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Howard's End," by E.M. Forster, is a story that uses people to represent the idealized positive and negative traits of the upper and lower class English in the early twentieth century. Three of the characters embody the symbolic stereotypes given to their respective classes. Margaret Schlegel represents the more idealized, romantic ideals of the upper class; she is interested in things with intellectual, beautiful and artistic value. On the contrary, Henry Wilcox embodies the negativity associated with upper class -- materialism, hard-nosed stuffiness and conventionalism. eonard Bast, who finds himself at the very bottom of the social and monetary scale, represents the poor, working class who wish to better themselves through association with upper class, and through reading of books about finer things.
Forster interestingly uses this novel to develop Margaret, the chief protagonist, from a seemingly two-dimensional character at the outset of the story into a three-dimensional one at…
Leonard Bast is the one person who literally changes things for everyone, including himself. He is poor, suspicious of everyone, and desperately wants to gain status through reading about finer things in life. His friendship with Margaret and Helen begins very slowly. He suspects them of every imaginable ill, thinking they are using him to learn secrets about his business. He is always concerned with self-improvement, and constantly nagged with financial worries. He is married, but is married to a former prostitute, Jacky. She represents the worst of the worst -- somewhat "trailer trash" if you will. Leonard begins to develop some redeeming qualities when he forms a tentative friendship with Helen, which turns sexual when they are both at terribly vulnerable times in their lives. Immediately, and for the rest of the novel, Leonard is filled with remorse. He is in turmoil, which actually helps him forget his money woes for a while. Despite the continuous troubles that came his way, they were "overshadowed by Remorse" and was unable to see "beyond his own sin." (Forster, 835) In spite of his marriage to this garish woman who used to sell herself to men, he still feels guilty about his sex with Helen. He never once considers that she is to blame, when he earlier had thought she was conniving in everything she did. When Leonard goes to tell Margaret, whom he has learned to respect, about his sin, he is beaten severely by Charles (Henry's son) and is killed by the heart attack that ensues. His thoughts before, during and after this attack are what shows his change -- perhaps the most notable in the novel. He feels a "conviction of innate goodness" and it is described not as his death itself that saves him, but "the idea of death saves him." (Forster, 841) One of his last thoughts is that he was "ashamed, but had done no sin." (Forster, 841) Leonard no longer cares so much about appearances as he does about doing the right thing, which is a totally foreign concept to him.
Overall, E.M. Forster certainly succeeds in painting accurate, though somewhat exaggerated portraits of the idealism, and materialism that can coexist and compete within the upper classes in England, along with the debilitating effect that poverty can have on a life. His characters, Margaret, Henry and Leonard all three represent good, evil and poor respectively, and all three achieve marked growth in the novel. Margaret and Henry both achieve this growth partly due to Leonard, who achieves the most notable growth shortly before his untimely death in "Howard's End."
Forster, E.M. "Howard's End," Great Novels of E.M. Forster: Where Angels Fear to Tread, The Longest Journey, A Room with a View, Howard's End. New York: Caroll & Graff Publishers, Inc. 1992
At the beginning of E.M. Forster's book A Room with a View, the inn's guest Mr. Emerson states: "I have a view, I have a view. . . . This is my son . . . his name's George. He has a view, too." On the most basic level, this statement is just as it appears: Mr. Emerson is talking about what he sees outside of his window. However, the comment also suggests one of the major themes of this book, as well as another early 20th-century novel, Jacob's Room, by Virginia oolf: That is, the view one social class has of another. These books by Forster and oolf described the times in socio-economic terms as well as how the characters related to them.
Forster's novel A Room with a View details the happenstance of the young middle-class Englishwoman Lucy Honeychurch in the early 1900s on a visit…
Woolf, Virginia. The Death of the Moth, and other essays. Harcourt 1974.
Woolf, Virginia. Jacob's Room. The Literature Network. Website retrieved
April 12, http://www.online-literature.com/virginia_woolf/jacob-room/
E.M. Forster's the Life to Come, on the other hand, is a tale divided into four parts: Night, Evening, Day and Morning. Its main character is a young missionary by the name of Paul Pinmay who is sent to spread the word of Christ to the native people. All prior attempts to proselytise these people have failed. During his attempt he meets with the tribal chief, who approaches him to learn more about "this god whose name is Love." The two then sleep together and the tribe becomes Christian.
This leads to Pinmay being appointed by the Bishop to become the minister of the new district. The chief again asks Pinmay to sleep with him, and Pinmay orders the chief not to mention the night ever again. This causes the chief to question the new religion. Eventually this relationship dissolves and the story ends with the chief killing Pinmay.
Room ith a View
There are several different themes that the author of A Room with a View, E.M. Forster, addresses. In this work he illustrates the class system that was found in England and throughout most of Europe, in which money and social graces were the chief distinguishing points between those who have and those who have not. He also discusses the need for independence -- specifically the independence of women, a concept that is identified by the fate of the novel's protagonist Lucy Honeychurch. Love is another major theme found throughout the duration of this work, in all of its manifestations, the physical, the spiritual, and the mental. Perhaps the author's true talent lies in the fact that he is able to combine all of these themes with Lucy's lot at the end of the tale. A careful analysis of this work reveals that Lucy's marriage George Emerson…
Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. 3 vols. Chapman & Hall, 1861. Web. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1400/1400-h/1400-h.htm
Fillion, Michelle. Edwardian Perspectives on Nineteenth Century Music in E.M. Forster's A Room With A View. 19th Century Music. 25(2-3), 266-295. 2001.
Forster, E.M. Where Angels Fear to Tread. William Blackwood and Sons, 1905. Web. http://www.fullbooks.com/Where-Angels-Fear-to-Tread1.html
Forster, E.M. A Room With A View. Cutchogue: Buccaneet Books, 1976. Web. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2641/2641-h/2641-h.htm
There has been a lot of debate and discussions on how exactly these so called heritage films must be interpreted, in academic circles as well as in the mainstream press, and in the more specialized film publications.
As a part of the debate, certain issues became more important than others, and some of them were that a limit must be imposed on this type of trend in production, and that in terms of subject matter of the film, the sources from which the film would draw, the casting in the film, and the style. Would all these factors be able to make up and contribute to a major genre of films? As a matter of fact, heritage films do indeed operate at the culturally respectable end of the market, and they are also the main players in the British Art Film genre. The heritage film generally has a sort of…
Biography for Colin Welland. Accessed 22 August, 2005; Available at http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0919815/bio
British Cinema in the eighties, Cinema, - Review - Book Review. Film Quarterly. Summer, 2001. Accessed 21 August, 2005; Available at http://www.gobelle.com/p/articles/mi_m1070/is_4_54/ai_76997332
Chariots of Fire, 1981. Accessed 22 August, 2005; Available at http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0082158/
Frederic; Brussat, Mary Ann. Spirituality and Health, Movie Review, Maurice. Accessed 22 August, 2005; Available at http://www.spiritualityhealth.com/newsh/items/moviereview/item_9017.html
Under the Banyan Tree is a collection of stories by Indian writer R. K. Narayan. Narayan focuses on cultural India -- India from the Indian's perspective, which is different from the esterner's perspective looking inward from outside. That perspective -- belonging to writers like Rudyard Kipling and E. M. Forster -- is too colonialist to actually understand what India in its true nature is actually like. Thus this book, as a collection of stories, acts as a remedy to misconceptions about India perpetuated from voices abroad who have attempted to identify the culture and its people through a estern lens that filters out too much of the actual reality of the nation, its history, its beliefs, its customs and its spirit. This paper will show how Narayan represents the real India from the insider's perspective that only an insider and native like Narayan could know and show.
Narayan, R. K. Under the Banyan Tree. NY: Penguin, 1985. Print.
Tadie, Alexis. "Under the Banyan Tree: R. K. Narayan, Space and the Story-teller."
Tropes and Territories: Short Fiction, Postcolonial Readings, Canadian Writings in Context. Ed. Marta Dvorak and W. H. New. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2007: 231-244.
Although "Midsummer" is a shot work, in keeping with more of the original modernistic style of poetry writing, it is no less poignant in the message it conveys.
In many ways, DH Lawrence is a visionary that offers the reader imagery and creativity that engulfs the reader into the world in which he creates with his words. As with Walcott, it was not necessary for Lawrence to achieve cadence in his writing though the use of rhyme. There is a balance that is struck that clearly reads as poetic. Lawrence's expressive language and use of interesting characters helps to tell the stories of dehumanization that only comes with man's lack of recognition for the power of nature, and moving too fast in directions unknown under the call for modernization.
"If one thinks a poem is coming on… you do make a retreat, a withdrawal into some kind of silence…
Baugh, Edward. Derek Walcott. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006.
Burnett, Paula. Derek Walcott: Politics and Poetics. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.
Eagleton, Terry. The English novel: an introduction. Willey-Blackwell, pp. 258-260, 2005.
King, Bruce. Derek Walcott, a Caribbean life. Oxford: OUP, 2000.
I had to go into town on Saturdays to the dentist and I joined the Sunshine Club that was organized by the Mobile Press Register." He goes on to tell about entering a work of writing on the children's page publication, which he had called "Old Mr. usybody." The first installment of his writing appeared in a Sunday edition under his real name, which was Truman Streckfus Persons. The second installment never was published after the townspeople figured out he in actuality ' was serving up local scandal as fiction'. (Compote in Interview)
Capote and Writing Technique
When asked the question of "Are there devices one can use in improving one's technique? Capote answered by stating, "Work is the only device I know of. Writing has laws of perspective, of light and shade, just as painting does, or music. If you are born knowing them, fine. If not, learn them.…
Epstein, Joseph (2004) a Lad of the World, "Truman Capote and the Cost of Charms" Vol. 101 Issue 12 (Dec 12-2004) Online available at www.weeklystandard.com.
Truman Capote (nd) Speaking of Stories From the Page to the Stage [available Online at www. Speakingofstories.org]
Truman Compote, the Art of Fiction (nd) the Paris Review No. 17
Capote, Truman. A Christmas Memory. New York: Random House Inc., 1956.
Taking Jeanine Basinger at her word would leave us with far fewer war films than we think we have. Basinger is a 'strict constructionist,' accepting as war films only those that have actual scenes of warfare (Curley and etta, 1992. p. 8; Kinney, 2001, p. 21). That means that the four films that will be considered here, and especially the two orld ar II films, are not war films. By Basinger's yardstick, neither Casablanca nor Notorious, neither Born on the Fourth of July nor Coming Home would qualify as war films.
On the other hand, films such as hite Christmas, a lightweight Bing Crosby-Danny Kaye-Rosemary Clooney-Vera Ellen comedy about the aftermath of war for an old soldier might well be a 'war' movie. The opening scene is one in which the old soldier, Dean Jagger, is reviewing his troops when, somewhere in Italy during the Christmas lull, bombs…
Canby, Vincent. Review/Film; How an All-American Boy Went to War and Lost His Faith. (1989, December 20). Online.
http://movies2.nytimes.com/mem/movies/review.html?title1=& ; title2=BORN%20ON%20THE%20FOURTH%20OF%20JULY%20%28MOVIE%29& reviewer=Vincent%20Canby& pdate=19891220& v_id=6747& oref=login
Coming Home (1978). Online. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0077362/
Dirks, Tim. Casablanca, 2005. Online. www.filmsite.org and www.greatestfilms.org)
Imperialism was always seen as positive for Westerners, but as destructive by the peoples of Africa and Asia." To what extent does this statement appear to be true?
Rudyard Kipling's "The White man's burden" seems to be an ironic condemnation of imperialism. Whilst most Westerners of the viewed imperialism as a necessary fact and as a boon to the 'savages', Kipling was a pre-contemporary in more ways than one and saw the 'Whites' as simply one more other race populating the world. The White man in his greed and folly was perpetrating needless wars and occupying another's land as well as stealing their wives, children, property, and money for the benefit of themselves. Kipling, however, was unique in that most Westerners disagreed with him. To them, they were not only doing their duty but many defined their acts as charity. They were educating the illiterate; teaching the savage the ways…
Aristotle, and C.D.C. Reeve, (translator) (1998) Politics. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub
Bartolome de Las Casas, 1550. Apologetic History of the Indies. Columbia University. http://www.columbia.edu/acis/ets/CCREAD/lascasas.htm
Fromkin. D (1989) The Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East. New York, NY: Avon,.
Said E. (2003). Orientalism, New York, NY: Vintage Books
Suspense: Find examples of suspense in chapter 24-30. What do these events cause a reader to feel anxious for Huck? Is he ever in real danger?
Suspense is maintained throughout the Wilks scam by wondering whether the increasing inventions of the King and the Duke will still enable them to maintain their con game, and then whether the mounting threat of mob violence will claim their lives, or even possibly Huck's. If there is a moment when Huck may face real danger, it is when the mob forms to demand justice.
As a reader, do you feel anxious for the Duke or the king? Why or why not?
The Duke's and king's situation in these chapters is precarious. The Wilks scam seems unlikely to pan out and brings out the worst in them both -- Huck says their behavior makes him "ashamed of the human race." But the…
Destructive Element Traits in Literature
A destructive element refers to that one trait which can destroy a person or negatively impact his life in some manner. This element is usually acts as a barrier between men and their full potential and can also seriously impede their growth. Some critics are of the view that fear is the most destructive element and we know from observation that fear is what stops man from achieving his goals and from speaking his mind. Conrad believes that we must submit to this destructive element, which can interpret in two ways. Either we completely become a victim to it and allow ourselves to be gripped by its power. Or we can submit to it by admitting that it exists and then do something about it. Every author who has explored the psychological dimensions of his characters is aware of this destructive element and it is…
Industrial Revolution and Beyond
It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. e imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: e think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. e imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the…
Atkins, Robert. Artspeak. New York: Abbeville Press, 1990.
Atkins, Robert. Artspoke. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993.
Banham, P. Reyner. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. Cambridge: MIT, 1980.
Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. New York: Schocken, 1969.
Most people seek after what they do not possess and are thus enslaved by the very things they want to acquire -- Anwar El-Sadat
The Egyptian leader Anwar El-Sadat spoke in condemning terms, towards the end of his life, of the enslaving nature of every human being's impulse to better him or herself through acquisition. He did so, not as a detached observer, but after personally wrestling with one of the most formidable and intransient struggles over land that the human species has waged during modern history. In his own lifetime, before being assassinated, Sadat was able to reach some state of accord with the Israeli leader Begin at Camp David. The two leaders created an equitable arrangement about the land under dispute, but only after their people had endured many years of conflict.
However, Sadat spoke as a man leading a country that already had a certain…
Fielding suffers from a strong attachment to English literalism and rationalism, in which he feels himself obligated to support British colonialism because it is not only inevitability but also a positive influence upon India. Aziz allows suspicion to harden into grudges and a strong feeling of distain for both the British and loyalists. Even when Aziz is ultimately acquitted the reaction of the individuals involved in the case reveals the strong hyperbole of loyalists vs. revolutionaries. Aziz sees himself as tainted and fed up with the culture of the British. While Fielding sees the inevitable confession of Adela as the actions of a strong willed individual standing up to her peers to do the right thing. It is in their different perspectives that we see the truth behind the loyalist vs. revolutionary dichotomy; it is a strong desire on either side to find confidence in their own actions and ability…