1000+ documents containing “economic history”.
Further, while inequality may have increased, on average, within countries, inequality measured across all the people of the world, may actually be falling. Pritchett does not address this issue. In addition, Pritchett provides no explanation of why globalization is not rendering conditional occurrence a reality. This would have been useful for supporting the author's conclusion that divergent polices are needed to address the unique needs of specific countries.
The most noted international trade theories that support the concept of globalization and conditional convergence are the laws of comparative advantage and absolute advantage. Comparative advantage states that mutually beneficial exchange is possible whenever relative production costs differ prior to trade (Comparative advantage and absolute advantage). According to this source, nations gain by producing goods at relatively low costs and exchanging their outputs for different goods produced by others at relatively low cost. Thus, all potential trading partners can gain enormously through….
Comparative advantage and absolute advantage. EconomicsInteractive.com. Retrieved from http://www.unc.edu/depts/econ/byrns_web/Economicae/Essays/ABS_Comp_Adv.htm
Galor, O. And Mountford, A. (2008, February 18). Trading population for productivity. Retrieved fronm http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/937
Pritchett, L. (1997, Summer). Divergence, big time. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol 11, No. 3, pp 3-17.
The government made several key policy changes to provide selected firms a strong start. Two crucial policies during this period are the import-substitution industrialization (ISI) and export promotion (EP). ISI allowed government selected firms in government target industries to borrow foreign currency, and borrow domestic funds at rates beneficial to those firms. This was the beginning of importing advanced technologies only to improve, adapt, and reproduce them for export. EP gave firms access to low interest loans. The relations between the Korean firms and industries with the rest of the world broadened in EP. Efficiency grew, production went up and Korean saw exponential economic leaps in a few decades.
During the Vietnam War in the 1970s, U.S. troops withdrew from Vietnam. South Korea relied on the military presence of the U.S.A. As protection from North Korean. South Korean leadership decided to not rely on the U.S.A. For military presence and….
Boyer, Robert & Toshio Yamada (Ed.) Japanese Capitalism in Crisis: A regulationist interpretation. Chapter 6, "Rapid Economic Growth and Its Standstill," by Makoto Itoh. Routledge, London, New York, 2000.
Chang, Ha-Joon. "The Hazard of Moral Hazard: Untangling the Asian Crisis." World Development, Volume 28, Number 4, Pages 775 -- 798. Cambridge, UK, 2000.
Itoh, Makoto. The Japanese Economy Reconsidered. Chapter 1, "The Long Downturn in the Japanese Economy." Palgrave, UK, NY, 2000.
Iyoda, Mitsuhiko. Postwar Japanese Economy: Lessons of Economic Growth and the Bubble Economy. Springer, New York, London, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, 2010.
Salt With American Economic History
From time immemorial to the current age, the significance of salt to the human community and the animals has been vastly acknowledged. Ever since the time when salt made its entry, several millennia ago, it has vastly influenced the lifestyle of humans. This is not only with regard to the dieting pattern or the age-old food preserving industry. It also takes into account the human, financial, historical and religion adherent or orthodox planes. Finally, but in no way lesser in significance, salt has influenced the habit patterns and occult ways. Salt was significantly considered in exchange between the retailers, to the extent that it gave rise to "salt routes" via which merchants commenced the transportation and traded it to countries where there was no generation of salt. Salt is a priority in the chemical industry where it serves as a chief source for the vast array….
Bhatnagar, Jyotsna. "Salt's trail down centuries" Wednesday, March 8, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.financialexpress.com/fe/daily/20000308/ffe07097.html . Accessed on 12/07/2003
History: Salt through the Ages" Retrieved at http://www.mortonsalt.com/consumer/about_us/history/ . Accessed on 12/07/2003
History of Salt" Retrieved at http://www.saltworks.us/index.asp . Accessed on 12/07/2003
Salt and Its Uses" Retrieved at http://www.dampiersalt.com.au/tnpn002785/prod/dsl/dslweb.nsf/Details/DSL_Salt_Salt+and+it's+Uses?OpenDocument. Accessed on 12/07/2003
Social and Economic History Of the Southwest
Please answer the following essay questions based on Keith B. Basso's isdom Sits in Places.
Discuss how the Apache of Cibecue invest the landscape with meaning.
The Apache not only invest the land with meaning but they treat the land and the various aspects of it, that is the water, the rocks, the trees, as though they are separate living entities which must be recognized and paid attention to. Not only this, but the place names are important because there is the connection with the history of the Apache. Basso was having trouble getting the pronunciation of a place right and finally he was just going to give up and try and get it from the recordings that were made. This bothered his chief guide. Basso had said it didn't matter, he would learn it later but the guide said it did matter and then it….
Basso, Keith H. Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language among the Western Apache. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996.
Gutiarrez, Ramon A. Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846 Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991.
Nunez, Alvar Cabeza de Vaca. Cabeza de Vaca's Adventures in the Unknown Interior of America. Trans. Covey, Cyclone. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983.
Susan Shelby Magoffin was the first or among the first white American or non-Indian women to cross the Santa Fe Trail. She traveled as the young and new bride of a successful trader, Samuel Magoffin, who had established business with the Mexicans before he married Susan. Their journey from Independence, Missouri to Chihuahua, Mexico was their honeymoon. On the way, Susan recorded her experiences, perceptions and insights in a diary, which reflected the conditions of her time through her perception. She described that independence existed there along with much free uncontaminated air that fired the mind, feelings and every thought with purity. She was later quoted as calling it a disastrous celebration of that freedom.
She traveled in a rockaway carriage under the meticulous care of her husband, a maid named Jane and a physician, Dr. Masere, who attended to her first pregnancy. Some viewed Susan as traveling in comfort….
Twenty-Five percent of the offenses were assault/arson, likely related to bar brawls and the like, another indication of a disaffected society. To further this hypothesis, we show a 7 percentile arrest rate for begging, an additional sign of poverty.
There are details missing from the data, however. We do not know the quality or robustness of some of the offenses; stealing lumped together, etc. Further examination might tell us more about demographic (age, ethnicity, education) in relation to a particular crime or punishment, and certainly if we knew more about the geographic universe (location) of arrest or crime, we could draw additional conclusions. For instance, were most sex crimes, assaults, and thefts committed in poorer locations (Whitechapel, for instance)?
What the data does tell us, from our brief analysis, is that we have a very stratified society in which there are three major crimes that the middle and upper classes simply….
Prisoner Data from 1835-1851. From: Victorian Crime and Punishment. (2006). Legend for prisoners 323 cs.pdf
Victorian Crime and Punishment. (2006). E2BN. Cited in: http://vcp.e2bn.org/
O'Connor, E. (2000). Raw material: Producing Pathology in Victorian Culture. Duke Mitchell, S. (1996). Daily Life in Victorian England. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
Quinney, R. (1966). Structural Characteristics, Population Areas and Crime Rates. The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science. 57 (1): 45-52.
The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's….
Bathelt, Harald; Wiseman, Clare; Zakrzewski, Guido. Unit 1: Post-war development and structure of the German economy.
Buchanan, Tom. Europe's troubled peace, 1945-2000.
DeLong, J. Bradford. Grasping reality with both hands: A Fair, Balanced, Reality-Based,
It offers a good theory as it emphasizes on the production and export of those items for which a country possesses a comparative advantage. Furthermore, through its focus on the reduction of taxes and tariffs in international trade and the adherent practices, the theory of comparative costs has set the basis for the contemporaneous processes of market liberalization and globalization.
But the theory has not been spared from criticism. Oumar Bouare states that "the market price of a commodity does not converge toward its natural price. (Then) the outcome of complete specialization in icardo's framework locks third world and developing countries out of industrialization; and free trade could destroy the industrial base of a country, which in the long run could generate more wealth for the country than an imported product. This might also lock the country out of industrialization." b) in 1848, utilitarian economist John Stuart Mill wrote the….
Bancroft, S., Clough, C.W., Economic History of Europe, Heath, 1952
Berdell, J.F., Adam Smith and the ambiguity of nations, Review of Social Economy, Volume 56, 1998
Bouare, O., an Evaluation of David Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Costs: Direct and Indirect Critiques, Retrieved from Policy Innovations
http://www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/policy_library/data/01445on March 6, 2008
These methods are then examined with respect to future events using empirical observations and statistical tools. (History of Economics Society, 25)
It has to be accepted that such a method has been used to arrive at various conclusions. A lot of dedication is required by thinkers to derive the facts out of the information available. This concept of economics is not drawn out of nothing, but it has been derived from facts, and scientists have toiled to put together the casual details into formal approaches. Formal methods reduce the details in a systematic manner and so this is preferred than the informal method. However those is favor of the scientific method were against the formal method and argued that formal methods were not reliable since it was not sure whether the important aspects of the fact would be retained while reducing the information available. (History of Economics Society, 25)
The recession of 2008-2009 and the subsequent government responses provides a good test for economic theories. There are no controlled experiments in economics, so we can only work with case studies in order to understand how economies work. A good starting point is to consider the issue through multiple different lenses, so that we can understand how the crisis occurred and what prescriptions might be best suited for response either to address the root problems or to engage in prevention. This paper will consider the works of Marx, Schumpeter and Keynes in analyzing the financial crisis. All three of these men would have been able to understand its causes, but likely would have taken very different approaches to solving the problem.
The second issue at hand is the question of the future of capitalism. We have a pretty good sense at this point of what the response of government is….
Cox, W. & Alm, R. (2013). Creative destruction. Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/CreativeDestruction.html
Eichengreen, B. (2010). The crisis of financial innovation. University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://emlab.berkeley.edu/~eichengr/crisis_finan_innov.pdf
Isfeld, G. (2012). Canada's banks shake off global sector crisis. Financial Post. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://business.financialpost.com/2012/10/10/canadas-banks-shake-off-global-sector-crisis/
Liu, H. (2008). Too big to fail moral hazard. Asia Times. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JI23Dj12.html
Many businesses could no longer operate in this fashion and likely closed their doors leading to a rise in unemployment. This is an example of the rule that Hitler had on the Pre-World War II German economy. The people of the nation were completely subject to his policies and because the economy was in such a vulnerable position as a result of the First World War, that Hitler's policies were looked upon as providing assistance to the nation. The research indicates that Hitler's rule over Germany managed to counter the rise in unemployment with institution of the German Labor Service and other workforce and labor programs.
Pre-World War II Unemployment in Germany
etween January 1933 and July 1935 the number of employed Germans rose by a half, from 11.7 million to 16.9 million.
. Under the rule of Hitler, more than 5 million new jobs paying living wages were created.
The Great Depression….
Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. "Expulsion of Germans after World War II." Last
updated in 2010. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/38667 .
Brezina, Corona. The Treaty of Versailles, 1919: A Primary Source Examination of the Treaty
That Ended World War I. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2006.
The number of educational institutions remained the same and child labor has also stagnated. Entrepreneurs were still allowed to employ children, which they did moreover when they paid them lower wages.
Just like with the Meiji Era, the British Industrial evolution opened new horizons and generated numerous development possibilities for the country and its population. The most important contributions were felt in the technological sector and materialized in a wide series of advancements. "It was not only gadgets, however, but innovations of various kinds -- in agriculture, transport, manufacture, trade, and finance -- that surged up with a suddenness for which it is difficult to find a parallel at any other time or place. The quickened pace of development is attested by the catalogue of new patents, the lengthening list of Acts of enclosure, the expanding figures of output and exports, and the course of prices, which, after remaining roughly….
Ashton, T.S., the Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830, Oxford University Press, 1997
Buer, M.C., Health, Wealth and Population in the Early Days of the Industrial Revolution, Routledge, 1926
Hunter, J., Institutional Change in Meiji Japan: Image and Reality, Routledge, 2005
Kinzley, W.D., Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852-1912, the Historian, Volume 66, 2004
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties of….
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
Economic, Political, and Social History
African American culture arose out of the turmoil and despair of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. From West African port towns to plantations, African American culture is unique in that it was forged under the pressure of bondage. People with different cultures and languages formed new identities relative to their subordinate social, economic, and political status—their culture therefore being in part defined by the experience of oppression and the determination to overcome it. Bereft of social, political, or economic independence for centuries, African American culture nevertheless emerged as organically as any other, but flourished especially after emancipation.
Yet the economic history of African American culture cannot be divorced from the human capital model of slavery. The Emancipation Proclamation laid the first foundation stones for African American economic, political, and social empowerment but Reconstruction failed to fulfill the objective of genuine liberation (DuBois, 1994). African Americans in free states….
More importantly, the puritans had considered essential for the future of economic success the access to education and therefore established elementary schools throughout the state (Wright, 1947). Therefore, the degree of literacy was greater than in other parts of the country because there was a comprehensive access to education.
By comparison, the South was different in this area. The southern society had a particular system of private tutoring which allowed children to have access to education. However, for ordinary people, this was not an option and they most often appealed to the assistance of the minister. Still, the quality of education received in this way was limited and in many situations the young generation remained illiterate. It can be said therefore that the poor level of education was in part due to the lack of financial support and in part to the economic practices existing in the South which did….
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
McAllister, J. "Colonial America, 1607-1776." The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 2. (May, 1989), pp. 245-259.
Weinberg, Meyer. A Short History of American Capitalism. Gloucester: New History Press, 2002.
Wright, Louis B. The Atlantic Frontier: Colonial American Civilization, 1607-1763. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947.
Further, while inequality may have increased, on average, within countries, inequality measured across all the people of the world, may actually be falling. Pritchett does not address this…Read Full Paper ❯
The government made several key policy changes to provide selected firms a strong start. Two crucial policies during this period are the import-substitution industrialization (ISI) and export promotion…Read Full Paper ❯
Salt With American Economic History From time immemorial to the current age, the significance of salt to the human community and the animals has been vastly acknowledged. Ever since the…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Social and Economic History Of the Southwest Please answer the following essay questions based on Keith B. Basso's isdom Sits in Places. Discuss how the Apache of Cibecue invest the landscape…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Southwest History Susan Shelby Magoffin was the first or among the first white American or non-Indian women to cross the Santa Fe Trail. She traveled as the young and new…Read Full Paper ❯
Twenty-Five percent of the offenses were assault/arson, likely related to bar brawls and the like, another indication of a disaffected society. To further this hypothesis, we show a…Read Full Paper ❯
(Buchanan, 72) The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated…Read Full Paper ❯
It offers a good theory as it emphasizes on the production and export of those items for which a country possesses a comparative advantage. Furthermore, through its focus…Read Full Paper ❯
These methods are then examined with respect to future events using empirical observations and statistical tools. (History of Economics Society, 25) It has to be accepted that such a…Read Full Paper ❯
Economic Crisis The recession of 2008-2009 and the subsequent government responses provides a good test for economic theories. There are no controlled experiments in economics, so we can only work…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Many businesses could no longer operate in this fashion and likely closed their doors leading to a rise in unemployment. This is an example of the rule that…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
The number of educational institutions remained the same and child labor has also stagnated. Entrepreneurs were still allowed to employ children, which they did moreover when they paid…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Economics in Ancient Civilization It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in…Read Full Paper ❯
Economic, Political, and Social History African American culture arose out of the turmoil and despair of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. From West African port towns to plantations, African American culture…Read Full Paper ❯
More importantly, the puritans had considered essential for the future of economic success the access to education and therefore established elementary schools throughout the state (Wright, 1947). Therefore,…Read Full Paper ❯