Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Further, while inequality may have increased, on average, within countries, inequality measured across all the people of the world, may actually be falling. Pritchett does not address this issue. In addition, Pritchett provides no explanation of why globalization is not rendering conditional occurrence a reality. This would have been useful for supporting the author's conclusion that divergent polices are needed to address the unique needs of specific countries.
The most noted international trade theories that support the concept of globalization and conditional convergence are the laws of comparative advantage and absolute advantage. Comparative advantage states that mutually beneficial exchange is possible whenever relative production costs differ prior to trade (Comparative advantage and absolute advantage). According to this source, nations gain by producing goods at relatively low costs and exchanging their outputs for different goods produced by others at relatively low cost. Thus, all potential trading partners can gain enormously through…
Comparative advantage and absolute advantage. EconomicsInteractive.com. Retrieved from http://www.unc.edu/depts/econ/byrns_web/Economicae/Essays/ABS_Comp_Adv.htm
Galor, O. And Mountford, A. (2008, February 18). Trading population for productivity. Retrieved fronm http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/937
Pritchett, L. (1997, Summer). Divergence, big time. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol 11, No. 3, pp 3-17.
The government made several key policy changes to provide selected firms a strong start. Two crucial policies during this period are the import-substitution industrialization (ISI) and export promotion (EP). ISI allowed government selected firms in government target industries to borrow foreign currency, and borrow domestic funds at rates beneficial to those firms. This was the beginning of importing advanced technologies only to improve, adapt, and reproduce them for export. EP gave firms access to low interest loans. The relations between the Korean firms and industries with the rest of the world broadened in EP. Efficiency grew, production went up and Korean saw exponential economic leaps in a few decades.
During the Vietnam War in the 1970s, U.S. troops withdrew from Vietnam. South Korea relied on the military presence of the U.S.A. As protection from North Korean. South Korean leadership decided to not rely on the U.S.A. For military presence and…
Boyer, Robert & Toshio Yamada (Ed.) Japanese Capitalism in Crisis: A regulationist interpretation. Chapter 6, "Rapid Economic Growth and Its Standstill," by Makoto Itoh. Routledge, London, New York, 2000.
Chang, Ha-Joon. "The Hazard of Moral Hazard: Untangling the Asian Crisis." World Development, Volume 28, Number 4, Pages 775 -- 798. Cambridge, UK, 2000.
Itoh, Makoto. The Japanese Economy Reconsidered. Chapter 1, "The Long Downturn in the Japanese Economy." Palgrave, UK, NY, 2000.
Iyoda, Mitsuhiko. Postwar Japanese Economy: Lessons of Economic Growth and the Bubble Economy. Springer, New York, London, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, 2010.
Salt With American Economic History
From time immemorial to the current age, the significance of salt to the human community and the animals has been vastly acknowledged. Ever since the time when salt made its entry, several millennia ago, it has vastly influenced the lifestyle of humans. This is not only with regard to the dieting pattern or the age-old food preserving industry. It also takes into account the human, financial, historical and religion adherent or orthodox planes. Finally, but in no way lesser in significance, salt has influenced the habit patterns and occult ways. Salt was significantly considered in exchange between the retailers, to the extent that it gave rise to "salt routes" via which merchants commenced the transportation and traded it to countries where there was no generation of salt. Salt is a priority in the chemical industry where it serves as a chief source for the vast…
Bhatnagar, Jyotsna. "Salt's trail down centuries" Wednesday, March 8, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.financialexpress.com/fe/daily/20000308/ffe07097.html . Accessed on 12/07/2003
History: Salt through the Ages" Retrieved at http://www.mortonsalt.com/consumer/about_us/history/ . Accessed on 12/07/2003
History of Salt" Retrieved at http://www.saltworks.us/index.asp . Accessed on 12/07/2003
Salt and Its Uses" Retrieved at http://www.dampiersalt.com.au/tnpn002785/prod/dsl/dslweb.nsf/Details/DSL_Salt_Salt+and+it's+Uses?OpenDocument. Accessed on 12/07/2003
Social and Economic History Of the Southwest
Please answer the following essay questions based on Keith B. Basso's isdom Sits in Places.
Discuss how the Apache of Cibecue invest the landscape with meaning.
The Apache not only invest the land with meaning but they treat the land and the various aspects of it, that is the water, the rocks, the trees, as though they are separate living entities which must be recognized and paid attention to. Not only this, but the place names are important because there is the connection with the history of the Apache. Basso was having trouble getting the pronunciation of a place right and finally he was just going to give up and try and get it from the recordings that were made. This bothered his chief guide. Basso had said it didn't matter, he would learn it later but the guide said it did matter…
Basso, Keith H. Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language among the Western Apache. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996.
Gutiarrez, Ramon A. Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846 Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991.
Nunez, Alvar Cabeza de Vaca. Cabeza de Vaca's Adventures in the Unknown Interior of America. Trans. Covey, Cyclone. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983.
Susan Shelby Magoffin was the first or among the first white American or non-Indian women to cross the Santa Fe Trail. She traveled as the young and new bride of a successful trader, Samuel Magoffin, who had established business with the Mexicans before he married Susan. Their journey from Independence, Missouri to Chihuahua, Mexico was their honeymoon. On the way, Susan recorded her experiences, perceptions and insights in a diary, which reflected the conditions of her time through her perception. She described that independence existed there along with much free uncontaminated air that fired the mind, feelings and every thought with purity. She was later quoted as calling it a disastrous celebration of that freedom.
She traveled in a rockaway carriage under the meticulous care of her husband, a maid named Jane and a physician, Dr. Masere, who attended to her first pregnancy. Some viewed Susan as traveling…
1. Gutierrez, Ramon A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away. Stanford University Press, 199
2. Magoffin, Susan Shelby. Down the Santa Fe Trail and Into Mexico, 1846-1847. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982
Twenty-Five percent of the offenses were assault/arson, likely related to bar brawls and the like, another indication of a disaffected society. To further this hypothesis, we show a 7 percentile arrest rate for begging, an additional sign of poverty.
There are details missing from the data, however. We do not know the quality or robustness of some of the offenses; stealing lumped together, etc. Further examination might tell us more about demographic (age, ethnicity, education) in relation to a particular crime or punishment, and certainly if we knew more about the geographic universe (location) of arrest or crime, we could draw additional conclusions. For instance, were most sex crimes, assaults, and thefts committed in poorer locations (Whitechapel, for instance)?
What the data does tell us, from our brief analysis, is that we have a very stratified society in which there are three major crimes that the middle and upper classes…
Prisoner Data from 1835-1851. From: Victorian Crime and Punishment. (2006). Legend for prisoners 323 cs.pdf
Victorian Crime and Punishment. (2006). E2BN. Cited in: http://vcp.e2bn.org/
O'Connor, E. (2000). Raw material: Producing Pathology in Victorian Culture. Duke Mitchell, S. (1996). Daily Life in Victorian England. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
Quinney, R. (1966). Structural Characteristics, Population Areas and Crime Rates. The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science. 57 (1): 45-52.
The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's…
Bathelt, Harald; Wiseman, Clare; Zakrzewski, Guido. Unit 1: Post-war development and structure of the German economy.
Buchanan, Tom. Europe's troubled peace, 1945-2000.
DeLong, J. Bradford. Grasping reality with both hands: A Fair, Balanced, Reality-Based,
It offers a good theory as it emphasizes on the production and export of those items for which a country possesses a comparative advantage. Furthermore, through its focus on the reduction of taxes and tariffs in international trade and the adherent practices, the theory of comparative costs has set the basis for the contemporaneous processes of market liberalization and globalization.
But the theory has not been spared from criticism. Oumar Bouare states that "the market price of a commodity does not converge toward its natural price. (Then) the outcome of complete specialization in icardo's framework locks third world and developing countries out of industrialization; and free trade could destroy the industrial base of a country, which in the long run could generate more wealth for the country than an imported product. This might also lock the country out of industrialization." b) in 1848, utilitarian economist John Stuart Mill wrote the…
Bancroft, S., Clough, C.W., Economic History of Europe, Heath, 1952
Berdell, J.F., Adam Smith and the ambiguity of nations, Review of Social Economy, Volume 56, 1998
Bouare, O., an Evaluation of David Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Costs: Direct and Indirect Critiques, Retrieved from Policy Innovations
http://www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/policy_library/data/01445on March 6, 2008
These methods are then examined with respect to future events using empirical observations and statistical tools. (History of Economics Society, 25)
It has to be accepted that such a method has been used to arrive at various conclusions. A lot of dedication is required by thinkers to derive the facts out of the information available. This concept of economics is not drawn out of nothing, but it has been derived from facts, and scientists have toiled to put together the casual details into formal approaches. Formal methods reduce the details in a systematic manner and so this is preferred than the informal method. However those is favor of the scientific method were against the formal method and argued that formal methods were not reliable since it was not sure whether the important aspects of the fact would be retained while reducing the information available. (History of Economics Society, 25)
Canterbery, E. Ray. A Brief History of Economics: Artful Approaches to the Dismal
Science. World Scientific. 2001.
History of Economics Society. Complexity and the history of economic thought: Selected
Papers from the... Routledge. 2000.
The recession of 2008-2009 and the subsequent government responses provides a good test for economic theories. There are no controlled experiments in economics, so we can only work with case studies in order to understand how economies work. A good starting point is to consider the issue through multiple different lenses, so that we can understand how the crisis occurred and what prescriptions might be best suited for response either to address the root problems or to engage in prevention. This paper will consider the works of Marx, Schumpeter and Keynes in analyzing the financial crisis. All three of these men would have been able to understand its causes, but likely would have taken very different approaches to solving the problem.
The second issue at hand is the question of the future of capitalism. We have a pretty good sense at this point of what the response of…
Cox, W. & Alm, R. (2013). Creative destruction. Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/CreativeDestruction.html
Eichengreen, B. (2010). The crisis of financial innovation. University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://emlab.berkeley.edu/~eichengr/crisis_finan_innov.pdf
Isfeld, G. (2012). Canada's banks shake off global sector crisis. Financial Post. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://business.financialpost.com/2012/10/10/canadas-banks-shake-off-global-sector-crisis/
Liu, H. (2008). Too big to fail moral hazard. Asia Times. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Global_Economy/JI23Dj12.html
Many businesses could no longer operate in this fashion and likely closed their doors leading to a rise in unemployment. This is an example of the rule that Hitler had on the Pre-World War II German economy. The people of the nation were completely subject to his policies and because the economy was in such a vulnerable position as a result of the First World War, that Hitler's policies were looked upon as providing assistance to the nation. The research indicates that Hitler's rule over Germany managed to counter the rise in unemployment with institution of the German Labor Service and other workforce and labor programs.
Pre-World War II Unemployment in Germany
etween January 1933 and July 1935 the number of employed Germans rose by a half, from 11.7 million to 16.9 million.
. Under the rule of Hitler, more than 5 million new jobs paying living wages were created.…
Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. "Expulsion of Germans after World War II." Last
updated in 2010. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/38667 .
Brezina, Corona. The Treaty of Versailles, 1919: A Primary Source Examination of the Treaty
That Ended World War I. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2006.
The number of educational institutions remained the same and child labor has also stagnated. Entrepreneurs were still allowed to employ children, which they did moreover when they paid them lower wages.
Just like with the Meiji Era, the British Industrial evolution opened new horizons and generated numerous development possibilities for the country and its population. The most important contributions were felt in the technological sector and materialized in a wide series of advancements. "It was not only gadgets, however, but innovations of various kinds -- in agriculture, transport, manufacture, trade, and finance -- that surged up with a suddenness for which it is difficult to find a parallel at any other time or place. The quickened pace of development is attested by the catalogue of new patents, the lengthening list of Acts of enclosure, the expanding figures of output and exports, and the course of prices, which, after remaining roughly…
Ashton, T.S., the Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830, Oxford University Press, 1997
Buer, M.C., Health, Wealth and Population in the Early Days of the Industrial Revolution, Routledge, 1926
Hunter, J., Institutional Change in Meiji Japan: Image and Reality, Routledge, 2005
Kinzley, W.D., Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852-1912, the Historian, Volume 66, 2004
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
Economic, Political, and Social History
African American culture arose out of the turmoil and despair of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. From West African port towns to plantations, African American culture is unique in that it was forged under the pressure of bondage. People with different cultures and languages formed new identities relative to their subordinate social, economic, and political status—their culture therefore being in part defined by the experience of oppression and the determination to overcome it. Bereft of social, political, or economic independence for centuries, African American culture nevertheless emerged as organically as any other, but flourished especially after emancipation.
Yet the economic history of African American culture cannot be divorced from the human capital model of slavery. The Emancipation Proclamation laid the first foundation stones for African American economic, political, and social empowerment but Reconstruction failed to fulfill the objective of genuine liberation (DuBois, 1994). African Americans in…
More importantly, the puritans had considered essential for the future of economic success the access to education and therefore established elementary schools throughout the state (Wright, 1947). Therefore, the degree of literacy was greater than in other parts of the country because there was a comprehensive access to education.
By comparison, the South was different in this area. The southern society had a particular system of private tutoring which allowed children to have access to education. However, for ordinary people, this was not an option and they most often appealed to the assistance of the minister. Still, the quality of education received in this way was limited and in many situations the young generation remained illiterate. It can be said therefore that the poor level of education was in part due to the lack of financial support and in part to the economic practices existing in the South which did…
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
McAllister, J. "Colonial America, 1607-1776." The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 2. (May, 1989), pp. 245-259.
Weinberg, Meyer. A Short History of American Capitalism. Gloucester: New History Press, 2002.
Wright, Louis B. The Atlantic Frontier: Colonial American Civilization, 1607-1763. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947.
disrupting America's economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists
Even as the world continues to struggle with the terrible shock from the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington, one principle lesson has already become clear: disrupting our economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists.
Prior to September 11, our economic environment was certainly not immune to terror, in comparison to many other nations; we lived relatively terror-free. Now, however, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks serves as a grim reminder that international relations and security developments can dramatically affect economic performance.
US History is replete with countless examples when macro fundamentals are overtaken by what economists refer to as, exogenous shocks -- surprise events that can profoundly and often unpredictably shift political and economic resources, and send even the most accurate forecasts astray. Commodity shocks, such as the two OPEC jolts in the 1970s, are classic…
Bagehot, Walter. 1927. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, John Murray, London.
Balbach, Anatol B. 1981. "How Controllable is Money Growth?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol 63, no 4, April, p. 5.
Becker, Gary S, Steven N. Kaplan, Kevin M. Murphy and Edward A Snyder. (2002 / winter). "The Economic Effects of September 11," GSB Magazine, University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business.
Bell, Stephanie. 2000. "Do Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 603-620.
Human societies within the context of civilization most always are organized into deference periods. The Constitution is a product of worldviews developed within such a limited paradigm, as paradigms tend to be, whether individuals -- including the Founders -- were and are aware of it. This condition, in part, touches on what Heilbroner frames as "The Unresolved Problem of Economic Power." He accepts that the wonderful free market system of Adam Smith is tainted by "giant oligopoly." The logic positing the market economy "as the servant of the consumer," therefore, might as well be null-and-void, but, still, "the emergence of these new attributes," Heilbroner argues, "can be seen as new functional mechanisms for the support of that system." (Heilbroner 18)
To make natural the influence of "giant oligopolies" to the free-market economy, Heilbroner borrows examples from the world of advertising and the manipulation of consumer wants. He admits…
3. Chomsky, Noam. (3 March 1993) Notes of NAFTA: "The Masters of Man." The Nation.
4. Zinn, Howard. (1980) a People's History of the United States. Boston: HarperPerennial
5. ____. (1997) Britain and America: Studies in Comparative History 1760-1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…
Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth
Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.
Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.
Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961
History of the Pacific Northwest [...] how the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War impacted regional demographics in the Pacific Northwest. What social ramifications resulted from population shifts in the Northwest (consider rural and urban area)? How did demographics shape/influence Pacific Northwest politics? The Pacific Northwest did not escape the ramifications of the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War. No area in the country did. However, since the Pacific Northwest had not been quite as economically successful in the decade leading up to the stock market crash in 1929, its residents were not quite as deeply affected as those who had been more indulgent with their income.
Before the Great Depression in 1929, the Pacific Northwest had been growing significantly. By 1920, the area had grown by 254% from 1900 (Schwantes 365). However, the Great Depression put a stop to the growth and migration.…
Gates, Charles M. "Modern Economic History." The Pacific Northwest: An Overall Appreciation. Eds. Freeman, Otis W. And Howard H. Martin. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1954. 43-50.
Schwantes, Carlos Arnaldo. The Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.
Warren, Sidney. Farthest Frontier: The Pacific Northwest. New York: Macmillan, 1949.
History of the Pacific Northwest [...] how representative the lives of Mary Arkwright Hutton, Annie Pike Greenwood, and Teiko Tomita were considering the racial and class tensions of the twentieth century. ace and class have been important influences throughout the Pacific Northwest's long history. In fact, some of the most racist laws in America were in effect in the Pacific Northwest at the beginning of the twentieth century. ace and class created dissent in the population, but ultimately forged a stronger sense of area and belonging to the diverse cultural minorities that make up the area today.
Mary Arkwright Hutton was a union supporter and organizer early in the history of the area. She worked in the mining towns of Idaho, and became an avid union supporter and organizer of the men who labored in the mines. Many politicians and mine owners found her abrasive and difficult, but the men…
Amott, Teresa L., and Julie A. Matthaei. A Multicultural Economic History of Women in the United States. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1991.
Schwantes, Carlos Arnaldo. The Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.
Taylor, Quintard. "The Civil Rights Movement in the American West: Black Protest in Seattle, 1960-1970." The Journal of Negro History 80.1 (1995): 1+.
The revelation of the financial crisis that unfolded in United States in 2008 is considered to be the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression, 1929. The distinctive causative factors that have contributed to the U.S. economic crisis 2008- 2009 are differentiated by aggravated financial control, higher risks in capital investment, the housing bubble phenomena in relation to the brisk credit expansion. The aggregation of these factors in the U.S. economy directed the economy towards the de- leverage and credit crunches as the bubble burst. The following paper shall be discussing about the degree of correlation between the tax implications policies with respect to the financial crisis in U.S.. The precise review of strong linkages between the taxation and economic crises is the explicit explanation of the crisis that shook America. The paper also highlights the key factors that demonstrated their abilities and rescued U.S. In the economic…
Carr, D.A. (2011). Responses to Local Fiscal Shocks: Path Dependency Effects of the Clean Air Act. Public Finance and Management, 11(2), 160+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5050180027
Hendrickson, J.M., & Nichols, M.W. (2010). Did Commercial Banks Close Branches in Low-income Neighborhoods in Response to the Cra? Implications for Understanding the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 13(1), 17+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044499375
Johnson, E.M. (2010, April). Mr. Trust Buster. In These Times, 34, 7+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5041402599
Robinson, S.N., & Nantz, D.P. (2009). Lessons to Be Learned from the Financial Crisis. Journal of Private Enterprise, 25(1), 5+. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037768696
An economic system is basically described as specific set of principles that addresses the production, distribution, and consumption of products and services. The involved parties in the production, distribution, and consumptions processes are usually determined by or dependent on the economic system. Throughout the history of humanity, different types of economic systems have evolved because different societies have placed varying emphasis on distinctive goals and priorities as part of their efforts to obtain answers to certain economic questions. In addition, the difference in economic systems is fueled by the tendency by different societies to develop very broad economic approaches to manage their resources. One of the main reasons for the development of different economic systems is to address the challenge of scarcity. The challenge of scarcity is an essential problem that confronts individuals and nations. hile there are four major types of economic systems recognized by economists, there…
"Economic Systems." Hilliard Bradley High School. Hilliard Bradley High School, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .
"Factors of Production." Enotes.com - Study Smarter. Enotes.com, Inc., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .
"Types of Economic Systems." Economic Systems. Shmoop University, Inc., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. .
Economic Depression of Europe
An economic depression is more severe than a recession due to the fact that a depression involves drastic decline in a national or international economy, characterized by decreasing business activity, falling prices, and high levels of unemployment.
There were economic depressions in Europe that were experienced before and after the 1870 but with a remarkable difference, being that those that were experienced before the 1870s were less costly in terms of life and resources and took relatively lesser period. Indeed it was a commonplace that every part of Europe experienced one sort of economic depression or the other.
One such economic situation before 1870 was the "little ice age" which began in the late 16th century till around 1950s as indicated by Big Site of History (2011). This was a time when a severe cold that could not be withstood by most crops set in most…
Big Site of History (2011). Social Trends in 17th Century Europe: The Problem of Divine-Right
Monarchy. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://bigsiteofhistory.com/social-trends-in-17th-century-europe-the-problem-of-divine-right-monarchy
Historic UK, (2011). The Great Plague 1665. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.historic-
In order for this to happen there must be a lot of industrial production happening. If you look at the history of industrial production, when ever there has been a drop, consumers have stopped spending and a recession has taken place. During the oil crisis from 1973-1975, the industrial production rate fell to about 74%. In 1983 the industrial production rate fell to 71% sparking the recession of the 1980's. Again in 2001, the industrial production rate fell to 74% after September 11th, causing the recession of the 1990's. Today the industrial production rate has fallen to about 73% leading to the current recession (History of U.S. Economic ecession, n.d.). If history holds true the industrial production rate will go back up and consumers will once again spend money and the recession will fade from our memory until the next one comes along.
History of U.S. Economic ecessions. (n.d.).…
History of U.S. Economic Recessions. (n.d.). Retrieved March 10, 2009, from Recession.org Web site: http://recession.org/
Links to Adverts
These principles were those of reciprocity, reallocation and house holding, and they were embedded in the way the civil and politic societies interacted. The end of the century however brought by the first signs of disembeddment and they revolved around the transformation of land and labor force into commodities. For the European countries for instance, a disembedded economy referred also to the territorial expansion of the companies. In this understanding then, the developed European countries had expanded their operations and moved to wider markets, where they increased their access to customers and also their revenues. And not only that they began to sell their products to larger audiences, but they also began to acquire cheaper commodities from the foreign regions; they employed cheaper workforce in the region; and operations of international transfer of capital begun to emerge.
Ultimately then, an embedded economy is generally an enclosed and protectionist one, and…
Cumberpatch, C.G., Some Observations on the Concept of 'Embedded' and 'Disembedded' Economies in Archaeological Discourse, Assemblage Journal of Archeology, 2001
Halperin, S., War and Social Change in Modern Europe: The Great Transformation Revised, Cambridge University Press, 2004
Aristotle's View on Wealth Acquisition, Philosophy 101, http://www.philosophy-101.com/2007/06/29/aristotles-view-on-wealth-acquisition/last accessed on February 4, 2009
Basic Characteristics of Capitalism, Business Book Mall, http://www.businessbookmall.com/Economics_3_Basic_Characteristics_of_Capitalism.html. Ast accessed on February 4, 2009
In addition, he argued that human behavior is mainly based on the pursuit of material profits.
According to Smith the society could develop only in case of existence of freedom and equality. These rational principles according to Smith could stimulate objective development of society and development of economical relations. His philosophical and moral ideas of course influenced his political economy. Smith's political economy based on freedom of competition and Smith principles of political economy based on the natural needs of developing capitalist society of Great Britain in many respects defined the economical policies of the major 19th century capitalist states.
3. Provide a sense of the historical context and the nature of the main debates in political economy during the first quarter of the 19th Century in Britain and how these debates shaped the complexation of early classical economic thought.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century there still existed…
Economic Performance of Wilmington, North Carolina in the Last Century
This paper sheds light on economic performance of Wilmington in the last century. After the Civil war, the city faced rapid changes in its economic structure and thus Wilmington could no longer depend on its sea trade or cotton plantations. Even though the two Great Wars had a positive IMAX on the economy, but the effects couldn't last for long. Today the city is heavily dependent on its tourism and entertainment industries while rice and cotton are also important to Wilmington's economic growth.
Wilmington has historical significance and the city gained prominence during the Civil War due to its strategic location. The economy of this city has never performed increasingly well nor did it suffer serious blows of recession. This is because the city's economy was largely dependent on its harbor and sea trade and this was for…
Bradley T. Ewing and Jamie Brown Kruse: Wilmington and Impact of Project Impact, November 2000 http://www3.tltc.ttu.edu/ecowp/working%20paper/Impact%20of%20Project%20Impact.pdf.
Wilmington, Last 100 years: http://www.ego.net/us/nc/ilm/history/mod.htm
Wilmington History, From copy provided by the Greater Wilmington Chamber of Commerce: http://www.wilmington.org/geninfo/wilmhist.html
But the home was very important for other reasons, again overshadowing the economy. Now people buy homes based on where they can find jobs, or even experience forced moves from their jobs -- this would have been unthinkable then.
A third interesting factor of early economies is the goal of self-sufficiency that individuals had. Large amounts of wealth were not really attainable, and the basic goal of the time was to have everything you needed. This was the definition of success, whereas poverty meant you were dependent on someone else, not just underprivileged. This leads to a fourth point Polanyi makes, specifically about kinship-organized societies. These groups especially tended to have little extraneous wealth, so there were very few exchanges that actually changed economic status. Such exchanges almost always marked major occasions, like proposals and/or weddings. The principles of exchange in these times were either utilitarian or symbolic, and not…
ealth does not equate to happiness, a sense of purpose, dignity or respect. One of the key underlying assumptions of neoliberal philosophy, as derived from Milton Friedman, is that financial wealth is the ideal end goal of all activity. hile financial wealth solves many problems it does not solve all problems. Opponents of globalization, whatever their other arguments, incorporate this understanding into their protestations.
Naomi Klein goes further, suggesting that the unequal wealth distribution in the globalized economy is deliberate. The march towards globalization is not an altruistic endeavor borne of a firm belief in the power of the free market, but is a calculated strategy on the part of the world's elite to seize the world's wealth and power at whatever expense is necessary. Indeed, any economic benefits realized by the masses are incidental. Casualties -- be they citizens of Iraq, indigenous peoples or indeed any of the world's…
Harvey, D. (2007). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Klein, N. (2007). The shock doctrine: The rise of disaster capitalism. Toronto: Random House.
Friedman, T. (1999). The Lexus and the olive tree. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
Appiah, K. (2006). The case for contamination. New York Times Magazine. Jan 1, 2006.
4. The role that the FDA plays in setting food safety requirements is inherently costly to the economy. The function is not based on economic concerns but rather public health concerns -- the FDA's mandate dates to Congressional concern about the Elixir sulfanilamide disaster and traces its roots to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, which documented meat production in Chicago at the turn of the 20th century (FDA.gov, 2009). Thus, decisions about FDA regulations are not made on the basis of economic good, but rather public good. Increased regulations would impose increased costs on business. In classical economics, these costs would act as a form of tax, increasing risk and discouraging investment. Eliminating these requirements would lower these costs, which would allow for an expansion of the food business. It could be argued that the threat of litigation today would counterbalance the need for regulations, but that claim has not been…
Roubini, N. (1997). Supply side economics: Do tax rate cuts increase growth and revenues and reduce budget deficits? Or is it voodoo economics all over again? Stern School of Business. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~nroubini/SUPPLY.htm
No author. (2010). Classical economics. TheShortRun.com. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://www.theshortrun.com/classroom/doctrines/classicals.html
McCallum, B. (2008). Monetarism. Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/Monetarism.html
FDA.gov. (2009). FDA history part I. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/WhatWeDo/History/Origin/ucm054819.htm
That is, international financial organizations, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and which controlled by core states, decide that, in order to grant financial aid to undeveloped countries, these states should comply with some rules that are, in the end, in the detriment of their own economy. For example, Africa pays more to the IMF and World Bank, than it collects in credit from them, and this leads to low living standards, poor education and health systems and undeveloped infrastructure.
Besides financial institutions, transnational corporations have a saying in the economic development of a country. Although one might be tempted to say that a corporation, by creating a branch in an undeveloped country gives that economy a boom, it is actually all about personal gain.
Working in a corporation might be considered the best thing that could happen to a person, on a professional scale. You…
Chomsky, Noam. "DRCNet Interview: Noam Chomsky." Drug War Chronicle Aug.2002. Drug Reform Coordination Network. Washington DC. 2.08.2002. http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle-old/223/noamchomsky.shtml .
Korten, David C. "When Corporations Rule the World." USA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers; 2 edition, 2001
Kozol, Jonathan. "The Shame of the Nation. The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America." New York: Crown Publishers, 2005
Wallerstein, Immanuel. "The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century." New York: Academic Press, 1976
Economic crash can be viewed from a number of perspectives ranging from causes and effects to the 2008 Crash's resemblance to the Crash of 1929, which began the Great Depression. This paper will consider the 2008 recession from the standpoint of the financial banking industry, which, according to economic journalists like Matt Taibbi (2010), played a major and significant role in the crumbling of the nation's economy -- just like it did in the Lawless Decade also known as the oaring Twenties.
Big Banking Meets Big Government
What has now become known as the Era of De-egulation actually had its beginnings in the 80s decade known just as much for its rampant excess as the early 20s were known for their unbridled lawlessness. Yet, while the latter enjoyed the snubs-to-the-law bootlegging speakeasies, the former enjoyed the merging of the financial sector with the political -- which began during eagan's tenure…
AP/HuffPost. (2011). Charles Ferguson's Oscar Speech Rips Wall Street: 'Inside Job'
Director Levels Criticism During Acceptance. HuffPost Business. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/28/charles-ferguson-oscar-speech-inside-job_n_828963.html
Sann, P. (n.d.). The Lawless Decade: A Pictorial History of the Roaring Twenties.
Retrieved from http://lawlessdecade.net/
The asylum automatically granted under the Swiss constitution was denied for those seeking it for religious reasons. y 1942, only 9,150 foreign Jews were legally resident in Switzerland, an increase of just 980 since 1931. It was the Swiss government that requested the German government to help it identify Jews by stamping all Jewish passports with a prominent letter "J," following the Nuremberg acts in 1935. "y 1942, acting at the behest of Switzerland's establishment and the majority of its people, its authoritarian police apparatus was dedicated to keeping the country 'pure' and to saving it from being 'overrun with Jews'." Until 1942, the working Jewish community in Switzerland was forced by the government to support Jewish refugees.
The other side of the German interest in Switzerland's banks was related to the business of Germany and the looting of conquered countries. y 1941, Germany had exhausted all of its foreign…
Bazyler, Michael J. Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America's Courts. New York: New York University Press, 2003.
Borowiec, Andrew. "World's leaders gather in Geneva." The Washington Times. http://washingtontimes.com/world/20-5793r.htm .
Bower, Tom. Nazi Gold. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
Clarke, William. "Nazi Gold: The Role of the Central Banks - Where Does the Blame Lie?" Central Banking, Volume VIII Number 1. Summer 1997. April 22, 2005. http://www.bigeye.com/nazigold.htm .
Economic Events: 1980-1989
the decade of greed. The era of onald eagan when the rich got richer and the poor got poorer. Despite this common wisdom, 1980 started off auspiciously. On May 8, 1980 the World Health Organization hailed "one of the century's greatest medical accomplishments," the final and total eradication of smallpox (Dickson 247). But how quickly times change - barely a quarter century has passed and this same disease is making headlines once again.
Attitudes change also. While many in this day and age would still agree that the 1980's was a selfish period in American history, a sea-change has occurred in the rhetoric issuing forth from Washington D.C. In a very fundamental way, party politics has been thrust aside as concerns for homeland security take precedence over petty partisanship. Michael Barone notes this in his analysis of a speech made by Democrat ichard Gephardt in the Summer…
Barone, Michael. "The loyal opposition." U.S. News and World Report. 13 June 2003. 14
March 2003 http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/baroneweb/mb_020613.htm.
Case, Karl E., and Ray C. Fair. "Principles of Economics." Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ 1992.
Sorkin's book does a good job of giving the details on what happened among Lehman Brothers, Barclays, JP Morgan, Goldman Sachs, the Fed, and Big Gov following the collapse. Essentially, everyone had egg on his face -- but some of the bigger powers had the muscle to save face -- and sink competitors at the same time: which is exactly what Goldman Sachs did to Lehman. Goldman had been placing its cronies in the hite House for years -- and it would now go through the hite House to see who got bailed out and who did not. AIG got one -- because it owed a large chunk to Goldman (who had figured out the game ahead of time and started betting against itself by buying insurance through AIG). Sorkin's work is a work full of the kind of details that other writer's like Taibbi and Lewis do not take…
Lewis, Michael M. The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine. New York, NY: W.
W. Norton & Company, 2010. Print.
Sorkin, Andrew. Too Big to Fail: the inside story of how Wall Street and Washington
fought save the financial system -- and themselves. New York, NY: Penguin, 2010. Print.
Economics in the United States
Macroeconomics in the United States
Macroeconomics deals with the general economic systems, which have a larger scope compared to individuals and markets. Essentially, microeconomics is mainly used in the determination and forecast of a country's national income. This is done by analyzing the factors of the economy that represent trends and patterns and in most cases influence each other. Economic factors affecting macroeconomics include the rates of employment and unemployment, positions of balance of payments, trends in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and inflation. Macroeconomics is controlled by the monetary and fiscal policies, which are implemented to control economic factors. Levels of investment and consumption of products and services is also determined by fiscal and monetary policies.
Microeconomic situation in the United States
Figure 1.1: Trends (in percentage) of Unemployment in the U.S. -- 2012
Changes from April to May
Markham, J.W. (2002). A Financial History of the United States M.E. Sharpe: New York.
Fernando, A.C. (2011). Business Environment. India: Pearson Education.
Newport, P. (2011). United States. United States Country Monitor, 2011, p. 2-7.
U.S Department of Labor (2012, June 1). The Employment Situation. Retrieved June 5, 2012, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf
Economic Development of China and Korea
China and Korea, not exactly highly developed countries, but carry a mystique about them that intrigues everyone in the United States. Two countries, on the verge of emerging into their full economic potential, is at the present time, attracting plenty of media attention. as their economic bankruptcy influenced by the attack on America? The purpose of this essay is to discuss and compare the differences and similarities of the two countries, including education, culture, religion, traditions, way of living and history, and emphasizing the economic development of these two fascinating countries.
Korea had its beginning, about two thousand years ago, when two nations were in a battle, creating a small independent population area, which we now know it today as the nation, Korea. Korea actually evolved spontaneously, with no planning or organization. Although Korea developed it's own identity and uniqueness, it is the envy…
NA WARNING NOT TO SIGN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT,
The U.S. is a property owning civilization and a number of the people wanted land and housing. Americans however scarcely ever create savings. "The country itself lives on other countries' savings by issuing bonds to finance its excessive consumption. The current crisis began with cheap housing loans offered by banks. Banks provided loans but instead of holding the loan in their books, they packaged them into collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and sold them to other agencies. These agencies passed them on to others and spread them globally as assets" (the Current Economic Crisis, its causes, its impact and possible alternatives, 2009).
Interest rates were lowered and housing loans went up with construction activities leading to land prices increasing. The real estate was booming, generating employment and incomes. But as the rate of interest on housing loans came down, banks started to compete to get more business. Because of low interest…
Avizius, R. 2009. Financial Crisis Big Picture: What has the Government Response Been? [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/Article9229.html . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
Centeno, M.A. & Cohen, J.N. 2012. The Arc of Neoliberalism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.yale.edu/macmillan/transitionstomodernity/papers/CentenoCohen.pdf . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
Crotty, J. 2009. Structural causes of the global financial crisis: a critical assessment of the 'new financial architecture' . [ONLINE] Available at: http://cje.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/4/563.full . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
Esteva, G. (n.d.). The Meaning of the Global Crisis and "Recovery" for Study Abroad: What are we Preparing Students for? [ONLINE] Available at: http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1110&context=faculty_symposium . [Accessed 22 May 2012].
History of the euro can be traced back as far as World War II when European leaders agreed that economic ties could promote growth in Europe (Martel). As a result of the Bretton Woods (New Hampshire, USA) agreement of 1944, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) opened for business in 1947 and a fixed rate of exchange was set between the U.S. dollar and other world currencies, based on the gold standard ("Euro Timeline"). Between 1951-1952 on the initiative of obert Schuman and Jean Monnet of France, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded by six countries: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands and West Germany ("Euro Timeline"). The ECSC would become the basis for the future "Common Market" (EEC, EC) and European Union (EU) ("Euro Timeline"). On March 25, 1957 the same six countries signed the Treaty of ome, thereby creating the European Economic Community (EEC) and the…
"A Short History of the Euro." Guradian.uk.com. Guadian News and Media Limited. 9 June 2003. Web. 15 Dec. 2010.
Boskin, Michael. "Pros and Cons of the Euro at 10." The Japan Times Online. The Japan Times Limited. 1 February 2009. Web. 15 December 2010.
"Euro Timeline." The German Way & More. Hyde Flippo. n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2010.
Evans, Stephen. "Eurocrisis: Germans Yearn for their Lost Deutschmark." BBC News. 7 December 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2010.
Economics - Country Analysis
Country Overview and Current Events (News)
Ethiopia, traditionally known as Abyssinia, is a landlocked Sub-Saharan country located at the Horn of Africa in East Africa, bordering Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan, and the newly-created South Sudan. It covers approximately 1,126,829km2 of land; about the size of the state of Texas, and was, until the split of Sudan, the second-largest country in Africa. Being landlocked, Ethiopia largely relies on the port of Djibouti, to which it is connected by both rail and road. Economic elements such as this, together with the country's history, population, geography and economic performance have been explored in the subsequent sections of this text.
Population: the U.S. Census Bureau, in June 2013, estimated Ethiopia's population to be 93,877,025; a figure that makes the country the second-most populous in Africa, after Nigeria (orld Bank, Index Mundi). Ethiopia's population has been on a steady increase…
AFDB. "Inflation Dynamics in Selected East African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda." AFDB Brief, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014 http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflatin%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf
This article analyses the trend in Ethiopia's inflation rates vis-a-vis those of other countries in the Sub-Saharan region and was a valuable source of regional statistics, which formed the main basis for comparison.
Broussar, Nzinga, and Tekleselassie Tsegay. "Youth Unemployment: Ethiopia; Country Study." International Growth Center, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014 http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflation%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf
This article analyzes the trend in Ethiopia's employment patterns. It reinforced my arguments that unemployment is more prevalent in urban Ethiopia, and that the country's informal sector contributes more to GDP than the formal sector.
8 million of the 2.5 million enslaved Africans employed in American agriculture working on cotton plantations (Dodson). The economic structure of each plantation was part of a larger national and even international political economy. For example, the cotton plantation economy is frequently regarded as a significant part of Southern economy. Nevertheless, cotton was not only the economic foundation of antebellum South, but also that of the United States, a country that was competing for economic leadership in the global political economy. The profitability of slave economy led to its perpetuation. Indeed, history has shown that an economically profitable situation can often be unfair unjust or immoral, and can only be ended by drastic political measures. In the case of the South, it was the abolition of slavery. The Dred Scott case originated in the state courts of Missouri in 1846 as a slave's attempt to gain his independence from his…
Conrad, Alfred H.; Meyer, John R. (1958). The Economics of Slavery in the Ante Bellum South. The Journal of Political Economy, 66(2), 95-130.
Dodson, Howard (2003). How Slavery Helped Build a World Economy. In Jubilee: The Emergence of African-American Culture. New York: National Geographic Books.
Ehrlich, Walter (1968). Was the Dred Scott Case Valid? The Journal of American History, 55(2), 256-265.
The downward spiral of deflation, the collapse of countless banks and other financial institutions, and the unprecedented levels of unemployment all demanded that something be done.
The programs that constituted President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal were not entirely unknown in the pre-Depression world. Various European countries already possessed social welfare schemes to some extent, but in the United States this was largely new thinking. The changes wrought by the New Deal reflected as much the uniqueness of conditions during the Great Depression as they did the undercurrent of new attitudes and ideas that had gradually been taking hold among America's intellectuals.
FDR's planners acted in the context of changing values, an evolving set of institutions, shifting political and economic circumstances, and the ebb and flow of planning opportunities to create a distinctly national, American form of planning.... They were part of a wide-ranging national debate over how to create…
DUMMY CITATION #1 G.M., Blaauw, G.A., and Brooks, Jr., F.P. "Architecture of the IBM System/360," IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 44, No. 1/2, IBM, January/March 2000 [Reprint of IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1964.]
DUMMY CITATION #2 Anderson, Philip, and Michael L. Tushman. "Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change." Administrative Science Quarterly 35.4 (1990): 604fl.
Gibbons, Jim. "Gibbons Tells Congressional Committee to Abolish Arbitrary FAA Retirement Age: Nevadan Calls Current Federal Rule, 'Blatant Age Discrimination.'" Press Release, (United States Congress, Washington D.C., 12 March, 2003).
Wilkening, Robin. "The Age 60 Rule: Age Discrimination in Civil Aviation." (No Date). URL: http://aeromedical.org/Articles/age60.html.
Both Keynes and Kalecki use Marx's theories as a starting point but quickly moved into new ways of thinking, particularly with regard to effective demand being oriented toward the demand-side. Marx had remained rooted in supply-side demand function, rejecting Say's Law only to note that demand did not necessarily meet supply.
Marx, K. (1867). Das kapital: A critique of political economy.
Mandel, E. (1995). Marx's theory of crises. International Viewpoint. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://www.internationalviewpoint.org/spip.php?article289
Argitis, G. (2003). Finance, instability and economic crisis: The Marx, Keynes and Minsky problems in contemporary capitalism. University of Crete working paper no. 0307.
Green, F. (1991). Marx, Malthus and wages: A comment on Cotrell and Darity. History of Political Economy. Vol. 23 (1) 95-100.
Magdoff, F. & Magdoff, H. (2004). Disposable workers: Todays' reserve army of labor. CBS Marketwatch. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_11_55/ai_n6137106/
Sebastiani, M. (1989). Kalecki and Marx…
Marx, K. (1867). Das kapital: A critique of political economy.
Mandel, E. (1995). Marx's theory of crises. International Viewpoint. Retrieved April 24, 2010 from http://www.internationalviewpoint.org/spip.php?article289
Argitis, G. (2003). Finance, instability and economic crisis: The Marx, Keynes and Minsky problems in contemporary capitalism. University of Crete working paper no. 0307.
Green, F. (1991). Marx, Malthus and wages: A comment on Cotrell and Darity. History of Political Economy. Vol. 23 (1) 95-100.
t is explained that the "fiscal cliff" itself refers to the end of Bush-era tax cuts and large spending cuts that will occur at the end of the year if Congress can't agree on a way to cut $1.2 trillion in debt over the next decade. This would lead to income tax and payroll tax increases for almost everyone, with an immediate negative impact on spending and thus on the economy, and with a rising unemployment rate through 2013. The article also cites Ben Bernanke as saying the Fed would not be able to counter or even effectively mitigate the effects of going over this cliff, yet the politics will have to play out before any action is taken by anyone.
lluminating the issue still further, John D. McKinnon, Kristina Peterson, and Josh Mitchell's "Most Households Face 'Fiscal Cliff'" from the November 21st edition of the Wall Street Journal present…
Illuminating the issue still further, John D. McKinnon, Kristina Peterson, and Josh Mitchell's "Most Households Face 'Fiscal Cliff'" from the November 21st edition of the Wall Street Journal present personal stories that typify the impact the fiscal cliff would have for people on various rungs of the socioeconomic ladder. Describing the various tax increases and other effects of the fiscal cliff in general terms first, this article then gives an example of an individual that meets the general description for every basic income/economic bracket identified. A human face is put on the numbers and the rhetoric that have been occupying many headlines and stories in the news over the past months, making the subject more accessible.
The same edition contained another story by Jon Hilsenrath, "Fed Still Trying to Push Down Rates," which details Bernanke's pledge to try to keep interest rates low through 2013 to stimulate the economy. Background information on ongoing unemployment and the dangers of the fiscal cliff are given, and also provides some history of central banks responding to legislative efforts in a spirit of cooperation but not coercion. The article also cites Bernanke's repeated warnings regarding the fiscal cliff and other fiscal policies that portend danger to the U.S. economy (and to the world economy at large), and the need to move beyond partisan politics to arrive at real and lasting solutions for the economy.
These articles demonstrate the ongoing problems faced in the current U.S. economy and contended with by agencies such as the Fed and large government bodies such as Congress. The individual personalities involved also appear to be of importance, and possibly of great hindrance.
The process would take centuries, but by Elizabethan times it had surely begun. Serfdom had all but disappeared from England, and money rents and wages had largely replaced other forms of compensation and exchange. The new importance of trade contributed to a profound change in attitudes, one that was beginning to re-shape society itself. In 1579, Thomas Churchyard defined as nobles, "Merchauntes that sail forrain countreys," a statement that underscores the importance of generating wealth.
Though not legally noble, these individuals were already beginning to emerge as substantial players in English society.
Economic Expansion: The Manor as Productive Estate
The vast expansion of trade and commerce in Early Modern England found its fullest expression in the thirst for new outlets for national enterprise. England's growing collection of colonies represented an attempt to compete economically on a world stage. Rivalry with other European powers encouraged the discovery and settlement of the…
Borsay, Peter, ed. The Eighteenth-Century Town: A Reader in English Urban History, 1688-1820. London: Longman, 1990.
Grubler, Arnulf. "Time for a Change: On the Patterns of Diffusion of Innovation." Daedalus 125.3 (1996): 19+.
Hudson, John. Land, Law, and Lordship in Anglo-Norman England. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
Jones, E.L. "Chapter 4 Urban Improvement and the English Economy in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries." The Eighteenth-Century Town: A Reader in English Urban History, 1688-1820. Ed. Peter Borsay. London: Longman, 1990. 116-154.
One can therefore expect that Israel will benefit from an increase in knowledge-based industry that will continue to power employment and GDP growth.
Investment is a triple indicator: relative attractiveness of the country, the type of investment being attracted, and political stability or instability. In comparison to the U.S., all countries save Saudi Arabia are attracting more investment. One would expect that the U.S., as a relatively mature first-world economy, would be at a relatively lower level. The surprise in this analysis exists in both extremes: Saudi Arabia on the low side, and Qatar, Kuwait and Dubai on the high side. Israel's relatively low investment can be explained by the type of knowledge-intensive industrial development it is experiencing now.
Qatar and Kuwait are experiencing resource-extraction investment at record levels. The primary driver is natural gas expansion. Unlike oil, natural gas must be processed extensively by capital-intensive facilities before it…
CIA. (2007). World Fact Book. Retrieved August 3, 2007, from CIA: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/is.html
Collins, G. (2007, July 1). LNG Observer. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from China making bid to lead LNG carrier building: http://www.ogj.com/articles/save_screen.cfm?ARTICLE_ID=297535
Economist. (2007, July 26). Vigorous but Vulnerable. Retrieved August 3, 2007, from Economist: www.economist.com
Ford, N. (2006). Oil Producers Spend Windfall Wisely: There Has Long Been Global Fascination with How and Where the Arab Oil Producing Nations Spend Their Cash. Neil Ford Reports That the Trends of 2006 Are Very Different to Those of 30 Years Ago. The Middle East, 36.
Shift from Central Planning to Market Economy
The Turkish economy is in what might be termed semi-precarious health. It could certainly be worse, but also certainly be better. Since its birth as a nation-state into its current shape in 1923 in the wake of World War I, Turkey has operated a mixed economy, in which both state and private enterprise have contributed to economic development. (Indeed, it is arguable that all country's in the world today have a mixed economy; the United States may be a bastion for private enterprise but many workers also benefit from government money, such as the money awarded by the federal government to private companies in the form of defense industry contracts.) Since the end of World War II, the economy has been transformed from a predominantly agricultural one to one in which industry and services are the most productive and rapidly expanding sectors even…
Abramowitz, M. (ed.) (2001). Turkey's transformation and American policy. New York: Century Foundation.
Hershlag, Z.Y. (1998). The contemporary Turkish economy. New York: Routledge Kegan & Paul.
Howe, M. (2001). The Kurdish conflict in Turkey: Obstacles and chances for peace and democracy. London: Palgrave. http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov http://www.imf.org http://www.immigration-usa.com/wfb/turkey_economy.html http://www.rt66.com/~korteng/tudemog.htm
Ibrahim, F. (ed.) (2000). Turkey today: A nation divided over Islam's revival.
Bush implied unemployment figures were declining and Kerry touted very high unemployment figures. In hindsight, it appears that the labor department statistics concurred with the Kerry camp. When Bush still won, unemployment trend indicators seem to be coming true now and there seems to be more problems on the horizon for the economy. The Bureau of Labor Statistics indicated recently that new jobs being created in the economy were the types of jobs that cannot fuel economic growth. Thus, the economy is and will continue to lose jobs to cheaper labor markets around the globe.
The Federal eserve has dictated the cost of capital for businesses to borrow. Trends show that cash shortages in corporate American are increasing and borrowing heavily will be a likely result. Therefore, future actions of the Federal eserve impacts a major aspect of America's future. Trends to observe by the Fed relate to consumer consumption…
Employment Situation Summary. Ed. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 12/3/2003. Department of Labor. Retrieved on 4/13/2005, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm .
Heilbroner, Robert, & Thurow, Lester (1982). Economics Explained: Everything You Need to Know About How the Economy Works and Where it Is Going. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Marx, Karl (1977). Capital, Volume 1. New York: Random House.
Marx, Karl (1978). Capital, Volume 2. New York: Random House.
It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.
Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).
The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…
Histories of the orld in 6 Glasses (compare and Contrast 3 Drinks)
The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage
'Tell me what you drink and I will tell you who you are'
The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage chronicles human history through changing tastes in beverages, spanning from beer to wine to 'spirits' (hard liquor), coffee to tea, and ending with Coca-Cola. Although many books have explored human history through the lens of a singular foodstuff, few have used beverages. Yet, as Standage points out in his introduction, although a person can survive without food for a relatively long period of time, without liquids, he or she will perish in days. Beverages also have intoxicating properties which can change the way that civilizations unfold, either causing drunkenness or alertness. And it is perhaps for that reason that so many cultures and…
Standage, Tom. The History of the World in Six Glasses. New York: Walker & Co., 2005.
Ultimately, these issues results in hunger and famine, where these inhabitants become deprived of the basic facilities that they are entitled to, as being a citizen of the country (World Hunger Education Service, 2012).
3. Impacts of Hunger and Famine in U.S.
The standard of living means to have a healthy, vigorous and active life. Keeping in mind, the standard of living, the hunger crisis in the U.S. is calculated and determined when its residents are not able to meet the nutritional needs to live a dynamic life. This indicates the fact that the people have lack of access to the nutritious, healthy and safe food. As a consequence, the inhabitants (especially of the low-income groups) tend to opt for foods that are less expensive with usually low nutrients, so that they can meet up to the financial components. Moreover, it has also been observed that meals are also dropped…
Anonymous. "Hunger in the U.S. -- Families in Crisis." The Hunger Site, 2012. Web. 29 Dec 2012
This website has discussed how hunger has become one of the harsh realities of the United States, even though it is a land of abundant resources. The impact of hunger upon the individuals, society and eventually on the nation has been argued by the author. Solving the hunger problem has also been articulated in the study. I have used this website with the prime motive to surface the impact of this enormity upon various bodies.
Austin, Michael. Reading the World Ideas That Matter. 2nd Edition. New York, USA: W.W. Norton & Company, 2012. Print.
This book is about the contemporary readings and classic texts that are particularly based on the diversity of views on ideas. This diversity helps an individual in exploring the development of ideas in different cultures and at various occasions.
e. D (0), the cost of fighting crime / proportion of corrections i.e. C (P0) and the crimes / social costs / negative impacts on to offender i.e. FO. These different elements are important, because the combination of them is helping us to understand the total impact of crime and punishment on the economy.
As a result, these different factors are used in a basic formula to comprehend the effects of social phenomenon and crime on the economy. elow is the equation that is used to objectively evaluate what is occurring.
L (social / economic impact) = D (0) + C (P0) + FO
This formula is important, because it is providing us with a basic strategy that can be used to objectively evaluate the how crime and punishment are impacting society. Once this occurs, is when we can see the total economic impact of this on communities and the…
Becker, Gary. "Crime and Punishment." The Journal of Political Economy 76.2 (1968), 169 -- 217. Print.
Economic Environment of the Diamond Industry in Mozambique and Tanzania
The Economic Environment of the Diamond Industry
In Mozambique and Tanzania
Both nations of Mozambique and Tanzania are among the poorest globally, with each supported through foreign subsidies and foreign direct investment (FDI) (Tanzania, 2011). The relative levels of poverty however have led to political unrest in Mozambique and diamond smuggling to Zimbabwe, where gems are in high demand in that nations' economy which is rampant with information today
(Latham, Katerere, 2011). Due to the strength of its mining operations in aluminum and abundance of natural resources however, Mozambique's GDP growth rate is expected to reach 8.3% in 2010 according to the CIA Factbook.
Tanzania is the 16th highest ranked producer of diamonds globally, having one of the highest quality of diamonds produced in their mining operations of any on the African continent (Macklem, 2003). Paradoxically however, Tanzania has a…
Sierra Leone: diamond king. (2000, January). The Economist, 354(8155), 46,52.
Laffin, Simon. (2000, January 4). Let's hear how mining companies are helping with power, roads and water: [London edition]. Financial Times, p. 14.
Latham, B., & Katerere, F.. (2011, January). Diamond Smuggling Thrives in Zimbabwe. Business Week,1.
Katherine Macklem. (2003, September). Diamonds with an edge. Maclean's, 116(36), 52.
History Of Suburbs
The term suburb is defined as an area that is adjacent to the town and it is occupied. It is a small community as compared to the town community that commune to and from town on a daily basis or regular basis (Meriam-Webster, 2012).
In the U.S.A., the Levittowns are noted to have been the root of the suburbs by a large extent. This was the event after the WWII when the population suddenly increased upon the return of the soldiers who had gone abroad to fight the war. This upsurge of the population prompted a bill known as the GI bill of 1944 that approved the provision of money for the education and building of houses for the returning population. It was at this point that a man called William Levitt set out to buy vast pieces of land outside of the main cities like Philadelphia…
Colin Stief, (2012). An Overview of Suburbs. Retrieved January 29, 2012 from http://geography.about.com/od/urbaneconomicgeography/a/suburbs.htm
Cornel University Department of Sociology, (2010). The Causes of Sprawl. Retrieved January 29, 2012 from http://cals.cornell.edu/cals/devsoc/outreach/cardi/programs/land-use/sprawl/causes.cfm
Meriam-Webster, (2012). Definition: Suburb. Retrieved January 29, 2012 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/suburb
The company that we will be examining is Apple. They are one the largest computer and electronics manufacturers in the world. At the same time, they also provide support to their various products through additional services they provide (such as: the I Tunes store). It is currently divided into several different divisions to include: Personal Computers, Network Solutions / Peripherals, Media, Digital Content and Third Party Digital Applications. ("Apple," 2011) ased on how Apple is structured, one way to improve economic performance is to re-establish its alliance with Google. What made the partnership fall apart is that Steve Jobs (the founder / CEO) believed that Google stole key I Phone features and placed them in the Android. This created contention between the two sides, as it appeared as if Apple was trying to prevent Google from releasing a competitor to the I Phone. If the company…
Apple. (2011). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=AAPL+Profile
Apple. (2011). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/ae?s=AAPL+Analyst+Estimates
Apple's Core Values. (2009). Manueal Corpas. Retrieved from: http://manuelcorpas.com/2009/03/08/apples-core-values-according-to-its-ceo-tim-cook/
Apple is a Good Employer but Not as Amazing. (2007). Glass Door. Retrieved from: http://www.glassdoor.com/Reviews/Employee-Review-Apple-RVW35192.htm
Economic and Professional Performance
This is a paper that explores the economic and professional performance of Mexican-American and Chinese-Americans.
There are six references used for this paper.
The United States is a country rich in diversity. It is interesting to look at Chinese-Americans and Mexican-Americans and determined their professional performance, as well as their economic performance.
Mexican-Americans are one of several groups which make up the Hispanic population in the United States, and are found mostly "in California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Texas. Although there may be cultural differences, most Hispanics share North American values, including a desire for upward mobility (Coates)."
Many Mexican-Americans find their efforts to improve their economic condition challenged by their language skills and education levels. The majority of Mexican-Americans speak Spanish and understand little or no English. Education "is a serious problem, partly because many Mexican-American families are migrant workers who move…
Coates, Joseph F., Jennifer Jarratt and John B. Mahaffie. Future work. (effects of changing
Demographics, new technology, global economy, and new demands on workers).
The Futurist. (1991): 01 May.
Edgerton, Russell. A new case for accelerating minority educational advancement. (L. Scott
Toward the end of the decade, Wall Street investment firms began hiring PhDs in mathematics and physics to create incredibly complex algorithms capable of modeling elements of the stock and futures markets. In most cases, the creators of these algorithms knew next to nothing about the financial industry, and the executives who employed them knew (literally) nothing about the mechanisms their firms had begun to rely on for their trading strategy. Destabilization of the Home Mortgage Industry:
In the early 1970s, stock analysts at Salomon Brothers, another Wall Street investment firm, developed a new kind of security based on home mortgages, called mortgage-backed securities. In principle, this allowed the conversion of illiquid (i.e. non- tradable) assets like the debt represented by home mortgages to be converted into a tradable commodity for profit. This new form of commercial transaction evolved into incredible levels of complexity after the widespread incorporation of mathematical…
Phillips, Kevin. "Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis of American Capitalism" New York: Viking (2008).
S. exports, but only reduced them, to increase imports from Mexico, to stimulate the opening of manufacturing plants in Mexico and to lead to the loss of jobs for the American population
Ultimately then, the free market is a beneficial theoretical model, but its practical implementation has only proven profitable for the corporations in the highly developed western economies.
3. Are impediments to economic and financial reconstruction worse in a particular region of the developing world?
The tumultuous world history has impregnated its effects upon all players. And these effects are multiple and depend on various other features. On the other hand, they can be used to explain the contemporaneous stages of economic development presented by each state. While some countries enjoy the benefits of high levels of economic growth and development, others still strive to make do. And the differences are not only obvious among the groups of developed,…
Collier, P., the Market for Civil War, Foreign Policy, 2003
Huntington, S.P., the Clash of Civilizations, Foreign Affairs, 1993
Llosa, M.V., the Culture of Liberty, Globalization at Work, 2001
Ottaway, M.S., Schwedler, J., Telhami, S., Ibrahim, S.E., Democracy: Rising Tide or Mirage? Middle East Policy, Vol. XII, No. 2, 2005
It's oeing. Starting from their first aircraft models oeing &W and Douglas DT/C-1 and up to the modern airfreight oeing 747-400, company oeing and oeing-related enterprises had been always on the frontier of air cargo industry, and nowadays oeing airfreights stand for 90% of commercial air cargo companies.
Everything started with mail delivery. Today lots of us associate aircrafts with people transportation, but primary oeing was responsible only for cargo.
The company was started in 1916, when ill oeing and his partner George Westervelt made a first model of future civil aviation's world leader- jet &W. &W had later become the first plane that was delivering cargo and mail to New Zealand. Three years later ill oeing and Eddie Hubbard delivered 60 letters from Vancouver, Canada to Seattle, which became the first event in the history of international air shipping.
Nearly at the same time, company Douglas Aircraft had signed…
Allaz, Camille The history of Air cargo and airmail Christopher Foyle Publishing, 2002
IATA International Traffic Statistics: December 2004 and Year-end 2004 available on web: http://www.iata.org/pressroom/industry_stats/2005-01-31-01.htm
Boeing History articles from www.boeing.com
The desperation of its populace has meant that Albania continues to lag more successful former communist nations like Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia in modernization and quality of life, although recently the Albanian government has taken measures to curb violent crime, and instituted fiscal reform packages to reduce corruption, curtail the 'gray' or quasi-illegal activities supporting the economy, and to attract foreign investments. Still, much of Albania's most talented individuals often move abroad, although they often send money home. It is estimated that the Albanian "economy is bolstered by annual remittances from abroad of $600-$800 million, mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy," which also helps offset the towering trade deficit ("Albania," 2008, CIA Fact Book).
The one bright spot has been Albania's relatively smooth transition to democracy, as it is has not been afflicted by the xenophobic uprisings that characterized the dissolution of neighboring Yugoslavia. Economic corruption has been…
Albania. (2008). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/al.html
Albania." (2008). Infoplease. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107268.html
Albania under communist rule." (2005, November 7). Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at ( http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r-frd/cstdy:@field (DOCID+al0059)
The Balkan Wars and creation of an independent Albania." (2005, November 7). Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at (