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Many people have relocated to suburb areas due to smog and congestion that was experienced in the cities.
The interstate road network has brought various negative consequences. It has increased dependence on automobiles, and the ease of traveling on the high-speed roads has led to a drop in the use of mass transport means such as buses and trains. The road construction was very expensive, and the government still spends a lot on maintenance (the Eisenhower interstate highway system, 2007). The highway affected the environment. Many natural habitats had to be destroyed to pave the way for road construction. The interstate road network was also viewed to promote racism. Africa-Americans affected by the road construction view their areas as a target for passing the road. There is increased air pollution because of dependence on the automobile by many people. In general, President Eisenhower decision and motivation to construct the road…… [Read More]
Eisenhower and 'massive retaliation'
The Doctrine of Massive Retaliation
This doctrine came about due to the fact that then-President Eisenhower wanted to reduce the expenditures that were taking place for the defense of the country (Gilpatric, 136). Since the Doctrine of Massive Retaliation was based largely on the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, the military forces that were needed were fewer, thus reducing the amount that was spent, and causing the defense budget to fall by over 25% during the first two years of the Eisenhower presidency (Schlesinger, 104). The main purpose and goal of the doctrine of massive retaliation was to stop other countries from using any kind of nuclear weapon on the United States. A secondary purpose and goal was to ensure that no other countries took any kind of offensive action toward U.S. interests in other parts of the world, even if these actions were…… [Read More]
" [footnoteRef:9] This wide rift in ideologies considerably weakened the Republican Party to crisis proportions.[footnoteRef:10] in the 1952 Republican primaries, the "Old Guard" was represented by Senator Robert a. Taft while the moderates were represented by Dwight D. Eisenhower.[footnoteRef:11] With the idea of saving the Republican Party from the extremism of Taft and McCarthy, Eisenhower won the Republican nomination for the 1952 Presidential election and handily beat Adlai Stevenson for the Presidency.[footnoteRef:12] Republican Conservatism was regenerated through the rise of Eisenhower and the moderate wing he represented to premiere national prominence as the New Republicanism[footnoteRef:13] and to the Presidency.[footnoteRef:14] Through actively sought bipartisan cooperation, Eisenhower's administration worked effectively on the domestic front, backing aspects of the New Deal, expanding aspects of Social Security, and working effectively toward desegregation[footnoteRef:15]; meanwhile, Eisenhower also worked effectively in foreign affairs in such countries as Korea, China and the Middle East.[footnoteRef:16] in sum, Eisenhower's and…… [Read More]
Eisenhower Presidential Years
Dwight David Eisenhower was considered a popular President throughout his two terms in office, and his moderate Republican policies secured him numerous victories in the Democratic majority Congress (Dwight pp). He strengthened established programs, such as Social Security, and launched new ones, such as the Interstate Highway System, which was the single largest public works program in the nation's history (Dwight pp).
During this Cold ar era, Eisenhower often relied on covert action in an effort to avoid taking public responsibility for controversial interventions (Dwight pp). He believed that the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA, was a particularly effective tool to counter Communist expansion and assist friendly governments (Dwight pp). Although he authorized the CIA's use of unsavory tactics, such as assassination and bribes, he maintained denial and carefully concealed all evidence of U.S. involvement (Dwight pp).
ithin six months of taking office, Eisenhower agreed to an armistice…… [Read More]
The Soviet threat continued to loom, propelling Eisenhower squarely into a second term. He had endeared himself to the American public as a strong anti-communist president, a decorated war hero who would keep America strong, prosperous, and triumphant.
Eisenhower's fiscal and domestic policies reflected his rather un-epublican belief in social services. Eisenhower expanded the Social Security program, raised the minimum wage, supported low-income housing projects, and created the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Among his most significant domestic legacies was his commissioning of the nationwide highway system. Eisenhower was truly a Car Culture president who helped make American culture into what it is today.
In spite of his support for social programs, Eisenhower failed to become a civil rights leader. He was "at best a tepid supporter of civil rights" who actually opposed school integration (Miller Center of Public Affairs). Eisenhower's stagnation and lack of leadership in this primary…… [Read More]
Direct Presidential Leadership
It is without question that direct leadership of the President of the United States plays a pivotal role in the tone, pathway and patterns of the United States leadership and its place in the world. Of course, the much of the President's power is offset by the distributing of government power within the three branches of government. However, there are indeed things that the President can do mostly if not entirely on their own and they have a lot of sway with other things even when they cannot act entirely unilaterally. Quite often, powerful Presidents have the backing of at least one (if not both) houses of Congress and this can make it much easier for them to behave and decide in the ways that they want. While this power can be very useful, Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy used such power with varying degrees of success.…… [Read More]
S. could employ, especially through the use of artillery. All these led to Fredendall losing the respect of his own commanders, to the degree to which they could, at any moment, consider that his orders would not be beneficial for their own divisions.
In firing Fredendall, the most important leadership challenge for Eisenhower was to accept the fact that he had been wrong in appointment Fredendall to such a position for which the qualities he had did not recommend him. In other words, as a good leader, Eisenhower had to accept that he could make mistake, but, on the other hand, minimize the effect that such mistakes could have had on the overall evolution of the war. There is no doubt that Fredendall was named at George Marshall's lobby, but also that Eisenhower fully accepted Fredendall and regarded him as a competent and useful commander. Indeed, he told Marshall that…… [Read More]
Another writer notes, "The general who took the gamble to invade Normandy under adverse weather conditions was unlikely to be a passive observer of his own presidency" (Windsor 145). Eisenhower also inspired the American people to trust him, after all, his major campaign slogan was "I Like Ike," which shows that he inspired confidence and trust in the American people, and they believe in him enough to vote for him and led him lead them. All of these traits are traits of a good leader and Fire Starter, a man who inspires confidence and trust, and truly cares about those around him and their opinions.
Both Eisenhower and Studer understand how important leadership can be. Studer developed his theories after a long career in business and medicine, where he saw what worked and what did not work for industry leaders. He developed his theories with experience and understanding, just as…… [Read More]
For example, in another article entitled "Eisenhower or Dulles? Who Made the Decisions?" (1979) about Eisenhower's years as president with Dulles, Immerman states that the overwhelming consensus among analysts of United States foreign policy during the Eisenhower administration is that Secretary of State John Foster Dulles was the dominant force. Such writers agree "that Dulles' forceful personality, lengthy preparation, and keen intellect enabled him to control and even manipulate the congenial but bland and passive President Eisenhower." Yet Immerman revisited this argument by looking at public records from the time, journalism reports and appraisals of those who were in President Eisenhower's inner circle either in the White House or State Department. In addition, he reread the Whitman File in the Eisenhower Library that contains thousands of transcript pages of the president's daily phone conversations, formal and informal meeting minutes, memoranda and other written communications, as well as Eisenhower's private diary.…… [Read More]
United States had been involved with the world affairs from 18th century to the present and its most prominent role was during the pre-world war era and post-world war affairs of the world.
Particularly when President Dwight Eisenhower and John Kennedy ruled, the economic prosperity of the United States began to grow on a vast scale. Their eras were considered the most successful era for United States in relation to economic prosperity. President Eisenhower and Kennedy ruled United States from 1953 to 1961 and 1961 to 1963. In their time of governance, United States took a revolutionary step in bringing change in the way people brought up lives in America (Moss & George, 2010). These Democrats controlled Congress for a period however; they could not pass liberal legislations due to the enforcements of Conservative Coalition.
The involvement of United States with worldly affairs in the light of President Eisenhower…… [Read More]
Evolution of U.S. oreign Policy under Presidents Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon towards the Soviet Union
oreign Policy towards the Soviet Union under Presidents Truman through to Nixon (1945-1974) was characterized by the "Cold War" -- a period of heightened tension between the two 'super powers' of the world. Even while being constrained by the compulsions of the 'Cold War,' the relations between the two countries gradually evolved into a less hostile association under successive U.S. Presidents in this period.
Harry Truman who became the U.S. President towards the end of World War II was the architect of the policy of containment of the Communism, led by the Soviet Union, around the world enshrined in the 'Truman Doctrine.' He was also instrumental in establishing a strong Western alliance called NATO in Europe that checked Soviet designs beyond Eastern Europe. Eisenhower continued with his predecessors' policy of "containment" without direct…… [Read More]
The U.S. supported the Thieu regime in an election so fraudulent all opponents withdrew.
The war officially ended in 1973; Nixon resigned in 1974 so did no t preside over the rout of the South Vietnamese in 1975 when the North took over the entire country.
Results for America:
One and a half million counted dead in Indochina, 58,000 of whom were Americans. Millions maimed. Over 500,000 refugees.
Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. spent $120 billion dollars on the war directly, but other costs raised the tally to a pricey $400 billion.
Emotionally, the U.S. military was exhausted and depleted, no longer the superpower it was assumed; likewise, the American people were depleted and exhausted, although much of it was in relation to their leadership; seriously wounded the U.S. psyche.
Anti-colonial sentiment in America was at a crucial crossroads in the United States governmental policy at this…… [Read More]
Kennedy recognizes the need to establish a bond with all the South American leaders, thereby isolating Chavez-Chavez politically as ineffective leader in South America. Kennedy perceived the Third orld in terms of the "national military establishment," and vulnerable to the manipulations of the Soviet Union (Schwab, Orrin, 1998, 1). Kennedy had already gone around with Cuba, and did not wish to repeat his mistakes in Venezuela, but he also had no intention of surrendering Venezuela to the Soviet Union in the way in which Cuba had been surrendered before him.
President Kennedy saw South American diplomacy as the route to turning Venezuela away from bonding with the Soviet Union. He recognized that he could not alienate the rest of South America from the United States, or that would drive them into the sphere of Venezuela's influence over them towards the Soviet Union.
Kennedy calls a meeting with Chavez-Chavez, in private,…… [Read More]
C. with interest 4 1/2 per cent.
To further arouse compassion, he includes the personal detail about his parents:
"I owe $3,500 to my parents and the interest on that loan which I pay regularly, because it's the part of the savings they made through the years they were working so hard, I pay regularly 4 per cent interest."
. He calls himself "a man of modest means" adding that Abraham Lincoln said: "God must have loved the common people -- "he made so many of them." Nixon, inother words, refers to himself as a 'common'man.
In Paragraph 4, he abuses his opponent commiting the as hominem fallacy i.e. attemtpting to negate the truth of a claim by pointing out negative characteristics or beliefs of the person supporting it.
And now I'm going to suggest some courses of conduct. First of all, you have read in the papers about other…… [Read More]
As a reader, the setting descriptions that the author used created an atmosphere of being "present" during the war. he maps used have helped the reader follow the warriors and deal with the facts surrounding the U.S. war with Mexico. he book really represents its era, as it is today, when it comes to the political and military problems and the relationship of the two countries.
he denouement of the plot happened, when at last, the reaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas rist. he United States was given undisputed control of exas and established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande River. he present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming were ceded to the United States. Mexico received $15,000,000 which is less than half the amount the United States had attempted to offer Mexico…… [Read More]
They are only trying to justify their actions; they are handing excuses, telling the events as they happened. And in the end maybe these characters do find an excuse, the one that they are both human, bound to fail and to be influenced, sharing the same planet and dealing with the same kind of people. The two personages enjoyed having power and realized in the end that having power doesn't necessary make them omniscient.
oth Robert McNamara and Yuri Orlov had the lives of numerous people in their hands. Maybe these characters felt the need to retell all their stories, in order to let all the demons trapped inside their conscious out.
The characters presented in the two movies were able to depict the laws and needs of man and rose above law; they become a sort of demigod. In Yuri's case this was shown during his tramping across west…… [Read More]
George H.W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush, possibly the most underestimated president of recent times, is my choice for the fifth spot. It is perhaps understandable why Bush Sr. is often excluded from most people's list of "great" U.S. Presidents; unlike "activist" presidents such as Franklin oosevelt or his predecessor, onald eagan, Bush carried out his job in a low-key manner but did his job competently. This is precisely why I have chosen him as one of the top five presidents because a president's job, in the words of Bush Sr. himself, does not always involve, "high drama, and the sound of trumpets" (Quoted by ose, 1991, p. 307)
Bush Sr. became the President after having served the country in various positions such as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and to China, chair of the epublican National Committee, head of the CIA, and vice-president in the eagan administration…… [Read More]
During the Eisenhower Administration, America underwent a number of radical changes in its political and social arenas, the most important being the rapid rise in consumerism which before Eisenhower was limited to the wealthy and those in the upper classes. When World War II ended, American factories began to manufacture a huge range of goods which were then purchased by average Americans for use in their homes and businesses. This immense increase quickly led to the creation of millions of jobs which allowed consumerism to climb to new heights, thus creating an economic boom for all Americans.
In the late 1950's, the Civil ights Movement became a powerful American entity, mostly due to the influence of the Brown v. The Board of Education decision by the Supreme Court which made school segregation illegal. After the passage of a bill by Congress which enforced the 14th and 15th amendments of the…… [Read More]
American Civil ight Movement
Compare and contrast the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) on the basis of their leadership, philosophy, and tactics.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was a civil rights organization that was initiated by African-Americans in 1957 (Fairclough, 2001). The movement was primarily aimed at ending the segregation and discrimination against the black African population in the U.S. The core philosophy of SCLC revolved around to seek civil rights and economic justice for the people of Southern States having majority of African-Americans.
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) actually aimed achieving same objectives as those of SCLC but through non-violent sit-in and defiance of segregated dining and lunch services. The core philosophy of SNCC was also eliminating segregation but the mission statement was narrower compared to SCLC.
The most prominent leader of SCLC was Martin Luther King, Jr. Other prominent…… [Read More]
Instead of trying to build a brand, Pfizer hoped to 'buy into' the next big drug solution, and failed in its Patton-like strategy of focusing on the goal, and trying to leap over the many hurdles in creating its own new drug.
In contrast, the athletic shoe store Foot Locker has shown a successful Eisenhower-style approach by focusing on tightening its budget and cutting costs. Although streamlining is not a sexy 'big picture' strategy, by shying away from seeking market domination and taking a conservative strategy, Foot Locker showed a fourth quarter profit, despite a dismal market overall in the apparel industry. "Foot Locker announced another wave of store closures and a revamped management structure that combines the Lady Foot Locker chain with its three other brands. [CEO] Sterne Agee said it was 'essential' for the company to reduce its store base in the U.S. By at least 300 stores…[but]…… [Read More]
Presidential power is thus a matter of persuasion of the public and the other branches and actors within the government. Today in particular, because of the ability of the President to invoke the information of the intelligence agencies, information which the President has special authority over, he can persuade members Congress that if they do not do his bidding, they are jeopardizing America. hen the presidential office was first created, the federal army and navy were far smaller than today -- and only Congress has the power to declare war. Yet many undeclared wars have been waged subsequently, and Congress has ceded some of its powers of controlling these institutions, from the Gulf of Tonkin resolution during Vietnam, to being persuaded by faulty intelligence it is assured it is true, as in Iraq. Presidents like Gerald Ford have limited the prosecutorial abilities of the nation by bestowing pardons, even changed…… [Read More]
Where, he would portray himself as a staunch anti-communist that supported the ideas of liberty. Yet, when he had taken control of the country he immediately began to rule with an iron fist. This authoritarian rule and the way that Diem was able to single-handedly throw elections, would set the tone as to what kind of President he would be. Then, when you combine this with the fact that just 10% of the country was Catholic; and that the Catholics held a position of privilege in the country. Meant that the actions by Diem; would be seen as even more illegitimate by the people. This is especially troubling when the French had raised concerns about a rising uddhist threat, as 70% of the population was uddhist. These two elements allowed for the overall actions against the Diem government to increase during his reign as President. Where, both the North and…… [Read More]
freedom. The South Vietnamese anti-communist leaders were dictators, not democrats, and had been allied with the wildly unpopular French, then with the Americans. In contrast, the National Liberation Front (NLF) or 'Viet Cong' (as it was called by the Americans) had deep, longstanding support in the Vietnamese countryside. American military decision-makers proved unable to process this fact, given that they viewed Vietnam through its own biases, not through the eyes of the Vietnamese.
The method of America's military entry into Vietnam was also disastrous: Eisenhower and Kennedy's gradual increase of American advisors and military support enabled the public to ignore the gradual escalation, as well as America's political alliance with the unpopular anticommunist, South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem (who was ultimately assassinated). The American public also did not understand the situation in Vietnam as a compelling national security interest -- it was just a far-off land in the eyes…… [Read More]
United States Bomb its Way to Victory in Vietnam?
What was John F. Kennedy's "New Frontier" in American foreign policy? What approach did his administration take to the Third World?
The New Frontier policy was a plan to provide aid to foreign countries. He wanted to help Third World countries by increasing their levels of education and boost their economies thereby eventually making them self-sufficient.
Describe and analyze the circumstances and outcomes of the Kennedy administration's crises with Cuba.
The major issue between the United States and Cuba was the Cold War which divided the countries politically. Cuba, being Communist sided with the U.S.S.R. against the U.S. And allowed the U.S.S.R. To have nuclear missiles on their island, pointed at the U.S.
In what ways did Kennedy deepen U.S. involvement in Vietnam? Why did Kennedy believe U.S. engagement/influence in Vietnam was crucial to his foreign policy? How were Kennedy's attitudes…… [Read More]
Vietnam War: Its History and Harmful Effects
The Vietnam War is considered as one of America's failure to promote its containment policy in Southeast Asia during the latter 1950s until 1970s. The Vietnam War is a military conflict between South and North Vietnam during the period of 1959-1975, wherein the U.S. had actively participated and supported South Vietnam against the North Vietnamese, who are considered supporters of Communism.
Communism plays a big part for the escalation of and participation of U.S. In the Vietnam War. America's Containment Policy in Southeast Asian nations was implemented right after World War II, wherein the spread of Communism was prevented by fighting the elements that support and spread Communist principles and beliefs, as well as actively participating in a military arms struggle for the cause of Communism. The U.S. containment policy is implemented during Dwight Eisenhower's term s president of the U.S., wherein the…… [Read More]
If the satellite had successfully entered orbit, this would have put the United States more than a year ahead of the Soviets in the endeavor, which added
In fact, this was not the only rocket and satellite project that many United States scientists and government officials felt had been failures, or at least under-utilized successes. The Soviets increased the pressure on the American rocket program with their launch of Sputnik II on November 3, less than a month after the launch of their first satellite, and political urging from Eisenhower and others forced the early launch of an American Vanguard satellite.
The Vanguard project had actually anticipated a launch date ahead of the Soviets, which may in part have spurred on the Soviet team and helped them to set their deadline, but a series of setbacks delayed the various test launches of the vehicles meant to deliver the Vanguard into…… [Read More]
Ngo Dinh Diem
orn in the year 1901 to an aristocratic family, Ngo Dinh Diem rose to become the Prime Minister of South Vietnam in the year 1954. This paper looks in detail at the events during the life of Ngo Dinh Diem, his era of governance and the events that took place in the aftermath of his assassination. Catholic missionaries converted his predecessors into Christianity several years back in the 17th century. Much like his pervious family generations, he too was educated in French Catholic schools. Following his successful graduation he was trained as an administrator who worked in conjunction with the French authorities based in Vietnam. At a very young age of twenty-five, he became a provincial governor. This was his foray into a long political career, which marked dramatic incidents both in his personal life and the history of Vietnam.
At a time when communism was rising…… [Read More]
., office. "The important thing that we realize the older that we get is how unique it was that a group of teenagers got to participate in this seminal event. For each of us, we had different visions about what was going to happen there, but we all saw entral as a better place to improve our own personal education."
The Arkansas nine represents the introduction to one another of young white and black students, who would eventually overcome the racial differences between them to the point where it would one day go unnoticed as to the color of another student's skin. Even in 1957, the reaction to nine students entering a white high school was one of less concern to the students, and of greater concern to parents, businesses, and political leaders whose constituency relied upon a political position siding with racism.
Orval Faubus acted out of self-interest,…… [Read More]
They however fail to see the strategic linkage in the U.S. foreign policy. Israel is the most trusted ally of United States in the region. It has the same strategic interest as the United States and has a firm foundation of democratic support.
The Arab governments on the other hand are unpopular, non-democratic and are in power due to the western interest in maintaining the status quo. Overthrow of the Shah of Iran, a most trusted ally of United States shows that the governments maintained in power by western support without the popular support could not be relied upon for maintaining U.S. strategic interests in the region.
Saddam Hussein of Iraq is another example of a government following pro-U.S. policy and then working against its strategic interests in the region. Dictator Saddam Hussein was a virtual proxy in the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) and protector of the pro-American dynastic regimes. His…… [Read More]
The Allied leaders all believed that all that the enemy could do at the time had been to wait for them to come. Montgomery and Eisenhower had been positive that the Nazis lacked both the petrol and the men to lead an offensive campaign.
Anyone else could agree with them at the time as it had been known that Hitler had lost most of his resources along with the loss of his allies. Furthermore, the world had been aware that Hitler had lost influence in Germany and that the bombing attempt had also crushed his confidence in his own men.
Nevertheless, Hitler managed to get together an impressive number of soldiers and resources. During the last months of 1944, his army seemed to have recovered and it appeared to be ready to lead an offensive. The Fuhrer knew that this had been his last chance of winning the war because…… [Read More]
would help alter the social and political landscape of the nation. However, Kennedy also engaged in controversial and potential volatile encounters such as the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba and the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War would prove to be one of the most tumultuous periods in modern American history and when Kennedy was assassinated in 1963 his vice president and successor Lyndon Baines Johnson continued the bloody and extended process of engaging and then withdrawing from Southeast Asia. Lyndon Johnson's problems in Vietnam were partially offset by the great strides his administration made in securing Civil ights laws. Moreover, Johnson would initiate other social service programs such as Medicare. Johnson's legacy would nevertheless be perpetually obscured by his more dynamic predecessor and successor: Kennedy and Nixon, respectively.
Johnson's successor, epublican ichard M. Nixon will probably be remembered most for his participation in the Watergate Scandal and his resignation…… [Read More]
Santa Anna Dictatorship
In his self-described revisionist biography Santa Anna of Mexico (2007), Will Fowler has courageously taken up the defense of the Mexico caudillo, fully aware that he is all but universally reviled in the historiography of the United States and Mexico. From the beginning, he made his intention clear to vindicate the reputation of a dictator whose "vilification has been so thorough and effective that the process of deconstructing the numerous lies that have been told and retold" is almost impossible.[footnoteRef:1] Timothy J. Henderson asserted that he had a great talent for exploiting and manipulating political divisions but none for governing a country. In U.S. history and popular culture, he has always been portrayed as a corrupt megalomaniac, the 'Napoleon of the West', responsible for the massacres at the Alamo and Goliad. As John Chasteen and James Wood put it, even his autobiography was an "extraordinary work of…… [Read More]
Television and America
There have been many technological advances within the past sixty years that have fundamentally influenced the way that we live in the United States. Among the most influential is the invention and proliferation of the television.
Though there are other advances which, are equally important it is still the television that dominates the background noise of nearly every home. In fact most homes have more televisions than they have bathrooms. It is not unusual for television to be the single most used avenue for national and international information. "From its early position as a new medium for political coverage in the 1950s, television quickly supplanted radio and eventually newspapers to become by the early 1960s the major source of public information about politics."
This information includes political, social and popular issues that have helped shape the culture of America. It is through the influence of television and…… [Read More]
Crime Control and Due Process Models
Earl arren's involvement in the American Justice system played an important role in shaping American history as a whole. arren was Chief Justice of the U.S. between 1953 and 1969 -- a period filled with significant events in the country's history. As a consequence, arren was provided with the mission to play an active role in many of these respective events that was responsible for making decisions that would reflect on the whole country rather than just on the individuals who took part in the trial.
Connection between the Due Process Model and arren's decisions
The Due Process Model is characteristic to arren's decisions, considering that the American Chief Justice focused on fighting for people's rights. Initially thought to be a moderate conservative and to thus act in agreement with Eisenhower's thinking in general, arren gradually proved to be a determined liberal. Eisenhower actually…… [Read More]
A majority of the American wars have had obvious starting points like the capture of Fort Sumter in 1861, the battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775, the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, and the invasion of North Korea into South Korea in June 1950. However, for the war in Vietnam, there is no fixed beginning. The United States got into that war incrementally via a series of steps that took place between 1950 and 1965 (Asselin 337). The Vietnam war is considered to be America's longest war and it took place for 25 years (1950-1975). This was a proxy war because the opposing powers were using third parties to fight on their behalf.
As has been pointed out the United States joined the war incrementally and it all begun in May 1950 when President Harry Truman sanctioned a modest program of military and economic aid to…… [Read More]
Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).
At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman
Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…… [Read More]
U.S. Economy Since orld ar II
economy is the largest in the world but has the most unequal distribution of wealth among all the developed countries of the world. The major reason for this inequality is that since the Second orld ar most U.S. governments have tended to favor the wealthy and the corporate sector while formulating their economic policies. Such "rich friendly" policies have become more pronounced since the early 1980s and continue to this day to the detriment of the society and the economy. This essay gives an overview of the post-orld ar II U.S. economy and outlines the ways in which various U.S. administrations have enacted policies favoring the corporate sector and the wealthy.
The 18th century British economist Adam Smith advocated the benefits of a Laissez faire economy in his The ealth of Nations (1776) by proclaiming that a "free economy" in which every individual…… [Read More]
The methodology of this research is one that is qualitative in nature. The research is one that will use the qualitative method in testing with cases and open problems as to the effectiveness of the training provided to the practical nurse group through case and open problems through direct observations of that which has been taught in which observation is through the structured method specifically work-based assessment. Work-based research is highly effective when clear learning outcomes are in place.
Data will be collected through the trainers in a work-based assessment of the skills acquired during training and education of the practical nurse group. All trainers will meet the requirements of the Department of Defense insofar as credentials and other necessary qualifications.
DATA ANALYSIS and SYNTHESIS
The data, qualitative in nature will be analyzed through review of the information collected as to the skills of the…… [Read More]
The Qualities of a Good President
In 1963, former President Dwight D. Eisenhower stated in an interview that he felt there were six qualities that a president needed to be successful. Among these were qualities were moral judgment, and understanding of what makes America a uniquely great nation, the ability to keep one's wits in a crisis', ability to choose good advisors, experience, and a strength of character. These are timeless qualities that make a good president, and something that your own son, possesses.
Standing before you is your son, a person who possesses many of these qualities and would make a very good president. First of all there is experience, can you say that your boy, who came from Alabama and served his country with distinction in the Army, does not have experience. The Army give a person an abundance of life experience beyond what civilians…… [Read More]
Allied Airborne Invasion of Normandy on D-Day
The amphibious invasion of Normandy by Allied forces on 6 June 1944 was preceded by airborne landings to secure key objectives. The efforts of these airborne troops were an important factor in the success of the invasion. Three divisions took part in the airborne piece of the battle on D-Day. They were the American 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions and the ritish 6th Airborne Division. All three units had combat jump experience and consisted of a combination of parachute and glider infantry regiments. The American portion of the airborne mission was code named Operation Neptune. In the sections below, I will examine the mission, operations, equipment, and leaders of these units on D-Day ("D-Day").
The paratroopers who participated in the D-Day invasion carried an average of seventy pounds of equipment. Officers averaged ninety pounds of equipment.…… [Read More]
Cuban Missile Crisis
There are two views, as with any conflict or issue, on the reasons and reactions of the major players in the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place at the end of October 1962. The crisis pitted two world powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, against each other in what many describe as the closest the world has come to World War III and a nuclear holocaust.
In order to understand the Crisis, it is important to first understand the events leading up to the crisis. This paper examines the background of the crisis from the Cuban/Soviet point-of-view in depth. Toward the end of the paper, the United States' perspective of the crisis is discussed with regard to what is described previously from the perspective of supporters of the Castro regime and the now collapsed Soviet Union.
After the devastation that the bombs left in…… [Read More]
Beyond Separation of Powers
As high school students we all learned about the Constitutional separation of powers. With each of the three branches of government -- the judicial, executive, and legislative -- having the power to limit the power of the others, no one aspect of government could hold the American people hostage. This was the structure that the Framers put into effect to ensure that Americans would have an efficient, but humane, system of government. It was also, from its inception, an idealistic one. Indeed, perhaps too idealistic, for while it is good for democracy to have power divided among many rather than only a few, it is in human nature to want to concentrate power within oneself.
Thus over the over two-and-a-quarter- centuries of our nation's history, people have devised various extra-Constitutional methods for accumulating power. This paper examines three different ways in which individuals and political and…… [Read More]
One of the best points is brought forth by Higgins, who writes that an estimated force of 1500 men were sent to take on no less than 25,000 Cubans (Higgins 1987). "In the end, of approximately 1300 men who actually landed on the beaches from the Brigade, almost 1200 were captured and about 100 killed in combat (Higgins 149). The Brigade, if they failed, were expected to escape into the protected areas that connected to the Bay of Pigs; when in fact those areas, the conditions of the terrain, the poor training and preparation of the Brigade, made such escape impossible (Higgins 149).
Years later, declassified papers and tapes from the hite House would lend insight into the fiasco, but not clarity. One thing that was evidenced from the hite House tapes is that the Bay of Pigs continued to be a source of humiliation and annoyance to President Kennedy…… [Read More]
To alleviate the effects of white guilt, the author charges that white Americans avoided being social incorrectness by catering to all forms of black grievances. Steele excoriates what he sees as theatrical "black rage."
This meant that white citizens acquiesced to demands that systemic racism is the source of all problems facing black people.
For black people, the effects of white guilt are also tragic. Rather than seeking empowerment and betterment, many black leaders now define the movement in terms of perpetual victimhood.
White guilt has formed a crutch for many black people. The author insists that instead of overcoming perceived racial barriers, many black people instead blame systemic racism and play on white guilt. These dual effects of white guilt have halted the momentum of the Civil Rights movement to a virtual standstill.
Steele makes cogent arguments, and the strongest part of this book is the articulation of the…… [Read More]
Michael McKinney examines the nature of leadership. He also explores what constitutes a leader, and provides two historical examples of leaders. McKinney also dissects what characteristics are missing from what passes for many of today's leaders, and finishes with a call to action for every person to become a leader in some sense.
McKinney provides several clear definitions of leadership as well as examples of how a leader performs. He emphasizes the element of custodianship, pointing out that the custodian upholds those principles which are best for everyone. According to McKinney, the custodian does this even though those principles may not necessarily be in the custodian's best interests.
McKinney sites two historical examples of custodial leadership, Cincinnatus of the 5th century BC and George Washington. Cincinnatus served as dictator for exactly sixteen days, just long enough to defeat enemies of the oman epublic (Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus, 2011). Centuries later George…… [Read More]
Fred I. Greenstein, The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to Barack Obama, Third Edition. Princeton University Press, 2009.
Fred I. Greenstein's central point The Presidential Difference is that in the modern U.S. political system since the Great Depression and Second World War, the presidents are now they key actors, far more so than the pre-1933 period when Congress was the most important branch of government. Because the role of the executive expanded exponentially in both foreign and domestic affairs, the leadership style of the presidents became a crucial factor in policymaking and policy failures. He analyzes the leadership style of the thirteen presidents from Franklin Roosevelt to Barack Obama, including their communication abilities (or lack thereof), personality and emotional makeup, cognitive/intellectual abilities, and organizational talents. If Roosevelt set the pattern and served as the template for the modern chief executive -- and there seems to be little doubt that…… [Read More]
military imparts in an individual many important qualities that they carry out into the real world. These qualities are leadership, versatility, character, among others. The military is an excellent place to learn, to grow, and to better one's self. Many people have had long and successful careers that they earned only through being in the military. It teaches a person the importance of hard work, communication, and bravery.
The military allows for transition into a multitude of careers, especially career in the government. And in sectors where leadership skills are rare and sought after, the military prepares one to establish a secure foothold in these areas. Non-for-profits, volunteer organizations, and businesses all require strong and fearless leaders with clear direction and focus. The military offers exactly what a person needs early on to achieve anything they set out for. Six sections will be examined to show just how military lessons…… [Read More]
RULES: locks should not be thrown across the line. Scores are recorded to the nearest tenth of a second.
3. ONE-MILE RUN/WALK
OJECTIVE: To measure heart and lung endurance by fastest time to cover a one-mile distance. TESTING: On a safe, one-mile distance, students begin running on the count "Ready? Go!" Walking may be interpersed with running. However, the students should be encouraged to cover the distance in as short a time as possible. RULES: efore administering this test, students' health status should be reviewed. Students should be given ample instruction on pacing themselves and should be allowed to practice running this distance against time. Sufficient time should be allowed for warming up and cooling down before and after the test. Times are recorded in minutes and seconds.
OJECTIVE: To measure upper body strength and endurance by maximum number of pull-ups completed. TESTING: Student hangs from a horizontal…… [Read More]
President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.
In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).
ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…… [Read More]
His early thesis is that the U.S. was engaged in interventions long before the Cold ar "broke out" - and those interventions (including those borne of Manifest Destiny) were based not so much on greed or empire building but on the ideology that all nations should be allowed to enjoy individual liberty, economics based on an open and free market, and social progress. And after II, the interventions by both superpowers "were not [necessarily based on] exploitation or subjection, but control and improvement" (estad, p. 5).
There are flaws in the book, albeit estad has written a book that is far more expansive and inclusive than the other two, so he should be given respect - more than just the benefit of the doubt. In fact, estad's book contains ten maps, ten good photographs and five poster reproductions of propaganda materials used during the Cold ar. One of the few…… [Read More]
As was the nature of the Cold ar, the United States responded by quashing new governments that were likely to lead to communism, even where this constituted an undemocratic or even brutal instituted government (Kort 80).
Democratically elected officials from Brazil, Guyana, and Uruguay were overthrown by internal revolutionaries who were funded and trained by American forces (Parenti 44). These and other leaders and governments in Latin America were targeted by American forced as having communist leanings. Foreign policy followed, with more than two decades of the Cold ar focusing not only on the major publicized events of Korea and the Soviet Union, but on many small, third world countries. These small nations were poised to become players in the larger Cold ar struggle depending on where their allegiance and governments ended up after declaring their independence. ith the Soviet Union attempting to exert force and pressure on the United…… [Read More]
In his 1997 book The Grand Chessboard, he posits a Trans-Eurasian Security system that looks incredibly like the Bush doctrine of the preemptive strike (Brzezinski 208) . Of course, energy features largely in the Brzezinski equation, as a more careful examination of the book would reveal (well beyond the scope of this essay. This policy has lead directly to the present recession (no one wants to use the "d" word depression any more). Much as America's economy was the proverbial basket case after the multiple conflicts of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, this present experience with multiple Asian wars has contributed to the coming bankruptcy of America and the death of our much daunted American dream. The money spent in Afghanistan (as well as Iraq) is desperately needed at home in America to rebuild a civilian infrastructure badly in need of revamping.
The war is spreading in involvement as oil rich…… [Read More]
The quest for primacy is likely to lead to the formation of adversarial alliances and greater distrust of American intentions, endangering international stability and peace. In the domestic sphere, quest for primacy will lead to greater abuse of power and the expansion of the military, threatening the health of American democracy. Democracy may be eroded and the U.S. economy may be drained before advocates of American primacy may achieve their dream of American primacy.
Allison, Graham and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Longman, 1999.
Bacevich, Andrew. The New American Militarism: How Americans Are Seduced by ar. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Blainey, Geoffrey. The Causes of ar. New York: Free Press, 1973.
Jervis, Robert. "Cooperation Under the Security Dilemma," orld Politics 30.2 (1978): 167-214. JSTOR. eb 14 Oct. 2011.
Jervis, Robert. System Effects: Complexity in Political and Social Life. Princeton, NJ:…… [Read More]
Integrating women into the military, like with African-American men, would also contribute to more cohesive fighting units again serving to promote a united, strong U.S. military organization.
Anti-female bias in the military
The struggle for equality in the military for women parallels that of African-American men in many other ways. As a direct result of the need for additional "manpower," women's push for better treatment in the military, and a desire for a larger, stronger military, in 1948, the Women's Armed Services Integration Act was enacted. This act made it possible for women to become permanent members in the military.
Once again, as with African-American men, that act alone was not enough to ensure integration thus leading to a multitude of policies designed to accomplish that end. Almost immediately following this act, in 1949, it was changed to eliminate women with dependent children. This was not changed until the 1970's.…… [Read More]
Terrible oads Houston Medical Center
Unfortunately, not all is well within the context of the Houston Medical Center. esidents and workers alike are being plagued with poor quality roads that are creating a situation where many are at a disadvantage in their own everyday lives. Potholes and poor roads throughout the Houston Medical Center facility are creating many residents and faculty alike to have to put up with poorly constructed roads, and thus potential damage to their own vehicles when driving on roads within the region. It is ridiculous in an era where public funds are being spent across the country for the residents of the Houston Medical Center region to have to continuously put up with such horrible road conditions. This can essentially create a situation where there is damage undertaken by vehicles driving on the premises. Vehicles of all types are being damaged while driving in the region.…… [Read More]
Most Americans know that former President Clinton just had his library dedication in Arkansas. He was a popular president and even the Monica Lewinski scandal was not enough to taint his legacy. Unfortunately, Richard Nixon's library does not seem to have the same prestigious following as Bill Clinton seems to have. Consider that just after Christmas of last year; the Nixon's Foundation and Library won an award that almost no American on the street knows anything about. I have to admit that before I saw the Dimitri Simes who is the current President of the Nixon Center in ashington, D.C., I never even considered that there was a Nixon Foundation. "The Nixon Center is the Nixon Foundation's programmatically independent public policy institute. It recently celebrated its 10th anniversary by acquiring The National Interest, a prestigious foreign policy journal, and by presenting its Distinguished Service Award to Mikhail Baryshnikov at…… [Read More]
The National Defense Education Act was the outcome of a bill that was present before the Sputnik scare.
While the categorical aid as described in the 1958 and 1965 legislation allowed some room for negotiations on the state-church issue, it yet faced another problem due to the opposition that did not want a federal control over their states. This dragged the implementation process of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. It was in the interest of the federal government to keep a check on how the funds that they allocated were being spent thus federal control was inevitable. The resistance however did not want any intervention and thus opposed any control and checks by the federal government.
There was a Public Law 94-142 passed in 1975 which was in favor for the education of handicapped children. The passing of this law experienced a slow but sure professional change in approach.…… [Read More]
All of these together constitute the full relationship, and it is confusing and contradictory" (1998, 3). The cast of public characters included U.S. diplomats, Navy and Marine officers, and congressmen. Private citizens, including bankers, journalists, lobbyists, and businessmen, rounded out the ensemble. All these groups interacted to influence U.S. relations with Trujillo, although rarely in a consolidated fashion. hile the Dominican Republic became a difficult place to do business, a querulous participant in negotiations, and a major cause of Caribbean disquiet, including genocide, war scares, and assassinations" Trujillo still continued to obtain U.S. support (1998, 3). Even after the Trujillo government was overthrown, the U.S. government insisted on maintaining its power over the region by insisting on "approving the new head of the army and keeping the military intact." In short, ashington moved to create a "guardian system" it could control or manipulate (McSherry 2003, 2). The United States support…… [Read More]
ashington Rules: America's Path To Permanent ar
ritten by a former Army Colonel, ashington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) is a striking analysis of America's pro-military psyche and determination to "to lead, save, liberate, and ultimately transform the world" (Bacevich, 2010, p. 12) through worldwide militarism. Commencing post-orld ar II, the global military presence that has become a fact of American life has been supported by Democrats and Republicans alike, though it has significantly drained our resources. hile some critics and this reader take issue with some aspects of Bacevich's book, in many respects it provides a voice of sanity in the face of the U.S.'s now-unbearable global pro-war stance.
Bacevich's book is anything but the compliment, "ashington Rules!" ashington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) relates his own educational journey from a pro-military conservative soldier to a questioner who attacks the American…… [Read More]
Always Plan a Head.
Delegation and Accountability
Eliminate Leisurely Working.
Spending Time with Subordinates
Innovative Thinking and Planning
Set Aside A Quiet Time for Each Day 22
Avoid the Unnecessary
Learn How To Bunch The Activities.
Respect The Time Of Subordinates.
Record and Analyze Time Utilization Occasionally
Insist On Completed Quality Work.
Allot Some Time For Closing Down.
Types of Time Management in Companies
ABC Analysis Categories
The Pareto Analysis
The Eisenhower Method
Applying Eisenhower Method to Project Management
The POSEC Method
Total Quality Management
Other Quality Assurance Systems
Importance of Training Effectiveness
Definitions of Training and Learning
Evaluation of Training
Learning in the Workplace
Enterprise Risk Management 62
COSO Framework 65
Works Cited 71
List of Figures
Figure 1: Physical and Mental Peaks during the day 21
Figure 2: Graphical Representation…… [Read More]