an organization that bring in reasonable or little profit with respect to the capital invested. These activities that bring lesser profits than required or peripheral activities can be done supposedly in a more efficient manner by other and normally smaller organizations. These smaller organizations gain efficiency by focusing on the activity itself and sharpening the productive process in such a way that it can generate new efficiencies and make profits which the bigger organization would not be able to do in such in a focused manner. An example for this would be in the case of an automobile manufacturer purchasing headlights or speedometers instead…… [Read More]
It offers a good theory as it emphasizes on the production and export of those items for which a country possesses a comparative advantage. Furthermore, through its focus on the reduction of taxes and tariffs in international trade and the adherent practices, the theory of comparative costs has set the basis for the contemporaneous processes of market liberalization and globalization.
But the theory has not been spared from criticism. Oumar Bouare states that "the market price of a commodity does not converge toward its natural price. (Then) the outcome of complete specialization in icardo's framework locks third world and developing countries out of industrialization; and free trade could destroy the industrial base of a country, which in the long run could generate more wealth for the country than an imported product. This might also lock the country out of industrialization." b) in 1848, utilitarian economist John Stuart Mill wrote the…… [Read More]
Technology in Edu
Technology has changed the ways schools operate, the ways teachers communicate, and the ways students learn. At every level of education, from kindergarten until graduate school, technology is being used as a means to develop and deliver course material. Technology is also being used in administrative offices, and also in the home as students have greater access to educational technologies. In traditional classroom environments, technology is being used not just in the most obvious ways such as computer terminals with Internet and library database access. While traditional technological tools such as computers have become indispensable, revolutionary changes to the learning environment itself are technology-dependent. For example, technology can be used to alter lighting and sounds in the classroom in ways that promote learning, cooperation, and concentration. With technology in education comes a great responsibility to monitor usage, upgrade systems, and remain continually mindful of issues such as…… [Read More]
U.S. Government Deficits
hy is it that the U.S. Government can spend more than it brings in through taxes and other revenue? hat are the specific reasons why the U.S. can consistently and constantly operate its programs and conduct official business while running a huge deficit? These questions and others will be reviewed in this paper.
The Deficit -- why and by how much is the U.S. In debt?
A May, 2012 article in the Economist quotes Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney saying that the U.S. Government has "…a moral responsibility not to spend more than we take in" (Economist, 2012, p. 1). The article reminds Romney that if what he is saying is true then America is "…a thoroughly depraved and immoral country" because in 76 of the past 100 years "the U.S. government has spent more than it has taken in" (Economist, p. 1). In fact in 26…… [Read More]
(Der Hovanesian, 2010)
Increased Promotion of Discounted mortgages.
The way that subprime lending practices, and some call predatory lending practices affect the housing market has yet to be realized on such a large scale, as these tactics have always been carefully controlled by lending institutions, due in large part to their historical long-range view. Subprime lending on the other hand is fundamentally not a long-term view practice; it is a short-term tactic that is now being dealt with on a massive scale as foreclosures mount and more and more families see foreclosure looming in their future and more and more banks take on this debt, with the added burden of holding on to mortgages that far exceed the new depleted value of homes as the market corrects naturally from the housing bubble. The marketing for such subprime lending was absolutely saturated as nearly every individual was admonished to buy a…… [Read More]
(Major Schools of Economic Thought) This theory was born from the crucible of a Great Depression and a orld ar. Chicago theorists vehemently disagreed. They made the argument that the wealth of nation's increase when the market is allowed to naturally price goods and services. Spending would unnaturally change the prices of these goods, thus changing the reaction of the market to the goods, causing a misallocation of wealth or goods.
According to the Chicago theorists, the role of a government was to make sure individual rights were not trodden upon during market interactions and to mitigate the damage of neighborhood effects. Neighborhood effects are defined by Milton Friedman, the godfather of Chicago Economists, as when, "the action of one individual imposes significant costs on other individuals for which it is not feasible to make him compensate them or yields significant gains to them for which it is not feasible…… [Read More]
Unregulated speculation in the U.S. stock market created a great crash in the financial markets that affected every corner of the globe. Global economic cooperation was essential to prevent such a worldwide catastrophe again, and without government involvement, such economic and political instability would reoccur, with devastating consequences.
In the 1970s, however, dissatisfaction with the social welfare state began to surface. Distrust with the federal government in the wake of the Vietnam ar began to rise. Nixon's attempts to instate wage and price controls and failed. Powerful trade unions in Britain brought the nation to a standstill, spurring on the rise of Thatcherism. America applauded Ronald Regan's union-busting policies regarding the air traffic controllers in America. orld economic events had demonstrated that higher inflation did not necessarily assure lower unemployment, just like the Chicago School economists had said, rather high government deficits to correct high unemployment only created a more…… [Read More]
" (Bawer, 2005) Thus, culture and a higher cost of going out both come into play. Europeans have more health care and social services than Americans, but they still also pay more in taxes. True, they have better public transportation as well -- but gasoline (in this oil-exporting nation) costs more than $6 a gallon.
Bawer's greatest complaint was his lack of ability to have an exciting nightlife at a decent cost, something he said that was easier in supposedly poorer Spain. But this highlights how European nations still differ in terms of what they value, either wine with friends, or a more frugal and 'saving' standard of living. However, Bawer was correct in the sense that culture and cost may fuse, when comparing Europe as a whole to other nations, as while the private-consumption figure for the United States was $32,900 per person, the countries of estern Europe (again…… [Read More]
In addition, he argued that human behavior is mainly based on the pursuit of material profits.
According to Smith the society could develop only in case of existence of freedom and equality. These rational principles according to Smith could stimulate objective development of society and development of economical relations. His philosophical and moral ideas of course influenced his political economy. Smith's political economy based on freedom of competition and Smith principles of political economy based on the natural needs of developing capitalist society of Great Britain in many respects defined the economical policies of the major 19th century capitalist states.
3. Provide a sense of the historical context and the nature of the main debates in political economy during the first quarter of the 19th Century in Britain and how these debates shaped the complexation of early classical economic thought.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century there still existed…… [Read More]
Drug Abuse Economically
Alcohol consumption causes injuries, deaths and other problems in the society. In order to reduce the problem economists must understand it, and know the economic burden or effects it causes. Economists approach the problem using costs and further put it in real numbers. Economists use assumptions to simplify their work, and focus on what that really matters. They make rational decisions based on reason, and encourage them to act using that reason and not based on facts. They think at the margin while isolating variables; thus the notion that economists can be said to act rationally based on in their own interest.
Different factors should be considered when looking at alcohol consumption. Economists should use statistics to know the rate of alcohol consumption, and the increasing alcohol consumption rates. Many people tend to believe alcohol myths, which are unrealistic and misleading. Believing and acting on…… [Read More]
There are several areas of concern for agricultural economists, when they look towards the future. Some of these areas of interest are nutrition & health, the possibility of using food products for other uses than consumption and genetic adaptation of crops. However, three major interests of agricultural economists are the supply of food available, farm productivity and profits and agriculture production that will be friendly to the environment.
The availability of food supplies in the world is a primary interest and concern for agricultural economists. In an article by Lester Brown, he compares our use of the natural resources to the use of an endowment, which we have now started to utilize in addition to the interest and this leads to bankruptcy. He states, "By satisfying our excessive demands through overconsumption of the Earth's natural assets, we are in effect creating a global bubble economy" (Brown 1). Several…… [Read More]
" (Grabel, 2004) Good institutions serve as the basis for economic growth due to right market-based and market-guided incentives being created which include those stated in this study and specifically: (1) rule of law; (2) competitive markets; (3) low taxation (4) noninflationary monetary policies; and (5) free trade. (2002) Good institutions serve to "Foster other cultural patterns of conduct, hard work, savings and industriousness, honesty and trustworthiness, creativity, and self-responsibility. These are the bases of the wealth of nations." (Easterly, 2002; as cited in: Ebeling, 2002) These tools are helpful in avoiding and mitigating economic risks in development.
Easterly, W (2002) the Elusive Quest for Growth: An Economists Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics (Cambridge, MIT Press) Chapter 2
Krueger, a.O (1998) Why Trade Liberalization Is good for Growth, Economic Journal 108
Demetriades, P. And Hussein, K.A (1996) Does Financial Development Cause Economic Growth? Time-Series Evidence From 16 Countries,…… [Read More]
ewarding Work: How to estore Participating and Self-Support to Free Enterprise (Harvard University Press, 197), economist Edmund Phelps offers this plan to help the working poor: apply tax credits for "qualified employers" or hire disadvantaged people for "eligible jobs." Evaluate this plan in terms of market incentives, one of the ten principles of economics, to work and current welfare programs. Is the Phelps' plan an improvement over current government policies? Discuss.
Lowering a company's tax bill will generally always be effective in causing them to invest more money in expanding which usually means more hiring. However, it is not a panacea, as the recent economic incentives have proven. As of late, firms have received a number of tax cuts but there has also been the passing of the Dodd Frank financial reform bill as well as ObamaCare, both of which (ObamaCare in particular) is clearly making employers cool to hire…… [Read More]
Trade Act of 1974 on Euro exchange rates?
Free Trade has been a key agenda for the past three presidents. In an expanding global market, tariffs and trade policies are more important today than they have been in the past. More and more countries are forming alliances such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Asian Alliance, and the European Union (EU). These trade agreements are meant to level the playing for all countries, both industrialized and emerging countries.
President Bush's trade policy is aimed at helping to generate American jobs, open markets to American products, and provide economic growth. Sometimes massive increases in imports can have a devastating effect on U.S. industries. [This has been the case for the U.S. steel Industry and is the issue addressed in Section 203 (B) (1) of the Trade Act of 1974. Foreign steel makers have had the luxury of government…… [Read More]
Globalization and Social/Human Injustices
Human slavery/sex trafficking
The menace of slavery and trafficking for purpose of sexual exploitation is a menace that greatly neglected or not talked about by the high and mighty yet it is a problem that ravages families on a daily basis. Across the globe, there are people who benefit from the modern day slavery and there are countries that act as source, most of them being the underdeveloped nations where poverty is high and unemployment is also significantly high. These two factors when combined, often push affected families to willingly or otherwise let go of their daughters into the forced labor or sex slavery in more developed nations. The women and children are the most affected groups in the slavery business since they are the most vulnerable in the society. Against the common belief that slavery is obsolete, the opening up of more borders and easy…… [Read More]
Differentiations are always brought up by the contemporary mainstream economists and their theories regarding ontological questions and assumptions or mere recognition regarding conformity of preference structures regarding some rules can be approximated usefully. This is done by the commodities' association or there quantities uses. Taking into account that preference can as well be taken as a usefulness determinant, departing of this conception from the usefulness concept should not take place. Different marginal utilities may occur for diverse people regarding same object for any customary conception.
Market price and diminishing marginal utility
In a case whereby the stock flow or the flow of goods and services in a country is of lower marginal utility as compared to the commodities that the same country trade for with other country, then decision to affecting that trade is only upon the country. Evidently, business transaction involves a case of exchange of goods whereby there…… [Read More]
Thus it was confidence ebbed that had ebbed actual income. The Hiscox Wealth eview of 2009 found: "The recession has left its mark on the psyche of the Working Wealthy with a lack of confidence impacting their perceptions of wealth and appetite for risk. Whilst two in five (41%) say the recession has not had an impact on the amount of money they have to spend, almost an equal number (44%) say they are fearful of the future" (PN Newswire, 2009). But, observed Vanity Fair reporter tartly: "Most 60-year-old ex-Lehman Brothers bankers likely squirreled away enough to at least scrape by on a couple of million a year" (Shnayerson 2009, p.3). If they did cut back, it was in relatively minor ways: "Why should I pay $250,000 for a private plane," said one man to the magazine "when I can pay $20,000 to fly commercial first class" (Shnayerson 2009, p.1).…… [Read More]
fter all, Nevada -- especially Clark County -- experienced astronomical growth during the good years preceding the crisis, and the correction during the current lean years will necessarily be of the same proportions. Still, the article makes it clear that things will not be looking up for Nevada -- or the rest of the country of which Nevada is currently a good indicator -- for some time. Other issues complicating Nevada's recovery are detailed, such as a diversifying population with different needs and political demands, and the increasing face of lawlessness that the state and its central city promotes (such as in the "what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas" campaign) which dissuades some potential businesses from moving to the state. In general, however, this article focuses on the numbers of the situation, and does an excellent job of detailing the causes of the current financial meltdown.
Economist. (2009). "Wheel…… [Read More]
On one hand, international service companies will increase the original price of the company, mainly because to the original demand, now one will also need to add the additional charges of the international service companies, acting as intermediaries. However, on the other hand, it is more viable for the original producing companies to outsource, due to a lower opportunity cost.
Again, this type of judgment is functional in a non-transnational economy as well, but in an international context, one tends to have an atomicity of potential international service providers, outsourcing can be extended virtually to no limits and, additionally, the overall costs of the producing company are likely to be much smaller. As shown, this only works in an international capitalist system, where supply and demand work freely on the market, only then is the producer looking for the lowest costs for his company in a global context and only…… [Read More]
His leadership has also led to the build-to-order strategy becoming an exceptionally profitable manufacturing strategy across dozens of industries.
Buffington, J. 2011, "Comparison of mass customization and generative customization in mass markets," Industrial Management + Data Systems, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 41-62.
Dell Investor elations (2012). Investor elations. etrieved February 23, 2012 from Dell Investor elations and Filings with the SEC Web site: http://content.dell.com/us/en/corp/about-dell-investor
"A revolution of one: Michael Dell invented a business model that all the world wanted to copy; yet after all these years, almost nobody has; why?," 2001, Economist, vol. 359, no. 8217, pp. 63-63.
Dell, M.S. 1994, "Making the right choices for the new consumer," Managing Service Quality, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 22-22.
DellIsola, M.,D. 2002, "Impact of delivery systems on cost management," AACE International Transactions,, no. 15287106, pp. PM31-PM36.
Gama, J. 2006, "What Could Be the Solution?," AmericaEconomia,, no. 327, pp. 69-71.…… [Read More]
Spain is rich in tradition and culture, but it is important to note that this diversity is the product of centuries of war and conflict. From her early beginnings, Spain has been a rift of conflicting religious and political ideas, and those characteristics are present in every aspect of Spanish life today. Historically, the path from religious persecution to independence has been a journal of religious and political differences. Those political differences have lead to a varied and unique political system, which combines monarchy with a democratic government. Finally, the culture of Spain is an obvious representation of the religious history and conflicting cultures, displayed by the Carnival festivals and the wide variety of cultural traditions, such as bullfighting and the Flamenco. These combinations of cultures combine to effectively form one of the most diverse cultures in the world today.
Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. (2005). Spain. etrieved…… [Read More]
There is a tradeoff between the opportunity in a market and the risk of that market. The tradeoff between risk and reward can be seen most clearly with the comparison between the United States and the developing market countries. The U.S. has the best credit rating -- a relatively imperfect measure of market risk since it only truly reflects the risk of default on sovereign debt -- and the highest score for business environment. The U.S. also has, however, the lowest expected future GDP growth rate. Thus, the ideal BRIC nation to enter would be one that has the lowest risk and highest growth rate, but given that they all have roughly the same risk, the growth rate is probably going to be the best option for market entry.
The PDI is an important consideration, since the different markets differ in their composition. hile the EIU 5-year forecasts required…… [Read More]
News organizations are a critical source of information, and as such should be held to the highest standards of objectivity. News organizations that promote specific agendas, or attempt to entertain, should cease to present themselves to the public as news agents and be honest about their motivations and methods.
The desire for objective voices in the news is a longstanding one. In 1967, the Public Broadcasting Act required "strict adherence to objectivity and balance in all programs or series of programs of a controversial nature." (H., 1975). Canada has a law that insists news broadcasts deal only in factual information, with no conjecture or misrepresentation, thus preventing news agencies from promoting specific agendas. Proponents of such laws, and of objectivity in news in general, point to the role that news agencies play as the "fifth estate," a public service role to provide information that the public can then digest…… [Read More]
GERMANY & COMPOSITION OF GOVERNMENT. The research focus CURRENT ( year ) developments composition government. Preferred Resources: 1)The Economist 2) BBC News .
Development and Composition of German Government
Federalism is a key feature of the political system of Germany and its governance. Federalism dates back in the period after orld ar II when Germany was under the leadership Prussians. At this time, "Germany" consisted of a patchwork of states. These states formed the "Old Empire" (Altes Reich) with a common institution, the so-called Immerwahrender Reichstag in Regensburg (1663 -- 1806), composed of representatives of the respective territories. Its key features were power-sharing, bargaining and compromise-seeking (Kitschelt and olfgang 16).
Following the dissolution of that Empire in 1806, 39 territories formed, under Napoleon's protectorate, the Rheinbund (Rhine-Confederation) which was unwieldy and inefficient. The Vienna Congress in 1815 established, the confederal Deutscher Bund, as successor of the Old Empire and with…… [Read More]
The industrial age was an age of giant, mega corporations that were often bogged down by inefficient and outdated distribution, innovation, and production techniques. y contrast, the information age of the past 20 years or so has brought forth a new business form, a fluid congregation of businesses, sometimes highly structured, sometimes amorphous, that come together on the internet to create value for customers and wealth for their shareholders. This phenomenon has been commonly referred to as "digital capital," "information technology revolution," or "new economy." However, as both the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the Nasdaq soared to historic highs and record volatility in just a few short years, a widespread and quite fundamental disagreement emerged concerning whether or not the high-tech boom was nothing more than one huge bubble.
This paper analyzes and examines the present condition of the United States economy. Part II discusses what phase of…… [Read More]
4. The role that the FDA plays in setting food safety requirements is inherently costly to the economy. The function is not based on economic concerns but rather public health concerns -- the FDA's mandate dates to Congressional concern about the Elixir sulfanilamide disaster and traces its roots to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, which documented meat production in Chicago at the turn of the 20th century (FDA.gov, 2009). Thus, decisions about FDA regulations are not made on the basis of economic good, but rather public good. Increased regulations would impose increased costs on business. In classical economics, these costs would act as a form of tax, increasing risk and discouraging investment. Eliminating these requirements would lower these costs, which would allow for an expansion of the food business. It could be argued that the threat of litigation today would counterbalance the need for regulations, but that claim has not been…… [Read More]
This is because it runs counter to their strategies. These distinctions are important, as it highlights how this concept would not be accepted, based upon these differences.
The effects of incorporating organizational theory into organizational economics
When you are incorporating organizational theory into an entity, there will be a number of different positive effects to include: improved cooperation and trust. This is important, because it shows how the organizational theory is having an impact upon economics, by changing the way administrators are dealing with organizational issues (which will have an impact upon spending and revenues received).
The effects of empirical research performed by organizational economists
The effects of empirical research are: that economist have been focused on the economic aspects of the theory vs. The organization itself. This is important, because it highlights how many administrators can face challenges as economic theories are providing a general view, about how to…… [Read More]
Feminist economists can broaden our understanding of economic processes and institutions by exploring the ways in which people's economic opportunities, choices and constraints are influenced by their multiple and often contradictory social locations. Examining the ways in which ostensibly universal categories are constituted by oppositional dualisms can reveal the ways that false universalism naturalized and reproduces social hierarchy and inequality. Finally, taking gender seriously, as well as other significant dimensions of collective identity, will result in less partial and less distorted accounts of people's actual lives in all their many varieties. This can lead to economic theorizing that illuminates economic realities and facilities socially progressive policy analyzes (Burnett, 1999).
Value is the most important word to understand an economic and non-economic context. The word means to be strong or worthy. In purely economic terms is refers to the amount of some commodity, medium or exchange which is considered to be…… [Read More]
The concept of the multiplier effect is closely related to the concept of marginal propensity to spend and consume. Marginal propensity can be understood as the increase in personal consumer consumption and saving that occurs with an increase in disposable income. When fiscal policy creates more disposable income for a family, the concept of marginal propensity predicts how much more they would be save and spend. Thus marginal propensity predicts the actual impact of fiscal policy when it is enacted and thus it can calculate the multiplier effect.
Prepare an essay describing Keynesian economic theory. Be sure to fully explain what is being critiqued and why. You should also be clear on why you find this particular critique so compelling. (600 words).
Keynesian economic was developed in the 20th century by the British economist John Keynes. Keynesian economics is basically a reinvention of classical economic theory, it focuses upon a…… [Read More]
Expectations, according to Pigou, could be actual concerns regarding real factors, but could also themselves be a source of fluctuations independent from any other factors (Collard 1983). Pigou also believed that 'psychological causes' had the potential of persisting to the point that the system would be unable to attain equilibrium, and expectations may therefore be formed that address genuine uncertainties (Collard 1983). Forecasting errors, according to Pigou, were deserving of attention, due to their addictive and multiplicative effects (Collard 1983). Pigou believed that eliminating errors resulting from expectations, such as optimism or pessimism, could reduce industrial fluctuations by approximately 50% (Collard 1983). It is noted by Collard (1983) that Pigou's assessment of the effects that expectation has on the economy are more thorough than anything similar put forth by Marshall.
The opposition Pigou had against Keynes later developed into the formulation of the Pigou effect or real balance effect, which…… [Read More]
Economic View of the Death Penalty
In 1972, The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the case of Furman v. Georgia that the death penalty, as applied in three capital cases in the state of Georgia was "cruel and unusual punishment and in violation of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments. (Hastings and Johnson, 2001, paraphrased) A mere four years later the state of Georgia was once against before the Supreme Court in the case of Gregg v. Georgia, a case in which the decision handed down by the court found that the death penalty was in fact constitutional. (Hastings and Johnson, 2001, paraphrased) The objective of this study is to examine the practice of the death penalty from an economic perspective. Towards this end, this study will examine the literature in this area of study. According to a recent report there are several states considering abolition of the death penalty including…… [Read More]