Eli hitney the Father of American Technology
Eli hitney has been deemed the "father of American technology," for two innovations: the cotton gin, and the idea of using interchangeable parts. hitney was born in estboro, Massachusetts on December 8, 1765 and died on January 8, 1825 in New Haven Connecticut. Though he is best remembered for inventing the cotton gin, his most important contribution was the development of mass production and interchangeable parts.
hitney entered Yale College in May of 1789. There he learned many of the new concepts and experiments in science and the applied arts, as technology was then called. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa in the fall of 1792. hitney was disappointed twice in promised teaching posts. The second offer was in Georgia, where, stranded without employment, short of cash, and far from home be was befriended by Catharine Greene, widow of the Revolutionary ar general. It…… [Read More]
As a result, Whitney spent many years and significant sums in dozens of lawsuits over infringement of his patented device, without ever realizing any significant recovery of lost profits (Lakwete 2004).
The Larger Impact of a Simple Technological Invention:
Whitney's cotton gin resulted in an economic boon unparalleled previously in the southern states at a time when cotton could otherwise have been phased out as a profitable crop except in coastal areas. Instead, plantations expanded in size and many shifted their efforts almost exclusively to cotton. The impact was so significant that it shaped many elements of international trade in cotton fiber, establishing America as a producer of textile products and virtually eliminating any need to import fabric from abroad (Nevins & Commager 1992).
Even more importantly, the increased cotton production created an intense need for fieldworkers, precisely at a time when many historians (Mills 1953) believe that the institution…… [Read More]
race the events that led up to the War of 1812 and be very specific in describing those events.
Chapter 7 begins with background review of how (in the late 18th century) the young nation began to be concerned with education. Medicine, too, was beginning to actually define diseases and help heal people, and Americans were inventing technologies (like the cotton gin by Eli Whitney) including Whitney's machine "…to make each part of a gun according to an exact pattern" (192). In fact the development of Whitney's system of making weapons was important due to the fact that the U.S. was preparing for war with France; "Americans were deeply troubled by their lack of sufficient armaments for the expected hostilities" (192).
In 1789 Congress passed laws that gave preference to American ships in U.S. ports; moreover, between 1789 and 1810, the U.S. had "more ships and international commerce" than any…… [Read More]
American History 1600-1877
In the period from 1600 to 1877, it could be argued that the United States was only basically establishing itself as an independent nation in its own right -- the period in question builds up to the climax of the Civil War, in which the contradictions inherent in the national identity would finally reach armed conflict. Who, then, could be nominated as the best of the American enterprise in that time period? For different reasons, I would nominate Benjamin Franklin, Walt Whitman, and Frederick Douglass.
Franklin is an easy choice: he established America's credibility in the eyes of Europe. Regardless of the military issues involved in the American Revolution, it was Franklin alone who showed Europe that there was a viable independent nation across the Atlantic. This is in recognition of his various accomplishments, which were scientific, technical, literary, and philanthropical (in his endowment of universities and…… [Read More]
Even "Porter Alexander, Lee's ordnance chief and one of the most perceptive contemporary observers of Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia, called his decision to stand at Antietam 'the greatest military blunder that Gen. Lee ever made'" (Owens 2004). Historians are divided as to the real purpose behind the Maryland campaign, which seems like an "isolated maneuver, another manifestation of Lee's innate aggressiveness as a commander. Some have gone so far as to suggest that Lee's forays into Union territory were undertaken primarily to maintain his claim on scarce Confederate resources that might have been used to greater strategic purpose in the est" (Owens 2004).
hether a demoralization strategy or an effort merely to show Confederate aggression, the focus on Lee in most historians' analysis shows how Lee dominated this conflict, and defined the terms of the battle. Thus, even if Lee acted unwisely, he was clearly 'in control,'…… [Read More]
y then, the principles of division of labor and interchangeable parts had been successfully demonstrated by the American inventors Eli Whitney (1765-1825) and Samuel Colt (1814-1862). (Assembly Line - History)
The assembly line was first used on a large scale by the meat-packing industries of Chicago and Cincinnati during the 1870s. These slaughterhouses used monorail trolleys to move suspended carcasses past a line of stationary workers, each of whom did one specific task. Contrary to most factories' lines in which products are gradually put together step-by-step, this first assembly line was in fact more of a "disassembly" line, since each worker butchered a piece of a diminishing animal. The apparent breakthroughs in efficiency and productivity that were achieved by these meat packers were not immediately realized by any other industry until Ford designed his assembly line in 1913. Ford openly admitted using the meat-packing lines as a model. His success…… [Read More]
In 1834, the British Empire abolished slavery (the Civil War Home Page, 2009). Great Britain had remained one of the United States' largest trading partners and was, at that time, still the most influential nation in the world. Moreover, Great Britain had retained slavery after many other countries ended the practice. The end of slavery in Great Britain also meant that those in the North who wanted the abolition of slavery could support their assertions that the world viewed the United States as backwards and barbarous because of the practice of slavery. Moreover, it certainly changed the potential for allies in the Civil War. Though not a monarchy, the South was an aristocracy and both Britain and France were then-ruled by monarchies. As long as the struggle was about a states-right government rebellion, the root cause of that rebellion, slavery, could be ignored and European countries could provide aid to…… [Read More]
history slavery North Atlantic British colonies United States
Observations egarding Slavery
One of the primary methods of resistance for people of African descent who existed in servitude in the North Atlantic British colonies and in the United States was rebellion. Although far from occurring frequently, armed, violent revolt from chattel slaves helped to shape the history of their descendants in these locations. One of the most notorious of these uprisings was known as the Southampton Insurrection led by Nat Turner in Virginia's Southampton County in August of 1831. The effect of Turner's armed insurrection, and those of others in the Southern United States and in other North Atlantic British colonies can be evidenced in the amended legislature which ultimately influenced the future and perception of both slaves and former slaves for several years to come.
Turner's 1831 rebellion was just the latest in the lengthy list of historical uprisings slaves…… [Read More]
Sectional and Constitutional Issues Surrounding the Institution of Slavery in Nineteenth Century America
As the Nineteenth Century dawned, the institution of slavery appeared to be on its way out in the new United States. Independence from Great Britain had removed many of the incentives for growing the cash crops upon which the Southern States had depended. ithout the lucrative bounties on rice and indigo, these were no longer worth the expense of producing on a large scale. Tobacco remained a major export, but even so it was insufficient to sustain the entire Southern economy. Luckily, technology came to the rescue. Eli hitney developed the cotton gin - a machine designed to remove the seeds from cotton bolls. Until the advent of this invention, the harvesting of cotton had been a laborious, time-consuming, and extremely labor intensive business. It was not even worth the labor of the slaves that…… [Read More]
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]
The sheer number and variety of sites where such ostensibly private information is made public can make it impossible for someone to truly get privacy.
What is remarkable is how well Dr. Moor did at predicting the ethical issues that would continue to be part of the Computer evolution. Even if computers are simply exacerbating existing ethical dilemmas, the fact that they are capable of doing so means that they are going to continue to present ethical problems. For example, when Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, slavery was already in existence and used through the American South. That Industrial evolution invention did not create the ethical issue of slavery. However, with the improved ability to process cotton, cotton suddenly became an incredibly profitable crop. The need for cheap labor jumped dramatically, which certainly increased the demand for slave labor. What that example makes clear is that even seemingly helpful…… [Read More]
Role of Cotton in Shaping United States History: 1793-1865
Extensive cotton production in the United States began in the spring of 1793 with the invention of Eli Whitney's cotton gin (i.e. A machine which separates cotton fibre from cotton seeds) (Current 1998). Almost immediately after this invention cotton production rose dramatically. As the production and transportation methods of cotton improved and the demand for fibre increased, the push for greater profits grew as well. Thus, a large number of slaves were brought into South Carolina and Georgia to provide the needed labour for cotton picking. As a result, slave labour became a valuable market throughout the South.
To become part of the Southern aristocracy, which slavery created, one needed to own land and slaves (Current 1998). The way to do this was to grow cotton as it provided the cash and credit to make both of these purchases. Ironically, slavery…… [Read More]
Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…… [Read More]
The Temperance movement was initiated by ministers and doctors claiming alcohol consumption would decrease physical and psychological health. In response, those that associated and approved of the Temperance movement tried to ban the making of whiskey. Critics of the Temperance movement during the time period, as well as modern researchers, viewed Temperance as a form of social control and as a political symbol. The Temperance movement was one of the most popular pre-Civil ar social reform tactics, and made individuals question the political right to influence social change. The Temperance movement set a precedence in American society as "the moral people, in this case the abstainers, [attempt] to correct the behavior of the immoral people, in this case the drinkers" (Gusfield 2). Social movements and social reform are still critical in the present time, involving a claimed "moral" side vs. An "immoral" side. The Temperance movement changed American society as…… [Read More]
In 1838 there were 200 locomotives in the United States, by 1880 that number had risen to 1,962 and to 3,153 by 1900. (ogers, 2009, p. 21) The expansion of the railroad system helped to increase American industrialization, and industrial output, which increased American overseas trade. But there could not be overseas trade without American ships to carry American products to foreign nations. While primitive iron ships had come into existence during the American Civil War, it was the period after the war that iron ships became numerous. For example, "The number of iron and steel ships built in a year increased from one in 1867 to 31 in 1880, and to 90 in 1900." (ogers, 2009, p. 21)
The 1800's were a time of development for the United States; as a nation it began as an agricultural country and developed into an industrialized nation. As the population of American…… [Read More]
This tract would be solidified, however, with the early 19th century invention of the cotton gin. As the text by Maier et al. assert, Eli hitney's simple invention would have dramatic and transformative effects on American society. As the urban centers of the North turned increasingly to factory operations in the face of immigrant labor and the industrial revolution, the south coalesced around its agricultural identity. More particularly, the cotton gin had an exponential impact on the growth of the American South in world agricultural. In addition to tobacco, wheat and corn, it was now the world's leading provider of cotton. ith the growth of demand by substantial marks in a decidedly short span of time, the Southern cotton boom directly paralleled a boom in the global slave trade.
The slave population in the South would grow dramatically in order to keep up with the demand created by a swelling…… [Read More]
Slavery in the Cotton Kingdom
During the American evolution and the civil war, the North and the South experienced development of different socio-political and cultural environmental conditions. The North became an industrial and manufacturing powerhouse as a result of rise of movements like abolitionism and women's right while the South became a cotton kingdom whose labor was sourced from slavery (Spark notes, 2011).
The distinct feature of cotton kingdom is that her activities were empowered by slave labor. The cotton kingdom thus means a cotton producing region of the United States until the period of civil war.
The reason why slavery spread into the cotton kingdom after revolution is because the tobacco income plummeted as white setters from Virginia and Carolinas forcing the original Native Americans inhabitants farther and farther west where they established plantations. The wide spread use of the cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney in 1793,…… [Read More]
In fact, the American evolution may have served to assert the natural rights of some people, but those people were limited to a class of white males.
It is important to keep in mind that one of the ideological underpinnings of the evolution was a challenge to imperialist ideals, and race-based oppression and slavery had long been major parts of the imperial system. Despite that, it is unfair to characterize Britain as pro-slavery, as the British began to embrace abolitionist sentiments prior to the evolution. In fact, British Imperialists struggled with the concept of slavery, because of the fact that denying the right to own slaves was viewed as economic oppression by many white colonists, because, without slavery, the cash crops that made colonies profitable were difficult, if not impossible, to harvest (Brown, 1999). They began by attempting to limit the import of slaves into the colonies, something that they…… [Read More]
An eligible employee shall be entitled to a total of seven days of leave because of the death of a parent, spouse, son, daughter, or person for whom the employee serves as designated representative... If the deceased died in the line of duty as a member of the uniformed services. Such leave is intended to permit the employee to prepare for or attend the burial ceremony of the deceased member of the uniformed services and may be paid or unpaid leave.
Conversely, however, the United States Federal government presently has no laws in place to similarly (or otherwise, in comparable and appropriate ways) formally acknowledge and honor the passing of federal government personnel other than military personnel.
According to U.S. Code Title 5, Part III; Subpart E; Chapter 63; Subchapter II (2005), the federal government does in fact authorize, according to three separate sections of Title 5: (1)…… [Read More]
American Enduring Vision
American History 1820-1840 Enduring Vision
How did the changes experienced by Americans after 1820 incorporate elements of the 'Enduring Vision' to preserve a common national identity?
During this early period of American identity formation between 1820-1830, one of the most profound developments was the removal of Indian peoples from their native territories. Increasingly, the common American, the common American White man sought political enfranchisement and territory to farm on his own. These two desires, of political power and land, conjoined to make Indian removal politically popular and expedient for those in authority.
During this time, the ideal of the genteel American farmer in government began to recede. The Jeffersonian ideal was replaced by what became the Jacksonian ideal of the common man voicing his will in politics. Andrew Jackson was elected President in 1828 on a promise of full enfranchisement for all men, without former…… [Read More]
It was our land, and still they claimed it as if it were their own.
Not many years passed, and these Americans were everywhere among us - killing us, and driving us out of our ancient homes. They sent their soldiers to slaughter us, and later to collect us up to live beside their forts. They killed the buffalo on which so many of us depended for food, and so caused us to starve. And when we complain, when we tried to use their "laws" to help ourselves, they laughed at us, and told us that we had no rights. This land belonged to them. It was their "Manifest Destiny" to expand across the continent, and to take the land from the "savages" that lived there. They would bring God and civilization to all these places. They believed that only they were right, and that only their God was real.…… [Read More]
Family businesses and small artisan shops provided the main means of employment before the Industrial evolution, after which urban-area factories became a dominant economic and social force. Because factories attracted large numbers of domestic and immigrant laborers, they were able to grow rapidly in size and scope. Immigration became a major social revolution precipitated by the Industrial evolution, dramatically altering the ethnic, social, economic, and political landscape of the United States.
The owners of America's new industries, from textiles to steel, became known as robber-barons due to their ruthless business practices. A laissez-faire government permitted big business to flourish, and the big business barons retained significant political clout because of their economic power. Men like Carnegie, Gould, ockefeller, and Vanderbilt built massive fortunes, creating a new type of American aristocracy and an unprecedented level of wealth. The laissez-faire politics in vogue around the turn of the century increased the production…… [Read More]
American foreign policy change from 1940 to the present?
Before the 20th century, the U.S. had a strong tradition of isolationism and non-interventionism. Beginning with American participation in World War I and continuing with its involvement in World War II after the invasion of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. increasingly began to conceive of itself as not only a player on the international stage, but also the ideological promoter and protector of democracy. When World War II ended with the U.S. bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it was clear that America had taken a position of power in the world, both militarily and politically.
In the decade that followed World War II, American foreign policy pitted itself against Soviet Communism through the pursuit of "containment:" limiting the expansion of Soviet power and Communist ideology to other nations. This policy of containment was the primary driving force behind the "Cold War" and…… [Read More]
student's position / answer question. It - (3-5) complete sentences, including thesis statement essay. The, , fourth paragraphs body paragraphs.
Slavery in the 1800-1860 time period
The slavery system was an active part of the U.S. during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, considering the large profits that the business brought to the nation. Slaves represented an essential element and as cotton production grew significantly in the South white people realized that they needed to be in possession of as many slaves as possible in order to earn large profits. hile some individuals believed that slavery was nearing its end, others believed that it would become even more cost-effective and struggled to improve their businesses using every methods that they possibly could. The south became the global center of cotton production by 1960 and this provided Southerners with the feeling that they had to protect their industry and that…… [Read More]
American Independence, National Unity
rief thematic history of the U.S. from 1760 to 1815
In describing U.S. history from 1760 to 1815, I would have to title it as "The United States: The Formative Years." From the ritish indifference to her New World colonies, and the War for Independence; to the events before the Civil War, the United States formative years were ones of triumph, struggle and unity.
During 1763, up until 1775, the United States and ritain feuded over 'taxation without representation'. Like a child, the colonies had to break free from the mother country and find themselves and their independence, which they did in 1776 (U.S. History Timeline).
Thomas Payne said in his political pamphlet 'Common Sense' that "There is something exceedingly ridiculous in the composition of monarchy; it first excludes a man from the means of information, yet empowers him to act in cases where the highest…… [Read More]
political, social, cultural, and economic differences between the North and the South on the eve of the Civil ar. How did these differences grow from 1800-1860?
Of course, the event that led to the actual first battles of the Civil ar was the firing on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, by Confederate troops on April 13, 1861. However, many other actions and events led up to the eventual outbreak of Civil ar. The North and the South were different, and not simply because the Southern landowners also owned slaves. The North was an industrial society, based on "growth and prosperity" (Norton 196). The South, on the other hand, was less industrialized and more agrarian in nature. "Southern wealth came from export crops, its population thus remained almost wholly rural rather than both rural and urban" (Norton). Thus, there were extremely different cultural and social values between the North and the South.…… [Read More]
economic basis of American cities change from colonial era to 1860 and why did it change.
here is little doubt that there were a significant amount of economic changes taking place within the fledgling United States of America from its inception during colonial time to the year preceding the Civil War, 1860. hose changes were widely facilitated by advancements made during the Industrial Revolution and those pertaining to the practice of chattel slavery in the southern portion of the country. As such, the economics for American cities reflected these two principle sources of change, which were also underscored by a chief point of division in American social, political and economic life up until the Civil War: the distinction between autonomy and states' rights and circumscribed freedom and a strong federal government. he reality is that the latter of these two choices were good for capitalism and for the U.S. As…… [Read More]
Technology from French Revolution to U.S. Civil ar
Attention Sentence: Only about sixty to seventy years passed from the French Revolution in the late 1700's and the United States Civil ar in the 1860's. However, the technology and methodologies that were used during the two conflicts were quite different despite only three generations passing in between
Given the necessity for bigger and better technology, the advent of the Industrial Revolution and other factors, there was a mind-blowing amount of technology progress in the United States from 1790 to 1861 and the upgrades and updates run the gamut in terms of sources, benefits and reach.
Major Points Supporting Thesis: There was a paradigm shift in terms of technology from the late 1700's to the mid-1800's. Everything improved greatly including transportation, weaponry, transportation, energy and other things.
Major Point One - Battle from Sea
a. There were a number of major changes…… [Read More]