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Elderly Care Case Study
Discharging a patient from hospital is usually a complex process that is surrounded by many challenges. Therefore an appropriate discharge plan should be put in place so that there can be avoidance of re-hospitalization. As the case manager for Mr. Trosak case there are several healthcare issues that should be addressed when working with an interdisciplinary plan to determine the most appropriate discharge plan for Mr. Trosak.
These healthcare issues include medication management, appointments, the nature of the patient's current home and suitability for the patient's condition and emotional care. It is important to address all this issues when determining the appropriate discharge plan for the elderly patient. This is because all these issues are important and if they are not addressed appropriately then the patient might eventually find their way back to the hospital. The discharged patient should have adequate help from family or other…
Alpher, E., O'Malley, T. A & Greenwald, J.(2012).Hospital Discharge. Retrieved November 13,
2012 from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/hospital-discharge
Next step in care. (2010).Hospital-to-Home Discharge Guide. Retrieved November 13, 2012
Many experience depressions and sudden mood swings. The abuse of drugs -- prescription or illegal -- can also lead to disorientation, memory loss and having new difficulties in making decisions (Blow 2003).
Given these effects, the recognition of drug abuse among the elderly population is quite an important task. The recognition of these symptoms, however, is made more complicated by the fact that many members of the elderly population already take a number of prescription drugs. The symptoms of drug abuse also mimic those of many illnesses that are often associated with aging.
This makes the proper recognition and treatment of drug abuse even more critical.
Treatment options: availability and barriers
Substance abuse problems among the elderly are often missed, due to lack of recognition from the caregiver and an unwillingness of the patient and/or family members to discuss the problem. However, when such symptoms are recognized, it is vital…
Benshoff, John J. et al. 2003. "Substance abuse and the elderly: Unique issues and concerns." Journal of Rehabilitation. 69:2
Blow, Frederic. 2002. "Misuse and abuse of alcohol, illicit drugs, and psychoactive medication among older people." Generations. 26:1.
Levin, S.M., & Kruger, J. (Eds.). (2000). Substance abuse among older adults: A guide for social service providers. Rockville, MD: Substance abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Mersy, David. 2003. "Recognition of alcohol and substance abuse." American Family Physician. 67:7
Elderly Care in America: A comparison with England's Healthcare System
Healthcare in America vs. Healthcare in England
Different countries have varying healthcare systems across the world and the systems are set to benefit the local population with the best possible care as would be dictated by the budgetary allocations and supported by the economy and the GDP of the particular nations. There are different sections of the healthcare system that try to cater for each section of the populations and this paper will specifically be concerned with the healthcare systems in the U.S.A. And in England, particularly directed at the elderly in the society. It will look at the healthcare system that prevails in the U.S.A. And the tenets that define it as well as the system that prevails in England, then the paper makes comparison of the two systems as well as highlight the differences that there are between…
Advanta Home Care, (2014). East Vs. West: How we Treat our Elderly. Retrieved December 5, 2014 from http://advantahomecare.net/east-vs.-west-how-we-treat-our-elderly
American Dental Association, (2014). Oral Health Topics: Medicaid and Medicare. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral-health-topics/medicaid-and-medicare
National Institute of Aging (2008). Americans Living Longer, Enjoying Greater Health and Prosperity, but Important Disparities Remain, Says Federal Report. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://www.nia.nih.gov/newsroom/2008/03/americans-living-longer-enjoying-greater-health-and-prosperity-important
New York Times, (2014). Is the Affordable Care Act Working? Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/10/27/us/is-the-affordable-care-act-working.html#/
Adult Children and Elderly Care
Comment by Sabina:
Adult Children and Elderly Care
What are some of the major problems caregivers face?
With advances in modern medicine our elderly populations are living much longer. Family members who care for their elderly parents encounter many different problems. Some of the biggest problems that caregivers face are the financial strains and emotional strains involved with caring for an elderly parent. Medical care is extremely expensive, even with the use of Medicare there is still out of pocket cost associated with medical care and prescriptions. Adult children who care for parents, who are disabled or chronically ill, could experience many different levels of stress and emotions. There is a high level of stress associated with caring for a parent with a chronic disease. Career goals may also suffer for the caregiver. Many caregivers have to change their job or even leave…
ArgiLife (2010). Helping when Health Fails. Family and Consumer Sciences. Retrieved from http://fcs.tamu.edu/families/aging/elder_care/helping_when_health_fails.php
Elderly Stereotypes in the Media
In Western society today, there has been an overwhelming tendency towards a concern with remaining as youthful as possible for as long as possible. Although this does extend towards the qualities of energy and vitality, the main focus of this drive is upon appearance. In American society particularly, the media has both encouraged and perpetuated this trend. Advertisements, greeting cards, and even cartoons often portray older people as feeble, foolish, and worthy of little more than providing some derisive entertainment for the younger generations. While the mass media has been improving its images of the elderly as citizens worthy of respect, there are still many images that cater to the general drive towards remaining young and physically attractive (Vickers, 2007).
Vickers (2007) notes that stereotypes occur in all sorts of media, including television, comics, and cartoons. One example of the cartoon genre is the online…
Aha Jokes.com (2011). Honesty on the Internet. Retrieved from: http://www.ahajokes.com/crt004.html
Kingsley, D. (Nov 29, 2009). Stereotyping the Elderly. The Tallgrass Activist. Retrieved from: http://tallgrassactivist.wordpress.com/2009/11/29/stereotyping-the-elderly/
Vickers, K. (2007). Aging and the Media: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. Californian Journal of Health Promotion, Vol. 5, Iss. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.csuchico.edu/cjhp/5/3/100-105-vickers.pdf
Where's the Beef Commercial. Retrieved from: www.retrojunk.com/details_commercial/1708/
Elderly Population With Diabetes
Epidemiology: Definition and Description
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and factors to health conditions in particular populations and its application to the control of these health conditions (NCCDPHP, 2004). The shortest description of the work of epidemiologists is that they count and compare data of cases of disease or injuries in a given population. Then they compare these data with those of another or other populations. From the comparison, they form inferences on patterns in determining if a certain problem exists. If and when they infer that there is a problem, they use the gathered data to determine the cause, the modes of transmission, probable factors of susceptibility, exposure or risk and other potential environmental factors. What a health care practitioner does to an individual patient, an epidemiologist does to an entire population. oth of them test their respective hypotheses…
AoA (2010). Health, prevention and wellness program. Administration on Aging:
Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on July 23, 2011 from http://www.aoa.gov/AoARoot/AoA_Programs/HCLTC/Evidence_Based/index/aspx
BAM Classroom (2011). Understanding the epidemiologic triangle through infectious disease. Body and Mind: Centers for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved on July 23, 2011 from http://www.bam.gov/teachers/activities/epi_1_triangle.pdf
Cadena, C. (2010). Chronic diabetes in the elderly: the effects of treatment burnout.
Elderly Hispanic Diabetics
Diabetes is a real problem that affects a significant amount of our population. The death rate associated with diabetes continues to climb yearly, while the death rate of other diseases continues to decrease (ADA, 2010). Diabetes is impairment in the human body that prevents the body from converting glucose to energy. According to the CDC nearly 26 million Americans have diabetes and 79 million adults have prediabetes (CDC, 2010). This is a serious problem and needs further research.
In the Hispanic community Diabetes is a major health disparity. "there is a prevalence and health burden of diabetes, which is greater in older Mexican-Americans than in older non-Hispanic Whites and African-Americans, particularly among elderly men" (Black, ay, & Markides, 1999). This problem must be analyzed and addressed. There is a definite need for educating this population about the effects of diabetes. Educating this population about the…
ADA. (2011) Give a tax-deductible donation to help the American diabetes Association. Retrieved from https://donations.diabetes.org/site/Donation2?df_id=9180&9180.donation=landing&cr=Helpusfightthediabetesepidemic&gclid=CLSNheGwyacCFYrs7QodXhc9Cw
Black, S.A., Ray, L.A. & Markides, K.S. (1999). The prevalence and health burden of self-reported diabetes in older Mexican-Americans: findings from the Hispanic established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. American Journal of Public Health. 89 (4) 546-552
CDC. (2011). Diabetes and America. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/search.do?queryText=what+is+diabetes&searchButton.x=0&searchButton.y=0&action=search
WebMD. (2011). Blood sugar control and insulin. Retrieved from http://diabetes.webmd.com/slideshow-blood-sugar-insulin
The authors of this research studied 690 individuals between the ages 65 and 89 over a five-year period. They called the survey the "Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly" study (ACTIVE) -- and the results indicate that "cognitive reserve reflects the persistence of earlier differences in cognitive functioning" as opposed to the differential rates of "age-associated cognitive declines" (Tucker-Drob, p. 431). Moreover, the authors offer a pair of conclusions highly germane to elderly issues. One, formal education achieved during the formative years is not directly related to "rates of decline in cognitive functioning during later life" (p. 441). And two, getting a good education "casually influences cognitive abilities" during youthful years and "these benefits seem to persist…until late adulthood." Indeed the authors hypothesize that these benefits "may also serve to protect against functional impairment" and hence have "substantial implications for everyday functioning in later life" (p. 441).
Dierckx, E., Engelborghs, S., De Raedt, R., De Deyn, P.P., & Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I.
(2007). Mild Cognitive Impairment: What's in a Name? Gerontology, 53, 28-35.
Sirven, Joseph I., & Malamut, Barbara L. (2008). Clinical Neurology of the Older
Adult. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Elderly Drivers: Benefit of Experience or Danger to Others?
One of the most pertinent facts of society today is that, in general, populations are aging. This is particularly true of developed nations, where medical science has created a platform to allow the average person to live far longer than the case has been just 50 years ago. The result is a gradually aging population, where the number of elderly is increasing. In addition to concerns like funding for medical care, this phenomenon as also created concerns for road safety. Indeed, according to some statistics, the number of elderly drivers (drivers aged 70 and over) is likely to rise to triple its current level within 20 years (Smartmotorist.com, 2011). This rapid rise in elderly drivers has raised concerns about the safety of roads not only for other drivers, but for the elderly drivers themselves. Statistics appear to be as divided on…
Centers for Disease Control (2015, May 4). Motor Vehicle Safety: Older Adult Drivers. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/older_adult_drivers/
Rand Corporation (2007). What Risks Do Older Drivers Pose to Traffic Safety? Retrieved from: http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9272/index1.html
Shishkin, P. (2009, Jul. 14). Crashes Fuel Debate on Rules for Older Drivers. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970203577304574276442336625248
Smartmotorist.com. (2011). Older Drivers, Elderly Driving, Seniors at the Wheel. Retrieved from: http://www.smartmotorist.com/traffic-and-safety-guideline/older-drivers-elderly-driving-seniors-at-the-wheel.html
And the Poor (Women) Shall (Not) Inherit the Earth
In America we are often told that anyone can succeed. All you need to do is to work hard. Of course, it helps to be smart. And, of course, it helps to be white. And, of course, it helps to have a well-connected family. And just generally to have the kind of luck that means that you don't get hit by a car or a meteor or by a particularly virulent form of cancer. And, of course, more than almost anything else, it helps to be a man. One of the most accurate predictors of who will spend their old age in poverty is gender. Women end up poor, which affects every aspect of their lives. This paper examines one aspect of the intersection of poverty and gender: The relationship among female status, poverty, age, and housing.
For example, Edna's color palate changes and the media she uses changes regularly, often revealing her state of mind before she is aware of it herself. Art has been one of Edna's main sources of stability. Edna appreciates her solitude. Even though she and her husband have always had a lot of friends, Edna prefers to be alone and frequently spends all day in her art studio, which is a large shed on their property.
In her 50s Edna started to become more active in her community. Her daughter's experience with spousal abuse inspired Edna to volunteer at a local women's shelter, where she continues to volunteer today. Passionate about the environment, Edna has served on more than one public council on community beautification and petitioned the city to expand its recycling program. In addition to her campaign for improved sanitation services with the city, Diamond has also served on…
The problem that exists in attempting to better understand elder care abuse from a clinical and social perspective, is that there are not enough studies relative to these contemporary times from which to gain insight in order to benefit a clinical approach to protecting elderly from the abuse, and to identity and intervene with a clinical approach at risk elderly people. Johnson, et al., describe elder abuse as interpersonal violence, that has beginning in the latter part of the twentieth century come to be identified as a violence against an age specific segment of the population (325). It is, Johnson, et al. say, a problem that has drawn focus on the same plane as human rights, gender, equality and population ageing (325). This is a timely focus and concern, because in the next decade there will be an unprecedented number of elderly world-wide, and especially in America, who are the…
In addition, it could actually lower insurance premiums, especially on the elderly, because insurance companies could be assured that the elderly drivers they are insuring are indeed still capable of driving safely.
In addition, creating federal legislation for the states can only save lives - not only of elderly drivers, but of others who come in contact with them. Studies show that, "For every mile they drive, people age 75 or older are more likely to be seriously injured or killed in an automobile accident than are drivers in any other age group except for teenagers. (McKnight 63). Another study notes, "Of traffic fatalities involving older drivers, 82% happened in the daytime, 71% occurred on weekdays, and 75% involved a second vehicle" ("Older Drivers"). Thus, elderly drivers are a danger to themselves, and are more likely to be injured because of their increasingly frail health, but they are also a…
Author not Available. "Older Drivers." SmartMotorist.com. 2004. 23 March 2005. http://www.smartmotorist.com/eld/eld.htm
McKnight, a. James. "Too Old to Drive?" Issues in Science and Technology Winter 2000: 63.
Mercier, Cletus R., and Scott R. Falb. "Policy Issues: License Renewal for Older Drivers - Analysis of the Iowa Experience in Reexamination of High-Risk Drivers." Policy Studies Journal 25.1 (1997): 157+.
Putting the Brakes on Older Drivers." State Legislatures Sept. 2004: 8.
Elderly and their Risk of Depression
Until just recently geriatric depression was not regarded as a medical diagnosis, however, with the elderly suicide rate being the highest in the country it has now come to the forefront of medical research. There are numerous reasons for depression in anyone, at any age, but it seems to plague the elderly at a much higher rate. This is due to a variety of reasons. One factor is the health condition of elderly people who ultimately become victims of a medical ailment by sixty-five years of age. This enhances the chances of depression substantially. Another major reason for geriatric depression is the loss a spouse, in which the passing of our significant other becomes such a traumatic experience that reclusiveness, denial, and ultimately depression are resorted to.
It has been recently acknowledged that insomnia is another cause of geriatric depression, often diagnosed as a…
Balzer, D. "Depression in the Elderly." New England Journal of Medicine 320 (1989):
DuPage County Health Department. "Shalala Invites the Public's Input in Developing
Healthy People 2010." Data and Statistics. 2000. DuPage County Health
However, research has shown this to be a more serious issue than previously thought. New research using reconstructed exposure histories suggested a clear association between heavy metal exposure, including lead, and Parkinson's disease. For a period of time, lead was a common ingredient in paints and other building materials. Studies also suggest that it does not take a great deal of toxic metal to store in the bone and cause health issues later in life.
Yach, D., et.al. (2006). "Epidemiologic and Economic consequences of the Global
Epidemics Of Obesity and Diabetes." Nature. 12 (1): 62-66.
One of the most visible issues facing older adults is obesity. Medical doctors, scholars, researchers are all in agreement that there is a complete link between what we eat and drink, and the consequences to our overall health. One need only look in the newspaper, magazines, grocery store aisles, or pop-up ads to see thousands…
Boseman, J. And L. Victor. (2008). "Aging Americans and Diabetes: A Public Health
and Clinical Response." Geriatrics. 59 (4): 14-17.
Gan, W., et.al., (2011). Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Hospitalization and Mortality. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119 (4): 501-16.
Nemerogg, C. (2007). The Curiously Strong Relationship Between Cardiovascular
elderly person's hands tell the story of a lifetime. Each spot, each crack, each wrinkle is a memory. That memory is permanently etched in these hands, which reach out and touch the world. Those hands scare me at first. They remind me that I will be old one day, too. Then I realize that those hands are trying to tell me something. I look at my own hands and try to listen. When I look again at the elderly person's hands, I see past, present, and future woven together in the story of time.
She is an infant, crawling on the floor. Her hands reach out to touch an object daddy dangles in front of her eyes. It makes a funny noise. She keeps one hand on the floor and reaches toward the object, opening and closing her fist. Daddy lets her touch it. The object is round and smooth.…
Elderly Women Diagnosed with Nonspecific Chest Pain May be at Increased Cardiovascular isk" is succinct, but it does convey the scope of the research in a very few words. It gives the three main variables around which the article is based.
The abstract contains all of the major sections of the paper, and it leads the audience properly into the study. Each section gets about a two sentence treatment which explains the intent of the article, its method and findings.
Basically the article states that since women are more prone to nonspecific chest pain there needs to be some research conducted which investigates whether women, who are also at a greater risk of heart disease, who have the chest pain are more prone to cardiovascular problems. The problem does have significance for nursing because nurses will be the first to hear about this type of chest pain, and with the…
Robinson, J.G., Wallace, R., Limacher, M., Sato, A., Cochrane, B., Wassertheil- Smoller, S., Ockene, J.K., Blanchette, P.L., & Ko, P.G. (2006). Elderly women diagnosed with nonspecific chest pain may be at increased cardiovascular risk. Journal of Women's Health (Larchmont), 15(10), 1151-1160.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the average American lifespan was 46 years; now it is 77 years. A 1928 government study forecast that the "natural" lifespan would ultimately rise to the unbelievable level of 65 years. When Social Security was enacted, this estimate was used as the basis for setting the federal retirement age at 65. Lawmakers assumed Social Security would be economical because most people would die without ever receiving a benefit check. Instead, today Americans average an extra decade of life beyond what experts thought would be the biological maximum. ("Environmental eality: A Tidbit," 2003, p. 46)
There is a clear sense that the demographic of representation is also aging, as there are significantly older members of congress and court in seat today than has been the case in the past and this may also shift the trend toward bolstering some of the social services that…
Boomers Slow Down, but Won't Quit; Active Hobbies Part-Time Work, Volunteering to Fill Retirement Years. (2005, December 27). The Washington Times, p. A01.
Dart, J. (2001, May 2). Faith-Based Leader. The Christian Century, 118, 9.
Environmental Reality: A Tidbit from a Bradley Lecture at the American Enterprise Institute, in Which Gregg Easterbrook Previewed His Forthcoming Book the Progress Paradox. (2003, July/August). The American Enterprise, 14, 46.
Lamm, R.D., & Blank, R.H. (2005, July/August). The Challenge of an Aging Society: The Future of U.S. Health Care Must Involve Some Form of Rationing, Argue a Former Governor and a Medical-Policy Scholar. The Problem Is Not Simply How to Control Costs, but How to Achieve Social Justice. The Futurist, 39, 23.
In this regard, Sheve adds that, "For these people, assisted living may be the answer. Assisted living facilities fill a gap between complete independence and around-the-clock care. It's an option for those who are 'mostly abled' and who still want (and can safely live with) a high degree of freedom and independence" (para. 4). Not surprisingly, the continuum of care required for the elderly is closely associated with the age, with older individuals requiring higher levels of care as shown in Figure 2 below.
Figure 2. Percentage of elderly in the U.S. requiring assistance with everyday activities by age group
Source: Based on data from U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division at http://www.med carelifts.com/65plus.htm
In response to the growing elderly population, there are currently more than 23,000 long-term care facilities of some type in the United States that deliver care for more than a million-and-a-half elderly residents, and the number of…
Assisted living. (2010). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.eldercare.gov/Eldercare.NET/Public/Resources/fact_sheets/assisted_living.aspx .
Bucher, S. (2005). Aging independently: Living arrangements and mobility. Care Management
Journals, 6(2), 118-119.
Chesser, D.L., Harrison, W.T., Jr. & Barry, C.T. (2002). A financially secure future: The role of long-term-care insurance. Journal of Accountancy, 194(6), 53-54.
elderly in American Society. Using a book by Tracy Kidder called Old Friends the reader of this paper is given a detailed outline of what various elderly concerns are. Social relationships, doctors and patient needs as well as nursing home discussions are all included.
THE NEED FOR COMPASSION
Medical science has grown in leaps and bounds over the last century. Today, we are living longer than ever before and we are having a premium quality of life while doing so. Doctors are able to mend and cure problems that would have killed us even 50 years ago. With the increased longevity, comes a new set of problems for society as the geriatric population finds growing in numbers each year. While it is encouraging that we can now incorporate long-range plans for our lives well into our golden years, the ability to do so comes with its own set of trouble.…
"Federal law requires nursing homes to have a nursing director who is a registered nurse, a medical director, and other paraprofessional personnel (medical social workers, pharmacists, rehabilitation specialists, a recreational therapist, and di- teary, housekeeping, and maintenance services). More than 90% of nursing home employees are nursing staff, and 80% of care is provided by nursing aides. These may include full-time, part-time, or contract professionals (Cefalu, 1995). "
The elderly face many challenges as they advance in age. There are nursing homes that provide total care including developing a social life for its residents. They employ an activities director who plans outings, game nights, dances and other events to encourage social interaction. In addition there are senior centers throughout the nation providing the same type of care for those who still live at home. The social isolation of the elderly is one of the biggest obstacles that we must over come if we want quality of life to keep up with quantity of life in the future. Changes in the financial demands for poverty before admittance needs to be addressed as well as outreach programs for those who still reside at home but are isolated. It is important that we address these issues with urgency and competence for it won't be long until we find ourselves included in this population and evaluating options.
elderly treated in foraging societies? Is there any variation, or are the old considered to be useless
The way that the elderly are treated in a particular society varies in accordance to the mores and realities that each individual society faces. This notion applies to foraging societies, in which people hunt and gather food, as well. In most societies the elderly are treated with respect for the simple fact that they have lived a long time, have learned and can teach a lot, and have taken care of others most of their lives. There is a degree of variation in the way that the elderly are treated in foraging societies, which is dependent on the most relative factors for that society.
There are some societies in which the elderly are considered useless entities that cannot hunt or gather. This statement is true for certain indigenous people in areas of Alaska,…
By allowing health care professionals to educate patients about issues of specific concern to their health, the program helps prevent or at least reduce the likelihood of certain kinds of health and safety threats. Similarly, by providing a medication review system and ongoing monitoring of chronic diseases and symptoms, the program allows residents to receive appropriate intervention at the earliest possible stage of disease rather than after acute symptoms manifest themselves and complications develop that require more serious forms of intervention.
Obviously, the picture presented by the program described in the article is a positive situation that demonstrates some of the most meaningful ways that health care providers can promote and help maintain human health in vulnerable populations whose members might typically receive fewer than all of the health and health-related service that they actually require for optimal health, safety, and wellness. However, another small part of the article illustrates…
Aselton, P. "Using a Wellness Program in Public Housing for Community Nursing
Clinical Experiences." Journal of Nursing Education, Vol. 50, No. 3 (2011): 163-
Learner-Centered Instruction: Teaching Patients How to Care for Themselves When They Have a Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure
Teaching patients how to care for themselves when they have a diagnosis of congestive heart failure has been shown to be “effective in improving self?care and reducing readmissions” (Stromberg, 2005). This project will provide a lesson plan that nurses can implement using a learner-centered instruction approach in order to help patients with congestive heart failure properly and effectively apply self-care.
Currently there is a need for better self-care among patients with congestive heart failure, as shown by Dickson and Riegel (2009) and Harkness, Spaling, Currie, Strachan and Clark (2015), as self-care can help to empower patients to provide more effective relief and management of their own health. Moreover, Tsai, Wang, Lee, Tsai & Chen (2015) show that self-care can help reduce re-admission rates and prevent patients from misapplying…
Bartholomew, L. K., Gold, R. S., Parcel, G. S., Czyzewski, D. I., Sockrider, M. M., Fernandez, M. & Swank, P. (2000). Watch, discover, think, and act: Evaluation of computer-assisted instruction to improve asthma self-management in inner-city children. Patient Education and Counseling, 39(2), 269-280.
Bastable, S. (2014). Nurse as educator, 4th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Dickson, V. V., & Riegel, B. (2009). Are we teaching what patients need to know? Building skills in heart failure self-care. Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care, 38(3), 253-261.
Dobbs, D. (2011, October). Beautiful brains. National Geographic, 220(4), 36-59.
Emory Healthcare. (2018). Heart failure statistics. Retrieved from https://www.emoryhealthcare.org/heart-vascular/wellness/heart-failure-statistics.html
Halstead, J. (2007). Nurse educator competencies: Creating an evidence-based practice for nurse educators. New York, NY: National League for Nursing.
Harkness, K., Spaling, M. A., Currie, K., Strachan, P. H., & Clark, A. M. (2015). A systematic review of patient heart failure self-care strategies. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 30(2), 121-135.
Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the brain in mind (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Ageism is a term or concept that has become popular in the modern society though its definition remains problematic. Most of the existing definitions of ageism are based on parallels of sexism and racism (Iversen, Larsen & Solem, 2009). However, ageism can basically be defined as stereotyping or discriminating against others based on their age. In most cases, ageism refers to poor treatment of older people or the elderly though it can also refer to prejudice against young people in certain cases. Some of the most common prejudices associated with ageism including the belief that older people are unable to contribute to the society, consideration of the elderly as slow and inactive, and viewing them as people with poor memory. While some of these issues reflect the experiences of older people, they can be used for positive or negative stereotyping of the elderly population.
An example of…
Gendron, T.L., Welleford, E.A., Inker, J. & White, J.T. (2016, December 1). The Language of Ageism: Why We Need to Use Words Carefully. The Gerontologist, 56(6), 997-1006.
Iversen, T.N., Larsen, L. & Solem, P.E. (2009, November). A Conceptual Analysis of Ageism. Nordic Psychology, 61(3), 4-22.
Brain training with non-action video games and its effects on brain health among the elderly showing early signs of dementia
Past researches have revealed the potential contribution of video game-playing to the improvement of certain cognitive functions among healthy aged individuals (Lampit, Hallock & Valenzuela, 2014; Jak, Seelye & Jurick, 2013). Drawn by the above results reached by scholars in the field, game-making firms have developed and released several kinds of games aimed at brain training (for instance, Brain Age, Brain Challenge and Big Brain Academy). Ever since their earliest releases into the gaming market, games of this sort have enjoyed immense popularity worldwide (Toril, Reales & Ballesteros, 2014; Nouchi et al., 2013). Among the anticipated advantages of such games is improved cognitive functions (for instance, recall, processing pace, executive function, and concentration), indicated often using the term 'transfer effect'.
This research project specifically aims at examining the…
Most of the drug commercials also show the elderly with health concerns and needing help from others. In addition, it is rare to see an elderly contestant on a game show or interviewed on the nightly news, and most commercials star young, healthy, and very vital and attractive young people. When the elderly are featured, it is mostly with health concerns and problems.
Some situation comedies depict the elderly in a better light. For example, in "Everybody Loves Raymond," the two elderly cast members, Peter Boyle and Doris Roberts, are depicted as cranky and eccentric, like many elderly are depicted on TV, but they are also loving, if annoying, parents. They are also funny and warm, and have a mature relationship on the screen. They are funny, but they also add warmth to the show, and great character. It would not seem they were entirely positive, but they certainly are…
Caring for the Old
The End of Life Care
End of life care refers to the total care of a person that has an advanced illness that is incurable and does not equate with death. This end of life care can last for a number of weeks, months or even years depending on the state an individual is.it is usually the care which helps those that have advanced, progressive and illnesses that can not be cured to live life as well as possible until they meet their death. End of life care makes it possible for the patient and their family to get supportive and palliative care needs identified and met throughout the last phase when they are living and into the bereavement period. Supportive care is care which helps a patient and the family to cope with the condition and the treatment of that condition right from the pre-diagnosis…
Boswell, Kahana & Worth-anderson, 2006). Spirituality and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: Stress Counter-balancing Effects on the Well-being of Older Adults. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.case.edu/artsci/soci/documents/Spiritualityandhealthylifestylebehaviors.pdf
U.S. Department of State, (2012).Legal & Financial Issues In Caregiving for Older Adults. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.state.gov/m/dghr/flo/142266.htm
American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), (2014). Caregiving Considerations. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/older-adults/caregiving-considerations
The Joanna Briggs Institute, (2011). Age-friendly nursing interventions in the management of older people in emergency departments. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://connect.jbiconnectplus.org/ViewSourceFile.aspx?0=7127
Preventing Falls: A Program to Address Elderly Falls Using the Strategy of Education
The goal of this program is to prevent elderly persons from experiencing falls, which can have severe impacts on their health. Falls are one of the most dangerous experiences an elderly person can suffer (Owen, 1985) and so it is important not only for them to be aware of the dangers around them but also for others who care for them or who know them to be aware of how we could help to prevent falls (American Institute of Architects Foundation, 1986). The main goal of this program, therefore, is to spread knowledge and education about elderly fall risks and to adopt preventative measures that can be adopted both by the elderly and by their caretakers, children, neighbors, friends, loved ones -- in short, anyone who comes into contact with them and cares to help them avoid…
Al-Faisal, W. (2006). Falls Prevention for Older Persons. Eastern Mediterranean
Regional Review. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ageing/projects/EMRO.pdf
American Institute of Architects Foundation. (1986). Design for Aging: An Architect's
Guide. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Architects Press.
With the help of a thorough clinical evaluation, the risk factors, risks associated with falling and working out adequate intervention methods to curb the rate of elderly falls can be achieved. As per the 2011 AGS / BGS guidelines, (Panel on Fall, 2011) certain particulars need to be incorporated in a particular clinical evaluation: 1: Patient history, physical examination, mental and physical functionality; 2: Number of falls occurring, number of medications taken; issues regarding mobility, balance and gait; blurred eyesight; various mental disabilities; weak muscular strength; uneven heartbeat and rhythm; postural hypotension; problems in feet and risks related to environment (Shubert, 2014).
Strategies to Prevent Elderly Falls and Health elated Consequences
Assistive Devices and Other Protective Equipment: Appropriate footwear is required for particular conditions, for instance, wintery weather necessitates anti-slip shoes whilst warmer weather requires cleated footwear, facilitating decreased falls (Panel on Fall, 2011).
Clinical Disease Management (Acute…
Clemson, L., Mackenzie, L., Ballinger, C. & Close, J.C.T. (2008). Cumming RG. Environmental interventions to prevent falls in community-dwelling older people: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Aging Health. 20(8):954-971.
Gillespie, L.D., Robertson, M.C., Gillespie, W.J., Lamb, S.E., Gates, S., and Cumming, R.G. (2009). Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2), Art.No.: CD007146
Panel on Fall prevention in Older Persons, American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society, (2011). Summary of the Updated American Geriatrics Society/British Geriatrics Society Clinical Practice Guideline for Prevention of Falls in Older Persons. J Am Geriatr Soc.;59(1):148-157.
Scott V, Gallagher E, Higginson A, Metcalfe S, & Rajabali F. (2011). Evaluation of an evidence-based education program for health professionals: The Canadian Falls Prevention Curriculum (CFPC). Journal of Safety Research. 42(6):501-507.
For instance, a decline in peripheral vision may impact the ability to pass approaching vehicles safely, and the decreased range of motion in an older person's neck may impair the ability to look behind when backing up. Also, reaction time decreases by almost 40% on average from age 35 to 65 (Jackson, 1999).
It also appears that the aging process may affect cognitive skills. Short-term memory loss, for instance, can decrease driving skills by interfering with an individual's ability to process information effectively when merging onto a highway into traffic or changing lanes. Such issues are magnified when driving under stressful situations. The higher incidence of cognitive impairment, particularly dementia, among older men and women leads to an increased risk of accident involvement (Jackson, 1999).
According to AAP, as a group, persons age 65 and older are relatively safe drivers. Although they represent 14% of all licensed drivers, they are…
Bedard, M., Stones, M., Guyatt, G. & Hirdes, J. (2001). Related fatalities among older drivers and passengers: past and future trends. The Gerontologist. 41 (6), 751-57.
Beers, M.H. & Berkow, R. (eds.) (2000) the Merck Manual of Geriatrics. 3rd ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co.
Central Intelligence Agency (1998). World Fact Book Washington, D.C.: Government
In addition, those who are emotionally troubled and who are overweight -- often a contributing factor to emotional difficulties -- do not receive extra counseling time." Seale, Seale & Zhang (2008, p.425) This is a serious concern and one that must be addressed immediately by physicians who are providing care for obese patients.
A lot of revamping has to be done to meet this increased need of obese elderly and this has to be done fast. The numbers are increasing by the day and unless some initiatives are taken right away, it can blow up into a full-fledged catastrophe in the future. The first and foremost step that is required is to change the present healthcare system to make it more effective and efficient. Changes have to be made in the delivery of service as well as payments to make it more accessible to the elderly.
Another important step…
Arterburn, David E. (2004). The Coming Epidemic of Obesity in Elderly Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 52(11). 1907-1912
Odilia I; Bermudez; Tucker, Katherine L. (2001). Total and Central Obesity among Elderly Hispanics and the Association with Type 2 Diabetes. Obesity Research (9), 443 -- 451; doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.58
Thompson, Dennis. (2009, December 31). As U.S. Ages, Health Care May Need to Change. HealthDay Consumer News Service.
Dutton, Drake, D; Engelke. K; McAuliffe, M; Rose, M., (2005). Challenges that nurses face in caring for morbidly obese patients in the acute care setting. Surgery for Obesity and Related
" (Stone, 2006) Treatment is stated by Stone (2006) to be "diagnosis dependent and may be medical or surgical." Practical modifications include simple steps such as crushing of pills or opening of capsules to ease and facilitate swallowing.
The work of Leibovitz, et al. (2007) entitled: 'Dehydration Among Long-Term Care Elderly Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia" states that long-term care (LTC) residents in the nursing home "especially the orally fed with dysphagia are prone to dehydration. The clinical consequences of dehydration are critical. The validity of the common laboratory parameters of hydration status is far from being absolute, especially so in the elderly." (Leibovitz, et al., 2007) it is related however that "combinations of these indices are more reliable." (Leibovitz, et al., 2007) the study reported by Leibovitz et al. is one that assessed hydration status among elderly LTC residents with oropharyngeal dysphagia and in which a total of 28 orally…
Spieker, Michael R. (2000) Evaluating Dysphagia. American Family Physician 14 Jun 2000. Online available at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000615/3639.html
Marik, Paul E. And Kaplan, Danielle (2003) Aspiration Pneumonia and Dysphagia in the Elderly. Chest. July 2003. Vol. 1224, No. 1. Online available at http://www.chestjournal.org/content/124/1/328.full
Bautmans, I., et al. (2008) Dysphagia in elderly nursing home residents with severe cognitive impairment can be attenuated by cervical spine mobilization. J. Rehabil Med. 2008 Oct;40(9):755-60. PubMed Online available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=18843429
Stone, Rebecca S. (2006) Dysphagia in the Elderly. Inpatient Times. October 2006. Online available at http://www.bmc.org/geriatrics/RStone_DysphagiaintheElderly.pdf
This difficulty does not just stop at causing dietary deficiencies but may also lead to acute dental and non-dental diseases. With early detection and intervention such diseases can be prevented thus the health professionals in senior centers can take a step of screening the seniors for oral problems and take the necessary steps. They can also train the seniors on practicing preventive health and also refer them to appropriate nutritional and dental professionals.
It is common for seniors to rate their health, the good news is that most of them rate their health status as good, very good, or excellent. There is a relation between self-rated health and mortality and expectations for dying, it is therefore necessary to encourage those having positive self-rating so that they can maintain and improve their health. Those with negative self-ratings should also not be ignored but should be assisted to develop a positive attitude…
Alvarado-Esquivel, C. et al. (2004). Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in elders of nursing homes and a senior center of Durango City, Mexico. BMC Psychiatry, 4:3.
Farone, D.W. et al. (2005). Use of senior centers as a moderator of stress-related distress among
Latino elders. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 46(1)
Michinov, N. (2007). Social comparison and affect: A study among elderly women. The Journal
Falls in the Elderly
It is no secret that elderly people fall more than people in younger age groups. Each year, approximately one-third of elderly people will experience a fall of some kind (Yoshida, n.d.; Centers, 2013). There are several reasons that this can be the case. The theory here is that balance simply becomes more tenuous as a person ages, and that not all falls in the elderly can be prevented. However, there are racial differences seen in falls, as well. White men experience the largest number of fatal falls, followed by white women, then black men, and black women (Yoshida, n.d.). People who have limited access to health care and other helpful options are also more likely to fall. They may have diseases or conditions that make falling more likely, putting them at risk (Yoshida, n.d.). Additionally, people who live alone and who do not have a lot…
Blake, A.J., Morgan, K., Bendall, M.J., Dallosso, H., Ebrahim, S.B., Arie, T.H., Fentem, P.H., & Bassey, E.J. (1988). Falls by elderly people at home: Prevalence and associated factors. Age Ageing, 17(6): 365-72.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Falls among older adults: An overview. CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/adultfalls.html
Yoshida, S. (n.d.) A global report on falls prevention. Epidemiology of falls. World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ageing/projects/1.Epidemiology%20of %20falls%20in%20older%20age.pdf
The emphasis is on normal, everyday activities provided for residents. According to the authors, however, little research has been conducted to investigate the actual effect of such activities and settings upon residents. The assumption is that such settings have a better effect that traditional institutions, but there is little empirical research to support this.
Hence, Verbeek et al. (2010) conducted a study to compare small-scale living with regular care in nursing homes in the Netherlands. Interestingly, they found no significant difference between the quality of life experienced by residents in traditional institutional settings and those in small-scale living facilities. Furthermore, there was also no significant difference in the job satisfaction levels of nursing staff between both types of institution was found. Another important aspect, namely neuropsychiatric symptoms and agitation were also significantly similar for both institution types. According to the authors, a difference was found in the satisfaction level of…
Gaugler, J.E. (2005, Mar.). Family Involvement in Residential Long-Term Care: A Synthesis and Critical Review. Aging and Mental health, Iss. 9, vol. 2. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2247412/
Lyness, J.M., Yu, Q., Tang, W., Tu, X., and Conwell, Y. (2009, Dec.). Risks for Depression Onset in Primary Care Elderly Patients: Potential Targets for Preventive Interventions. American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2982671/
Simonazzi, a. (2009, Jun). Home care and cash transfers. Effects on the elderly care-female employment trade-off. Retrieved from: http://www.aiel.it/bacheca/SASSARI/papers/simonazzi.pdf
Verbeek, H., Zwakhalen, S.M.G., Van Rossum, E., Ambergen, T, Kempen, G.I.J.M., and Hamers, J.P.H. (2010, Nov.). Dementia Care Redesigned: Effects of Small-Scale Living Facilities on Residents, their Family Caregivers, and Staff. American Medical directors Association. Retrieved from: http://www.unimaas.nl/hcns/websiteVW/publications/Publication%20scans/Verbeek.%20Dementia%20care%20redesigned.pdf
Difficulties that Elderly People Encounter and Their Life Satisfaction," which was published within the scholarly journal Social Behavior and Personality in 2008, social scientists Kasim Karatas and Veli Duyan analyze the level of life satisfaction experienced by elderly residents of the Ankara region of Turkey, while also exploring the various factors which may negatively influence one's life satisfaction. According to the authors, "the purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic characteristics of elderly people and the effects that difficulties they encounter in daily life have on their life satisfaction" (2008), with the dually overriding objectives of determining a causal relationship between life satisfaction and either sociodemographic characteristics or hardships experienced. Relying on the tried and true methodology of administering a detailed survey and questionnaire combination, in this case to a sample of 109 females and 76 males between the ages of 60 and 98 living in the Kocatepe…
Pressure Ulcers in the Elderly
Dr. Judi Kuric
DNP Project Question
Will Every Two Hourly Turning and Positioning Decrease Pressure Ulcers in the Elderly Bed Bound Population in Nursing Home.
Will Every Two Hourly Turning and Positioning Decrease the Pressure Ulcers in the Elderly Bed Bound Population in Nursing Homes.
Pressure ulcers are a common cause of immobility among the elderly, which results in immense pain, suffering, and substantial costs with charges because of increased length of stay in the nursing homes. Prior studies suggest that patients who receive care in accordance to evidence-based guidelines are not at risk of developing pressure ulcers. However, the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of the measures is inadequate. Nevertheless, frequent manual repositioning of patients is a firmly established standard of care for the elderly; although there has been no much evidence on the same, experts suggest that…
One important aspect of nursing home living is that most of the time the people living there are helpless to accomplish many tasks that are part of everyday living. The employees are trained (for the most part) and as one study found it is "important to assess whether nursing staff levels and skills are meeting nursing home resident care needs" (Zhang, Unruh, Wan, 2013, p. 290). For example, incontinence is a significant risk factor for skin breakdown. The moisture changes the chemical balance of the skin, and often without adequate ventilation and care, a route for bacterial infection. In either case, pressure on the wound area, increased bacteria and moisture, all contribute to the lesions becoming rather serious (Gefen, 2008).
Many of the employees are taught to turn the elderly in their beds to relieve pressure, presumably thereby lowering the incidence of pressure ulcers. According to Fossum et al., "pressure ulcers can be prevented if residents at risk are identified early and relevant preventive measures are implemented" (Fossum, et al.,, 2011, p. 2429).
Current research shows that, at least in nursing homes, employees have a cognitive nature concerning pressure ulcers (amongst other things) and the positive results from taking preventive measures. Much of the current literature espouses the fact that nurses are trained to do so, but there is not really a lot of specific information on
The results of this analysis highlight the need for hospitals to fine-tune their discharge process to reduce readmissions, and support the expenditure of additional resources for this purpose as a cost-effective intervention; as an example, author cites a hospital in Iowa that implemented a rigorous post-discharge planning process for patients with heart failure and 30-day readmission rates were reduced by 3-9% during the 3-month period following implementation.
The research showed that many elderly patients who suffer from congestive heart failure also suffer from a wide range of comorbid conditions, including diabetes and hypertension. These patients can be reasonably expected to require periodic or even frequent treatment in emergency departments and/or hospitalizations for these conditions, making the need for effective and seamless post-discharge planning especially important. In this regard, the research also showed that there are some valuable evidence-based practice guidelines available, though, that can help clinicians better coordinate post-discharge…
Restraining the Elderly
The Project Management path for this research proposal will follow the path of quantitative research in a 'quasi-experimental' environment. Adhering as closely as possible to quantitative experiments designed to establish the causal factors or interdependent links between grouped variables, the researcher will follow a natural course of progression in administering dependent and independent variables, designing the sampling set, determining the optimal time(s) and location(s) for conducting the research, developing the measures and instruments necessary for evaluation of non-empirical evidentiary conclusion (i.e., the thought processes and reasoning of medical staff), measuring the response to education and procedural methodology, documentation to include evaluation materials, response forms, and restraint logs, preparing the education program, delivering the lectures, and evaluating the results in change or lack of change in care providers attitudes toward patient restraint.
Any project that measures the process of learning, comprehension, acceptance or denial,…
Fraud and the Elderly
Elderly Fraud Victimization
Prevalence and Predictors of Fraud Victimization among the Elderly
Prevalence and Predictors of Fraud Victimization among the Elderly
Applied esearch and Consulting (AC, 2013) conducted a recent national online survey for the FINA Investor Education Foundation, with the goal of quantifying the prevalence of fraud victimization among the American adult population. Any American over the age of 40 was invited to participate, but for the purposes of meeting the 2010 Census distribution for age, ethnicity, and geographic location the sample was limited to 2,364. The primary focus of the study was financial fraud, including red flag persuasion tactics, cold calls, free lunch seminars, oil and gas scams, promissory note scams, pump and dump, pre-IPO scams, multi-level marketing, digital currency, lottery scams, and affinity (relatives) fraud. On a scale of one to ten, with one representing the most risk averse, persons over the age…
ARC. (2013). Financial Fraud and Fraud Susceptibility in the United States: Research Report from a 2012 National Survey. Retrieved from http://www.finra.org/web/groups/sai/@sai/documents/sai_original_content/p337731.pdf
Forum on Global Violence Prevention; Board on Global Health; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council. (2014). Elder Abuse and Its Prevention: Workshop Summary. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Holtfreter, K., Reisig, M.D., Mears, D.P., & Wolfe, S.E. (2014). Financial Exploitation of the Elderly in a Consumer Context. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/245388.pdf .
affordable Care Act (also known as the ACA or Obamacare) on the elderly
Obamacare: Its impact upon the elderly
The impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (often called 'Obamacare') upon America is often discussed by politicians as if it had a uniform impact upon all citizens. However, the ACA's effects have been relatively disparate, depending upon the nature of the population. This paper will specifically focus upon the impact of the ACA on the elderly of a variety of socio-economic categories.
One of the criticisms of the American healthcare system before the passage of the ACA was the spiraling cost of entitlement programs such as Medicare, the federally-provided health insurance program for seniors. "One good result of all this [ACA] is that the burden of Medicare for taxpayers in future years has been drastically lowered. In fact, the day Barack Obama signed the ACA into law he cut the…
ACA. http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/rights / Accessed November 6, 2014.
FAQ: What retirees and seniors need to know about the ACA? NPR. October 11, 2013.
http://www.npr.org/2013/10/11/231101137/faq-what-retirees-and-seniors-need-to-know-about-the-affordable-care-act Accessed November 6, 2014.
Goodman, John. What seniors have to fear from Obamacare? Forbes. October 28, 2014.
In a study of the prevalence of elder abuse in the United States, financial difficulties on the part of the abuser did appear to be an important risk factor (Krug, 2002, pp. 130-131).
elationship factors - in the early theoretical models, the level of stress of caregivers was seen as a risk factor that linked elder abuse with care of an elderly relative. While the accepted image of abuse depicts a dependent victim and an overstressed caregiver, there is growing evidence that neither of these factors properly accounts for cases of abuse. Although researchers do not deny the component of stress, they tend now to look at it in a wider context in which the quality of the overall relationship is a causal factor. Today, the belief is that stress may be a contributing factor in cases of abuse but does not by itself account for the entire phenomenon.
Brandl, Bonnie. (2000). Power and Control: Understanding Domestic Abuse in Later Life.
Generations. 24(2), p. 39-45.
Elder Abuse and Neglect. (2009). Retrieved February 11, 2010, from Helpguide.org Web site:
Q4. Participants at treatment facilities might be disproportionately affluent and white, given that historically, individuals of color suffering from addictions have more often been relegated to prisons, rather than received support and assistance. Public as well as private treatment facilities may need to be compared, to ensure a more representative sampling.
Benshoff, John J., Laura K. Harrawood, & Darwin Shane Koch. (2003, April-June). Substance
abuse and the elderly: unique issues and concerns. Journal of Rehabilitation. 69.
In this study, the authors used a literature review format to examine a variety of previous studies of substance abuse amongst the elderly. In general, while individuals tend to age out of illicit drug use, alcohol abuse remains a risk throughout an individual's lifespan, given the lack of social and cultural taboos. Broad-ranging studies have found that alcohol abuse amongst the elderly is a silent epidemic, and both late and early-onset…
Therapeutic Massage on Elderly, Grieving Widows
The prosperity of a country is in accordance with its treatment of the aged," states an ancient Jewish Proverb ("Massage for the Mature Adult," 2001). This is an honorable and true statement. Too often many of our elderly people's needs are not noticed or attended to by family, friends, or medical practitioners. This is especially true for older women whose husbands have died.
Widowhood can have a tremendous impact on the health of older women (Ferraro, 1989; owling, 1987; Gass & Chang, 1989). The death of a spouse or partner has been described as the most disruptive and difficult role transition that an individual confronts throughout the life course (Lopata, 1987). In the United States, over 49% or 8.4 million women over the age of 65 are widows (radsher, 2000). Houdin (1993) states that "although the literature abounds with subjective pieces concerning bereavement, little…
Bibliography for Chapters One and Two
Barry, Kasl, and Prigerson
Turvey, 1999 (Parkes, 1998).
Cognitive Disorder in Elderly
Cognitive Disorders in Elderly
Cognitive Assessment & Lab
Kris Thomas, PhD
The research of this study is related to cognitive, dementia, Alzheimer disease, and depression issues with the elderly populations of the United States and in the world in general. Societies with a large number of elderly people such as the U.S.A. are increasingly focusing their efforts on improving the life standards of these people based on the types of services given to them. The well-being of those on palliative and hospice care is as important as the well-being of the family members of these patients. Although many health issues present themselves during the elder years of any patient, there is a lot of attention paid to cognitive and mood issues in this age group. The disorders and maladies that are relevant to this population include, among others, depression, dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI)…
American Psycholgical Association (APA) (2010). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychologists Association.
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Aklin, W. M., & Turner, S. M. (2006). Toward understanding ethnic and cultural factors in the interviewing process. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43(1), 50-64.
Elderly in Monrovia, CA
The population of people aged 65 years or greater is steadily escalating, as baby boomers come of age. It is estimated that this age bracket accounts for 10% of the total world population, and is statistically increasing. As this sector of the population steadily increases, there are of course, accompanying health care issues: osteoarthritis, cardiac and kidney issues, Alzheimer's or dementia, and an ever-growing problem with depression. For this essay, we will concentrate on several health issues that plague seniors nationally, but will specifically focus on the aging population over 65 in Monrovia, California.
Monrovia is a smallish city located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in the San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County. Monrovia was settled in the late 1800s as a central hub for the growing orange grove industry, but has now become more of a bedroom community that supports the urban…
Breathe California of Los Angeles County. (2009). Cited in:
California Department of Public Health. (June 2009). "Healthy California -- 2010
Midcourse Review." Executive Summary. Cited in:
Poverty is defined as having a meager annual income, insufficient for meeting basic expenditure. esearch has confirmed that older adults, from the age of 65 years and above, when poor, confront immense burden in meeting with their basic housing, food, healthcare and other expenses. Poverty in the elderly populations is a persistent and grave issue in America. Almost 10% of elderly individuals (aged 65 years and above) belong to families with annual income below America's official poverty line, also termed as the federal poverty level (or FPL). An older adult (age- 65+) who lives alone was labeled as a 'poor' individual if his/her annual income before tax amounted to less than 10, 326 dollars, in 2008. Elderly couples having incomes under 13, 014 dollars were labeled as poor. oughly one in every six elderly individuals was nearly poor, or poor, with income less than 125% of FPL; nearly a third…
Butrica, B.A., Murphy, D.P., & Zedlewski, S.R. (2010). How many struggle to get by in retirement?. The Gerontologist, 50(4), 482-494.
Caldera S. (2009). Social Security: Ten Facts That Matter. Washington, DC: AARP Public
Policy Institute. Retrieved 25 July 2015 from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/fs154_socsec.pdf
Cawthorne A. (2008). Elderly Poverty: The Challenge Before Us. Center for American progress.
Management Performance Within Elderly Care Homes in Gibraltar
The elderly nursing community in Gibraltar is dispersed and characterized by different institution specific challenges and particularities. The current project assesses the general level of leadership competencies within three pre-selected institutions, the management performance assessments of employees, the basic leadership skills required and formulates a series of recommendations as to how these competencies could be obtained. The approach is predominantly a quantitative one, combining various research methods, such as the questionnaire, the case study and structured interviews.
With the aging of the population, more pressure is placed on the health care system throughout the world, and Gibraltar is no exception. As 15.41 per cent of its population is aged over 65 years (Website of the Central Intelligence Agency, 2015), a question arises regarding the country's ability to provide adequate care for its aging population. In this sense then, the current project sets…
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Barker, A.M., Sullivan, D.T., Emery, M.J., (2006) Leadership competencies for clinical managers: the Renaissance of transformational leadership, Jones & Bartlett Learning
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Living Aangements Among the Eldely
This is an eight page pape concening the divesity in living aangements among the eldely. Thee ae six efeences used.
People today ae living longe, which means thee is a lage eldely population in ou society. Thee ae many concens facing the eldely, one of which is housing. The eldely have seveal options available to them and it's inteesting to see how divese they can be.
Befoe we look at the housing options fo the eldely, we should fist exploe the statistics concening the population of this gowing goup. Thee wee ove 35.0 million pesons ove 65 in the United States in 2000. This accounts fo 12.4% of the population o one in evey eight Ameicans. Since 1990, the numbe of eldely has inceased 12.0% in compaison to the 13.3% incease of those unde 65. The statling fact is those aged 45-64 inceased…
references. (accessed 10-20-2002).
Greenwald, John. (1999, 30 August). Family: Elder Care: Making the Right Choice
Nursing homes used to be the only stop for seniors who need help. Now there are options.
Time. pp. 52+.
(Housing and Living Arrangements of the Elderly. (accessed 10-19-2002).
The gradual decrease in income, eventual dependency on other people and the government for financial resource, lack of activities to do, and the onset of physical and/or physical limitations as a result of aging are known causes of frustration, stress, and even depression among elderly people who have retired (Blekesaune and Solem, 2005, p. 80). In the case of Mrs. a, she has not experienced these negative feelings or emotions as she had been flexibly and intermittently engaging herself in house-, family- and community-related pursuits. However, she did admit that her husband's death had been a pivotal point in her life, when she felt that she, too, must be with her husband because, as far as she is concerned, she has already accomplished what she was supposed to do as a "wife, mother, and woman."
Interestingly, with Mrs. a, work and retirement is not the conventional kind of retirement one…
Bassuk, S. (2002). "Socioeconomic status and mortality among the elderly: findings from four U.S. communities." American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 155, No. 6.
Blekesaune, M. And P. Solem. (2005). "Working conditions and early retirement: a prospective study of retirement behavior." Research on Aging, Vol. 22.
Kilminski, a. (2007). "Cumulative index of health disorders as an indicator of the aging-associated processes in elderly." Mech. Ageing Development, Vol. 128, No. 3.
Maciejewski, P. (2007). "An empirical examination of the stage theory of grief." Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 297, No. 7.
It is also wise to have it reviewed by a doctor or attorney, the Family Doctor eb site suggests; that way you can be assured that what you wish to have done with you and to you if you become incapacitated is "understood exactly as you intended" (Family Doctor).
The advance directives are sensitive and private, and they are very important for seniors. But the advance directives can be controversial, so it is wise for older people to know the law and understand the facts. To wit, there have been rumors and falsehoods spread on the orld ide eb and elsewhere about the advance directives that are spelled out in the recent overhaul of the healthcare system. Former governor of Alaska Sarah Palin made news in the summer of 2009 by asserting that the advance directives in the healthcare overhaul created a "death panel" of bureaucrats who will "decide, based…
Binstock, Robert H., and George, Linda K. (2010). Handbook of Aging and the Social
Sciences. Maryland Heights, MO: Academic Press.
Black, Jane A. (2008). Notes: The Not-So-Golden Years: Power of Attorney, Elder Abuse, and Why Our Laws are Failing a Vulnerable Population. St. John's Law Review, 82(1), 289-314
Collier, Elizabeth. (2005). Latent age discrimination in mental health care. Mental Health
foundational issues at hand for our culture is the provision of health care for all. Challenging the standard by limiting health care for the elderly is a substantial ethical question. (Etzioni, 1988, pgs. 168-174) Yet, regardless of the bargaining power of organizations who advocate for the elderly the limitations are being made, in more covert and less effective ways. Regardless of public opinion the system we have now adopted is inefficient and not only do the elderly suffer, but all others who are not offered services in economically feasible ways suffer.
The system will continue to be based upon capitalistic standards as long as benefits exist in a manner that provides profits for cutting corners on standard preventative care and offering substantially overblown services to those who can afford to pay for it or who have no voice to say no. (Lamm, 1989, pgs. 158-162) Providing care in such a…
Kutter, Robert. (1988), 'National Insurance Should Fund Long-Term Care."
Lamm, Richard. (1989) "The Elderly Cannot Be Guaranteed Full Access to Health Care."
Sager, Alan. (1988) "The Elderly Should Be Guaranteed Full Access to Health Care."
Fall Among the Elderly Age Group
Falls among the Elderly Age Group
Expected falls and unexpected falls
isk Elements for Falls
Outline of Several Different Strategies
Counseling and Health Education Strategies
Exercise and physical activity 8
Interventions of Unidentified Effectiveness
Developed Based on your Understanding of the Public Health Problem
Schedule an appointment with your Medic
Wear sensible shoes
According to JM (2009), "As people get older, falls turn out to be a typical and often hurting issue that occurs among those that are in the elderly category, producing a huge quantity of illness, death and use of health care services as well as premature nursing home admittances ( p. 42)." However, falls are a difficult, multi-faceted problem that comprises of social, medical, and financial elements. Medically, the mixture of a high occurs of falls and an increased…
A., B. (2012). Research methods in health: investigating health and health services. United Kingdom: Open University Press.
Campbell AJ, R. M. (2013). Rethinkingindividual and community fall preventionstrategies: a meta- regression comparingsingle and multifactorial interventions. Age and Ageing, 21(6), 656-662.
JM., H. (2009). Cognitive and Emotional benefits of exercise may mediate fall reduction. British Medical Journal, 128, 325(.
Lord SR, T. A. (2013). The effect of an individualized fall prevention program on fallrisk and falls in older people: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 14(8), 1296-1304.
An opportunity has been identified in a growing niche that has been largely untapped to date. The opportunity further can be described as being at a crossroads that exists where many factors come together in an intersection in which many social changes are present. The business model that is being proposed in this report consists of developing prepped meal service for seniors, where prepared, nutritionally-balanced meals are delivered to seniors who have trouble cooking for themselves, at a cost-effective price. The need for a sustainable food service model that focuses on meals that are easy to prepare, nutritionally-balanced, consistent with dietary requirements, and affordable is especially relevant to a vulnerable population like the elderly who, in many cases, has difficulty in maintaining a proper diet. The demand for such a service has quietly build a niche industry that is still developing.
There are many social factors that have been identified…
health issue of falls among the elderly in Canada.
Community Health Problem
The major reason behind the Canadian seniors' hospitalization is fall-related injury. Approximately 20% to 30% seniors fall in a year. For instance, Canadian Community Health Survey statistics shows mostly over 80-years older seniors, 20% living in the community are fall (Seniors' Falls in Canada: Second eport - Public Health Agency of Canada, n.d).
Extent of the Problem
256,011 older Canadians suffered from fall-related injuries in 2009/2010. Comparing with injured people, other than fall-related, percentage was higher in females over 74-year age (63.6% as compared to 54.3%). Statistically, difference based on marital status was also notable. 55.9% fall-related injured people were married as compared to other injured that were 63.6%. Furthermore, 31% of the fall-related injured people were widows as compared to 23.6% other injured people. In this education group, 30% people had fall related injury as compared to…
CARROLL, N., SLATTUM, P., & COX, F. (n.d.). Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy. The Cost of Falls Among the Community - Dwelling Elderly. Retrieved December 13, 2015, from http://www.amcp.org/data/jmcp/research_307_316.pdf
(n.d.).Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) -- Agence de la santepublique du Canada (ASPC).Seniors' Falls in Canada: Second Report - Public Health Agency of Canada. Retrieved December 13, 2015, from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/seniors-aines/publications/public/injury-blessure/seniors_falls-chutes_aines/index-eng.php#s1-1
Substance / Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly
Substance/alcohol abuse among the elderly 60 years and older
Alcohol and substance abuse among the elderly is a significant social problem, not only because people in this age group tend to have very permissive attitudes towards social drug and alcohol usage but also because the stressors that accompany aging may result in increases in drug or alcohol usage to problematic levels. While people may begin experiencing age-related problems in their 40s and 50s, it is not generally until their 60s that most people begin to experience significant physical or emotional challenges related to age. These challenges are often accompanied by major life changes, such as retirement, the death of a spouse or friends, relocation, and diminished physical and intellectual capabilities. These changes may mean a lack of access to the coping mechanisms that have traditionally served the individual, leading to a rise in…
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2012). Substance abuse among older adults: Treatment improvement protocol (TIP) series, No. 26. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-3918. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Finkelstein, E., Prabhu, M., & Chen, H. (2007). Increased prevalence of falls among elderly individuals with mental health and substance abuse conditions. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(7), 611-619.
Folkman, S., Bernstein, L, & Lazarus, R.S. (1987). Stress processes and the misuse of drugs in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 2(4), 366-374.
Garland, E.L., Schwarz, N.R., Kelly, A., Whitt, A., & Howard, M.O. (2012). Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement for alcohol dependence: Therapeutic mechanisms and intervention acceptability work. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 12, 242-263. doi:10.1080/1533256X.2012.702638
The Aging Population and Dementia
Dementia is generally defined as a problem that impacts the elderly population and includes “impairments in cognitive and intellectual ability, memory, language, reasoning, and judgment that interfere with everyday functioning” (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2014). The two leading types of dementia in the world are Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia (Livingston et al., 2017). Dementia is a problem for the elderly population because it is so prevalent and still somewhat poorly understood. As Jayadev et al. (2010) point out, the cause of the disease is still relatively unknown, which makes treating it difficult for care providers. An average of 25 million elderly people suffer from some form of dementia in developed nations—and that number is double in developing nations (Livingston et al., 2017). The best that care providers can hope for in this situation is to treat it by using preventive care interventions,…
Moody (2010) introduced many important concepts about aging in his textbook. The idea of aging as a subject is broached in many ways in this informative book, however there are some key aspects that suggest the most prominent and problematic concepts of aging that are highlighted when comparing this text to the film Gran Torino, directed by Clint Eastwood. This movie suggests that despite the portrayal as violence as a virtue, becoming elderly is a difficult and misunderstood time in one's life. The film depicted a man who, after a lifetime of resorting to violence, realizes he his misunderstood in a changed world that pays him no respect.
Moody wrote "the subjective experience of meaning is closely related to individual well being. The search for interpretive meaning in later life underscores the importance of cognitive functioning in old age," (p.23). Using this idea as a model for the…
Albom, Mitch. (1997). Tuesdays with Morrie: An old man, a young man, and life's greatest lesson. New York: Doubleday.
Lorenz, R., Gerber, B., Eastwood, C., (producers) & Eastwood, C. (director). (2008). Gran Torino [motion picture]. United States, Germany: Warner Bros.
Moody, H.R. (2010). Aging: Concepts and Controversies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
Substance Abuse in the Elderly
The increase in substance abuse among people over 60 years of age is understandable from several perspectives. The boomer generation grew up in a society that was experimenting with controlled substances, and in -- or on the margins of -- a culture that viewed the use of drugs as normative. Indeed, much of the rhetoric about drugs and alcohol was that these substances could enhance life experiences, provide deeper insights into one's life -- transcendence, if you will -- and ease the suffering brought about by life transitions and quotidian pressures. This generation found self-medicating for personal angst and genuine disorders such as depression or post-traumatic syndrome was acceptable.
While many life challenges are universal and do not occur in higher percentages according to particular demographics, other challenges are linked to demographics. People in their 60s and beyond do experience an uptick of physical and…
Garland, E.L., Froeliger, B., & Howard, M.O. (2014, November 11). Neurophysiological evidence for remediation of reward processing deficits in chronic pain and opioid misuse following treatment with Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement: exploratory ERP findings from a pilot RCT. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=25385024
Child Abuse Elder Abuse)
Abuse in the contemporary society
There is much controversy regarding child and elderly abuse in the contemporary society. Even with the fact that the general public agrees with regard to the negative effect such actions have on victims and on the world as a whole, numerous cases are still being reported every year and it seems that in many communities there is a type of silent acceptance of the occurrence. In most cases, the perpetrators motivate their behavior by relating to the stress that their victims inflicted on them previous to the violent event and to how their actions were largely owed to the fact that they could no longer control themselves. The following two cases of abuse demonstrate the degree to which violence pervades the social order and makes it difficult and almost impossible for anyone to intervene.
The American football running back for the…
Haynes, V. "Stoughton police: Woman charged in 'worst case of elder abuse'." Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://www.wcvb.com/news/stoughton-police-woman-charged-in-worst-case-of-elder-abuse/24713294
"Vikings star Adrian Peterson avoids jail time in child abuse case," Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/us/2014/11/04/adrian-peterson-to-return-to-court-in-felony-child-abuse-case / http://www.tmz.com/2014/09/12/adrian-peterson-indicted-for-child-abuse / http://www.forbes.com/sites/gregorymcneal/2014/09/16/adrian-petersons-indefensible-abuse-of-a-4-year-old-likely-violates-texas-law / http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/18/sports/football/nfl.html