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17 With wide-embracing love
18 Thy Spirit animates eternal years, 19 Pervades and broods above, 20 Changes, sustains, dissolves, creates, and rears.
21 Though earth and moon were gone, 22 And suns and universes ceased to be, 23 And Thou wert left alone, 24 Every existence would exist in Thee.
25 There is not room for Death, 26 Nor atom that his might could render void:
27 Thou -Thou art Being and Breath, 28 And what Thou art may never be destroyed.
The Prisoner (Emily Bronte)
01 In the dungeon-crypts idly did I stray, 02 Reckless of the lives wasting there away;
03 "Draw the ponderous bars! open, Warder stern!"
04 He dared not say me nay -- the hinges harshly turn.
05 "Our guests are darkly lodged," I whisper'd, gazing through 06 The vault, whose grated eye showed heaven more gray than blue;
07 (This was when glad Spring…
Jane describes Rochester as " a dark face, with stern features, and a heavy brow; his eyes and gathered eyebrows looked ireful and thwarted" (pg. 99). Jane is attracted to the callous and slightly domineering nature of Rochester, this residual interest in authority figures is artfully placed by Bronte to stay true to her theme. Rochester serves as another personal growth catalyst for Jane, he not only represents her first love, but also awakens feelings and emotions that she has never experienced before. He brings to her an element of love and forgiveness that she thought impossible after the callous experiences she had at Lowood. However, Rochester is also a symbol of unfilled love as his secret marriage forces Jane to leave his manor with despair and unrequited love in her heart.
When Jane, facing starvation and despair, finally found a living with siblings at Marsh End, she once again…
Heathcliff's Character In Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights
This paper focuses on Heathcliff's character in Emily Bronte's only novel. 'Wuthering Heights' with reference to views expressed by some critics. Heathcliff is generally considered a villainous character and most critics have therefore focused on his negative personality traits. This paper therefore focuses on both sides of his characters, and then chooses one side to agree with.
WUTHEING HEIGHTS: HEATHCLIFF
Wuthering Heights was published in 1847 and is considered one of the best pieces of fiction ever produced by English authors. The story revolves around a villainous character Heathcliff who is the adopted son of Mr. Earnshaw but falls victim of hatred and anger of the real heir Hindley Earnsahw. If we delve deeper into the psyche of Heathcliff and the circumstances in which he grew up, we would be forced to sympathize with the man and some would even feel sorry for…
T.L. Stone, Is Heathcliff a Vampire?, 2000 http://www.kudzumonthly.com/kudzu/oct01/wuthering.html
Joyce Carol Oates, The Magnanimity of Wuthering Heights, The Ontario Review
Works of Emily Bronte: Character Analyses., Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963.
Valerie Mamicheva, Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, http://www.shared-visions.com/explore/literature/WutheringHeights.htm
Emily Bronte's Heathcliff and Catherine: Passions of love and hate.
The classic novel uthering Heights is as long-lived as the spirits of its main characters, Catherine and Heathcliff. Emily Bronte has an ability to articulate the story through the skillful and creative use of mystery, her undaunted capability to challenge social boundaries, and her heartfelt use of spirituality. In Emily Bronte's universe, the pain or misfortune related to that found by Aristotle in Greek tragedy is the loss of love.
uthering Heights explores two types of imperfect love in childhood, each barring the path to fulfilling love in adulthood. In one family, the implied significance transmitted to the child might be rendered, as "You don't belong here"; in the other, "You're too weak ever to leave." The most devastating consequence of either type of defective love is that the adults emerging from it have difficulty separating the need for love…
Bronte, Emily. Wuthering Heights. Bantam Book Classic.
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus is a Gothic novel that tells the tale of Victor Frankenstein and his creation. As seen in other Gothic works, Shelley employs the supernatural as her character of Dr. Frankenstein creates a monster made out of the leftover pieces of dead humans to create something that is nearly super-human in stature and strength.
What is perhaps most interesting about Shelley's novel, which she began in 1818, is that her machinations have turned into somewhat of a reality today as the current generation faces such issues as cloning and other kinds of genetic research. The monster was for Shelley a metaphor of science gone bad."
The novel is rife with themes of morality, creation, the need for approval from our creator, and where God fits in the world and in the lives of individuals. The reader sees in Frankenstein just how the creature fights…
Wuthering Heights, read "Remembrance" Emily Bronte compare actions feelings Heathcliff final chapter Wuthering Heights feelings speaker final stanza "Remembrance." The essay-based sources: "Remembrance" (Emily Bronte) Wuthering Heights (Emily Bronte).
Undying love in Emily Bronte's poetry and prose
Emily Bronte's poem "Remembrance" offers a complementary poetic narrative to her great novel Wuthering Heights. Both the poem and the novel have similar themes: undying, eternal love, unruly protagonists, and the manner in which the world can interfere with 'pure' affection. In the novel, the anti-hero Heathcliff's love for Catherine transcends class, marital alliances, and even death. Both the poem and the book suggest that love is not tenderness or even necessarily spending one's life with someone else in a social alliance such as a marriage. Love is something intrinsic to the nature and spirit of two human beings who share the same soul.
Heathcliff's passion for Catherine Earnshaw is undying, even after…
Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte
Heathcliff is one of the most fascinating characters in Wuthering Heights, an ineffable masterpiece of Emily Bronte. More than any of the other characters, Heathcliff is subject to multiple extremes -- he feels love and hate, is alternately loved and hated, is rich and poor, magnanimous and misanthropic. Perhaps it is because of these extremes he has experienced that he is one of the characters in the novel that is mad. An examination of the circumstances that contributed to his madness helps to underscore the meaning of the novel as a whole. Quite simply, Heathcliff went crazy because he was struck by love; the author implies that true love -- the sort that struck Heathcliff -- has an enduring quality that transcends temporary circumstances, the mortal world, and even sanity.
The fact that love is singularly responsible for Heathcliff's madness is a fact that is…
First, list quotes from the passage that are either diction or detail.
"a poor conclusion"
"having brooded awhile on the scene he had just witnessed"
"an absurd termination to my violent exertions"
" train myself to be capable of working like Hercules, and when everything is ready and in my power, I find the will to lift a slate off either roof has vanished!"
"My old enemies have not beaten me; now would be the precise time to revenge myself on their representatives: I could do it; and none could hinder me. But where is the use? I don't care for striking: I can't take the trouble to raise my hand! That sounds as if I had been labouring the whole time only to exhibit a fine trait of magnanimity. It is far from being the case: I have lost the faculty of enjoying their destruction, and I…
Catherine's passionate speech to the listless and ignorant Nelly is a proof of the force of this passion. She realizes that Edgar's kindness and gentleness is unsuitable for her own nature: "I've no more business to marry Edgar Linton than I have to be in heaven: and if the wicked man in there had not brought Heathcliff so low, I shouldn't have thought of it. It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff now.... "(Bronte, 95) in her understanding, she could never be at peace in heaven, because her passions are not mild or harmonious. She and Heathcliff belong among the wild forces of nature and their love cannot exist in the middle of society.
Moreover, Catherine feels that her bond with Heathcliff is so strong as to be able to unite them into a single soul. Their oneness further explains the fact that they are not actually compatible in the…
Bloom, Harold. Emily Bronte's 'Wuthering Heights'. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987.
Bronte, Emily. Wuthering Heights. New York: Washington Square Press, 1964.
Gerster, Carole. "The Reality of Fantasy: Emily Bront's Wuthering Heights." Exploring Novels. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003.
Goodlett, Debra. "Love and addiction in 'Wuthering Heights.'." The Midwest Quarterly 37.n3 (Spring 1996): 316(12)
When Catherine states, "It will degrade me to marry Heathcliff," she exposes her prejudices and concerns about social status. She has yet to develop a mature level of self-awareness. Moreover, Catherine indicates a predisposition toward melodrama when she continues, "so he shall never know how I love him." Bronte achieves something clever with this passage, in that she withholds from Catherine her own self-awareness while indicating to the reader that the character is as shallow as anyone else in her milieu. Not being aware of her own shallowness becomes an ironic means by which Catherine can grow. Moreover, it is ironic that the reader is permitted to overhear Catherine's entire conversation on this matter but Heathcliff only hears the first sentence. He does not hear the part about "he shall never know how I love him," and Bronte deliberately structures the conversation in this way, so that the reader…
Cathy is, although temporarily lowered to a servant when Lockwood first meets her, was brought up from birth by her father to be a refined young girl, and Hareton is the rightful owner of the estate he inherits, not a true orphan and stable boy like Heathcliff.
The shift in the individual and personal past cannot change society in Bronte -- perhaps because Bronte's tale is a romantic tale, embracing both female and male experience, and this acknowledges the limits of gender, of both partners in a relationship. In contrast, Scrooge's initially rejection of human kindness is solely told in male-directed, economic terms -- by providing a turkey and medical care for Bob Cratchit's family, Scrooge becomes a good man. Scrooge is more powerful, financially, even if he lacks a heart socially, than Catherine or Cathy is, as both are women who are possessed of an estate only through patrilineal…
Domestic Relations and Domestic Abuse -- the clear-eyed vision of alcoholic dissipation of Anne Bronte's the Tennant of ildfell Hall
According to the posthumous introduction to her final novel, The Tennant of ildfell Hall the Victorian author Anne Bronte was often considered the 'nicest' and most conventionally of all of the three female Bronte sisters who lived on past childhood, to become published authors. However, Anne Bronte's novel The Tennant of ildfell Hall may perhaps be the most ostentatiously feminist of all of the texts published by the various female Brontes, from Emily's uthering Heights, to Charlotte's Jane Eyre, Shirley, and even Villette.
Unlike Emily Bronte's uthering Heights, Anne Bronte's final novel does not romanticize or excuse the brutality of her central male protagonist. Rather, Anne validates the central female character Helen Huntington's determination to escape Mr. Huntington's sway. Nor does Anne's novel ideologically excuse even romantic forms cruelty to…
Bronte, Anne. The Tennant of Wildfell Hall. From the Online Literature Library. Sponsored by Knowledge Matters Ltd. Last updated Tuesday, 29-Jun-1999 13:54:25 GMT. < http://www.literature.org/authors/bronte-anne/the-tenant-of-wildfell-hall/chapter-03.html .> [14 Mar 2005]
Charlotte ronte's first novel entitled "The Professor." The paper describes the novel's basis, its narrator and key characters.
In addition to a description and a general assessment of the book, the paper includes fundamental analysis and interpretation of the literary work.
Positions such as how this novel describes Charlotte ronte's personal feelings of passion, love and uncertainty are revealed throughout the material.
The Professor" is a novel written by Charlotte ronte and published in 1857, a few years after her death. As ronte's first novel, publishers rejected the book. It was available in print only after she died.
The story is based on ronte's experiences as a student in russels in the 1840s.
The tale is narrated by a male character by the name of William Crimsworth. Crimsworth is an orphaned, yet educated man who becomes a teacher at a girls' school in elgium.
Early in the story, Crimsworth is…
Bronte, Charlotte and Heather Glen (Editor). "The Professor." Penguin Classics, 1857.
Edwards, Harriet. Cahners Business Information, East Meadow P.L., NY, 2000.
Cody, David. "Charlotte Bront: An Appreciation." Hartwick College. http://188.8.131.52/victorian/bronte/cbronte/brontbio1.html
Women's History Website. "Charlotte Bronte Biography." http://womenshistory.about.com/library/bio/blbio_bronte_charlotte.htm?iam=dpile_1&terms=charlotte+bronte+biography
Abandonment in Shelley's Frankenstein and Bronte's Jane Eyre: a Comparison
Abandonment is a substantial theme in literature written by women. It appears in the poems of Emily Dickinson, in the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, and in the novels of the Bronte sisters -- uthering Heights and Jane Eyre. It is not a theme that is only addressed by women in literature, to be sure, but it is one that seems to be utilized most evocatively by them. This paper will provide a comparative analysis of two literary sources -- Shelley's Frankenstein and Bronte's Jane Eyre -- to show how abandonment can cause depression, deep emotions and despair, but how it can also open up new doors for an individual; it will show how unprofitable it can be and yet how beneficial to one's life it can also prove in the long run.
Jane Eyre is a romantic-gothic novel by…
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. London: J. M. Dent, 1905. Print.
Linker, Damon. "Terrence Malick's profoundly Christian vision." The Week, 2016.
Web. 2 Apr 2016.
Macdonald, D. L.; Scherf, Kathleen, eds. Frankenstein: The 1818 version. NY:
uthering read greatest depiction perfect, true love. It read a critique sort love. Explain sides debate. Include direct quotations. Paraphrase everuthing, quotations unparaphraseable .
Impossible love in "uthering Heights"
Emily Bronte's 1847 novel "uthering Heights" speaks about love as seen from the perspectives of several individuals. hile some might be inclined to consider that the book is meant to emphasize the importance of true love, others are probable to consider that the story is actually intended to have people acknowledge that love can be particularly devastating and that it is dangerous for people to try and search for perfect love. Compromise is everything when regarding this book and if its characters would have attempted to try and settle with what they had it is very probable that they would have experienced fewer hardships. The novel concentrates between the impossible love affair between Heathcliff, the central character, and his lover Catherine.…
Bronte, Emily, "Wuthering heights: a novel," (Harper & Brothers, publishers, Franklin square, 1858)
There can be no surprise when the "shame and pride threw a double gloom over his countenance" (52). He is so taken aback by Catherine and what she says that he must be commanded to shake her hand. hen Earnshaw tells him to shake her hand in a way this is "permitted" (52), it becomes more than Heathcliff can bear. hile Catherine claims she did not mean to laugh at Heathcliff, the damage is done. She does not realize the extent of her damage and continues to do even more damage by telling Heathcliff he is "sulky" (52) and looks "odd" (52) and things would not be so bad for him if he would just brush his hair and wash his face. This scene only lasts a few moments but it is critical in that it drives much of the plot after this point. It drives Heathcliff to do what…
Bronte, Emily. Wuthering Heights. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1972.
But the fact that Catherine is still drawn to Heathcliff indicates that this apparent veneer of civilization is not 'real' and merely a surface manifestation of finery, not evidence of Cathy's real nature. Catherine lives in a state of internal exile: her soul is at odds with how she is expected to behave, as an upper-class woman and as a wife.
Perhaps the most extreme statement of Catherine's sense of internal exile is her desire to be with Heathcliff rather than in heaven. This statement foreshadows her early death and her haunting of Heathcliff as a tormented spirit. Even though she is 'supposed' to be happy in heaven (and a happy wife and mother when married to a rich man), Catherine is only happy in the presence of a man who satisfies her passion. She feels a sense of alienation, no matter what her location, except when she is with…
This case study takes into consideration three main themes; the power of love that never change, social class and conflict of nature and culture. Love is a variety of feelings, attitudes and states which range from pleasure to interpersonal relationship. The power of love is strong in the sense that it becomes impossible to change. On social class, it is a fact that it is does not depend solely on the amount of wealth that one has, it also depend on the source of income, family connections, birth and roles of the person in the society. In most societies, the three primary social classes that exist are the working class, the middle class and the elite class. On conflicts between nature and culture, it is a fact that there are always conflicts between culture and nature. This is because people belonging to different culture always do things that…
Antrobus, E. 2009, In search of the real Wuthering Heights, Worcester, Mass., United States, Worcester, Mass.
This journal reviews the film. It also explains in deeper details style and symbolism present in the film, not leaving out the theme of love and social class.
Lloyd, R. (2009, Jan 17). TELEVISION REVIEW; they're hot but not passionate; stars' relationship seems read, making the latest 'wuthering heights' falter. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/422242419?accountid=28844
This journal reviews the whole film while considering the main themes. Similarly, it also focuses more on love between Catherine and Heathcliff.
" She could not give as much as she wanted to her art as the Emilys, "the whole that I possess / is still much less," because it was so difficult to balance a career and a family. omen are supposed to be able to achieve anything, but this is impossible to accomplish. The speaker wishes to join the three Emilys, but due to her children and her husband, "only [a] brief span" of time can be devoted to her poetry.
Born in 1943, Michael Ondaatje also participated in the 1960s transformation. The poem, "To a Sad Daughter," appears in his 11th collection of poetry, Secular Love, published in 1984. Similar to many fathers, this poem illustrates Ondaatje's love for his daughter and desire to lead her in the right direction for the future. He refers to the poem as his "first lecture" to a 16-year-old, but understands the difficulty:…
Dunn, Catherine M. "The Changing Image of Women in Renaissance Society and Literature." What Manner of Woman: Essays on English and American Life and Literature. Ed. Marlene Springer. New York: New York UP, 1977. 15-38.
Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1963
Herrick, Robert. A Selection from the Lyrical Poems of Robert Herrick. Charleston: Bibliobazaar, 2007.
Landrum, David, "Robert Herrick and the Ambiguities of Gender." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 49.2 (2007): 181-207
Gende in Poety / Liteatue Lesson
Rational: This is an intoduction to the gende issues which wee so pevalent in the Victoian ea, and a backdop to show why they still exist today and the ham they can inflict.
Syllabus Outcome: This pat of the lesson helps meet outcome 1, o the ability to intepet meanings and themes within texts. By using abstact thinking pocesses, the students will make connections between the texts pesented and show how they ae, o ae not elated. Accoding to the eseach, "A student esponds to and composes inceasingly sophisticated and sustained texts fo undestanding, intepetation, citical analysis and pleasue" (Boad of Studies fo NSW 2003 p 32).
Syllabus Content: This will help meet outcome 4, whee "a student selects and uses languages foms and featues, and stuctues of texts accoding to diffeent puposes, audiences and contexts, and descibes and explains thei…
references to at least two of the texts read
Less than three sentences per response and mentioning one or none of the texts read so far
Strong use of creativity. The poem or short story breaks three or more of the gender stereotypes learned
Simply rewriting a previously published story or poem. Only two or less gender stereotypes were broken by the female character
The novel "Dracula" was written by Irish author Bram Stoker in 1897. Set in nineteenth-century Victorian England and other countries of the same time, this novel is told in an epistolary format through a collection of letters, diary entries etc. The main characters include Count Dracula and a small group of men and women led by Dr. Van Helsing. Count Dracula is the antagonist character of the novel, and is a vampire. The group of men and women led by Dr. Van Helsing are the main protagonist characters. The novel talks about Count Dracula's endeavor to relocate from Transylvania to England, and his demise. The story begins with an English lawyer, Jonathan Harker, visiting Dracula's castle to assist him with some real estate issues. During his stay in the castle, Harker discovers that the Count is a vampire and barely escapes with his life. Then the narrative turns into…
Parsons, G. (1989). Religion in victorian britain. (Vol. 4)
Stoker, B. (1897). Dracula. United Kingdom: Archibald Constable and Company.
Wood, P. (2004). Science and dissent in England, 1688-1945 (science, technology and culture,
Emily Bronte is an author who was born in 1818. She is known for publishing her only novel, uthering Heights, in 1847 under the name of Ellis Bell, a year before her death. Her stellar work of art, uthering Heights, narrates her experience with both the Romantic periods, which lasted from years 1785 to 1830, to that early Victorian era, from 1830 to 1848 (Landers).
The Theme of Love in uthering Heights
The uthering Heights is a passionate story of a love triangle involving two family generations that intermarry. These families are the Earnshaws and the Lintons. The love tale includes a technique of a story within a story, and is narrated by two different characters. It is of importance to note that the two characters also happen to have different knowledge about the two families. One character has a profound knowledge of the families. Her name is…
BBC. Wuthering Heights. 2014. Web. 21 July 2016
E-notes. Wuthering Heights Analysis. 2016. Web. 21 July 2016
Landers, Kendell. "Wuthering Heights: From Victorian To The Romantic." The St. Lawrence Review (2004): n. pag. Web. 21 July 2016
Heathcliff descends into madness during these episodes. He has become consumed with rage and vengeance. In Chapter 27, he holds Catherine, Nelly, and Linton hostage and forces Catherine and Linton to marry. Chapter 28 switches its focus from Wuthering Heights to Thrushcross Grange. Naturally, the reader learns more about how Edgar feels as his life is fading. Edgar dies before he has had the chance to change his will so that Linton cannot inherit his property. In Chapter 29, Bronte switches the reader's attention back to the disturbing Heathcliff, who here admits that he has violated Catherine's grave and intends to do so again. His obsession with Catherine has lasted nearly two decades, and he continues to be consumed with anger. Heathcliff takes out some of that anger on Catherine's daughter because she is half Edgars and reminds Heathcliff of Catherine's marriage to another man. However, it is Linton…
This passage is indicative of the depths to which Heathcliff has sunk. The quote elucidates his character as he descends into being an abusive father. Heathcliff views his son as a tool to be used to gain property, referring to Linton as "mine," not in the sense of paternal love but because Linton can be "prospective owner of your place." Heathcliff means by this that he wants Thrushcross Grange, not for the money or even the status, but as a means to secure symbolic vengeance and power over Edgar. Linton's name becomes increasingly symbolic at this time.
Heathcliff also reveals the depth of his anger, sorrow, loneliness, and despair in this passage. The reader wonders if he is actually truthful when he states, "I despise him for himself, and hate him for the memories he revives!" Heathcliff must feel a lot of dredged up emotions upon encountering Linton, who…
"Catherine's face was just like the landscape -- shadows and sunshine flitting over it in rapid succession; but the shadows rested longer, and the sunshine was more transient..." Chapter 27,
This quote reveals a strong metaphor, describing Catherine's face as being "just like the landscape." Doing this not only provides brilliant imagery but also links Catherine to the land, and to her home, prevalent themes in Bronte's work. Catherine has essentially become spiritually one with the land in which she lives, anchoring her in geographic space and time. All issues of ownership of property, especially given Heathcliff's use of property ownership as a means to assert his political and social power, revert to Catherine.
Moreover, Bronte is sure to point out that the landscape of Catherine's face is filled with "shadows and sunshine," which are "flitting over it in rapid succession." This is an extension of the metaphor, showing…
Heathcliff's statement bears the stamp of both arrogance and insecurity. This passage therefore encapsulates his character. He insults Edgar as being worthless and undeserving of Catherine's love. Heathcliff claims that Edgar is nothing more than Catherine's pet, her "dog" or "horse." The reader knows that on some level Heathcliff is right. Catherine loves Edgar as a friend and companion, certainly, but she does not at all love Edgar in the same deep and passionate way she loves Heathcliff. The fact that Heathcliff is aware of this makes him seem arrogant, but his arrogance is part of his charm. It is also what keeps Heathcliff honest.
However, Heathcliff's anger reveals a deep-rooted insecurity and weakness of character. Heathcliff abandoned Catherine every bit as much as she abandoned him. He did not fight for her love perhaps as much as he could have, and deep down he is furious with himself…
Summarize Chapters 12-18
Chapters 12 through 18 build to the climax of Wuthering Heights. Catherine has married Edgar in spite of not loving him, thereby sabotaging her chances of ever being with Heathcliff, and likewise sabotaging her chances of ever being happy. She drives herself mad, and creates a psychosomatic illness from which she never recovers. In the meantime, Heathcliff is devastated to learn of Catherine's betrayal and to spite her marries Isabella. His behavior mirrors that of Catherine, highlighting their star-crossed love as well as their tragically unconsummated love. Catherine dies giving birth to her daughter.
Pick two or three quotes from chapters 12-18 that seem particularly meaningful, provocative, or well written and briefly (in a phrase or quick sentence) say why.
"I should mention that Isabella sent to her brother, some six weeks from her departure, a short note, announcing her marriage with Heathcliff. It appeared dry…
"O Sylvan ye! thou wanderer thro' the woods, / How often has my spirit turned to thee!" (http://www.uoregon.edu/~rbear/ballads.html) Now, the poet wishes to "transfer" the healing powers of nature that he himself has experienced to his sister. By stating."..Nature never did betray / the heart that loved her" (http://www.uoregon.edu/~rbear/ballads.html) ordsworth assures his sister that she will also find peace in the middle of nature if she believes in the communion with nature. This prediction is an artifice of the poem and is not simple. "ordsworth's ability to look to the future to predict memories of events that are happening in the present is ingenious and complicated. But ordsworth beautifully clarifies this concept by using nature as the ideal link between recollection, foresight, and his relationship with another."(Eilenberg, Susan. Strange power of Speech: ordsworth, Coleridge, and Literary Possession. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
Moreover, by imagining the future of his…
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Ed. Beth Newman. Boston: St. Martin's, 1996.
Baudelaire, Charles. Selected Writings on Art and Literature. London:
Spector, Jack the State of Psychoanalytic Research in Art History. The Art
Then I ferret for poetry on the specific subject that boosts me. Generally, I love Tennyson and Emily Dickinson; perhaps I go, as I do in literature, for the relevant and inspiring.
Poems that have had the greatest impact on me include Joaquin Miller's Columbus: particularly the stanza:
What shall I say, brave Admiral, say,
If we sight naught but seas at dawn?"
"Why, you shall say at break of day, 'ail on! sail on! sail on! And on!'"(Derek, 2002, p.134)
Philosophers of literature argue regarding the impact literature may or may not have on the ethical psyche. Tolstoy's 'What is Art?" For instance, maintains that literature has a strong impact and, therefore, one should choose one's readings carefully. Plato asseverated, likewise, recommending literature as part of the diet of the Philosopher king. Ruskin, too, maintained that literature should be employed for the betterment of society, whilst in Confucian thought,…
Cory, B. (1999). Literature: a crash course. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications
Derek, W. (2002). Selected poems. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Kessler, J.M. (2003). Ashcroft v. free Speech Coalition. Appalachian J, 61-72.
All without distinction were branded as fanatics and phantasts; not only those, whose wild and exorbitant imaginations had actually engendered only extravagant and grotesque phantasms, and whose productions were, for the most part, poor copies and gross caricatures of genuine inspiration; but the truly inspired likewise, the originals themselves. And this for no other reason, but because they were the unlearned, men of humble and obscure occupations. (Coleridge iographia IX)
To a certain extent, Coleridge's polemical point here is consistent with his early radical politics, and his emergence from the lively intellectual community of London's "dissenting academies" at a time when religious non-conformists (like the Unitarian Coleridge) were not permitted to attend Oxford or Cambridge: he is correct that science and philosophy were more active among "humble and obscure" persons, like Joseph Priestley or Anna Letitia arbauld, who had emerged from the dissenting academies because barred (by religion or gender)…
By mid-century, however, these forces in the use of grotesque in prose were fully integrated as a matter of style. We can contrast two convenient examples from mid-century England, in Dickens's 1850 novel David Copperfield, compared with Carlyle's notorious essay originally published in 1849 under the title "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question." Dickens is, of course, the great master of the grotesque in the Victorian novel. Most of Dickens' villains -- the villainous dwarf Quilp in The Old Curiosity Shop, the hunchback Flintwinch in Little Dorrit, the junkshop-proprietor Krook who perishes of spontaneous combustion in Bleak House -- have names and physical characteristics that signpost them as near-perfect examples of the grotesque. The notion that this grotesquerie is, in some way, related to the streak of social criticism in Dickens' fiction is somewhat attractive, because even the social problems in these novels are configured in ways that recall the grotesque, like the Circumlocution Office in Little Dorrit, Boffin's mammoth dust-heap in Our Mutual Friend, or the philanthropist and negligent mother Mrs. Jellaby in Bleak House who proves Dickens' polemical point about charity beginning at home by being rather grotesquely eaten by the cannibals of Borrioboola-Gha. We can see Dickens' grotesque in a less outlandish form, but still recognizable as grotesque, in the introduction of the villainous Uriah Heep in Chapter 15 of David Copperfield:
When the pony-chaise stopped at the door, and my eyes were intent upon the house, I saw a cadaverous face appear at a small window on the ground floor (in a little round tower that formed one side of the house), and quickly disappear. The low arched door then opened, and the face came out. It was quite as cadaverous as it had looked in the window, though in the grain of it there was that tinge of red which is sometimes to be observed in the skins of red-haired people. It belonged to a red-haired person -- a youth of fifteen, as I take it now, but looking much older -- whose hair was cropped as close as the closest stubble; who had hardly any eyebrows, and no eyelashes, and eyes of a red-brown, so unsheltered and unshaded, that I remember wondering how he went to sleep. He was high-shouldered and bony; dressed in decent black, with a white wisp of a neckcloth; buttoned up to the throat; and had a long, lank, skeleton hand, which particularly attracted my attention, as he stood at the pony's head, rubbing his chin with it, and looking up at us in the chaise. (Dickens, Chapter 15)
We may note the classic elements of