International Econ Essays (Examples)

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Economic Trends in Terms of Output and

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87710504

Economic Trends

In terms of output and growth, Canada's real GDP was 2.96% higher than it was a year ago, but the growth trend is slowing down from a growth rate high of 3.81% in Q3 2010. Japan's economy has contracted in Q2 2011 by 0.76%. It's rate has been volatile, growing rapidly over the past year only to contract again. The UK's growth rate is 1.63%, and that country has had fairly stable, if sluggish, real GDP growth. The current GDP growth rate in the United States is 2.33%. Real GDP growth is on a downward trend in the U.S. But has maintained healthy levels since Q4 2009.

All four countries were affected by the recession. Each experienced real GDP declines during the 2008-2009 period. Japan was the hardest hit. Yet each nation recovered in 2010, only to see the rate of economic growth slow again in 2011.

Canada…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

BoC. (2011). Inflation control target. Bank of Canada. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from http://www.bankofcanada.ca/monetary-policy-introduction/framework/inflation-control-target/

Estrella, A. & Trubin, M. (2006). The yield curve as a leading indicator: Some practical issues. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/current_issues/ci12-5/ci12-5.html

Investopedia. (2011). Yield curve. Investopedia. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/y/yieldcurve.asp#axzz1VCSWJAY8 

St. Louis Fed. (2011). International economic trends: August 2011. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved October 20, 2011 from http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/iet/
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Economics of International Trade China Exploring the

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34964020

Economics of International Trade China

Exploring the Economics of International Trade: China

"Chinese international trade has experienced rapid expansion together with its dramatic economic growth which has made the country to target the world as its market," and its expansion has only continued to show powerful growth within the international economic marketplace (Sun & Heshmati, 2010, p 1). After China was reopened to trading with the West in 1978, the country has really took off in becoming one of the world's biggest producers and exporters of a plethora of different goods. China has grown tremendously as nations like the United States have become their biggest trading partners. In response, China has helped refuel this growth with the manipulation of their currency and their heavy investment in the U.S. dollar, which ensures them a more competitive position for their exports.

For generations, China had closed itself off to trading and interacting…… [Read More]

References

American Manufacturing. (2012). China and currency manipulation. Issues. Web. Retrieved September 4, 2012 from http://americanmanufacturing.org/category/issues/china/china-and-currency-manipulation

Barboza, David. (2012). Business and economy in China. New York Times. Web. Retrieved September 4, 2012 from http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/news/international/countriesandterritories/china/business_and_economy/index.html

Congress Quarterly. (1999). The consumer culture. CQ Researcher, 9(44), 1001-1016.

Manzay, Terrance. (2010). China export industry dominates worldwide. Article Snatch. Web. Reprieved September 4, 2012 from http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/China-Export-Industry-Dominates-Worldwide/3853472#.UEZqYKNIuHY
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International Business Is a Term

Words: 2123 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83416987

(5).

This paper provides further illustration of trade barrier to provide greater understanding on the method barrier to trade hurts economy. Fig 1 reveals the effects of international trade without trade barrier. From the graph, DD refers to domestic demand and DS means domestic supply, and the price of good is found at P, and the world price is found at P. However, domestic consumer will consume at Qw because the home country could only produce Qd. Thus, the home country must import Qw-Qd worth of goods to enhance efficiency in the economy.

Figure 1. Price without Trade Barrier

However, Fig 2 reveals the economy with trade barrier. It is revealed that the economy will not achieve maximum allocation of scarce resources because trade barriers reduce efficiencies because it would allow companies that would not have existed in a more competitive market environment to exist.

Figure 2. Price with the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Kym. Subsidies and Trade Barriers. University of Adelaide. The Centre for International Economic Studies.2004.

Elwell, C.K (2006). Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare. CRS Report for Congress.

Jeffery Frankel and David Romer, Does Trade Cause Growth?, NBER Working Paper No.

5476, June 1999.
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International Risk

Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99332350

International Risk Management

No profit was ever made without taking some financial risk. However, economists such as John Eatwell and Lance Taylor have argued in their text Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation that international financial markets are intrinsically and particularly apt to pose the threat of risk to potential investors on an individual and a corporate level. Investors in finance base their decisions on guesses, not only about how other investors within a nation will behave, but also about national stability, which affects the stability of the currency. As markets have grown more global in scope, industrialized countries often have pursued a more cautious monetary policy regarding other nations. However, too much caution can be risky too, Ultimately hesitancy in investment results not only in lost opportunities, but a climate of fear that can at its extremes generates international deflation, a depression in economic growth, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eatwell, John & Lance Taylor. (2000) Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation. New York: New Press.

Kelly, Michael P. (June/July 2001.)"Foreign Currency Risk: Minimizing Transaction Exposure." International Law.  http://www.vsb.org/publications/valawyer/june_july01/kelley.pdf 

Schnaue, Frank. (2004). "U.S. trade gap widens as production rises." UPI. http://app.quotemedia.com/data/newsItem.htm?storyId=1533543
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International Business Identify the Risks

Words: 2009 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9312730



Another reason why corporations choose to hold cash balances in a centralized repository is that the variety of accounts can be better managed as a mutual fund more complex investment structure than would be the case if the subsidiary alone managed the funds. A greater quality of information is available for example in the leading financial centers globally that would otherwise not be the case in more remote regions, making it possible to make more informed and correct decisions (Mitsos, 1997). The accuracy, efficiency and speed of decision-making based on more efficient use of information has led to more advanced forms of cash management than would have been the case on a per-subsidiary level (Fresard, Salva, 2010). Lastly, by having a centralized depository of cash for all subsidiaries, firms can hold less accumulated total cash, freeing up financial resources for other investments (Fresard, Salva, 2010). Companies become more efficient at…… [Read More]

References

Elliott, Graham, & Bewley, Ronald. (1994). The transmission of monetary policy: The relationship between centralized depositories and Monetary policy. Economic Record, 70(208), 19.

Fresard, L., & Salva, C.. (2010). The value of excess cash and corporate governance: Evidence from U.S. cross-listings. Journal of Financial Economics, 98(2), 359.

Hill, C.W.L. (2011). International business: Competing in the global marketplace (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Nicholas Mitsos. (1997, November). Virtual Group Treasury. TMA Journal, 17(6), 24-30.
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International Trade How Do International

Words: 421 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9876042

Thus, free trade keeps costs lower for consumers and leads to more efficient production. However, there are exceptions to unabated free trade. Most notably, national security dictates restrictions on the sale of military goods to unfriendly countries. Also, one needs to consider appropriate responses to other countries who do not engage in fair trading policies. Recently, the U.S. has seen huge losses of jobs and a redistribution of wealth to Asian countries such as China and India. Perhaps some form of protectionism might be useful to give time for the U.S. time to make plans to deal with the situation.

ibliography

Comparative advantage and absolute advantage. EconomicsInteractive.com. Retrieved at http://www.unc.edu/depts/econ/byrns_web/Economicae/Essays/AS_Comp_Adv.htm

Wallenius, H. International economics. http://www.tuta.hut.fi/studies/Courses_and_schedules/Isib/TU-91.2011/lecturenotes/Lecture_4.ppt#256,1,3INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICY… [Read More]

Bibliography

Comparative advantage and absolute advantage. EconomicsInteractive.com. Retrieved at http://www.unc.edu/depts/econ/byrns_web/Economicae/Essays/ABS_Comp_Adv.htm

Wallenius, H. International economics. http://www.tuta.hut.fi/studies/Courses_and_schedules/Isib/TU-91.2011/lecturenotes/Lecture_4.ppt#256,1,3INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICY
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International Trade Walmart International Trade

Words: 3321 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14877549



The Uruguay round would designate that the TO, through its primary role as a mediator, negotiator, and monitor of international trade policies and disputes, serves by design as a gatekeeper of international trade, offering the structural conditions and assembled authority to exact a legitimate level of authority over its member nations.

A good example of how the TO has strengthened the international governing community's ability to provide oversights for its member nations comes from the 1994 rounds of negotiation in Uruguay which essentially defined and forged the TO from the shadows of the GATT. In a consideration, for instance, of the newly afforded power to engage in the process of dispute settlement, we can see that the TO would have an expansive impact on the power of those who had already acted under the propositions of the GATT. The declaration produced by this round of talks would proceed by stating…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

AdBrands. (2008). Wal-Mart Stores (U.S.). AdBrands.net.

Beierle, T. (2002). . From Uruguay to Doha: Agricultural Trade Negotiations at the World Trade Organization University of Connecticut: Discussion Papers.

Collins, J.C. (2007). Supply Chain. Accounting Software Research. Online at http://www.asaresearch.com/ecommerce/supplychain.htm.

Doha WTO Ministerial. (2006). Ministerial Declaration. The World Trade Organization.
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International Trade & Investment Good

Words: 2421 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75153789

185). Components for these products may be manufactured and put together in branches in various countries throughout the world. Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong were involved in the earliest types of production sharing, which included assembling electronic components manufactured in other countries. Production sharing, one World Bank study determined, currently contributes to approximately 30% of manufacturers' total global trade. Foreign affiliates' international exports approach over 7% of global GDP, approximately $2 trillion.

Conclusion

The World Trade Organization (WTO), which came into being in 1995, the only worldwide international organization that deals with rules of trade between countries, maintains their goal to be to assist producers and manufacturers of services; goods; exporters; importers in carry out business. ("What..., 2006, para. 1) "One of the youngest of the international organizations, the WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second…… [Read More]

References

Andrews, R., Biggs M., & Seidel, et al. M. (Eds.). (1996). The Columbia World of Quotations.

New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved on June 7, 2006 at http://www.bartleby.com/66/50/1950.html&

http://www.bartleby.com/66/45/39445.html.

Barrera, A. (2004). "Who Benefits from Outsourcing?" Retrieved on June 7, 2006 at http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=3115.
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Economics Politics Trade Geopolitical Base

Words: 7721 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22923523

For the period of the late 1960s and early 1970s, West Germany strived to assist the dollar. The United States and many other nations pushed West Germany to reassess so as to make up for the dollar excess. (Germany in the World Economy)

At last, after escalating waves of conjectures, the retton Woods system had a collapse in August 1971. All through the post-retton Woods period, the deutsche mark stayed under pressure. In order to relieve strain within Europe, West Germany and other European states assented to peg their currencies to a special system of comparatively narrow exchange rate bands officially named the 'European narrow-margins agreement' but unofficially identified as the 'snake'. The United States and West Germany performed main roles in attempting to organize a new global monetary system. but, in spite of its willingness to make small exchange-rate alterations for the benefit of new currency arrangements, West Germany…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Little German Reform Would Go a Long Way" (Dec 1, 2003) Business Week. Issue: 3860; pg. 22. Retrieved from home.uchicago.edu/~gbecker / Businessweek/BW/2003/12_01_2003.pdf Accessed on 24 November, 2004

Economic Survey - Germany 2004: Main issues and policy challenges"

Retrieved at http://www.oecd.org/document/17/0,2340,en_2649_201185_33633425_1_1_1_1,00.html. Accessed on 24 November, 2004

Economy of Germany" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_GermanyAccessed on 25 November, 2004
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International Competitiveness Politics and Policy

Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51823334

In my opinion, there is no excuse for them not accomplishing the objectives they have been created to attain.

6. egarding the economic situation and the context of the current financial and economic crises, things are not as clear as they are about environmental issues. In my opinion, the policies that must be implemented in the following period of time should take into consideration economic stagnation, and not economic evolution.

The crisis currently affects the real estate market. Then, it will affect the energy market. Eventually, it will affect the food market. In my opinion, the bailouts that everyone complaints about are not such a negative action.

Even if it does not seem fair to pay for other people's mistakes and greed, these bailouts will probably be responsible for saving thousands of jobs domestically and internationally. However, if the bailouts will be used for bonuses, than this measure will obviously…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Thoumrungroje et al. (2007). Globalization Effects and Firm Performance. Journal of International Business Research. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5539/is_200707/ai_n25417659.

2. Raphaeli, N. (2008). Saudi Arabia's Waning Influence on the Oil Market. The Middle East Media Research Institute. Inquiry and Analysis, No. 452. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=ia&ID=IA45208.

3. Urbanization and Globalization (2001). The United Nations. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from  http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN002543.pdf .

4. The Great Global Schemer (2008). The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/16/AR2008071602453.html .
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International Relations Theory and United Nations Peace

Words: 2630 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23279245

International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:

International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…… [Read More]

References:

Ahmed, S. Keating P. & Solinas, U (2007), 'Shaping the Future of UN Peace Operations: is there

A Doctrine In the House?' Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-28, viewed 26 November 2011,

Cristol, J (n.d.), International Relations Theory, Oxford Bibliographies Online, viewed 26

November 2011,
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International Development Political Economy of

Words: 2527 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49936148

" (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)

The main objectives of the sustainable development are to: revive growth, change the quality of growth, satisfy the basic needs for jobs and subsidiary services, ensure a sustainable level of population, preserve the resources, reorient technology and control risk, consider both economy and environment in the decision making process, and reorient international economic relationships. (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)

Connections between the two

Harriss promotes the idea of disciplined economics and governance based on rules. Lele promotes the sustainable development, again a form of governance based on a strict set of rules. The idea at the basis of these two theories is practically the same: governance, economy and the entire human behavior should be based on a set of rules previously elaborated to protect the interests of the participants as well as the environment's.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jamie Joseph, Development in Practice, Volume 11, Numbers 2 & 3, May 2001; Sustainable Development and Democracy in the Megacities

Joseph T. Siegle, Michael M. Weinstein, and Morton H. Halperin, Why Democracies Excel, Foreign Affairs September/October 2004

Mick Moore, Political Underdevelopment, What causes 'bad governance', Volume 3, Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2001

Lionel Cliff and Robin Luckham, Complex political emergencies and the state: failure and the fate of the state, Third World Quarterly, Vol 20, No 1, pp 27A± 50, 1999
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International Business Foreign Direct Investment

Words: 2198 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91339318

For instance, McDonald's has a solid partnership with Starbucks that came as a natural solution to the increased consumption of coffee in its restaurants. Starbucks happens to be the world's leading specialty coffee retailer with a worldwide presence that matches that of the fast food producer.

4.

Other factors affecting decision

Vietnam is an Asian country with strong oriental cooking habits, which might not be very compatible with McDonald's typical menu of cheeseburgers and fries with a Coke on the side. Furthermore, the local food seems to be relatively healthy, which again is not something that cam be said by McDonald's food.

In 1990s, the company tried to enter this market, but didn't due to the lack of suitable business partners. A few years later, KFC and Lotteria entered the market and consolidated their position. Therefore, at this point the restaurant chain would need a couple of strong breakthrough strategies…… [Read More]

Reference list:

IMF -- International Monetary Fund, accessed June 09, World Economic Outlook - Vietnam.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, accessed June 09,  http://www.mofa.gov.vn/en/cs_doingoai/ 

Ministry of Planning and Investment: http://fia.mpi.gov.vn/

Thuy, L.T. 2005. Technological Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: the Case of Vietnam. University of Tokyo, www.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp
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International Monetary System's Policies Support

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90809578

According to Chancellor Helmut chmidt the interest rates of the developed countries in the post1990 era were higher than they had ever been "at any time since Jesus Christ" (http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm). In 1983, in Latin America, whose devaluations were enormous, it was recorded that in one year "the effect on the individual private sector, which in [some] cases had been encouraged by the policies of the authorities to borrow, has been devastating...the amount needed in local currency to service external debt has increased three or four times" (Kuczynski,1983, p. 22). The situation in these countries is such: with the decrease of their currency value, more goods must be sold to pay back their debt plus interest, and since their export prices have been steadily declining in the post war years, their accumulated interest swells to a rate that is higher than the nominal dues stipulated in the original contract (http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm). In…… [Read More]

Sources

Developing countries in the international economic system. Accessed on 1/13/2011 from: http://hdr.undp.org/external/HDR_papers/oc3b.htm

InfoPlease, International finance. The International Monetary System. Accessed on 1/13/2011 from:  http://www.infoplease.com /cig/economics/international-monetary-system.html

Kahn, a.A. (19-Jan-2009). International monetary system, globalization, and developing countries. The News, Accessed on 1/13/2011 from: www.opfblog.com/3909/international-monetary-system

Kuczynski, P.P. (1983). Latin American Debt: Act Two, Foreign Affairs, 22-29
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Economic Impacts of the Following

Words: 1374 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31288179



Even more, high inflation attracted large budget deficits. In order to cover them from one fiscal period to another, a great part of Canada's national savings had to be directed towards this direction. The effects consisted in public debt accumulation, which in turn led to increased risks in the country's interest rates.

And the chain of effects did not stop here. The situation continued with discouraged investments, especially where equipment and technology were concerned. This is a very important aspect, because of the fact that these factors directly influenced productivity.

In other words, without massive and continuous investments in equipment and technology, productivity cannot be improved. If productivity does not reach satisfactory levels at least, the general economic situation cannot improve. As a consequence, individual economic situation cannot be a satisfactory one either.

Even if matters seemed to be clear from this point-of-view, it took a while until Canada came…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Canada (2009). Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/CA.html.

2. Dodge, David (2002). Bank of Canada. Governor of the Bank of Canada's Speech to the Canadian Society of New York. Retrieved June 11, 2009.

3. Ragan, C. (2005). The Exchange Rate and Canadian Inflation Targeting. The Bank of Canada. Retrieved June 11, 2009.

4. Phelps, Edmund (1970). Inflation Policy and Unemployment. MacMillan. Retrieved June 11, 2009.
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Economics Finance MBA Level

Words: 13568 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39727750

disrupting America's economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists

Even as the world continues to struggle with the terrible shock from the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington, one principle lesson has already become clear: disrupting our economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists.

Prior to September 11, our economic environment was certainly not immune to terror, in comparison to many other nations; we lived relatively terror-free. Now, however, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks serves as a grim reminder that international relations and security developments can dramatically affect economic performance.

US History is replete with countless examples when macro fundamentals are overtaken by what economists refer to as, exogenous shocks -- surprise events that can profoundly and often unpredictably shift political and economic resources, and send even the most accurate forecasts astray. Commodity shocks, such as the two OPEC jolts in the 1970s, are classic…… [Read More]

References

Bagehot, Walter. 1927. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, John Murray, London.

Balbach, Anatol B. 1981. "How Controllable is Money Growth?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol 63, no 4, April, p. 5.

Becker, Gary S, Steven N. Kaplan, Kevin M. Murphy and Edward A Snyder. (2002 / winter). "The Economic Effects of September 11," GSB Magazine, University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business.

Bell, Stephanie. 2000. "Do Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 603-620.
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Economics Economic Value Added Economic Value Added

Words: 1777 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66897913

Economics

Economic Value Added

Economic Value Added is an analytical tool which was developed in 1982 by Joel Stern and G. Bennett Stewart and has been widely accepted as a means of measuring a company's real profitability. This tool is unique because it involves calculating "the firm's residual profitability, net of both the direct cost of debt capital and the indirect cost of equity capital." (Grant, p. 2) Debt capital can be defined as the amount of money a company must spend on its current debt, including interest and other fees. However, because most interest expenses can be deducted from taxes, the calculation is often measured after taxes. Equity capital is a much more complicated factor in the equation because it deals with the value of all the assets of the company, which would normally be owned by the shareholders, but are necessary for the running of the company. This…… [Read More]

References

Bremer, Catherine. (2010, Feb. 7). "Mexico sets 250,000 tonne 2010 sugar import quota." Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/02/07/mexico-sugar-idUSN0716673520100207

"China to increase coal exports quota to 38 million tonnes for 2011." (2011, Mar. 21) China Mining Association. Retrieved from http://www.chinamining.org/News/2011-03-21/1300668416d43907.html

"Economic Value Added" Whole Foods Website Retrieved from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company/eva.php

Ehmke, Cole, Joan Fulton and Jayson Lusk. "Marketing's Four P's: First Steps for New Entrepreneurs." Purdue University Agriculture and Commercialization Center. Retrieved from http://www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/ec/ec-730.pdf
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International Accounting and Auditing Standards

Words: 1877 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72735239

Accounting

International Accounting and Auditing Standards

International public sector accounting standards (IPSAS) are developed and put forth by the International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). International private sector accounting standards are known as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). They are put together and put forth by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), a self-governing standard generating body of the International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation. The IFRS for SME's is a self enclosed standard, intended to meet the requirements and abilities of small and medium-sized entities (SME's), which are anticipated to comprise over ninety five per cent of all corporations worldwide. It is constructed on the basis of full IFRSs, yet, a lot of the principles for distinguishing and gauging assets, liabilities, earnings and expenses have been cut down, subjects not relevant to SME's have been left out, and the amount of necessary revelations…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barth, Mary E. "Global Financial Reporting: Implications for U.S. Academics." Accounting

Review 83.5 (2008): 1159-1179. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Web. 6 July 2011.

Hail, Luzi, Christian Leuz, and Peter Wysocki. "Global Accounting Convergence and the Potential Adoption of IFRS by the U.S. (Part II): Political Factors and Future Scenarios

for U.S. Accounting Standards." Accounting Horizons 24.4 (2010): 567-588. Business
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International Relations and Biology

Words: 7088 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58334919

Scientific and Political Aspects

of Genetically Modified Foods

While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.

Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004



Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food

Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
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Economic Analysis The International Trade Market International

Words: 1291 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55999124

Economic Analysis: The International Trade Market

International trade plays an historically large role in the growth and prosperity of countries around the globe. Similar to the benefits that open trade within a country brings to that country's respective economy, trade on the international front improves the global market economy significantly. Trade generates competition, promotes the transfer and utilization of new technology and allows countries, customers, and businesses alike to access to the world's best products. Trade in the international market brings about the capacity for innovation, high productivity and rising incomes and economic standings for each country that chooses to engage in it. However, certain strategies, regulations and methods must be employed within the international market to ensure success and smooth operations in each respective country that becomes involved in world trade.

Governmental ole in International Trade

The government plays a very specific role in the field of international trade…… [Read More]

References

Dutta, N. (2010). Foreign investment, financial development and political risks. The Journal of Developing Areas, 44.2: pp: 303-327. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Lowenfield, A. (2001). The role of government in international trade: essays over three decades. The American Journal of International Law, 95.2: pp: 400-502. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Rauch, J. And Trindade, V. (2009). Neckties in the tropics: a model of international trade and cultural diversity. Canadian Journal of Economics, 42.3: pp. 809-843. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Winter-Nelson, A. (2007). Roles for government in international trade. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 37.1: pp. 60-61. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
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International Financial Markets and Institutions Throughout the

Words: 2559 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45284927

International Financial Markets and Institutions:

Throughout the globe, today's landscape of international financial market and institutions has continued to experience several changes that require practitioners to examine new models. The need for practitioners to examine new models that are relevant to the state of these markets and institutions has also been necessitated by the recent events that contribute to financial crises, which have been very dramatic. Actually, the recent financial crisis has had significant impacts on the financial institutions and markets resulting in the need for changes. International financial markets and institutions have become an important aspect of economies because they affect daily life. This is primarily because they involve the huge flow of different types of funds in the entire economy that in turn impact the profits of businesses, production of goods and services, and economic well-being of countries. In some cases, the events in these institutions and markets…… [Read More]

References:

Accounting Education (2010), International Capital Market, Accounting Education, viewed 7

June 2012,

Australian Securities Exchange (n.d.), Absolute Return Funds, Australian Securities Exchange,

viewed 7 June 2012,
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International Monetary System and Exchange Rate Policies

Words: 1065 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20667598

International Monetary System and Exchange ate Policies

A report/essay: chapter 17, multinational companies. select topic research write: Multinational vs. domestic financial management exchange rates international trade international monetary system exchange rate policies trading foreign exchange european monetary union interest

rate parity/purchasing power parity international capital structures.

The international monetary system and exchange rate policies

International Monetary systems

These are a set of rules and that regulate how international trade and payments are handled. It facilitates the exchange of capital, goods and services among countries. However, this system does not have a physical presence but, it consists of interlacing rules and procedures and is influenced by the market of foreign exchange. An example of an international monetary system is the International monetary fund. These interlacing rules and procedures are referred to as exchange rate Policies.

Exchange rate policies

These are rules that officials of public finance from different nations have developed…… [Read More]

References

Eichengreen. (2011). Exorbitant Privilege: The Rise and Fall of the Dollar and the Future of the International Monetary System

Goyal, M., Raman, Wang, and Ahmed; . ( 2011). Financial Deepening and International Monetary Stability.

Michael C. Ehrhardt, & Eugene F. Brigham. (2011). Corporate Finance (4th ed.): Cengage.

OECD. (2011). The Effects of Oil Price Hikes on Economic Activity and Inflation.
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International Labor Economics Programme Title

Words: 2169 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40651466

This being the key player in the economy of the country, it is crucial to revive it as the priority towards reduction of unemployment in the economy. Structural reforms within the export sector involve the introduction of multinationals to supplement efforts of inward investment or revolution. The rate of impact differs in attempts to alleviate unemployment incidences (OECD 2011, pg 91-131). This is because multinationals proves to deliver an increase in the levels of output while inward organizations and entities still struggle to emerge from the effects of the economic recession. In order to reduce the levels of unemployment in the republic of Ireland, it is critical to adopt the three-pillar strategy to address the persistent problem in relation to the Irish labour market. Within the three pillars, the first motive should be welfare reforms. This should ensure that workers obtain better payment for their skills and services within the…… [Read More]

References

Perry, LJ 2008, 'A Comparison of Labour Market Reforms in Ireland, New Zealand and Australia', Journal of Economic and Social Policy, 12, 2, pp. 1-27, EconLit with Full Text,

EBSCOhost, viewed 2 July 2012.

'Structural reforms to reduce unemployment and restore competitiveness' 2011, OECD

Economic Surveys: Ireland, 2011, 15, pp. 91-131, Business Source Complete,
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Economic Globalization Has the 2008 Financial Meltdown

Words: 2832 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9572312

Economic Globalization

Has the 2008 financial meltdown in the U.S. And the ongoing economic crisis in Europe have practically ended the era of economic globalization?

Following the financial crisis that marred the U.S. economy along with other global economies as well as the ongoing Eurozone debt crisis, there have been projected concerns that this predicament would end economic globalization. The purpose of this paper is to assess this claim. Going by Immanuel Wallenstein's World Systems Theory, the political economy of Third World economies and developed economies of the West are mutually dependent. Wallenstein's conjecture is that the growth and expansion of Third World economies relies on constant interaction with Western developed economies seeing as the world is characterized by a structural division of labor where the developing nations of the Third World provide cheap labor and raw materials while the developed economies are the holders of capital and controllers of…… [Read More]

References

Ebrahimi, H, 2012, "John Lewis warns Amazon's tax avoidance 'will drive UK companies out of business" The Telegraph

Held, David; The Open University, eds. (2004). A Globalizing World?: Culture, Economics, Politics (2nd ed.). London; New York: Routledge, in association with the Open University. p. 84.

Katz, I & Christie, R (2011) "Geithner Called Housing Giants Biggest 'Moral Hazard'" Bloomberg

Lynch, Katherine (2003). The Forces of Economic Globalization. Kluwer Law International
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Economic Crisis Policies US Current Economic Crisis

Words: 2366 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30617442

Economic Crisis Policies

US current economic crisis is considered to be started from real estate sector. The real sector started to decline in 2006 and it accelerated in 2007 and 2008. Housing prices have fallen from the peak from about 25% so far. The decline in prices left homeowners with no option and they were unable to refinance their mortgages and causes default of mortgages. This default of mortgages and loans swallowed the banks and financial markets such as falling of Lehman's brothers and other anks and blow to rest of economy happened as the whole economy was relying on banks and ultimately it slows down investment in the country and capital flows to other parts of the world like China and India. ank losses cause reduction of bank capital which in turn requires capital reduction thus saving bank from lending. It is estimated that every $100 loss and reduction…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ISR international socialist review. (2009, april). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis:causes and solutions: http://www.isreview.org/issues/64/feat-moseley.shtml

Journal of accountancy. (2009, october). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis: root causes and road to recovery: www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2009/Oct/20091781

Eyes on wall street. (2011, april). Retrieved from Levin coburn investigates casues of financial crisis: http://www.eyesonwallstreet.com/2011/04/articles/financial-crisis/levincoburn-report-investigates-causes-of-the-financial-crisis/

Rude, C. (2009). World Economic Crisis and Fed Reserve Response to it. Studies in Political Economy.
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International Business Environment Today's Micro

Words: 2692 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57054507

"Opening up the financial system to foreign capital flows can lead, and has led, to disastrous financial crises, which have resulted in great pain, suffering and even violence" (Mishkin, 2006, p.9).

Directly linked to the previous disadvantage and the basic definition of globalization, is the fact that the interdependence of sectors and institutions increases in a global market. In this instance then, a financial crisis within one country or within one institution is likely to generate negative effects upon its partners. The most relevant example of chain reaction to a financial crisis is the current situation, in which the global community is threatened with economic collapse due to the financial difficulties of the United States. The situation is similar in terms of politics or the social environment.

Globalization has often been assimilated with Americanization, meaning by this the desire of the American corporations to transcend boundaries and get access to…… [Read More]

References

Ervin, J., Smith, Z.A., 2008, Globalization: A Reference Handbook, ABC-CLIO

Geddes, P., 2004, the Benefits of Globalization, Foundation for Research on Economics and the Environment, http://www.free-eco.org/articleDisplay.php?id=378last accessed on January 19, 2009

Holm, H.H., Globalization and What the Governments make of it, European Institute Firenze, Retrieved at http://www.djh.dk/pdf/forskning/global.pdfon January 20, 2009

Kolodko, G.W., 2003, Emerging Market Economies: Globalization and Development, Ashgate Publishing
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International Business Environment Ireland Was

Words: 1558 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30731914

Additionally, its taxation advatantages may erode due to pressure from EU and implicitly its wages will increase as taxes increase. Competition from emerging countries, namely Eastern Europe will become stronger as Ireland allings its strong points to EU standards. Moreover, the country's inflationary problem persistance may strengthen EU pressure on the authorities to reduce it through its fiscal policy.

eference List

BBC news channel. 2004. Ireland is Named 'Best Country', published on Nov 17, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4020523.stm.

Barry, F. And Bradley, J. 1997. FDI and Trade: The Irish Host-Country Experience. The Economic Journal, vol. 107(445): pp. 1798-1811, http://www.res.org.uk/

Berry, . 2001. U.S. Foreign Direct Investment in Ireland: Making the Most of Other's People Money. Perspectives on Business and Economics, vol. 19.

Cassidy, Mark, 2002. The Irish Economy: ecent Experience and Prospects. in: Aronson, ., Munley, V., Thornton, . (Eds.). The Irish Economy in Transition: Successes, Problems and Prospects. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam: pp.…… [Read More]

Reference List

BBC news channel. 2004. Ireland is Named 'Best Country', published on Nov 17, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4020523.stm.

Barry, F. And Bradley, J. 1997. FDI and Trade: The Irish Host-Country Experience. The Economic Journal, vol. 107(445): pp. 1798-1811, http://www.res.org.uk/

Berry, R. 2001. U.S. Foreign Direct Investment in Ireland: Making the Most of Other's People Money. Perspectives on Business and Economics, vol. 19.

Cassidy, Mark, 2002. The Irish Economy: Recent Experience and Prospects. in: Aronson, R., Munley, V., Thornton, R. (Eds.). The Irish Economy in Transition: Successes, Problems and Prospects. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam: pp. 5-30.
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International Pol Ec The Four Different Scenarios

Words: 1619 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93941725

International Pol. Ec.

The four different scenarios laid out by the orld Economic Forum in 2009 paint distinctly different visions of the development of global financial markets. The four scenarios are financial regionalism, re-engineered estern centralism, fragmented protectionism and rebalanced multilateralism (yman, 2009). Of these four different scenarios, there is evidence late in 2010 that would support the evolution of two of these different scenarios. These scenarios, in particular the one with the most support, will be given primary consideration in this paper. The implications for these scenarios for my chosen company, an IT firm with a local focus, will also be discussed in this paper.

The EF scenario that fits the world best as of late 2010 is the first scenario, financial regionalism. This scenario relies on post-crisis blame-shifting, something that can be seen in the global political environment at present. The United States has raised serious issues about…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Chan, S. & Ewing, J. (2010). Echoing Obama, Bernanke presses China on imbalances. New York Times. Retrieved November 19, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/19/business/economy/19fed.html?_r=1&hp

Euro Intelligence. (2010). European panic over QE2. Euro Intelligence. Retrieved November 19, 2010 from http://www.eurointelligence.com/index.php?id=581&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=2948&tx_ttnews[backPid]=743&cHash=8bec5d30ed

Garrett, G. (2010). G2 in G20: China, the United States and the World after the global financial crisis. Global Policy. Vol. 1 (1) 29-39.

IMF. (2010). Reports for select countries and subjects. IMF. Retrieved November 19, 2010 from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?
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International Monetary System

Words: 3495 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13803492

International Monetary System

In world trade, varied national currencies are swapped for each other by means of rules and procedures set by a system called the international monetary system. To delineate a general standard of value for the world's currencies, such a system is believed to be necessary.

The global monetary structure has always adhered to the organizational framework of the international discipline. In each stage of the financial capitalism there exists a corresponding monetary approach. The monetary structure during the postwar periods catered to the dominance of the United States. This was applied as a tool during the period to enforce the U.S. dominance over all its allies and the developing countries, irrespective of the socialist countries isolated themselves being unconnected from the influence of the financial and monetary disciplines of the global capitalism.

Gold standard was the first contemporary international monetary system. The gold standard contributed for the…… [Read More]

References

Amin, Samir. Replacing the International Monetary System? - Current Failures of Global Economic Policy. Monthly Review. Volume: 8; No: 1; October, 1993. pp: 93-98

Holloway, Thomas. M. The International Monetary System: Essays in World Economics. - Book Reviews. Monthly Labor Review. Volume: 12; No: 1; January, 1998. pp: 158-164

International Monetary System. The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. 2001. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/65/in/intlmone.html Accessed on 12 November, 2004.

Little, Jane Sneddon; Oliveri, Giovanni. P. Rethinking the International Monetary System: An Overview. New England Economic Review. Volume: 16; No: 1; November, 1999. pp: 24-29
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International Trade Is an Important

Words: 4173 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34868399



Only a few decades ago, China was a struggling economy. It is much newer in the free market economy system as compared to the already established economical giants, given the country's communist history. China, a country with an extremely high population, put its resources to its best possible advantage and that was something which contributed towards the country's rapid growth. China has one of the cheapest labor and energy and power resources available for its production. As a result, the industries can achieve economies of scale and thus can cut down on their cost of production. As a result, China enjoys a greater absolute advantage over its competitors. Importers around the world have realized the fact that importing goods from China is relatively much cheaper as compared to imports from other developed economies. These cheaper imports allow them a greater profit margin. Moreover, given the fragile economic conditions and declining…… [Read More]

References

Kreh, W. (2008). Money, Debt and Wealth of Nations. Canada: COMER publications

Lipsey, R. & Chrystal, K. (1997). An Introduction to Positive Economics. London: Oxford University Press.

Zweig, D. & Jianhai, B. (2005). China's global hunt for energy. Foreign Affairs, 84(5), 25-38.

Hale, D. & Hale, L. (2003). China takes off. Foreign Affairs, 82(36).
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International Trade the International System

Words: 1645 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52303198

Given the high degree to which AIDS impedes global economic integration, in particular of sub-Saharan Africa, it would be reasonable to think that such a transnational issue would bring nations and institutions together to a much higher degree than we see.

Overall, the various aspects of the international system have enabled the expansion of global economic integration. Regimes, institutions, and regional interests bring nations together to meet common objectives. As rational actors, nations sometimes impede global integration, be it over a domestic issue or a transnational one. No aspect of the current international system, however, specifically impedes global economic integration. Only when a nation takes itself out of the international system, as has occurred in North Korea, Cuba, Zimbabwe and a handful of other countries, does economic integration become fully impeded. Therefore we can reasonably conclude that the international system, on balance and with a modicum of cooperation on the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldstein, Judith; Rivers, Douglas & Tomz, Michael. (2003). How does the Trade Regime Affect International Trade? Stanford University. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/6/4/3/7/pages64379/p64379-1.php

Wayne, E. Anthony. (2004). NAFTA: Ten Years After. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at http://www.state.gov/e/eeb/rls/rm/31645.htm

No author. (2003). Trade Reforms and Food Security: Conceptualizing the Linkages United Nations. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at  http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e00.htm#Contents 

Capdevila, Gustavo. (2008). The Death of Doha. Asia Times. Retrieved December 21, 2008 at  http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JG31Dj02.html
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International Lending Implications International Lending

Words: 2293 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71433049

Liquidity shocks on the international arena can have a strong negative impact on less developed countries whose access to funding sources is already reduced.

The clearing risk is a specific risk, which combines credit risk, in the sense that it results from a counterparty's inability to meet its liabilities, market risk in the sense that it is caused by market shifts (general and specific market risk) between the time a transaction is executed and the time it is cleared, as well as liquidity and systemic risk." (Casanova, 2000). The clearing risk is assumed by clearing houses, which guarantee the proper settlement of transactions done by the members. These institutions engage themselves to bear potential replacement costs if either one of the trade counterparties can't fulfill its obligations. In international markets this risk is increased as the international arena as mentioned before it more dynamic and volatile and the chance of…… [Read More]

Reference List

Casanova, J - F. 2000 - Role Played by Risk Management and Clearing Systems in the Economy of Future Exchanges and ECNs. UNCTAD, www.unctad.org

Eichengreen, B. 1990a. Trends and Cycles in Foreign Lending. CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"451.

Eichengreen, B. 1990b, Economic Policy - International Lending, Center for Economic Policy Research. Working Paper N"452.

Investopedia, Accessed October 2008, www.investopedia.com
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International Financial Markets and Institutions

Words: 3339 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65472909

27-29) This provoked financial demands and awareness of the people in different parts of the world. People and businesses are dissatisfied with the traditional financial systems due to lack of opportunities for investors. Businesses today require more diversified portfolios for investments because this will reduce their investment risks and increase the probability of future capital flows.

Increased capital mobility has increased the importance of exchange rates which is serving as a monetary policy channel in some industrialized economies. In mid 2000s, there was a sharp shift in the flow of international investments and savings (geographic pattern) resulting in the segmentation of current account imbalances. This was also a major contributing factor. Additionally, the domestic financial markets were also affected by the change in regulatory environment. The two important factors for this are as follows:

1. apid growth of OTC (over-the-counter) markets of derivatives in terms of complexity as well as…… [Read More]

References

Bekaert, G., Harvey, C. And Lundblad, C. 2005. Does financial liberalization spur growth? Journal of Financial Economics 77, 3 -- 55.

Edison, H., Klein, M., Ricci, L. And Slok, T. 2004. Capital account liberalization and economic performance: survey and synthesis. IMF Staff Papers 51, 111 -- 115.

Kaminsky, G. And Reinhart, C. 1999. The twin crises: the causes of banking and balance-of payments problems. American Economic Review 89, 473 -- 500.

Klein, M. 2005. Capital account liberalization, institutional quality and economic growth: theory and evidence. Working Paper No. 11112. Cambridge, MA: NBER, pp.19-21.
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International Capital Flow Why Is

Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72997980



Historical Trends and Developments. Eichengreen (2004) argues that there have been several major historical "regimes" that have had differentiated approaches to international capital flows. Prior to I, the free flow of capital across borders reached heights never seen before of since. This was followed by effort in the 1920s to establish international controls for the international flow of capital. The financial disaster of the 1930s began a period of tight regulation of international transactions. In the 1970s another period of free-flowing capital was begun, culminating in the boom of international capital flows of the 1990s (4).

In the 1990s, financial crises in Asia, Mexico, Turkey, and Russia led to a period of increased interest in international controls, as the level of global economic development was shown to be effected by problems in different regions of the world and the shockwaves these crises sent to other regions (Taskin and Muradoglu, 2003).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eichengreen, B. (2004). Capital flows and crises. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Feldstein, M. (1997). International capital flows. National Bureau of Economic Research. 12 December 2009. Retrieved from  http://www.nber.org/feldstein/woodstock_intro.html .

Ott, M. (2008). International capital flows. Library of Economics and Liberty. 12 December 2009. Retrieved from  http://www.econlib.org/index.html .

Taskin, F., and Muradoglu, G. (2003, September-December). Financial liberalisation: from segmented to integrated economies. Journal of Economics and Business, 55 (5-6): 529-555.
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International Business Country a --

Words: 3308 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18551428

The UAE has one of the most open economies in the world. And its vigorous economic partnership with the United States reflects the UAE's function as a regional leader in terms of economic restructuring, openness to international trade and investment, and political stability (UAE-U.S. Economic elationship, 2011)

The volume of U.S. exports and foreign direct investment into the UAE in recent years has grown considerably and is likely to continue to grow in the future. This growth reflects the progressively more diversified UAE economy as well as the country's leading role as a modernizing power in the Arab world.

The country is the biggest export market for the United States in the Middle East and, in 2010, was the 21st largest export market for the United States internationally.

The UAE buys goods from every state in the United States, as well as the District of Columbia, Puerto ico, and the…… [Read More]

References

Doing business in the UAE. (2009). Retrieved from  http://www.pkf.com/media/131854/doing%20business%20in%20the%20uae.pdf 

Hill, Charles W.L. (2007) International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace

(6/E), Irwin publishers, London.

Overseas Business Risk -- United Arab Emirates. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ukti.gov.uk/export/countries/asiapacific/middleeast/unitedarabemirates/ov erseasbusinessrisk.html
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International Political Economics the International

Words: 1375 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75684134

Socialist states use a command and control management structure as a substitute for the profit motive. This structure is less efficient, so production levels cannot match those of capitalist states. Ultimately, the lack of productivity and the large number of distortions lead to economic collapse (Tesche, 1993).

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the pace and nature of economic reforms has differed greatly in the former Soviet states. These range from regions with a virtual continuation of communist dictatorship (Belarus, Transnistria) to full-scale embrace of the free market (Estonia in particular). Russia's economy has only opened somewhat, and only to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). For the most part, the major firms in the economy are controlled by powerful businessmen with close ties to government. Freedom of capital flows has improved slightly, but the Russian economy overall remains under significant government control. The economy has grown substantially since…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

No author. (2009). Smithsonian agreement. Investopedia. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/smithsonian-agreement.asp 

Eichengreen, B. (2004). Capital flows and crises. MIT Press. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?tid=10369&ttype=2

Pollard, P. (2001). The creation of the euro and the role of the dollar in international markets. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/review/01/09/0109pp.pdf

Sheppard, M. (2004). The politics of the oversight of OTC derivatives markets: Is there any evidence of systemic risk? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, March 17, 2004. Retrieved December 13, 2009 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/7/3/4/2/p73424_index.html
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International Trade Navigating the Seas

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50105524

Mercantilism as a philosophy may be dead, but special interests that lead to trade controls are alive and well (Mercantilism today: how a dead philosophy comes back to life, 2003). Trade controls that affect price and indirectly quantity include tariffs, subsidies, arbitrary customs-valuation and special fees (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007). Trade controls that directly affect quantity and indirectly affect price include quotas, voluntary export restrictions, "buy local" legislation, arbitrary standards, licensing arrangements, foreign-exchange controls, administrative delays and requirements to take goods in exchange for selling (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007).

Finally, businesses must also consider trade organizations and regional economic integration when deciding where to conduct business. The World Trade Organization promotes trade liberalization and mediates trade disputes and enforcing agreements (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007). Major regional trading groups include the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement, the Central American Common Market, the Caribbean Community and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Daniels, J.D., Radebaugh, L.H., & Sullivan, D.P. (2007) International business: Environments and operations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0131869426.

Kokko, a., Matha, T., and Gustavsson, P. (2006). Regional integration and trade diversion in Europe. http://ideas.repec.org/p/hhs/eijswp/0231.html

Mercantilism. http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Mercantilism.html

Mercantilism today: how a dead philosophy comes back to life (2003, September 19). National Review. http://www.policynetwork.net/main/article.php?article_id=584
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International Fraud -- the Case

Words: 890 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21889207

This type of international fraud occurs due to a desire to develop a climate that allows investors to benefit from the comparative advantages of countries such as Mali and Senegal (Barney and Hunt). These countries generally compete against other African states in order to attract more investors and, when the resources are insufficient to convince these foreigners, state officials engage in frauds.

4. Impact on International Business Setting

The increased levels of fraud generate a series of chain reactions upon the business setting within Senegal and Mali. First of all, they reduce general trust in the economic and political systems. This then means that foreign investors are not attracted to the region and that developmental opportunities are reduced. This in turn materializes in the lack of new jobs. It means as such that the federal authorities are unable to cash in taxes from foreign investors conducting business operations within Senegal…… [Read More]

References:

Altman, L.K., Broad, W.J., Global Trend: More Science, More Fraud, December 20, 2005

Barney (1986) and Hunt (1990), Resource-Based View of the Firm

Humphreys, M., Mohamed, H.A., Understanding Civil War -- Senegal and Mali

Peng, M.W., Wang, D.Y., Jiang, Y., An Institution-Based View of International Business Strategy: A Focus on Emerging Economies, Journal of International Business Studies, 2008
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Economic and Trade Development the

Words: 2664 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3379747

(Buchanan, 72)

The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's…… [Read More]

References

Bathelt, Harald; Wiseman, Clare; Zakrzewski, Guido. Unit 1: Post-war development and structure of the German economy.

Buchanan, Tom. Europe's troubled peace, 1945-2000.

Wiley-Blackwell, 2006.

DeLong, J. Bradford. Grasping reality with both hands: A Fair, Balanced, Reality-Based,
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International Business and the Regions

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1146501

International Business and the egions

In the era of globalization, the primary scope of agencies, institutions and players across the world seems the creation of a free international market place. The efforts so far made have however been insufficient to create such a market place, but impressive successes were observed in terms of the creation of regional market places. In other words, the modern day economic society has managed to support and concretize its efforts in the direction of regional economic development.

egional economic integration

egional economic development is virtually understood as a context in which countries in the same global region direct their endeavors in the sense of creating an economically integrated region. They virtually focus on free trade and migration of goods, people, commodities, technologies and capitals and they strive to reduce the barriers between the respective economies. Jacques Pelkmans (2006) defines economic integration as "the elimination of…… [Read More]

References:

Buckley, P.J., Clegg, J., Forsans, N., Reilly, Increasing the size of the 'country': regional economic integration and foreign direct investment in a globalized world economy, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3265/is_3_41/ai_n28873065 / last accessed on May 27, 2011

Czinkota, M.C., Ronkainen, I.A., 2007, International marketing, 8th edition, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0324317026

Day, B., The NAFTA Nightmare, Multinational Monitor,  http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1992/10/mm1092_10.html  last accessed on May 27, 2011

Dodge, D.., 2003, Economic integration in North America, Bank of Canada http://www.bankofcanada.ca/2003/08/speeches/economic-integration-north-america-2 / last accessed on May 27, 2011
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International Business in South Florida Premise and

Words: 1319 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34412930

International Business in South Florida

Premise and Conclusion

The location of any business entity, but especially one engaged in international commerce, is a complex and critical pre-condition for serving customers, providing a nurturing and productive environment for employees, and achieving profitable operations. Of the many factors management must consider, the following are generally thought to be the most influential: access to capital, favorable tax advantages, excellent transportation and technological infrastructure, and a skilled multilingual and multicultural workforce. (web eFlorida 2010)

South Florida, comprising Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, does not present a perfect record on any of the success factors, but a close examination of the efforts made and the resulting accomplishments leads to a favorable recommendation for the formation or expansion of international business functions in the region.

Access to Capital

Depending on the stage of company development, a business may need venture capital, commercial bank lenders, or…… [Read More]

References

Enterprise Florida, Inc., 2010, a public-private partnership serving as Florida's primary organization devoted to statewide economic development. www.eFlorida.com

Florida International Bankers Association, 2010, a non-profit trade association founded in 1979.  http://www.fiba.net 

Florida Development Finance Corporation. 2010 Created by special state statute as an issuer of tax-exempt revenue bonds. www.floridafinance.org

Fodor's South Florida, 2010. Word of mouth tips from fellow travelers. www.fodors.com/guidebooks/9781400004775/
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International Trade Pros and Cons in Our

Words: 509 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49077007

International Trade: Pros and Cons

In our globally interconnected world in which it seems that every possible pairing of trading partners is occurring at all times, the idea that international trade is anything but the best system for supporting the global economy can seem quaint if not absolutely absurd. But simply because the world now exists as an increasingly integrated market in which fewer and fewer tariffs or sanctions have significant power does not mean that it is not significant to examine on a continuous basis the advantages and disadvantages of international trade.

Of course, there is no single assessment as to whether international trade is advantageous or disadvantageous because international trade affects different nations (and even different regions within the same nations) differentially. For the purposes of this paper, I shall focus on the effects of international trade on the United States as representative of the ways in which…… [Read More]

References

Hubbard, R. & O'Brien, A. (2010). Applying International Trade Concepts simulation Economics (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Hall.
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International Financial Management the Sovereign

Words: 2451 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53404659

257%

Greece

12.514%

Ireland

Baa1

9.384%

Spain

5.119%

Portugal

A3

7.497%

The structural issues that underlie the crisis remain unresolved. The austerity measures that have been implemented have failed miserably to restore business confidence -- they are crippling any economic recovery and have not given investors any reason to be confident about resolving the long-run debt problems faced by any of the peripheral Eurozone nations. The specter of increased Eurozone interest rates to meet the needs of Germany will only hurt the recovery of the peripheral economies further. As a result, a resolution of the sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone does not appear to be on the horizon. Economists have made a number of proposals for the resolution of the crisis, none of which appear to have any political traction: a single Eurobond (De Grauwe & Moesen, 2009); addressing the divergence between Euro-level monetary policy and sovereign-level fiscal policy…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Arezki, R.; Amadou, N. & Candelon, B. (2010). Bad news spreads. Finance & Development. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.perjacobsson.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2010/12/pdf/arezki.pdf

BBC. (2011). Greece debt rating cut further by Moody's. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-12664681 

CIA World Factbook. (2011). Greece: Economy. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gr.html 

De Grauwe, P. (2010). The Greek crisis and the future of the Eurozone. U. Leuven. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.econ.kuleuven.be/ew/academic/intecon/Degrauwe/PDG-papers/Discussion_papers/EuroIntelligence-March-2010.pdf
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International Business According to Daniels

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38572460

Comparative advantage states that mutually beneficial exchange is possible whenever relative production costs differ prior to trade. Nations gain by producing goods at relatively low costs and exchanging their outputs for different goods produced by others at relatively low cost. Thus, consumers can gain enormously through appropriate specialization and exchange. A country has an absolute advantage in producing a good if production of the good absorbs fewer resources than are required in other countries or by other individuals or firms.

Specialization leads to economies of scale (Globalization) where more units of a good or a service can be produced on a larger scale, yet with (on average) less input costs. An increasingly competitive global economy drives companies to gain larger global market shares so that they can exploit the benefits of economies of scale (Daniels, Radebaugh, and Sullivan, 2007).

Of course, a harmonious political climate and international embracement of free…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Comparative advantage and absolute advantage. EconomicsInteractive.com. Retrieved from http://www.unc.edu/depts/econ/byrns_web/Economicae/Essays/ABS_Comp_Adv.htm

Daniels, J.D., Radebaugh, L.H., & Sullivan, D.P. (2007) International business: Environments and operations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0131869426

Fergusson, I.F. (2007, May 9). The World Trade Organization: Background and issues. http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/98-928.pdf

Globalization. http://bovination.com/cbs/globalization.jsp
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Economics in the Real World

Words: 1077 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51454079

Two alternative solutions are available. The first sees that the U.S. federal authority uses the budget allocated to support the development of the national industries, without raising barriers to imports. The second possible solution is for the United States to strive to increase its exports by focusing more on international operations.

Criteria / goals

The evaluation criteria for the proposed solutions revolve around the benefits they generate, as well as the costs they imply. Otherwise put, the decision will be made in accordance with the arguments in favour and against each of the two alternatives, and by the solution's ability to meet the established goals. These goals include the insurance of economic stability within the United States (for all population, corporations and the entire system), the maintenance or even development of international relations, as well as the sustained development of the domestic industries.

Evaluation of alternatives

Alternative 1:

Pro: does…… [Read More]

References

January 29, 2009, Buying American, the Economist, last accessed on February 5, 2009

Steps in the P.A.C.E.D. Model, the Gus a. Stavros Center for Free Enterprise and Economic Education

http://stavros.coedu.usf.edu/EconomicLiteracy/sld019.html. Ast accessed on February 5, 2009
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Economic Globalization Today the World

Words: 2327 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34601163

"The explosive growth of the global economy threatens the natural systems that sustain life on Earth. Despite some significant successes in reducing industrial pollution and increasing efficiency, globalization is devastating natural habitats, speeding global warming, and increasing air and water pollution" (Anonymous). It is in the nature of such an economic globalization to cause negative effects. Globalization has its benefits as well which hold substantial weight.

Advocates for economic globalization state that it is aimed at removing poverty and increasing wealth among the poor. This has been seen not to be entirely true and the gain of wealth is seen only in the upper or elite classes. The rich are getting richer while the poor are getting poorer. Although food has increased, hunger rates have also increased. It is seen that the top class is becoming multibillionaires and today there are more billionaires than yesterday. However the lower class is…… [Read More]

References

1) Anonymous - Economic Globalization. [Online website] Available at http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/economic.php[Accessed on: 10/11/2005]

2) Anonymous - Mennonite Central Committee "Economic Globalization." [Online website] Available at http://www.mcc.org/us/globalization/[Accessed on: 10/11/2005]

3) John N. Pearson, Jeffrey S. Bracker, Richard E. White - Article Title: Operations Management Activities of Small, High Growth Electronics Firms. Journal Title: Journal of Small Business Management. Volume: 28. Issue: 1. Publication Year: 1990. Page Number: 20+.

4) World Council of Churches - REPORT OF THE POLICY REFERENCE COMMITTEE II. [Online website] Available at http://www.wcc-coe.org/wcc/who/cc2001/pr-ii3-e.html#glob[Accessed on: 10/11/2005]
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International Trade and Finance Law

Words: 2844 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78054175



In the case of United States, Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code provides for practically all types of security agreements for owned property that are both for own use as also for commercial purposes. This type of agreements includes fixtures which mean personal property that is attached to the property, and the ready example can be a water heater. This does not include other liens taken on the property like the lien of a mechanic are not covered by this act, but are covered by the individual laws that govern them. There is also a statute of frauds and that requires a security agreement to be in writing for it to be valid, unless the property has been pledged for getting the loan. This sort of a pledge takes place when the borrowing party shifts the collateral to the lender of money in exchange for the loan that he…… [Read More]

References

9-203. Attachment and Enforceability of Security Interest; Proceeds: Formal Requisites.

Retrieved at http://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/9/9-203.html. Accessed 10 November, 2005

Bailey, Sue. PM defensive over election threat. Retrieved at http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/World/2005/11/03/1291616-cp.html. Accessed 10 November, 2005

Banking: An overview. Retrieved at http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/banking.html. Accessed 10 November, 2005
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International Labor Organization History and Feasibility of

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14853799

International Labor Organization: History And Feasibility of Standards

When it comes to the promotion of social justice and the enhancement of labor rights, the relevance of the International Labor Organization (ILO) cannot be overstated.

This text will concern itself with the history of this crucial organization and the feasibility of international labor standards. Further, the paper will address not only the advantages but also the disadvantages of standards.

The ILO describes itself as "the international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labor standards" (ILO, 2012). On its Website, the ILO clearly defines its history from the time it was formed/created to its earlier days and recent times. Formed in 1919, the ILO was originally "part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War 1" (ILO, 2012). According to the organization, a number of considerations at the time led to its formation. These considerations were largely of a…… [Read More]

References

Budd, J.W. (2004). Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice. New York: Cornell University Press.

McElrath, R.G. (Ed.). (2003). Monitoring International Labor Standards: Summary of Domestic Forums. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.

The International Labor Organization -- ILO (2012). International Labor Organization: Promoting Jobs, Protecting People. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from the International Labor Organization website: http://www.ilo.org/global/lang -- en/index.htm
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International Globalization Is the Phenomenon

Words: 433 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83137299

Therefore, when corporate responsibility is linked with certain broader national intentions like health and international development and also trade and the environment, then it would be better for all concerned, instead of the corporation aiming for economic development and gains and nothing else. (Ping Sustainable Future: Toward a New Vision for Corporate esponsibility in Canada)

Canada is one country, in which it is easy to improve competitiveness and to enlarge the global influence that it is capable of exerting by being able to mobilize the human capital within the state, and also being able to pioneer advances in technology. Therefore, it can be concluded that an MNE does have the responsibility of working towards a better global efficiency, and not to just consider economic factors during the process of country selection. (Ping Sustainable Future: Toward a New Vision for Corporate esponsibility in Canada)

eferences

Globalization: International Trade and Migration" etrieved…… [Read More]

References

Globalization: International Trade and Migration" Retrieved at  http://www.worldbank.org/depweb/english/beyond/global/chapter12.html  Accessed on 1/3/2005

Ping Sustainable Future: Toward a New Vision for Corporate Responsibility in Canada" (March, 2003) Retrieved From www.fivewinds.com/uploadedfiles_shared/CSR%2520Mapping%2520Future.pdf"  http://www.fivewinds.com/uploadedfiles_shared/CSR%20Mapping%20Future.pdf . Accessed on 1/3/2005

Political Analysis and Strategy" Retrieved at http://pacific.commerce.ubc.ca/john/crisk.htm. Accessed on 1/3/2005
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Economic Environment

Words: 1045 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52028400

Economic Environment of a Business

The objective of this work is to summarize the economic environment of a business including information relating to microeconomics, macroeconomics, and international trade aspects

The business organization is a "micro-economic unit" and the business environment is that which makes provision of the "macro-economic context within which firm operates." (eddy, ) The business environment can be categorized into the 'economic' and non-economic' and the 'micro- and macro-environment. (eddy,, paraphrased) The firm is an economic institution in a market system with the behavior of the firm reflecting the result of the decisions that were economic in nature that the manager of the firm made.

The economic environment of a business in today's globalized business society is complex in nature. There is an inherent link between the business sector and it relationship with the government, capital market, household sector and the international business sector -- all of which…… [Read More]

References

Palwar, V.K. (2010) Economic Environment of Business 2nd Ed. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=hNBEId591wYC&dq=Economic+Environment+of+a+Business&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Reddy, R.I. (2004) Business Environment. APH Publishing. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NQv9vKgF_3MC&dq=Economic+Environment+of+a+Business&source=gbs_navlinks_s