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Effects Of Alcohol Essays (Examples)

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Effect of Alcohol on Urine Formation Alcohol and Urine Formation
Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56050784
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Alcohol on Urine Formation

The functioning of cells in the body depends on the supply of the required nutrients and the elimination of waste in the body. The extracellular fluid that surrounds different cells also thrives in stable chemical and physical conditions. While water is one of the most vital substances that provide such an environment; the concentration of hydrogen ions in the body influences the permeability, cell structure and rate of metabolic reactions (Epstein, 1997). In the human body, the kidneys are responsible for regulating different amounts and concentration of all these substances. They ensure that the large variation in the intake or loss of different substances does not interfere with the normal functioning of the body.

The consumption of alcohol has been proven to have adverse effects on the process of urine formation. According to Dasgupta (2011), this may occur directly because it affects the functioning of the…

References

Dasgupta, A. (2011). The Science of Drinking: How Alcohol Affects Your Body and Mind. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.

Epstaein, M. (1997). Alcohol's Impact on Kidney Function. Alcohol Health and Research World. Retrieved 21 April from  http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh21-1/84.pdf

Alcohol Abuse Is a Condition That Is
Words: 1599 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7534028
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Alcohol abuse is a condition that is characterized by a pattern of excessive drinking in spite of negative effects resulting from the use of alcohol on an individual's occupational, legal, educational, medical, and/or social life. Alcoholism results from this destructive pattern of alcohol abuse after a period of time and includes a number of other symptoms including: increased tolerance to alcohol over time; alcohol withdrawal; a pattern of using more alcohol and/or use for a longer time than planned; destructive patterns health, social, and occupational functioning as a result of alcohol use; and failed attempts at reducing its use (APA, 2000). Alcoholism is also known as alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction as the terms are used interchangeably in the medical and treatment literature. These terms describe a destructive pattern of chronic alcohol use that results in the development of tolerance to alcohol, needing more alcohol to achieve the same effects…

References

American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.

Boorse, C. (1997). A rebuttal on health. In J.F Humber and R.F. Almeder (Eds.), What is disease? Totowa: Humana Press.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control, 2001) Chronic disease prevention: about chronic disease [Online]. Available: Internet:  http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/about.htm .

Dick, D.M. And Bierut, L.J. (2006). The genetics of alcohol dependency. Current Psychiatric Reports, 8, 151-157.

Alcohol Advertisement Alcohol Abuse Is
Words: 3021 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39387720
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Seeing more advertisements had a stronger effect on drinking than drinking had on noticing advertisements. The effect of alcohol advertising exposure on youth drinking was small and positive. The advertising effects were similar for the subset of underage respondents (Martin et al., 2002, 902 citing Snyder et (2006)."

In addition to Snyder et al. (2006) other researchers have examined the impact of alcohol advertisements on underage youth. For instance, in their study entitled "Alcohol Advertising and Youth: A Measured Approach," Jernigan et al. (2005) examined the advertisement of alcohol companies and the manner in which they expose youth to such advertisements. The study involved the impact of alcohol advertisements on youth age 15-20. The research found that most alcohol advertisement occurred in places where youth were more likely to see them than adults. In addition the research found that "much of this excess exposure of youth to alcohol advertising in…

References

Adlaf EM, Kohn PM (1989) Alcohol advertising, consumption and abuse: a covariance-structural modeling look at Strickland's data. Br J. Addict

84:749 -- 757.

Aitken PP, Eadie DR, Leathar DS, McNeill REJ, Scott AC (1988) Television advertisements for alcoholic drinks do reinforce under-age drinking. Br J. Addict 83:1399 -- 1419.

Atkin CK (1993) Effects of media alcohol messages on adolescent audiences. Adolesc Med 4:527 -- 542.

Alcohol Should Be Illegal There
Words: 1624 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24341448
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Alcohol has extreme effects on physical and social functioning that has the potential to harm people who are not involved with the actual consumption. If an individual who has consumed alcohol chooses to drive while intoxicated then the potential for harm is increased exponentially. Of course, the effects on the body itself demonstrate that alcohol is a dangerous drug that should not be available to the general public. As with many illegal or controlled substances or other objects, it has been shown time and time again that the general public often needs protection from themselves, and protection from each other. hen the dangers are also translated to innocent victims like strangers, and close friends, the choice should be removed for those not responsible enough or strong enough to avoid the temptation. Since the existence and knowledge of alcohol cannot be removed, the legality can be and serious punishment imposed on…

Works Cited

Cambridgeshire Alcohol Advisory Service. "Alcohol -- the Effects on the Body."

Drinksense. Accessed 9 December 2006 at  http://www.gurney.co.uk/drinksense/factsheets/effects.htm .

KeRo Corporation. "Drink Driving Statistics." Alcohol Alert. Accessed 9

December 2006 at http://www.alcoholalert.com/drunk-drivingstatistics.html.

Alcohol and Marijuana on Human
Words: 2947 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9366944
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The user's mouth feels dry, and he or she may suddenly become very hungry and thirsty. His or her hands may tremble and grow cold. The euphoria passes after awhile, and then the user may feel sleepy or depressed. Occasionally, marijuana use produces anxiety, fear, distrust, or panic http://www.starliterecovery.com/marijuana.asp.

Marijuana use impairs a person's ability to form memories, recall events (see Marijuana, Memory, and the Hippocampus), and shift attention from one thing to another. THC also disrupts coordination and balance by binding to receptors in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, parts of the brain that regulate balance, posture, coordination of movement, and reaction time.11 Through its effects on the brain and body, marijuana intoxication can cause accidents. Studies show that approximately 6 to 11% of fatal accident victims test positive for THC. In many of these cases, alcohol is detected as well http://www.starliterecovery.com/marijuana.asp.

"An interesting study was done with airline…

REFERENCES

Aukerman, Melissa. Alcohol on trial: the evidence.(Featured CME Topic: Alcohol)

Southern Medical Journal; 1/1/2005; Epidemiological Considerations of Alcohol Consumption

Herrman, Judith. . The teen brain as a work in progress: implications for pediatric nurses.(Updates & Kidbits). Pediatric Nursing; 3/1/2005;

Amodios, Joseph. Why pot's not cool: how marijuana messes with your brain and body.(DRUGS & ALCOHOL). Current Health 2, a Weekly Reader publication; 3/1/2005;

Alcohol Drinking Among Young Jews
Words: 23454 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 67540801
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Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Clinical Psychology

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study was to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26 yeas, the elationship between academic achievement and the alcohol use fequency of male Jewish…

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119

Alcohol Drinking Among Young Jews
Words: 23424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 99740327
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Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth

Clinical Psychology

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study was to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26 yeas, the elationship between academic achievement and the alcohol use fequency of male Jewish…

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119

Why Alcohol Misuse Is'so Rampant in the Military
Words: 2925 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34456939
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Alcohol and Special Populations: Unique Problems and Considerations That Apply to the Military

The military is a special population that has its own culture and its own code of ethics. Its veterans have their own VA hospital and society recognizes a distinct difference between civilian and military life. The effect of alcohol on the military, therefore, requires unique consideration outside the realm of investigations on the effects of alcohol on mainstream America. This paper will describe the effect of alcohol on the military, identify unique problems and considerations that apply to the military, and compare and contrast the military to the overall U.S. population in terms of the problem of alcohol. It will conclude with a description of the best treatment practices for specific issues relevant to the military.

The Effect of Alcohol on the Military

The military population is not without its weakness for alcohol consumption. As Pemberton et…

References

Bray, R., Brown, J., Williams, J. (2013). Trends in binge and heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure in the U.S. military. Substance Use and Misuse, 48(10): 799-810.

Burns, B., Grindlay, K., Holt, K. (2014). Military sexual trauma among U.S.

Servicewomen during deployment: A qualitative study. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2): 345-349.

Foran, H., et al. (2012). Hazardous alcohol use and intimate partner violence in the military: Understanding protective factors. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26(3): 471-483.

Drug and Alcohol Dependency
Words: 3384 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17580804
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Alcohol and substance abuse is a prevalent problem among youth. Effects of alcohol and substance abuse range from mental health problems like depression and suicide ideation to dating violence, to poor academic performance (adliff, Wheaton, obinson, & Morris, 2012). Early exposure to substance and alcohol abuse in the home may lead to an earlier instance of drug and alcohol abuse. This is because of the higher degree of availability and potential lack of parental involvement. This research paper aims to highlight the various ways in which drug and alcohol abuse affect youth from within and outside the home.

Effects of alcohol and substance abuse on high school youth

Academic failure can be one effect of substance and alcohol abuse. One study notes the lack of school commitment from youth experimenting with drugs and alcohol (Kelly et al., 2015, p. 627). The study examined gender, and substance/alcohol abuse in a 30-day…

References

Benjet, C., Borges, G., Medina-Mora, M., & Mendez, E. (2013). Chronic childhood adversity and stages of substance use involvement in adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 131(1-2), 85-91.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.12.002 

Epstein-Ngo, Q., Cunningham, R., Whiteside, L., Chermack, S., Booth, B., Zimmerman, M., & Walton, M. (2013). A daily calendar analysis of substance use and dating violence among high risk urban youth. Drug And Alcohol Dependence, 130(1-3), 194-200.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.11.006 

Gauffin, K., Vinnerljung, B., Fridell, M., Hesse, M., & Hjern, A. (2013). Childhood socio-economic status, school failure and drug abuse: a Swedish national cohort study. Addiction, 108(8), 1441-1449.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12169 

Ivanov, I., Liu, X., Shulz, K., Fan, J., London, E., & Friston, K. et al. (2012). Parental substance abuse and function of the motivation and behavioral inhibition systems in drug-naive youth. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 201(2), 128-135.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.08.004

Alcohol and Youth According to the Center
Words: 1166 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53111639
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Alcohol and Youth

According to the Center on Marketing and Youth (CAMY), states are not doing very much in terms of keeping adolescents and other youth from being over-exposed to alcohol-related advertisements on television. The liquor and beer companies are clearly interested in getting young people started with their particular brand, and through television commercials those companies make beer and liquor seem very "cool" to impressionable young people. This paper reviews and critiques the literature on youth and alcohol-related advertising on television -- including peer-reviewed scholarship from several sources.

Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising

The Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth -- a component of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health -- reports that the amount of advertising on television that specifically targets youth rose by 38% between 2001 and 2007. About one in five alcohol advertisements was placed on programs that attracts young people ages 12 to…

Works Cited

Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. (2008). Youth Exposure to Alcohol Advertising on Television, 2001-2007. Retrieved March 17, 2013, from  http://www.camy.org .

Jernigan, David H. (2010). The extent of global alcohol marketing and its impact on youth.

Contemporary Drug Problems, 37(1), 57-89.

Siegel, Michael, King, Charles, Ostroff, Joshua, Ross, Craig, Dixon, Karen, and Jernigan, David

Alcohol the Search for Pleasure
Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7643887
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Alcohol is classified as a depressant because it slows down the release of neurochemicals that inhibit certain behaviors. The subjective feelings associated with alcohol intoxication are due to its effects on the brain and central nervous system but that system also controls our behaviors. The depression of certain neurotransmitters often reduces reflex time and reduces general inhibitions.

The digestive system is also strongly affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol is absorbed almost entirely by the small intestine, from where the alcohol seeps into the blood. The liver is strongly affected by the absorption of alcohol and is in fact the main organ responsible for metabolizing alcohol. hen too much alcohol is consumed, the liver becomes overtaxed and cannot filter the toxins from the body as fast as it normally can. Over the long-term, the liver can become permanently damaged from too much alcohol consumption.

The heart and circulatory system are also…

Works Cited

Alcohol Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination." California DUI Help. Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.californiaduihelp.com/dui_investigation/alcohol.asp

Boggan, Bill. "Alcohol Chemistry and You." Kennesaw State University, 2003.

Alcohol and Substance Abuse Among
Words: 489 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8414243
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Alcoholism will be defined, according to the DSM as a "maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one (or more) of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:…a failure to fulfill major role obligations; & #8230;recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous; & #8230;recurrent substance-related legal problems;" and "continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance" (Alcohol abuse diagnosis, 2011, Mental Health Channel).

Operational definition of dependent variables 2: Subjects will be asked to answer a questionnaire on current behaviors, to see if they cohere with the above DSM definition of alcoholism.

Operational definition for the independent variables 2: Losing a spouse will be defined as having lost a partner with whom the individual was either a. legally married to or b. had a significant,…

Reference

Alcohol abuse diagnosis. (2011). Mental Health Channel. Retrieved January 26, 2011 at http://www.mentalhealthchannel.net/alcohol/diagnosis.shtml

Alcohol vs Coffee Literary Reaction The Sweet
Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19617674
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Alcohol vs. coffee: Literary reaction

"The sweet Poison of the Treacherous Grape/....Drowning our very Reason and our Souls." The 18th century marked the beginning of what would come to be known as the neoclassical era of art and literature. It was the era of satire, marked by a belief in reason over emotion, an age which prized what was artificial, man-made and constructed over what was natural and instinctive. It was also the era of coffee and the coffee house. In this poem, coffee is celebrated as a beverage that sharpens the intellect, rather than dulls it like alcohol, the 'poison' that drowns reason. Throughout the poem, a dichotomy of coffee vs. alcohol is created. The values of the Age of Enlightenment are exemplified in this contrast, as well as many of the literary features of the era, including rhyming couplets, metrical verse, and poems that 'say' what they mean…

Alcohol How Effective Has the Legal Prohibition
Words: 3114 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76710303
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Alcohol

How effective has the legal prohibition of alcohol been in controlling crime? A recent Department of Justice Report (U.S. Department of Justice) said that alcohol was a factor in 40% of all violent crimes and accounted for 40.9% of all traffic fatalities in the U.S.A. In the last decade. ut these figures were 34% and 29%, respectively, lower than those of the previous decade. The Report further stated that arrests conducted for driving under the influence of alcohol correspondingly declined and attributed this to the establishment of the legal and uniform drinking age in the early 1980s.

Elucidating, the Report said that, approximately 3 million violent crimes occurred each year in that decade where the offenders were drinking at the time. And although arrests were made in every age group, those made on offenders below 21 notably decreased. The rate of intoxication in fatal accidents, it said, likewise went…

Bibliography

1. Abbe, Winfield. Toughening Liquor Laws Will Do Little to Sober Our Drunk Culture.

Athens Banner Herald, February 2002. (accessed 25:03:03). http://www.*****/stories/022202/let_letter4.shtml

2. Alcoholics Anonymous. Alcohol. (accessed 25:03:03). http://soc.qc.edu/aa/aager.html

3. Davis, George. Why Crime? Action Sunshine Coast Crime Prevention Program. Crime Prevention through Community Building, 2000. (accessed 25:03:03).  http://www.suncoastcentral.com/crimeprevention

Alcohol Tobacco and Marijuana The
Words: 1476 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30695449
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Like alcohol, tobacco use is prohibited by minors but permitted by adults. Also like alcohol, tobacco use is detrimental to the health of the user, except even more so.

Whereas alcohol consumption generally benign and only acutely harmful when it is overused, tobacco use (especially in the form of cigarettes) is extremely dangerous for practically all users. This is simply a function of the fact that "typical" use of tobacco entails physical addiction to nicotine, its primary active ingredient. For this reason, it is very rare for smokers to use tobacco too infrequently to become chronic daily users

In contrast, most alcohol users do not partake so often that it compromises their physical health.

The dramatic long-term medical consequences of long-term tobacco use are universal as well as predictable; in fact, the medical community is united in the position that tobacco use causes more preventable illness and death than all…

References

Brecher, E.M. (1972) Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report.

Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age

New York: Little Brown & Co.

Alcohol Tobacco & Drug Use
Words: 1677 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 763568
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S. provide funds for staff development on drug use and alcohol use by school-age children. But only 26% of elementary school classes and required middle school and high school health education courses had a teacher that had received "staff development on alcohol or other drug-use prevention" (SHIPPS). Still, SHIPPS reports that 91.4% of high schools and 80.4% of middle schools surveyed teach the "benefits of not using alcohol" and 90.3% of high schools and 79.4% of middle schools teach the "benefits of not using illegal drugs." These data are based on schools that have "required instruction" in those areas of health education.

An article in the Journal of School Health (Summerlin-Long, 2008) details "tobacco-free school" (TFS) policies; the article references "positive reports" from "key informants" in 46 school districts in North Carolina that had passed TFS policies between December 2001 and August 2005. This article is particularly pertinent because of…

Works Cited

Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly. (2002). Teenagers abusing cough syrup. Retrieved March 1, 2009, at  http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-2173465_ITM .

Brooks, Ashley, Gaier Larkin, Elizabeth M., Kishore, Sonal, & Frank, Scott. (2008).

Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 32(6),

Bryant, Alison L. (2003). How Academic Achievement, Attitudes, and Behaviors Relate

Effecting Change the Use of
Words: 4091 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19489453
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According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).

A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…

References

Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems

Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121

Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press

Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511

FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Was
Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70009229
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1968).

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is clearly a debilitating, serious, and devastating disease that affects not only prenatal fetuses, but developing children, teenagers, and adults, as well as their families, and society in general. While more research is needed to discover possible medications, surgery, or other choices for those already born with FAS, the only solution to the problem is education for pregnant women on the dangers of alcohol consumption on the life of their unborn child. Women addicted to alcohol should seek immediate assistance during pregnancy to avoid causing lifelong damage to their child, and those not addicted should abstain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy. It is only through abstinence that FAS can be extinguished.

eferences

Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, .J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is…

References

Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is now leading cause of mental retardation," Lancet, vol. 2, p. 1222.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1987, "Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-related anomalies," Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 19, p. 51-70.

CDC, 2005, "CDC issues guidelines for identification of fetal alcohol syndrome," MMWR Morbid Mortal Weekly Report, vol. 54, no. 11, p. 1-15.

Economics of Alchohol Abuse Alcohol for Consumption
Words: 1853 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61366901
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Economics of Alchohol Abuse

Alcohol for consumption is not a necessary food item, but for some has become a standard part of adult culture. Increasing the level of alcohol consumption, however, moves from an economic paradigm to a social issue due to the ancillary health and behavioral effects from alcohol abuse. In turn, this becomes part of economics in that it requires fiscal resources to treat societal issues caused by alcoholism: domestic abuse, crime, traffic or driving issues, etc. The economic effects of alcohol are undebatable, and are pervasive in the overt and covert areas of the economy (short- and long-term) (Fogarty, 2006).

In the economic sphere of political and social policy, alcohol, like tobacco and gambling, are considered a "sin" tax that is ostensibly designed to reduce transactions for issues society considers dangerous or undesirable. However, when it comes to alcohol, many see that this type of a sumptuary…

REFERENCES

Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems. (2011). Ensuring Solutions. Retrieved from:  http://www.ensuringsolutions.org/ 

Profit-Maximization in the Long Run. (2010). Welker'sWikinomics. Retrieved from: http://welkerswikinomics.wetpaint.com/page/Profit-Maximization+in+the+Long-run

Tobacco, Alcohol Industries Reject New Sin Tax Bill. (February 22, 2012). ABS/CBN News. Com. Retrieved from:  http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/business/02/22/12/tobacco-alcohol-industries-reject-new-sin-tax-bill 

Avorn, J. (2004). Powerful Medicines: The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Prescription Drugs. New York: Random House.

Drinking Alcohol Together With Tobacco
Words: 2119 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 8875256
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hile each of these studies has reported a cardioprotective effect of alcohol, they differ over which type of alcoholic beverage provides the greatest benefit" (634).

Overlooked in many of these studies, though, is the fact that some people who categorize themselves as being one type of drinker compared to another may engage in other activities that are unhealthy from the outset (for instance, beer drinkers may be more likely to also be tobacco users) while others may engage in a wide range of healthy behaviors (for example, wine drinkers may not be smokers and may job or exercise regularly). As McGregor and his colleagues emphasize, "One inherent difficulty within these studies is that in the general population, drinkers distinguished as primarily wine, beer or spirits drinkers tend to differ in other important aspects. If, for example, wine drinkers are found to be healthier, it may be the result of a…

Works Cited

"Alcohol." 2009, Partnership for a Drug-Free America. [Online]. Available: http://www.drug free.org/Portal/drug_guide/Alcohol.

Booth, Brenda M., Joann, Kirchner, John Fortney, Robin Ross and Kathryn Rost, 2000, "Rural

At-Risk Drinkers: Correlates and One-Year Use of Alcoholism Treatment Services."

Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61(2): 267.

Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Effect
Words: 1957 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64449890
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08% or higher. Blood Alcohol content is the concentrated amount of alcohol in the blood, and this number can be assessed via chemical and Breathalyzer tests. Though this limit was previously as high as.10% in some states, even the lowered limit is not adequate to prevent alcohol related vehicle accidents. In fact, law enforcement officials classify an accident as alcohol related if a driver's blood alcohol content was.01%, or two drinks, or higher. Though some groups praise the.08% law as one of the biggest steps in drunk driving prevention, other groups believe a no tolerance policy should be adopted for operating under the influence of alcohol, similar to the policy that is already in effect for minors.

The physiological effects of alcohol do not begin at.08%. In fact, they begin at much lower blood alcohol content levels. According to Brown University, moodiness increases at.02-.03%; fatigue, delayed reaction time, and errors…

Works Cited

American Academy of Pediatrics. "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects."

Pediatrics. 91.5(1993): 1004-1006.

Fetal Alcohol Information." Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. 2006. Centers for Disease Control. 6 May 2008.  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fas/fasask.htm .

Proposition 65." Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. n.d. California

Physiological and Biological Effects of
Words: 1302 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12337112
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Alcoholic effects are more pronounced in adolescents and prenatal alcohol intake may create serious cognitive problems for the unborn child.

Other effects of Alcohol upon the Body.

It is noted that Alcoholics generally suffer from malnutrition since the changes in metabolism brought about by alcohol consumption, prevent proper digestion and absorption of food. Thus alcoholics are often found deficient in proteins and vitamins, particularly vitamin A, accounting to susceptibility for liver disease and other serious alcohol-related disorders in the body. Alcohol breakdown in the liver generates toxins such as acetaldehyde and some highly reactive molecules containing oxygen that can cause serious damages to the liver. These toxins interfere with the metabolism of lipids resulting in the damage of liver cells. Moreover Alcohol interferes with the formation and activity of lysosomes that contain specific enzymes which break down proteins and thus may contribute to protein accumulation in the liver, which can…

Reference:

Kathryn Magruder-Habib, A. Mark Durand and Keith A. Frey, April 1991, Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in primary healthcare settings, Journal of family practice.

Nutrition Health Review, Winter 2003.

Dean F. Wong, Atul Maini, Olivier G. Rousset, James Robert Brasic, Spring 2003 Positron emission tomography: a tool for identifying the effects of alcohol dependence on the brain, Alcohol Research and Health.

Charles S. Leiber, Fall 2003, Relationship between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease, Alcohol Research and Health.

Teen Alcohol Abuse Adolescent Alcohol Abuse Has
Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15965636
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Teen Alcohol Abuse

Adolescent alcohol abuse has been an ongoing public health problem for many years. While alcohol abuse trends tend to increase and subside over time, recent research continues to show an alarming level of alcohol use. For example, surveys by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) show that alcohol use has dropped slightly when compared with previous years, in 2011 almost two thirds (65%) of high school seniors and almost one third (29%) of eighth graders had used alcohol within the past month (Winters, Botzet & Fahnhorst, 2011).

Health Needs Assessment

As of 1988, the purchase of alcohol by youth under the age of 21 is prohibited. Therefore, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) define underage drinking as consuming alcohol prior to the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. Further, zero tolerance laws make it illegal in all states for youth under age 21 to drive…

References

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2010). Alcohol & drug use. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/alcoholdrug/index.htm

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (2011). InfoFacts: Nationwide trends. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from:  http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/nationwide-trends 

Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. (n.d.) Substance abuse/Chemical dependency. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from:  http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/mental_health/mental_health_about/substance/Pages/index.aspx 

Sterling, S., Weisner, C., Hinman, A., & Parthasarathy, S. (2010 July). "Access to treatment for adolescents with substance use and co-occurring disorders: Challenges and opportunities." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(7): 637-726. doi: 10:1016/j.jaac.2010.03.019

Domestic Violence & Alcohol Role of Domestic
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Domestic Violence & Alcohol

Role of Domestic Violence and alcohol in marriage

The Role of Domestic Violence and Alcohol

Evidence of Effective Treatment

The purpose of this work is to examine the relation of alcohol, specifically alcoholism in relation to domestic abuse perpetrated against one spouse by the other in marriage where alcohol plays a leading role in attributing to the abuse.

Most individuals are able to have a drink or two with their evening meal and simply relax with no event ensuing. However, there are individuals that cannot take even the first drink and it has been observed that there are those so sensitive to the effects of alcohol that merely opening a bottle and inhaling the fumes changes their personality immediately. Alcoholism is a volatile and dangerous mix in any marriage but within the marriage where issues already exist alcohol may progress toward the end of the spectrum…

Bibliography:

Jennison, Karen & Johnson, Kenneth (2001)"Parental alcoholism as a risk factor for DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence in American women: the protective benefits of dyadic cohesion in marital communication" The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, May, 2001

Stuart et al. Reductions in Marital Violence Following Treatment for Alcohol Dependence J. Interpers Violence .2003; 18: 1113-1131[Online] located at: http://www .findarticles.com/p / articles/mi_m0978/is_2_27/ai_112083062/pg_1

Journal of Interpersonal Violence (2003) 2003 SAGE Publications, Vol.18, No 10, 1113-1131 DOI: 10.1177/0886260503255550 [Online] at: http://jiv.sagepub.com/cgi/content/ab stract/18 / 10/1113

Evidence that Treatment is Often Effective

Hang Over Effect
Words: 374 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17343543
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Hang Over Effect

A hangover is caused by drinking too much. However, what level of alcohol consumption that triggers a hangover can vary from person to person. For some, a single alcoholic beverage could trigger the effect while in others it can take several drinks. It depends on a range of factors that include items like body mass, whether someone has eaten and what types of foods, general health, alcohol tolerance, and many others. Therefore there is a range of factors that contribute to the onset of a hangover in an individual.

The same can be said of the internal processes in which alcohol influences inside of the body. According to the Mayo clinic the various factors include (Mayo Clinic Staff, N.d.):

Alcohol causes your body to produce more urine.

Alcohol triggers an inflammatory response from your immune system.

Alcohol irritates the lining of your stomach.

Alcohol can cause your…

Works Cited

Mayo Clinic Staff. (N.d.). Hangovers. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic:  http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hangovers/basics/causes/con-20025464 

Swift, R., & Davidson, D. (1998). Alcohol Hangover: Mechanisms and Moderators. Alcohol Health & Research World, 54-60.

Yikahri, R., Huttunen, M., & Harkonen, M. (1980). Hormonal changes during alcohol intoxication and withdrawal. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 131-137.

MADD Against Advertising Alcohol
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prohibition is a moribund idea, a strong, well-organized anti-alcohol movement marches on. Its strength lies in dozens of church, health, consumer, and citizens' groups such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving," or MADD. MADD was founded in 1980 to combat problems related to drunk driving. Since its founding, MADD has expanded its mission and vision to include issues like underage drinking and drugged driving. MADD has been instrumental in influencing state governments to raise the legal drinking age to 21 in almost all parts of the United States, and to lowering the legal blood alcohol content for driving and operating equipment. Moreover, MADD believes that advertising alcohol should be banned and their reasoning is founded on four core ideas. Because alcohol advertising targets the most vulnerable populations such as underage drinkers, encourages greater consumption of the product, and sells false beliefs, lawmakers could consider curtailing the entire practice of alcohol advertising.…

References

Advertising Standards Authority (2015). Alcohol advertising.

"Alcohol Advertising," (n.d.). Document.

Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (2015). Alcohol beverage advertising. TTB.gov. Retrieved online:  http://www.ttb.gov/advertising/alcohol-beverage.shtml 

Federal Trade Commission (FCC, 2013). Alcohol adverting. Retrieved online:  http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0391-alcohol-advertising

Impact of Sex Power Alcohol and Money on Moral and Ethical Acts
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sex, power, alcohol and money on moral and ethical acts

Ethics, Sex, and Morality

Sex is still a subject that is a victim of human irrational treatment of an otherwise clear functional human phenomenon. Such incidents as homicide, and insanity gold and gems have also been subjected to such irrational treatment but, luckily, the mysteries around these have been dispelled over time. Sex has not been so lucky though as there is still a cloud of mystery and deliberate misrepresentation, perception and near-superstitious handling of the phenomenon. Sex is the most emotionally involving aspect of human existence. It is not a wonder then, that there is so much confusion directed at it. Lately, though, it seems that the wind of change is sweeping fast to affect people's view of sex. Some forces in operation around the subject of sex are clearly defined now. It is increasingly impossible to have a…

References

Dobrin, A. (2012, Jan). To Drink or Not to Drink: Is That a Moral Question? Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/am-i-right/201201/drink-or-not-drink-is-moral-question

Green, B. (2011, Feb). Is Power Evil? The Ethics of Power. Retrieved from  https://moralmindfield.wordpress.com/2011/02/25/is-power-evil-the-ethics-of-power/ 

Moore, W. (2009, Aug). Ethics involved in Sexual Morality: Adultery and Fornication. Retrieved from  https://wbmoore.wordpress.com/2009/08/24/ethics-involved-in-sexual-morality-adultery-and-fornication/ 

Porter, E. (2013). How Money Affects Morality. Retrieved from  http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/06/13/how-money-affects-morality/?_r=0

Alcohol and Drug Addictions Specifically
Words: 1078 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16746742
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In Alberta, liquor stores have been privatized, although the government still maintains strict regulations on anyone who sells liquor. It is available in liquor stores, retail outlets, and in bars and restaurants. Many people felt this would lead to widespread addiction and abuse, but studies indicate that may not be the case. In an economic study completed in 2005 comparing Ontario and Quebec's monopolies with Alberta's privatization, the results were surprising. People believe that revenues would decline if the monopolies went public, but in fact, because Alberta sets a flat rate for liquor prices, revenues actually went up in Alberta, not down. In addition, a wider variety of products and brands is available in Alberta than in either of the other two provinces, and there are more locations available to buy liquor in Alberta ("Privatization of alcohol trade"). In fact, since privatizing the liquor industry, Alberta's sales have almost doubled,…

References

Author not Available. 2005. Quebeckers and privatizing the retail trade of alcohol. Montreal Economic Institute.  http://www.iedm.org/uploaded/pdf/sondage0905_en.pdf  (Accessed February 18, 2009).

Editors. 2009. Alberta liquor privatization. Alberta Gaming and Liquor Commission.  http://aglc.ca/liquor/albertaliquorprivatization.asp  (Accessed February 18, 2009).

Editors. 2009. Today's LCBO. Liquor Control Board of Ontario.  http://www.lcbo.com/aboutlcbo/todayslcbo.shtml  (Accessed February 18, 2009).

Editors. 2005. Privatization of alcohol trade in Ontario and Quebec. Montreal Economic Institute.  http://www.iedm.org/main/show_mediareleases_en.php?mediareleases_id=88  (Accessed February 18, 2009).

Alcohol Should Not Be Legalized at Age 18
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Legal Age for Alcohol Consumption

Laws are established for the legal age of alcohol consumption in order to attend to the best interests of both youth and society at large. With exposure to such influences as music, television, movies, and peers, youth are under pressure to behave in certain ways and partake in certain activities to be perceived as being "cool." Alcohol consumption among young people may be seen as a way to loosen up, fit in, or even possibly as a sign of rebellion against parents, teachers, and figures of authority in general.

It is often difficult for youth to know their limits and exactly how much alcohol they can consume and yet still be somewhat "in control." This results in increased risks of alcohol poisonings, drunk driving, and in some cases death among the adolescent population. Therefore, with the well being of youth and society in mind, it…

References

Hot topic: Underage teen drinking." Website of Congresswoman Roybal-Allard. http://www/house.gov/roybal-allard/ht_underage.htm.

Statistics: Underage drinking." SADD Online. http://www.saddonline.com/stats.htm.

Survey says: Teen alcohol use on the rise." The Citizen: The 6th Area Support Group Online Newspaper 30.10 May 22, 2001. http://www.stuttgart.army.mil/community/citizen/2001/0522/surveys.htm.

Richardson, A. & Budd, T. "Young adults, alcohol, crime and disorder." Criminal Behavior and Mental Health 13.1 (2003): 5-16.

Effects of Drugs on the Economy
Words: 2964 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 89660913
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Drugs on the Economy

History of drugs in the United States

How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively

How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen the burden on tax-payers

Wonder drugs like morphine, heroine, and cocaine to mention but a few pose a lot of problems to the entire American society. Americans have had to grapple with the deleterious effects of drug abuse and addiction. estrictions were imposed at the beginning of the 20th Century through domestic and overseas law enforcement to contain the drugs epidemic. Such enforcements were initiated to limit opium and cocoa crops (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2012). This term paper seeks to give a brief history of drugs in the United States of America and subsequently outline how drug use affects the American economy both positively and negatively. The paper also endeavors to list how decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stands…

References List

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). Prisoners in 2010 (revised). Retrieved June 22, 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2230

Drug Enforcement Administration. (2012). Illegal drugs in America: A modern

History. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.deamuseum.org/museum_ida.html

Easton, S. (2009). Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. Retrieved June 22, from  http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2010/03/legalize_mariju.html

Alcohol Abuse Can Have Devastating Effects on
Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53176233
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Alcohol abuse can have devastating effects on individuals, families, and communities. This is particularly so when a young person engages in excessive drinking. Drinking among college students present particular problems that endanger performance and can cause risky behavior such as unprotected sex. This is why many studies have been conducted around the phenomenon. In some cases, excessive drinking is positioned as the dependent variable, where its causes are investigated, while others use drinking as independent variable, in which its effects are established.

Towards the latter part of the article, drinking is established as the independent variable. Specifically, the issue being investigated is binge drinking, identified as a phenomenon by several research efforts on alcohol use among this population. Many students engage in heavy episodic use of alcohol over a relatively short period.

This variable is measured by several short screening methods. One of these is the CAGE Questionnaire, which includes…

References

Collegedrinkingprevention.gov. High-Risk Drinking in College: What We Know and What We Need to Learn.

Alcohol and Drug Problems
Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78310371
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Drug and Alcohol Abuse on Families and Community

Drug and alcohol abuse are found to have devastating impact on families of addicts and their larger community. These addictions can destroy family dynamics and relationships thereby giving birth to extreme stress, resentment, behavioral disorders and disintegration within the family. When a member of the family is diagnosed with alcohol or drug addiction, others members are likely to become extremely involved in the situation that adds to stress and tension eventually giving birth to a dysfunctional family unit. Involvement, whether physical, emotional or simply psychological, is bound to leave a deep impression on the behavior of families, often resulting in development of deviant behavior in other family members. This is a negative though natural response to the stressful situation. Milhorn Jr. (1994) in his guide for families with drug addicts contends:

The effects of drug addiction on the user's family are profound.…

References

Bekir, P., McLellan, T., Childress, A.R. And Gariti, P. (1993) Role reversals in families of substance misusers: A transgenerational phenomenon. International Journal of the Addictions. 28, 613-630

Culvert, Edward R. (2001) Another Angle: Families Of Drug Addicts; (Second in a Series of Articles on Drug Addiction) New York Voice Inc./Harlem USA; 11th July.

Dore, M.M., Kauffman, E., Nelson-Zlupko, L. And Granfort, E. (1996) Psychosocial Functioning and Treatment Needs of Latency-Age Children from Drug-Involved Families. Families in Society 77, 595-603.

Milhorn Jr. Thomas. (1994) Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Authoritative Guide for Parents, Teachers, and Counselors. Perseus Books (Current Publisher: Perseus Publishing) Cambridge, MA.

Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Among the Elders
Words: 1360 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76994226
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Benshoff, John J. & Laura K. Harrawood, Darwin Shane Koch. (Apr-May 2003) "Substance abuse and the elderly: unique issues and concerns." Journal of Rehabilitation. Journal article retrieved from Find Articles Health & Fitness database on 25 Oct 2005 athttp://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_2_69/ai

This article by John J. Benshoff, Laura K. Harrawood, and Darwin Shane Koch entitled "Substance abuse and the elderly: unique issues and concerns," attempts to understand why alcohol abuse amongst the elderly (defined as individuals over the age of 65 for the purposes of the article) has gone largely ignored in issues pertaining to rehabilitation and the field of geriatric medicine. The article also attempts to gain inkling upon the scope of the problem of substance abuse in the elderly population. The article admits while "various sources of data suggest that alcohol problems are ordinary events, but largely unrecognized in this population, and estimates of the prevalence of heavy drinking or…

Effect of Looping on Children at Risk
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Looping on at-isk Children

ABSACT

eview of the Literature

Operational Definitions

Setting/Site

Instruments and Materials

F. Design and Procedures

G. Data Analysis

EFFECTS OF LOOPING ON AT-ISK CHILDEN

This chapter will introduce the educational process of looping, as well as evaluate the benefits that looping can have on students. It will also address the individual needs of at-risk children, and explain how looping effects these children.

Looping, which is also known as multiyear teaching or multiyear placement, occurs when teachers are promoted with their students to the next grade level, staying with the same group of children for two or three years.

For example, in a looping situation, the teacher would teach a class of first grade students and then remain with those students another year as their second grade teacher. At the end of the second grade, the same teacher would return to first grade to teach a new…

REFERENCES

Milburn, Dennis (1981). "A Study of Multi-Age or Family Grouped Classrooms." Phi Delta Kappan, 62. 513-514.

Haslinger, John, Patricia Kelly and Leonard O'Hare (1996). "Countering Absenteeism,

Anonymity and Apathy." Educational Leadership, 54. 47.

Hampton, Federick M., Dawne Mumford and Lloyd Bond. "Enhancing Urban

Effects of Teratogenic Agents on Fetal Development
Words: 2018 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33963352
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Teratogens and Fetal Development

Teratogens can be described as agents that contribute to fetal injury and birth defects or an abnormality because of fetal exposure during pregnancy. Some of these agents that lead to fetal injury or birth defects include chemicals, environmental contaminants, infections, and drugs. These agents tend to result in such abnormality in fetal development when a woman is exposed to them during the term of the pregnancy. The agents are always discovered following an increased prevalence of a specific birth defect or abnormality. Pregnant women are increasingly susceptible to teratogens since these agents can be found in various settings at home in the working environment. Notably, the effect of the agents on fetal development is dependent on the kind of agent, duration, and extent of the exposure. Generally, teratogens and fetal development can be about legal and/or illegal drugs and the effects on the fetus while in…

References

Aboubakr et. al. (2014). Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant

Female Albino Rats. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2014, 1-6.

Bercovici, E. (2010). Prenatal and Perinatal Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Neuro-cognitive

Development in the Fetus. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11(2), 1-20.

Effects of Massage on Depression in Newly Widowed Elderly Females
Words: 1789 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77031574
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Therapeutic Massage on Elderly, Grieving Widows

The prosperity of a country is in accordance with its treatment of the aged," states an ancient Jewish Proverb ("Massage for the Mature Adult," 2001). This is an honorable and true statement. Too often many of our elderly people's needs are not noticed or attended to by family, friends, or medical practitioners. This is especially true for older women whose husbands have died.

Widowhood can have a tremendous impact on the health of older women (Ferraro, 1989; owling, 1987; Gass & Chang, 1989). The death of a spouse or partner has been described as the most disruptive and difficult role transition that an individual confronts throughout the life course (Lopata, 1987). In the United States, over 49% or 8.4 million women over the age of 65 are widows (radsher, 2000). Houdin (1993) states that "although the literature abounds with subjective pieces concerning bereavement, little…

Bibliography for Chapters One and Two

Barry, Kasl, and Prigerson

Tran, 2003

Turvey, 1999 (Parkes, 1998).

Janice Strubbe

Effects of Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer
Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41760721
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Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.

Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…

Bibliography

Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?

Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.

Web site:  http://my.webmd.com/content/article/35/1728_91195 

DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.

Effects of Domestic Violence on Children
Words: 4184 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6389413
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Domestic Violence on Children

Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…

References

Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.

Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.

Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.

Effects of Exercise on Self-Esteem
Words: 2476 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90673814
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Self-Esteem

Exercise promotes higher self-esteem in individuals of all ages and/or physical capabilities as long as the individual enjoys the particular exercise program or feels there are definite and measurable benefit to participating in the program.

Professional athletes are some of the most self assured individuals in our society. There have been many studies that have shown that these individuals are highly paid yet the majority of them would continue to work at their sport for free. One of the main reasons for these phenomena is that these specialists really enjoy what they do and they feel they get an obvious reward for doing what they do. They literally get paid for exercising.

Exercise provides many benefits. These athletes receive a unique benefit that many laymen simply are unaware that it comes with the turf so to speak. Professional athletes get the benefit of added self-esteem. "Speculation regarding the interactions…

Works Cited

Boyd, Michael and Yin, Zenong. "Cognitive-Affective And Behavioral Correlates Of Self-Schemata In Sport" Journal of Sport Behavior (1999).

Douthitt, Vicki L. "Psychological Determinants Of Adolescent Exercise Adherence" Adolescence 22 Sept. 1994.

Gavin, Jim, and Avi Mark Spitzer. "The psychology of exercise: studying recent trends in exercise psychology research gives clues on how to promote participation." IDEA Health & Fitness Source 01 Nov. 2002.

Guthrie, Sharon R. "Defending the Self-Martial Arts and Women's Self-Esteem [Part 1 of 3]" Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal (1997).

Effect of Advertising
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Corporate Social Responsibility: Its Extension to Consumer Advertising Imagery

The last few decades have seen the emergence of two trends that have important implications for the field of consumer advertising. The first trend, as indicated in Gulas and Mckeage's literature review, is a growing body of research evidence that the imagery projected in consumer advertising has psychological and sociological effects.

This indicates that consumer advertising imagery is now being measured for its possible effect on consumer psychology and social behavior. The second trend, which is related to the first, can be seen in the widely acknowledged public demand that businesses need to demonstrate their social responsibility and conscience in all forms of organizational activity. These two trends make it evident that advertisers and their agencies can no longer defend socially irresponsible advertising imagery by using the traditional argument that consumer advertising merely mirrors society. Instead, as this paper will establish,…

Bibliography

"The Alcoholic Beverage Industry's Commitment to Responsible Drinking." Black

Enterprise. March 1994, 24.8, 79+. Available: Questia; http:/ / www.questia.com (May 13, 2005).

Bates, Clive, and Pauline Doyle. "Tobacco Explained: Advertising." Action on Smoking and Health. Available: Internet;  http://www.ash.org.uk/html/conduct/html/tobexpld4.html  (March 19, 2005).

Biocca, Frank A., and Philips N. Myers, Jr. "The Elastic Body Image: The Effect of Television Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions in Young Women." Journal of Communication 42.3 (1992): 108 -- 130. Available: Questia;  http://www.questia.com  (March 19, 2005).

Effects of Killing on Mental Health
Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26458310
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Killing on Mental Health

Are Veterans Impacted by Indirect and Direct Killings?

On February 2010, a study was reported on nearly 3,000 United States soldiers who came home after being among active duty that were exposed to indirect and direct killings. The soldiers were men and women of the Army involved in Operational Iraqi Freedom were questioned in a survey as part of a "post-deployment screening program," which involved eight professionals who came together including: Shira Maguen, Karen Seal, Sara Knight, and Charles Marmar from California medical facilities. The Washington state experts included: Mark eger, Gregory Gahm, and Barbara Lucenko, as well as, Brett Litz, from Boston, and they released their findings to the Journal of Dramatic Stress, volume 23, No. 1. These authors examined the relationship between psychological well-being and its negative impact when veterans come home from battlefields to show significant signs of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. In…

References

Maguen, S., Lucenko, B., Reger, M., Gahm, G., & Litz B. (2010). The impact of reported direct and indirect killing on mental health symptoms in iraq war veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(1), doi: 10.1002

Downe, A. (2008), April). Cause and prevention of roadway crashes among young, high-risk drivers in malaysia: a multi-disciplinary approach. Retrieved from  http://www.scribd.com/doc/50330347/101/Reliability-Test-Results-Cronbach%80%99s-Alpha

Effects of Aging on Functional Ability
Words: 1410 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58532833
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ockstein and Sussman (1979) defined senescence as the period of life where the human body weakens and declines in function rather than grows, a period which is of course associated with physical aging. There is much individual and cultural variation in this process, this is a gradual process, and it occurs across all cultures and in all individuals. Cultural perceptions of aging were also noted by ockstein and Sussman to affect functional abilities as individuals grow older. An acceleration of senescence that occurs due to external factors such as disease, tobacco use, alcohol and drug abuse, poor diet, or physical trauma is known as secondary aging, and for the sake of brevity these factors will not be considered here. As people age there are numerous physical changes that take place that affect functional abilities, some obvious and some not so obvious. There are also cognitive changes that occur as a…

References

Al-Abdulwahab, S.S. (1999). The Effects of Aging on Muscle Strength and Functional Ability of Healthy Saudi Arabian Males. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 19 (3), 211-215.

Birren, J.E., Butler, R.N., Greenhouse, S.W., Sokoloff, L. & Yarrow, M.R. (Eds.) (1963). Human Aging: A Biological and Behavioral Study. (HSM Publication Number 71-9051). Washington DC: U.S. Publishing Office.

Paterson, DH, Jones, D.R., & Rice, C.L. (2007). Ageing and physical activity: evidence to develop exercise recommendations for older adults. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 98 (Supplement 2), S69 -- S108.

Rockstein, M. & Sussman, M. (1979). Biology of aging. CA: Wadsworth.

Effect of Deployment on Military Families
Words: 4773 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 398306
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military deployment affects military families. The writer explores the many differences between deployed and non-deployed families and examines some of the things being done to ease the stress and problems that deployment presents. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.

Americans are waiting with anxious anticipation as the federal government attempts to convince the United Nations that a war with Iraq is in order. President Bush as well as Colin Powell have spent days addressing the issue and presenting evidence of the need to forcibly disarm Iraq. As the world watches the events unfold, nations are lining up on one side or the other of the issue. France, Germany and ussia are asking the United States to hold off on an attack and see if a more peaceful solution can be hammered out. Britain, Canada and several others have pledged if a war erupts, they will send troops…

References

Peterson, Karen S.(2001).Peterson, Long deployments stress military families., USA Today, pp 08D.

2001). INDSTRY GROUP 91, AIR FORCE SPOUSE ADDRESSES QUALITY-OF-LIFE ISSUES BEFORE CONGRESS FEDERAL DOCUMENT CLEARING HOUSE, INC.., Regulatory Intelligence Data.

Author not available (2001). U.S. REPRESENTATIVE DAVID HOBSON (R-OH) CHAIRMAN U.S. REPRESENTATIVE DAVID HOBSON (R-OH) HOLDS HEARING ON MILITARY QUALITY OF LIFE., Washington Transcript Service.

____(1999). INDSTRY GROUP 91, DOD STUDIES MISSION, FAMILY NEEDS., Regulatory Intelligence Data.

Relationships Between Alcohol Drugs and Domestic Violence
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Alcohol, Drugs, And Domestic Violence

Family violence - or male aggression against women in a relationship setting - also known as domestic violence (DV) is most certainly a devastating social and moral problem in our society; but it is also a serious police problem, and an expensive health problem. In fact, the annual health care cost associated with the manifestations of DV is estimated to run as high as $857 million in the United States (odiguez, et al., 2001). But moreover, DV takes a toll on American families that is much greater than any dollar amount could ever reflect - and, in addition, DV is a social blemish on the face of America that seems to be getting worse, not better. The "causes" of violence in the family - why men act aggressively against their wives and girlfriends and even their children - are varied and complicated; but in too…

References

Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly (2003). Alcohol use may increase the likelihood of domestic violence. 15 p7.

Brain, Paul F. (1986). Alcohol and Aggression. London: Croom Helm.

Brookoff, Daniel, M.D., Ph.D. (1997). Drugs, Alcohol, and Domestic Violence

In Memphis: Research in Progress Seminar Series. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.

Development of Alcohol Abuse
Words: 1544 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32895120
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Alcohol abuse was once considered a problem of willpower. Now, it is widely recognized as a medical problem with three primary roots causes: biological factors, psychological factors, and socio-cultural factors. This paper examines the three root causes, beginning with the foundation that genetic predisposition plays a tremendous role in substance abuse and alcoholism. If examines the biological factors impacting alcohol abuse, but goes beyond genetics to discuss brain changes that are the result of alcohol abuse. Next, it considers the psychological factors that relate to alcohol abuse, considering both psychological stressors and underlying character traits linked to alcoholism. Finally, it looks a socio-cultural factors linked to alcohol abuse.

Alcohol Abuse

Alcohol abuse is a complex, multi-faceted problem with many factors impacting the onset and expression of the disorder. Furthermore, alcohol abuse, while part of the disease of alcoholism, is not limited to alcoholism. "It's possible to have a problem with…

References

Horvath, A.T., Misra, K., Epner, A.K., Morgan Cooper, G.l, & Zupanick, C.E. (2014). The biological causes of alcoholism. Retrieved April 7, 2014 from AMHC website: http://www.amhc.org/1410-alcoholism/article/49099-the-biological-causes-of-alcoholism

Horvath, A.T., Misra, K., Epner, A.K., Morgan Cooper, G.l, & Zupanick, C.E. (2014). The psychological causes of alcoholism. Retrieved April 7, 2014 from AMHC website: http://www.amhc.org/1410-alcoholism/article/49100-the-psychological-causes-of-alcoholism

Horvath, A.T., Misra, K., Epner, A.K., Morgan Cooper, G.l, & Zupanick, C.E. (2014). Socio-

cultural forces that lead to alcoholism. Retrieved April 7, 2014 from AMHC website: http://www.amhc.org/1410-alcoholism/article/49102-socio-cultural-forces-that-lead-to-alcoholism

Analyzing the Alcohol Abuse
Words: 1043 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93135447
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Alcohol Abuse (esearch Draft)

Alcohol abuse differs from excessive drinking, despite several people using the two terms interchangeably. The concept of "excessive" drinking has largely been a social notion, and such social standards undergo changes. Numerous historical figures consumed alcohol in quantities proportional to those consumed by modern-day "alcoholics." Sailors of the oyal Navy were, in the seventeenth century, issued one gallon per day, of beer, as it was regarded healthier compared to water during long voyages. Pints of strong rum replaced this in the year 1655. The rum ration provided to them on an everyday basis was well beyond that recommended at present on a weekly basis. However, combined with a mug of lemon juice daily, this was the recommended treatment for scurvy as well as a means to sterilize dirty water. The condition known as alcohol abuse is associated with a medical, and not social, meaning. Alcohol abuse…

References

Allsop, S. (2012). Fanning the flames of prevention. Drug and Alcohol Review 31(6), 729-730.

Gordis, E. (2001). Improving the old, embracing the new: implications of alcohol research for future practice. Soc. Work Health Care. 3(1):17-41.

Manning, M., Smith, C. & Mazerolle, P. (2013). The societal costs of alcohol misuse in Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Ward, B., Snow, P. & Aroni, R. (2010). Children's alcohol initiation: an analytic overview. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 17(3), 270-277.

Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana
Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27822679
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" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…

Bibliography

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)

Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.

Marital Status Gender and Alcohol Abuse
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53121831
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Marital Status/Alcohol

The Association between Marital Status and Alcohol Use

Marital status appears to be associated with alcohol consumption for both men and women. Men in long-term marriages and relationships appear to drink significantly less alcohol than single men, whereas women may demonstrate a different pattern (Chatav & Whisman, 2007). Women and long-term marriages may actually show slightly higher levels of alcohol use than for women who were divorced (Reczek, Liu, & Spiker, In Press). This study attempts to further validate this particular finding.

eavy alcohol abuse is related to higher mortality rates and lower life expectancies, whereas the effects of mild to moderate alcohol use appear to range from beneficial to detrimental (e.g., Gunzerath, Faden, Zakhari, & Warren, 2004; Mokdad, Marks, Stroup, & Gerberdig, 2000). Given these findings there has been a significant sociological policy to encourage healthy levels of alcohol use in adults (Witkiewitz & Marlatt, 2006). The…

Heavy alcohol abuse is related to higher mortality rates and lower life expectancies, whereas the effects of mild to moderate alcohol use appear to range from beneficial to detrimental (e.g., Gunzerath, Faden, Zakhari, & Warren, 2004; Mokdad, Marks, Stroup, & Gerberdig, 2000). Given these findings there has been a significant sociological policy to encourage healthy levels of alcohol use in adults (Witkiewitz & Marlatt, 2006). The potential for alcohol abuse to be harmful to both individuals and to society has led to an extensive literature on the relationship between alcohol use and alcohol abuse and marital status in attempting to understand how one's marital status affects one's alcohol usage. Understanding the relationship between heavy alcohol use and various demographic factors is important to aid in the treatment of alcohol and substance abuse disorders, the development of educational programs regarding a healthier lifestyle and understanding the premorbid factors of substance abuse.

The general findings from the research on the effects of marital status and alcohol usage indicate that married individuals generally engage in less alcohol usage than single or divorced individuals (e.g., see Bachman, Safron, Sy, & Schulenberg, 2002; Curran, Muthen, & Harford, 1998). Likewise the rates of substance abuse disorders and substance dependence are generally believed to be lower in individuals who are married compared to those who are single (Saddock & Saddock, 2007). The research has also found that the transition from single life to married life reduces overall alcohol use and binge drinking in those with potential alcohol abuse; however, this relationship appears to be stronger for men than women (Bachman et al., 2002). Moreover, it appears that a similar relationship exists with individuals that are recently widowed or divorced as these individuals overall report higher usage of alcohol and alcohol abuse symptoms than married individuals, but again the relationship may be different for different genders (Curran et all., 1998). Thus, while there appears to be a general association between being married and reduced usage of alcohol, the actual mediating variables and specific relationships for both men and woman as they relate to alcohol use have been unclear.

Recent research by Reczek and associates has helped to uncover some of these vague relationships (Reczek et al., In Press). This research used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study and in-depth interview studies to determine how marital status interacts with gender and alcohol use. The overall findings indicated that men consumed a greater average number of drinks than women and that a higher proportion of men reported having at least one drinking related problem than women did regardless of marital status. Men that were divorced reported consuming significantly more alcoholic drinks than men in long-term marriages. Many women who were divorced also reported at least one drinking related problem; however, women in long-term marriages reported higher rates of alcohol usage than women who were single. This last finding indicates that married women may actually consume more alcoholic beverages (but not have higher rates of alcohol abuse) that women

Drug Alcohol Abuse Drug and Alcohol
Words: 2315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76887406
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Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)

Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…

References

Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.

Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance

Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.

Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.

Australian Laws for Alcohol Use Australian Laws
Words: 3313 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 79792567
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Australian Laws for Alcohol Use

Australian Laws related to Alcohol Use

Underage drinking is a huge problem in Australia and more and more minors are having access to alcohol. This is having a big impact on their mental, emotional and physical growth as well as on the society at large. The existing laws do not provide stringent punishment to the offenders, especially those who are making it easy for underage drinkers to have access to alcohol and it is time the Government increases the punishment to make it more difficult for them to have access to it. The Government should also pass laws that will fill the existing loopholes and also provide a support system for young kids to turn to when they have emotional problems. A combination of these measures can go a long way in curbing underage drinking in Australia.

Underage drinking is a common problem in many…

References

No Author. 2010. Timely Rethink of Liquor Laws. The Advertiser (Adelaide). 21 July. p20-20.

Milne, Glenn. 2008. Alcopops Tax Warning- Young drinkers will switch to stronger wine products. The Sunday Mail (Brisbane). 18 May. P 4-4

Port, Jeni. 2008. "Is it On the Level?" The Age (Melbourne). 25 March. p1-1

Tideman, Deborah. 2006. Drinking Ban: plan to restrict teen alcohol use at home. The Advertiser (Adelaide). 20 June. p5-5

Social Effects of Flexible Opening Closing
Words: 2259 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40676832
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There is also real indication to depict that declining supply and drinking time could assist in solving the binge drinking, as resulted in Finland, Sweden and Norway. (Lords Hansard text, 2005) Moreover, the Interim Analytical eport indicates that increasing amounts of consumption has been coupled with the increase during the last 25 years in accessibility. It continues to visualize that applications for on-licenses of alcohol have enhanced by 145% over the last two decades. The connection between enhanced accessibility and harm is in someway recognized. But despite suggesting for the regulations on this enormous expansion in supply, the 2003 Act makes the alcohol industry depend on a 'voluntary social responsibility scheme'. The Government is profoundly pressurized by the alcohol industry that promotes income as well as jobs. Therefore, any approaches that are not agreeable to or threat the profit of the alcohol industry have been discarded. Those related to the…

References

Drummond, Colin. D.2004. An Alcohol Strategy for England: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly.

Alcohol & Alcoholism, 39(5), pp.377-379.

Goodacre, S. 2005. The 2003 Licensing Act: an act of stupidity? Emergency Medicine Journal, 22(1), p.682.

Ghodse, Hamind G. 2005. Addiction at Work: Tackling Drug Use and Misuse in the Workplace.

Drug and Alcohol Abuse Over
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92179665
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In some cases, these issues or problems stem from different cultural views and beliefs. While at other times, these issues will affect someone who lives in an environment with: parental drug/alcohol related problems, disruptions to the family, social deprivations, the lack of economic opportunities, physical/sexual abuse, peer pressure and stress. The question I will try to determine is whether or not ethnicity and economic factors play a major influence in determining who will be the most likely to abuse drugs and alcohol?

This will highlight the primary reasons as to why someone will begin using these stimulants on a regular basis. Once this is determined, one can provide specific insights that will illustrate the root causes of the problem and their lasting effect on society.

Describe the data collection method (Research Method)

The basic approach that will be used for collecting and analyzing the data is evaluation research. This is…

Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51559037
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Drug and alcohol abuse is a serious problem among many young people for a variety of reasons. First, statistics show that drugs and alcohol are being abused by a large segment of the teen and young adult population, which can greatly increase their likelihood of a premature death. Secondly, many things can happen to young adults that do not lead to death, but can ruin their lives. Finally, drug and alcohol abuse can have a serious impact on relationships with friends and family.

According to the National Drug Statistics Summary, approximately 14 million Americans used illegal drugs in 2000. Among the teenagers interviewed for the survey, nearly ten percent had used drugs in the month before the interview. The findings for alcohol abuse were even higher. Nearly half of Americans over the age of twelve reported that they drank alcoholic beverages. This is a serious issue. First, the drugs in…

References

Hafetz, David. Jacqueline and Amadeo: Chasing Hope. Austin American Statesman. 2002 May. February 13, 2010. < http://www.helpjacqui.com/pdf/jacqui.pdf>

National Drug Statistics Summary. Adolescent Substance Abuse Knowledge Base. 2007. February 13, 2010.

Redefining the Role of Alcohol and Drinking
Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31517543
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Redefining the Role of Alcohol and Drinking in Life

The common perception is that consuming alcohol in social settings is a prerequisite for enjoying a social event and being supportive of its organizers. This is especially the case in colleges and university parties, where alcohol consumption is often seen and promoted as a perquisite for social approval (Turrisi, Mallett, Mastroleo, Larimer, 2006). It's not surprising to see the expectation of the more one drinks, the greater the level of social acceptance and approval. inge drinking then becomes more of a proxy for social acceptance and less of an activity just for pleasure (Rose, Smith, Segrist, 2010). In observing this dynamic, it is clear that the more socially insecure a person is, the more they are willing to drink heavily to the point of nearly passing out to gain social acceptance (Rose, Smith, Segrist, 2010).

Analysis of Cause and Effect of…

Bibliography

Rose, P., Smith, S.T., & Segrist, D.J. (2010). Too cheap to chug: Frugality as a buffer against college-student drinking. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 9(3), 228.

Turrisi, R., Mallett, K.A., Mastroleo, N.R., & Larimer, M.E. (2006). Heavy drinking in college students: Who is at risk and what is being done about it? The Journal of General Psychology, 133(4), 401-20.

Harmful Health Effects of Chronic
Words: 2208 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 57971802
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"The IOM report recognized the therapeutic benefits of medical marijuana and urged that marijuana be made available to individual patients while research continued on the development of new drugs developed from marijuana" (Zeese).

Conclusion

In conclusion, there are two schools of thought on this issue. One view sees very little difference in terms of health implication between marijuana and cigarette smoking. However, there is some resistance to the idea that marijuana is as unhealthy or as dangerous as cigarettes. This had led to the notion that marijuana is less harmful to the user than tobacco. However, many reports and studies tend to stress that while the effects of each substance on the individual differ, in the long - term both have negative effects that should be emphasized. (Vlahov et al., 2004)

While there is a strong case for the benefits of marijuana in certain instances and for certain conditions, this…

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98432636

Bock, a.W. (2000). The Politics of Medical Marijuana. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks.

Executive Summary: Institute of Medicine (1999). Retrieved July 3, 2008, from  http://www.nap.edu/html/marimed/es.html 

Fact Sheet Cigarette Smoking-Related Mortality. (2006) Retrieved July 3, 2008, at  http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/factsheets/cig_smoking_mort.htm 

Gieringer D. (1994) Marijuana Health Mythology.

Solutions for the Alcohol Abuse Problem From
Words: 1091 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34552515
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solutions for the alcohol abuse problem from economists' point-of-view. The second section of the paper addresses the situation of prescription drugs and how they can affect the demand and supply of other products and services. The paper continues with a section that explains the relationship between supply modification and elasticity of demand, and between demand modifications and elasticity of supply. There is also a section that discusses increasing-costs industries. Another section of the paper address the conditions required for competitive markets to be economically efficient.

There are several solutions that economists can offer when addressing the alcohol abuse problem. In this case, the problem is regarded as a negative externalities situation of the production and consumption of alcohol. The assumption in this case is that alcohol abuse is a negative externality because of its consequences, like drunk driving and the effects on consumers' health and on relationship with other individuals.…

Reference list:

1. Adam, G. (2009). Economic Theory: Supply and Demand. Retrieved January 31, 2012 from  http://www.science20.com/gerhard_adam/blog/economic_theory_%E2%80%93_supply_and_demand .

2. Perfect Competition (2011). Investopedia. Retrieved February 1, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/perfectcompetition.asp .

3. Hall, R. & Lierberman, M. (2007). Economics: Principles and Applications. Cengage Learning. Retrieved February 1, 2012 from  http://books.google.ro/books?id=whLWKYNy0UoC&pg=PA220&dq=perfect+competition&hl=ro# .