Emily Bronte Essays (Examples)

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Bronte Wuthering Heights Beyond Social

Words: 1120 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55424961

Catherine's passionate speech to the listless and ignorant Nelly is a proof of the force of this passion. She realizes that Edgar's kindness and gentleness is unsuitable for her own nature: "I've no more business to marry Edgar Linton than I have to be in heaven: and if the wicked man in there had not brought Heathcliff so low, I shouldn't have thought of it. It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff now.... "(Bronte, 95) in her understanding, she could never be at peace in heaven, because her passions are not mild or harmonious. She and Heathcliff belong among the wild forces of nature and their love cannot exist in the middle of society.

Moreover, Catherine feels that her bond with Heathcliff is so strong as to be able to unite them into a single soul. Their oneness further explains the fact that they are not actually compatible in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bloom, Harold. Emily Bronte's 'Wuthering Heights'. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987.

Bronte, Emily. Wuthering Heights. New York: Washington Square Press, 1964.

Gerster, Carole. "The Reality of Fantasy: Emily Bront's Wuthering Heights." Exploring Novels. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003.

Goodlett, Debra. "Love and addiction in 'Wuthering Heights.'." The Midwest Quarterly 37.n3 (Spring 1996): 316(12)
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Bronte When Catherine States It Will Degrade

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97645968

Bronte

When Catherine states, "It will degrade me to marry Heathcliff," she exposes her prejudices and concerns about social status. She has yet to develop a mature level of self-awareness. Moreover, Catherine indicates a predisposition toward melodrama when she continues, "so he shall never know how I love him." Bronte achieves something clever with this passage, in that she withholds from Catherine her own self-awareness while indicating to the reader that the character is as shallow as anyone else in her milieu. Not being aware of her own shallowness becomes an ironic means by which Catherine can grow. Moreover, it is ironic that the reader is permitted to overhear Catherine's entire conversation on this matter but Heathcliff only hears the first sentence. He does not hear the part about "he shall never know how I love him," and Bronte deliberately structures the conversation in this way, so that the reader…… [Read More]

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Dickens & Bronte Keeping the

Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46767836

Cathy is, although temporarily lowered to a servant when Lockwood first meets her, was brought up from birth by her father to be a refined young girl, and Hareton is the rightful owner of the estate he inherits, not a true orphan and stable boy like Heathcliff.

The shift in the individual and personal past cannot change society in Bronte -- perhaps because Bronte's tale is a romantic tale, embracing both female and male experience, and this acknowledges the limits of gender, of both partners in a relationship. In contrast, Scrooge's initially rejection of human kindness is solely told in male-directed, economic terms -- by providing a turkey and medical care for Bob Cratchit's family, Scrooge becomes a good man. Scrooge is more powerful, financially, even if he lacks a heart socially, than Catherine or Cathy is, as both are women who are possessed of an estate only through patrilineal…… [Read More]

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Anne Bronte Novel Tenant of Wildfell Hall

Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83900794

Domestic Relations and Domestic Abuse -- the clear-eyed vision of alcoholic dissipation of Anne Bronte's the Tennant of ildfell Hall

According to the posthumous introduction to her final novel, The Tennant of ildfell Hall the Victorian author Anne Bronte was often considered the 'nicest' and most conventionally of all of the three female Bronte sisters who lived on past childhood, to become published authors. However, Anne Bronte's novel The Tennant of ildfell Hall may perhaps be the most ostentatiously feminist of all of the texts published by the various female Brontes, from Emily's uthering Heights, to Charlotte's Jane Eyre, Shirley, and even Villette.

Unlike Emily Bronte's uthering Heights, Anne Bronte's final novel does not romanticize or excuse the brutality of her central male protagonist. Rather, Anne validates the central female character Helen Huntington's determination to escape Mr. Huntington's sway. Nor does Anne's novel ideologically excuse even romantic forms cruelty to…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Bronte, Anne. The Tennant of Wildfell Hall. From the Online Literature Library. Sponsored by Knowledge Matters Ltd. Last updated Tuesday, 29-Jun-1999 13:54:25 GMT. < http://www.literature.org/authors/bronte-anne/the-tenant-of-wildfell-hall/chapter-03.html.> [14 Mar 2005]
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Charlotte Bronte's First Novel Entitled The Professor

Words: 1146 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32621914

Charlotte ronte's first novel entitled "The Professor." The paper describes the novel's basis, its narrator and key characters.

In addition to a description and a general assessment of the book, the paper includes fundamental analysis and interpretation of the literary work.

Positions such as how this novel describes Charlotte ronte's personal feelings of passion, love and uncertainty are revealed throughout the material.

The Professor" is a novel written by Charlotte ronte and published in 1857, a few years after her death. As ronte's first novel, publishers rejected the book. It was available in print only after she died.

The story is based on ronte's experiences as a student in russels in the 1840s.

The tale is narrated by a male character by the name of William Crimsworth. Crimsworth is an orphaned, yet educated man who becomes a teacher at a girls' school in elgium.

Early in the story, Crimsworth is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bronte, Charlotte and Heather Glen (Editor). "The Professor." Penguin Classics, 1857.

Edwards, Harriet. Cahners Business Information, East Meadow P.L., NY, 2000.

Cody, David. "Charlotte Bront: An Appreciation." Hartwick College. http://65.107.211.206/victorian/bronte/cbronte/brontbio1.html

Women's History Website. "Charlotte Bronte Biography." http://womenshistory.about.com/library/bio/blbio_bronte_charlotte.htm?iam=dpile_1&terms=charlotte+bronte+biography
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How Bronte and Shelley Develop the Theme of Abandonment in Their Novels

Words: 2509 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63849391

Abandonment in Shelley's Frankenstein and Bronte's Jane Eyre: a Comparison

Abandonment is a substantial theme in literature written by women. It appears in the poems of Emily Dickinson, in the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, and in the novels of the Bronte sisters -- uthering Heights and Jane Eyre. It is not a theme that is only addressed by women in literature, to be sure, but it is one that seems to be utilized most evocatively by them. This paper will provide a comparative analysis of two literary sources -- Shelley's Frankenstein and Bronte's Jane Eyre -- to show how abandonment can cause depression, deep emotions and despair, but how it can also open up new doors for an individual; it will show how unprofitable it can be and yet how beneficial to one's life it can also prove in the long run.

Jane Eyre is a romantic-gothic novel by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. London: J. M. Dent, 1905. Print.

Linker, Damon. "Terrence Malick's profoundly Christian vision." The Week, 2016.

Web. 2 Apr 2016.

Macdonald, D. L.; Scherf, Kathleen, eds. Frankenstein: The 1818 version. NY:
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Wuthering Read Greatest Depiction Perfect True Love

Words: 1168 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74943222

uthering read greatest depiction perfect, true love. It read a critique sort love. Explain sides debate. Include direct quotations. Paraphrase everuthing, quotations unparaphraseable .

Impossible love in "uthering Heights"

Emily Bronte's 1847 novel "uthering Heights" speaks about love as seen from the perspectives of several individuals. hile some might be inclined to consider that the book is meant to emphasize the importance of true love, others are probable to consider that the story is actually intended to have people acknowledge that love can be particularly devastating and that it is dangerous for people to try and search for perfect love. Compromise is everything when regarding this book and if its characters would have attempted to try and settle with what they had it is very probable that they would have experienced fewer hardships. The novel concentrates between the impossible love affair between Heathcliff, the central character, and his lover Catherine.…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Bronte, Emily, "Wuthering heights: a novel," (Harper & Brothers, publishers, Franklin square, 1858)
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Consequence of Strangers Explored in

Words: 898 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94350239

There can be no surprise when the "shame and pride threw a double gloom over his countenance" (52). He is so taken aback by Catherine and what she says that he must be commanded to shake her hand. hen Earnshaw tells him to shake her hand in a way this is "permitted" (52), it becomes more than Heathcliff can bear. hile Catherine claims she did not mean to laugh at Heathcliff, the damage is done. She does not realize the extent of her damage and continues to do even more damage by telling Heathcliff he is "sulky" (52) and looks "odd" (52) and things would not be so bad for him if he would just brush his hair and wash his face. This scene only lasts a few moments but it is critical in that it drives much of the plot after this point. It drives Heathcliff to do what…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Bronte, Emily. Wuthering Heights. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1972.
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Wuthering Heights Contains Many Examples

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67765607

But the fact that Catherine is still drawn to Heathcliff indicates that this apparent veneer of civilization is not 'real' and merely a surface manifestation of finery, not evidence of Cathy's real nature. Catherine lives in a state of internal exile: her soul is at odds with how she is expected to behave, as an upper-class woman and as a wife.

Perhaps the most extreme statement of Catherine's sense of internal exile is her desire to be with Heathcliff rather than in heaven. This statement foreshadows her early death and her haunting of Heathcliff as a tormented spirit. Even though she is 'supposed' to be happy in heaven (and a happy wife and mother when married to a rich man), Catherine is only happy in the presence of a man who satisfies her passion. She feels a sense of alienation, no matter what her location, except when she is with…… [Read More]

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Realism in Literature Realism and

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37583613

This was Shelley's observation and the reality she experienced during her time.

Dickens and Bronte, meanwhile, experienced reality through social change, in the same way that Shelley had observed the changing times of 19th century society. However, while Shelley contemplated about the dominance of science over nature in "Frankenstein," both Dickens and Bronte reflected the breaking down of class divisions happening in the society, illustrated through the novels "Great Expectations" and "Wuthering Heights," respectively.

Dickens depicted the dissolution of class divisions through the characters of Pip and Estella, individuals who represented the underprivileged and the elite classes, respectively. In the novel, readers witnessed how Pip's ascent to a higher social class became possible through a secret benefactor, while Estella's higher stature eventually led to her poverty when Miss Havisham died. The once poor Pip eventually attained a better life, while Estella, once rich, became imprisoned in an abusive relationship with…… [Read More]

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Wuthering Heights

Words: 1787 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48065761

Wuthering Heights

This case study takes into consideration three main themes; the power of love that never change, social class and conflict of nature and culture. Love is a variety of feelings, attitudes and states which range from pleasure to interpersonal relationship. The power of love is strong in the sense that it becomes impossible to change. On social class, it is a fact that it is does not depend solely on the amount of wealth that one has, it also depend on the source of income, family connections, birth and roles of the person in the society. In most societies, the three primary social classes that exist are the working class, the middle class and the elite class. On conflicts between nature and culture, it is a fact that there are always conflicts between culture and nature. This is because people belonging to different culture always do things that…… [Read More]

References

Antrobus, E. 2009, In search of the real Wuthering Heights, Worcester, Mass., United States, Worcester, Mass.

This journal reviews the film. It also explains in deeper details style and symbolism present in the film, not leaving out the theme of love and social class.

Lloyd, R. (2009, Jan 17). TELEVISION REVIEW; they're hot but not passionate; stars' relationship seems read, making the latest 'wuthering heights' falter. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/422242419?accountid=28844 

This journal reviews the whole film while considering the main themes. Similarly, it also focuses more on love between Catherine and Heathcliff.
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Status of Women in Society

Words: 1174 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82696355

" She could not give as much as she wanted to her art as the Emilys, "the whole that I possess / is still much less," because it was so difficult to balance a career and a family. omen are supposed to be able to achieve anything, but this is impossible to accomplish. The speaker wishes to join the three Emilys, but due to her children and her husband, "only [a] brief span" of time can be devoted to her poetry.

Born in 1943, Michael Ondaatje also participated in the 1960s transformation. The poem, "To a Sad Daughter," appears in his 11th collection of poetry, Secular Love, published in 1984. Similar to many fathers, this poem illustrates Ondaatje's love for his daughter and desire to lead her in the right direction for the future. He refers to the poem as his "first lecture" to a 16-year-old, but understands the difficulty:…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dunn, Catherine M. "The Changing Image of Women in Renaissance Society and Literature." What Manner of Woman: Essays on English and American Life and Literature. Ed. Marlene Springer. New York: New York UP, 1977. 15-38.

Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1963

Herrick, Robert. A Selection from the Lyrical Poems of Robert Herrick. Charleston: Bibliobazaar, 2007.

Landrum, David, "Robert Herrick and the Ambiguities of Gender." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 49.2 (2007): 181-207
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Gender in Poetry Literature Lesson Duration

Words: 1983 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71176397

Gende in Poety / Liteatue Lesson

Lesson Duation

mins

Rational: This is an intoduction to the gende issues which wee so pevalent in the Victoian ea, and a backdop to show why they still exist today and the ham they can inflict.

Syllabus Outcome: This pat of the lesson helps meet outcome 1, o the ability to intepet meanings and themes within texts. By using abstact thinking pocesses, the students will make connections between the texts pesented and show how they ae, o ae not elated. Accoding to the eseach, "A student esponds to and composes inceasingly sophisticated and sustained texts fo undestanding, intepetation, citical analysis and pleasue" (Boad of Studies fo NSW 2003 p 32).

Syllabus Content: This will help meet outcome 4, whee "a student selects and uses languages foms and featues, and stuctues of texts accoding to diffeent puposes, audiences and contexts, and descibes and explains thei…… [Read More]

references to at least two of the texts read

Less than three sentences per response and mentioning one or none of the texts read so far

Lesson 5

Strong use of creativity. The poem or short story breaks three or more of the gender stereotypes learned

Simply rewriting a previously published story or poem. Only two or less gender stereotypes were broken by the female character
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Dracula

The novel "Dracula" was written by Irish author Bram Stoker in 1897. Set in nineteenth-century Victorian England and other countries of the same time, this novel is told in an epistolary format through a collection of letters, diary entries etc. The main characters include Count Dracula and a small group of men and women led by Dr. Van Helsing. Count Dracula is the antagonist character of the novel, and is a vampire. The group of men and women led by Dr. Van Helsing are the main protagonist characters. The novel talks about Count Dracula's endeavor to relocate from Transylvania to England, and his demise. The story begins with an English lawyer, Jonathan Harker, visiting Dracula's castle to assist him with some real estate issues. During his stay in the castle, Harker discovers that the Count is a vampire and barely escapes with his life. Then the narrative turns into…… [Read More]

References:

Parsons, G. (1989). Religion in victorian britain. (Vol. 4)

Stoker, B. (1897). Dracula. United Kingdom: Archibald Constable and Company.

Wood, P. (2004). Science and dissent in England, 1688-1945 (science, technology and culture,
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Analyzing the Wuthering Heights

Words: 1184 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42283053

uthering Heights

Emily Bronte is an author who was born in 1818. She is known for publishing her only novel, uthering Heights, in 1847 under the name of Ellis Bell, a year before her death. Her stellar work of art, uthering Heights, narrates her experience with both the Romantic periods, which lasted from years 1785 to 1830, to that early Victorian era, from 1830 to 1848 (Landers).

The Theme of Love in uthering Heights

The uthering Heights is a passionate story of a love triangle involving two family generations that intermarry. These families are the Earnshaws and the Lintons. The love tale includes a technique of a story within a story, and is narrated by two different characters. It is of importance to note that the two characters also happen to have different knowledge about the two families. One character has a profound knowledge of the families. Her name is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BBC. Wuthering Heights. 2014. Web. 21 July 2016

E-notes. Wuthering Heights Analysis. 2016. Web. 21 July 2016

Landers, Kendell. "Wuthering Heights: From Victorian To The Romantic." The St. Lawrence Review (2004): n. pag. Web. 21 July 2016
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Wuthering Heathcliff Descends Into Madness During These

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68448017

Wuthering

Heathcliff descends into madness during these episodes. He has become consumed with rage and vengeance. In Chapter 27, he holds Catherine, Nelly, and Linton hostage and forces Catherine and Linton to marry. Chapter 28 switches its focus from Wuthering Heights to Thrushcross Grange. Naturally, the reader learns more about how Edgar feels as his life is fading. Edgar dies before he has had the chance to change his will so that Linton cannot inherit his property. In Chapter 29, Bronte switches the reader's attention back to the disturbing Heathcliff, who here admits that he has violated Catherine's grave and intends to do so again. His obsession with Catherine has lasted nearly two decades, and he continues to be consumed with anger. Heathcliff takes out some of that anger on Catherine's daughter because she is half Edgars and reminds Heathcliff of Catherine's marriage to another man. However, it is Linton…… [Read More]

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Wuthering This Passage Is Indicative of the

Words: 1244 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86311476

Wuthering

This passage is indicative of the depths to which Heathcliff has sunk. The quote elucidates his character as he descends into being an abusive father. Heathcliff views his son as a tool to be used to gain property, referring to Linton as "mine," not in the sense of paternal love but because Linton can be "prospective owner of your place." Heathcliff means by this that he wants Thrushcross Grange, not for the money or even the status, but as a means to secure symbolic vengeance and power over Edgar. Linton's name becomes increasingly symbolic at this time.

Heathcliff also reveals the depth of his anger, sorrow, loneliness, and despair in this passage. The reader wonders if he is actually truthful when he states, "I despise him for himself, and hate him for the memories he revives!" Heathcliff must feel a lot of dredged up emotions upon encountering Linton, who…… [Read More]

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Wuthering Catherine's Face Was Just Like the

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Wuthering

"Catherine's face was just like the landscape -- shadows and sunshine flitting over it in rapid succession; but the shadows rested longer, and the sunshine was more transient..." Chapter 27,

This quote reveals a strong metaphor, describing Catherine's face as being "just like the landscape." Doing this not only provides brilliant imagery but also links Catherine to the land, and to her home, prevalent themes in Bronte's work. Catherine has essentially become spiritually one with the land in which she lives, anchoring her in geographic space and time. All issues of ownership of property, especially given Heathcliff's use of property ownership as a means to assert his political and social power, revert to Catherine.

Moreover, Bronte is sure to point out that the landscape of Catherine's face is filled with "shadows and sunshine," which are "flitting over it in rapid succession." This is an extension of the metaphor, showing…… [Read More]

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Wuthering Heathcliff's Statement Bears the Stamp of

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90731530

Wuthering

Heathcliff's statement bears the stamp of both arrogance and insecurity. This passage therefore encapsulates his character. He insults Edgar as being worthless and undeserving of Catherine's love. Heathcliff claims that Edgar is nothing more than Catherine's pet, her "dog" or "horse." The reader knows that on some level Heathcliff is right. Catherine loves Edgar as a friend and companion, certainly, but she does not at all love Edgar in the same deep and passionate way she loves Heathcliff. The fact that Heathcliff is aware of this makes him seem arrogant, but his arrogance is part of his charm. It is also what keeps Heathcliff honest.

However, Heathcliff's anger reveals a deep-rooted insecurity and weakness of character. Heathcliff abandoned Catherine every bit as much as she abandoned him. He did not fight for her love perhaps as much as he could have, and deep down he is furious with himself…… [Read More]

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Wuthering Summarize Chapters 12-18 Chapters 12 Through

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Wuthering

Summarize Chapters 12-18

Chapters 12 through 18 build to the climax of Wuthering Heights. Catherine has married Edgar in spite of not loving him, thereby sabotaging her chances of ever being with Heathcliff, and likewise sabotaging her chances of ever being happy. She drives herself mad, and creates a psychosomatic illness from which she never recovers. In the meantime, Heathcliff is devastated to learn of Catherine's betrayal and to spite her marries Isabella. His behavior mirrors that of Catherine, highlighting their star-crossed love as well as their tragically unconsummated love. Catherine dies giving birth to her daughter.

Pick two or three quotes from chapters 12-18 that seem particularly meaningful, provocative, or well written and briefly (in a phrase or quick sentence) say why.

"I should mention that Isabella sent to her brother, some six weeks from her departure, a short note, announcing her marriage with Heathcliff. It appeared dry…… [Read More]

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English Romanticism in the 1790s

Words: 3717 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45643615

"O Sylvan ye! thou wanderer thro' the woods, / How often has my spirit turned to thee!" (http://www.uoregon.edu/~rbear/ballads.html) Now, the poet wishes to "transfer" the healing powers of nature that he himself has experienced to his sister. By stating."..Nature never did betray / the heart that loved her" (http://www.uoregon.edu/~rbear/ballads.html) ordsworth assures his sister that she will also find peace in the middle of nature if she believes in the communion with nature. This prediction is an artifice of the poem and is not simple. "ordsworth's ability to look to the future to predict memories of events that are happening in the present is ingenious and complicated. But ordsworth beautifully clarifies this concept by using nature as the ideal link between recollection, foresight, and his relationship with another."(Eilenberg, Susan. Strange power of Speech: ordsworth, Coleridge, and Literary Possession. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).

Moreover, by imagining the future of his…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Ed. Beth Newman. Boston: St. Martin's, 1996.

Baudelaire, Charles. Selected Writings on Art and Literature. London:

Penguin, 1992.

Spector, Jack the State of Psychoanalytic Research in Art History. The Art
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Literally Means Acquaintance With Letters

Words: 1198 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32836285

Then I ferret for poetry on the specific subject that boosts me. Generally, I love Tennyson and Emily Dickinson; perhaps I go, as I do in literature, for the relevant and inspiring.

Poems that have had the greatest impact on me include Joaquin Miller's Columbus: particularly the stanza:

What shall I say, brave Admiral, say,

If we sight naught but seas at dawn?"

"Why, you shall say at break of day, 'ail on! sail on! sail on! And on!'"(Derek, 2002, p.134)

Philosophers of literature argue regarding the impact literature may or may not have on the ethical psyche. Tolstoy's 'What is Art?" For instance, maintains that literature has a strong impact and, therefore, one should choose one's readings carefully. Plato asseverated, likewise, recommending literature as part of the diet of the Philosopher king. Ruskin, too, maintained that literature should be employed for the betterment of society, whilst in Confucian thought,…… [Read More]

Sources

Cory, B. (1999). Literature: a crash course. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications

Derek, W. (2002). Selected poems. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Kessler, J.M. (2003). Ashcroft v. free Speech Coalition. Appalachian J, 61-72.
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Fiction and Non-Fiction in 19th Century England Example of the Grotesque

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91505486

All without distinction were branded as fanatics and phantasts; not only those, whose wild and exorbitant imaginations had actually engendered only extravagant and grotesque phantasms, and whose productions were, for the most part, poor copies and gross caricatures of genuine inspiration; but the truly inspired likewise, the originals themselves. And this for no other reason, but because they were the unlearned, men of humble and obscure occupations. (Coleridge iographia IX)

To a certain extent, Coleridge's polemical point here is consistent with his early radical politics, and his emergence from the lively intellectual community of London's "dissenting academies" at a time when religious non-conformists (like the Unitarian Coleridge) were not permitted to attend Oxford or Cambridge: he is correct that science and philosophy were more active among "humble and obscure" persons, like Joseph Priestley or Anna Letitia arbauld, who had emerged from the dissenting academies because barred (by religion or gender)…… [Read More]

By mid-century, however, these forces in the use of grotesque in prose were fully integrated as a matter of style. We can contrast two convenient examples from mid-century England, in Dickens's 1850 novel David Copperfield, compared with Carlyle's notorious essay originally published in 1849 under the title "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question." Dickens is, of course, the great master of the grotesque in the Victorian novel. Most of Dickens' villains -- the villainous dwarf Quilp in The Old Curiosity Shop, the hunchback Flintwinch in Little Dorrit, the junkshop-proprietor Krook who perishes of spontaneous combustion in Bleak House -- have names and physical characteristics that signpost them as near-perfect examples of the grotesque. The notion that this grotesquerie is, in some way, related to the streak of social criticism in Dickens' fiction is somewhat attractive, because even the social problems in these novels are configured in ways that recall the grotesque, like the Circumlocution Office in Little Dorrit, Boffin's mammoth dust-heap in Our Mutual Friend, or the philanthropist and negligent mother Mrs. Jellaby in Bleak House who proves Dickens' polemical point about charity beginning at home by being rather grotesquely eaten by the cannibals of Borrioboola-Gha. We can see Dickens' grotesque in a less outlandish form, but still recognizable as grotesque, in the introduction of the villainous Uriah Heep in Chapter 15 of David Copperfield:

When the pony-chaise stopped at the door, and my eyes were intent upon the house, I saw a cadaverous face appear at a small window on the ground floor (in a little round tower that formed one side of the house), and quickly disappear. The low arched door then opened, and the face came out. It was quite as cadaverous as it had looked in the window, though in the grain of it there was that tinge of red which is sometimes to be observed in the skins of red-haired people. It belonged to a red-haired person -- a youth of fifteen, as I take it now, but looking much older -- whose hair was cropped as close as the closest stubble; who had hardly any eyebrows, and no eyelashes, and eyes of a red-brown, so unsheltered and unshaded, that I remember wondering how he went to sleep. He was high-shouldered and bony; dressed in decent black, with a white wisp of a neckcloth; buttoned up to the throat; and had a long, lank, skeleton hand, which particularly attracted my attention, as he stood at the pony's head, rubbing his chin with it, and looking up at us in the chaise. (Dickens, Chapter 15)

We may note the classic elements of