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al., eds., 2004; Masicampo and Baumeister, 2011).
Need Hierarchy Theory- Need theory is a combination of Maslow's "Hierarchy of Needs" and Herzberg's "Two-Factor Theory." It essentially goes beyond drive and says that humans have needs that must be satisfied; typically layered from survival issues upward. Once the bottom layers have been fulfilled (e.g. food, shelter, safety), then self-esteem, recognition, achievement and self-actualization, which are all workplace goals, become even more important. These workplace needs are an intrinsic/extrinsic motivational technique that results in job satisfaction, but if absent, result not in dissatisfaction, but no satisfaction. Thus, there are motivators (challenges, responsibility and recognition) and hygiene factors (salary, fringe benefits, status) that may result in demotivation. The key for the manager, then is to identify the true motivational needs and provide an appropriate environment for their actualization (Bobic and Davis, 2003; Koontz and Weihrich, 2006).
Goal Setting Theory -- GST is based…
Bobic, M. And Davis, W. (2003). A Kind Word for Theory X Journal of Public Administration. 13 (3): 239-51.
Cervone, D.m, et.al. (2006) Self-Regulation: Reminders and Suggestions from Personality Science. Applied Psychology: An International Review. 55 (3): 333-85.
Harrison, A., et.al., eds. (2004). The Distributed Workplace: Sustainable Work Environments. New York: Spon Press.
Hersey and Blanchard (1977). Management of Organization Behavior, Utilizing Human Resource. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Managers and business owners know the importance of employee motivation to the success of their business. To that extent, they seek to understand it better for mutual success. Gateth R. Jones and Jennifer M. George, in their book entitled "Contemporary Management," define employee motivation as a combination of "psychological forces, which determine the direction" of an employee's behavior in an organization (Consador 2013)." They also describe it as an employee's "level of effort and of persistence" in his performance of tasks. The authors point to the combined directions of behavior, effort and persistence as the key factors. Motivated behavior may be intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsically motivated behavior performs tasks for their own sake and the source of the motivation is the performance of the task itself. Extrinsically motivated behavior performs tasks for material or social rewards or to avoid penalty for the omission (Consador). It is well-known…
Accel. 2013. 'Employment rewards', Accel-Team. [Online]. Available at http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/employeeRewards_02.html
Allen, R.S. And Killman, R.H. 1999. 'The role of the reward system for a total management-based strategy'. Vol 14 # 2, Journal of Organizational Change: MCB
Axelsson, A. And Bokedal, S. 2009. 'Rewards systems -- motivating different generations'. University of Gothenburg. [Online] Available at https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/21241/1/gupea_2077_21241_1.pdf
Born, L. And Molleman, E. 1996. 'Empowerment and rewards: a case study.
Employee Motivation Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic
Motivation refers to an act of arousing an individual towards achievement of a given goal or objective. It is a psychological undertaking that is aimed at influencing positivity in an individual or animal in order to decoy it into fulfilling an intended activity. Moreover, motivation is a feature used to encourage individual and group participation in procedures and approaches of achieving the set goals and objectives in many organizations. There are different approaches in which motivation can be attained among individuals. The features used to motivate individuals range from those that influence on the intrinsic capabilities of an individual to those that influence on the extrinsic features.
Intrinsic motivation refers to a type of motivation where an individual is intending to accomplish an activity or objective. The desire to accomplish a given purpose is derived from the innate characteristics in an individual. Many…
Kjerulf, A. (2006). P2P Foundation. http://p2pfoundation.net . 12/04/12.
Pinder, C.C. (1976). Journal of Applied Psychology. Additively vs. none additively of intrinsic and extrinsic incentives: Implications for work motivation, performance, and attitudes. Volume 61 Issue 6. 693-700.
Ryan M & Richard. (2000). Contemporary Educational Psychology. Intrinsic and Extrinsic
Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Volume 25, Issue 1. 54-67
"Maslow's central theme revolves around the meaning and significance of human work..." (Motivation Theorists and Their Theories) This is a theme that in encountered repeatedly in many existential views of human motivation.
Maslow therefore developed his elegant but essentially simple theory of the different levels of human motivation.
The basic human needs, according to Maslow, are:
physiological needs safety needs; love needs; esteem needs; self-actualization needs
Motivation Theorists and Their Theories)
It must be noted that these needs are in progression or in a hierarchy of needs for the lowest to the highest. The highest level is self - actualization, which is the point at which the human being has the most meaning in terms of his or her personal development. "The highest state of self-actualization is characterized by integrity, responsibility, magnanimity, simplicity and naturalness. Self-actualizers focus on problems external to themselves." (Motivation Theorists and Their Theories)
Maslow's hierarchy of…
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. 14 Feb. 2007. http://www.accel- team.com/human_relations/hrels_02_maslow.html
Alessandra, Tony, and Rick Barrera. "Motivating to Excellence." Security Management Nov. 1992: 20+. Questia. 14 Feb. 2007. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002183916 .
Burton, James P., Thomas W. Lee, and Brooks C. Holtom. "The Influence of Motivation to Attend, Ability to Attend and Organizational Commitment on Different Types of Absence Behaviors." Journal of Managerial Issues 14.2 (2002): 181+. Questia. 14 Feb. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000603520 .
Better leadership skills and employee teamwork all determine the level of employee enthusiasm and motivation Sirota & Meltzer, 2005.
ecognition of employees and boosting of employees morale are cardinal in the realization of employee motivation. Employees who are well motivated are more productive compared to those who are not enthusiastic. Colossal expenditures that are made by companies on realizing the employee satisfaction is therefore justified. Employee motivation is fundamental for a company's success.
Due to the importance of the need of employee motivation, researchers should continue to gather more information and unearth more knowledge on employee enthusiasm. The following are some of the recommendations:
First, managers must continue to evaluate the impact of their decisions and actions on the employees. This must be a day-to-day activity because some of the ways managers adopt might not remain relevant to the employees or may have little impact on the employees' motivation.…
Russo, D., & Russo, D. (2010). Cheerlead for Employee Enthusiasm for an Engaged and Productive Workforce. New Jersey: FTPress Delivers.
Sirota, D., & Meltzer, M.I. (2005). The Enthusiastic Employee. Indianapolis: Wharton School Pub.
Tracy, B. (2011). Full Engagement! Inspire, Motivate, and Bring out the Best in Your People. New York: American Management Association.
Employee Motivation Job Satisfaction
Employee Motivation and Job Satisfaction
There is great interest in understanding the phenomenon of satisfaction or dissatisfaction at work. (Spector, 1997) However, it paradoxically, despite the dramatic proliferation of scientific literature on the job satisfaction, can not speak, however, a parallel progress in investigations, as the progress made?
and are not very rewarding significant. (Furnham et al., 2005) The job satisfaction comes from being in the last year's one of the issues special interest in the field of research. For Parsons (2006); this interest due to several reasons, which are related to the historical development of theories of Organization, which have undergone changes over time? (Furnham et al., 2005)
At the present time the organizations are forced to face new challenges focused on the satisfaction of its employees or internal customers, (Cennamo and Gardner, 2008) who more than their subordinates or employees are the key link…
Brown L.D., Khagram S., Moore M.H., Frumkin P. (2000). Globalizations, NGOs, and Multi-Sectoral Relations. Boston: Harvard University.
Cennamo L., Gardner D. (2008). Generational Differences in work values, outcomes and person-organization values fit. Journal of Managerial Psychology Vol. 23, No. 8, 891-906.
Furnham A., Eracleous A. (2009). Personality, motivation and job satisfaction: Herzberg meets the Big Five. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24, 765-779.
Furnham A., Petrides K.V., Jackson C. J, Cotter T. (2002). Do personality factors predict job satisfaction? Personality and individual differences, 33, 1325-1342.
The concepts and frameworks defined in Employee Motivation. A Powerful New Model (Nohria, Groysberg, Lee, 2008) encompass four main motivational drives, in addition to providing insights into how the complex system of managerial and organizational factors analyzed can be combined to create an effective foundation of motivation The drive to acquire, drive to bond, drive to comprehend, and drive to defend are the cornerstones of human motivation and must be managed to ensure a high degree of synchronization among all of them (Nohria, Groysberg, Lee, 2008). The researchers also state that the greater the deliberate synchronization of these factors by a manager on a consistent basis, the higher level of consistent motivation will be achieved. A large proportion of the study concentrates on what actions managers can take to satisfy all four needs concurrently, which is essential for keeping subordinate motivated over the long-term (Nohria, Groysberg, Lee, 2008).…
Anthony, J.M., & Nohria, N. (2005, Zeitgeist leadership. Harvard Business Review, 83, 45-60.
Nohria, N., Groysberg, B., & Lee, L.E. (2008). Employee motivation. A powerful new model. Harvard Business Review, July-August, Vol 86, issue 7/8, p. 78-84.
Motivating employees requires exceptional leadership. There are many competing theories of available today. This essay examines two theories that have gained some popularity. The first leadership model is referred to as servant leadership. The concept of servant leadership was first introduced by Robert Greenleafe in the 1970's and subsequently the idea was picked up by many mainstream leadership theorists such as Stephen Covey (Dierendonck, et al., 2010). This leadership concept is now on its fifth generation and still retains popularity today. A servant leader uses the leadership position as simply one way in which they are able to provide service to others. It stands in distinct contrast to other to many commonly held notions of leadership. The leader is this style of leadership will hold the employee in high regards exude traits such as compassion and caring for others. From the employees' perspective, receiving such support…
Collins, J., 2001. Good to great. 1st ed. New York: Harper Publishing.
Dierendonck, V., Patterson, D. & Dathleen, D., 2010. Servant Leadership: Developments in Theory and Research. [Online]
Available at: http://www.deakin.eblib.com.au.ezproxy-m.deakin.edu.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=652411&echo=1&userid=gE%2f4NoT9RHiZfsg7duLFgA%3d%3d&tstamp=1347590166&id=E0B7EEF3AA38F3ADB0510AC8FAC50710E6278F1A
[Accessed 12 September 2012].
Employee Motivation in Global Economy
Motivation is the key to success in every organization regardless of the nature of work in which it is involved. This is because employees today are no longer the 'hired hands' of organizations but are instead viewed as human capital that is essential for long-term success of the firm. Every organization therefore believes in extracting the best out of this capital and for this purpose motivation techniques are being keenly studied and evaluated to assess their effectiveness and appropriateness.
In this ever-expanding global economy, motivation plays a dominant role in achieving results and meeting organizational targets because here it is not just one factor behind success but in fact it is the only factor that really counts. This is because in this intensely competitive business environment, employers need to arm themselves with extraordinary motivation techniques to extract the best out of the employees without hurting…
Senge, P. et al. (1994) The Fifth Discipline Field book: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization. London: Nicholas Brealey
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Isaac, Robert G; Zerbe, Wilfred J; Pitt, Douglas C, (2001) Leadership and motivation: The effective application of expectancy theory, Journal of Managerial Issues, pp 212
Merit, Don, (1995) What really motivates you? (Production Management) Vol. 214, American Printer, pp 74(1)
Without trust, there is not change to the status quo, and with no change to the status quo, there is no motivation. It all begins with trust in the leader who attempting to bring greater levels of change within any organization (Burke, Sims, Lazzara, Salas, 2007). Any leader looking to create more motivation in their organizations, from for-profit to social services, the need is clear for management teams to be trustworthy, transparent, (Douglas, Zivnuska, 2008) and most important, willing to create opportunities for employees including social workers to have the opportunity to achieve more. The need for achievement, recognition and earn an identity of having mastery over their jobs is more critical to the majority of workers than increased time off or more money. Herzberg (2003) has defined in his theories the use of more accountability and less control from managers on how a given job goal or objective is…
Jeff Dennis. (2007, March). The 20% SOLUTION. Profit, 26(1), 25. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1219077571).
Shawn Burke, Dana E. Sims, Elizabeth H. Lazzara, Eduardo Salas. (2007). Trust in leadership: A multi-level review and integration. Leadership Quarterly, 18(6), 606.
Retrieved February 16, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1397260071).
Ceasar Douglas, Suzanne Zivnuska. (2008). Developing Trust in Leaders: An Antecedent of Firm Performance. S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, 73(1), 20-28,2. Retrieved February 13, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1451832151).
Employee Motivation, Rewards, And Driving Forces
Motivation is the study of what makes us do things. Every day we are faced with many decisions. hat choice we make is the study of motivation. There are several theories of motivation, the theory of opportunity-cost is the most widely recognized. This paper will discuss the major forces that drive us and influence our decisions.
The advent of the industrialized age forced many companies to study what motivates their workers in an attempt to boost production. It was believed that money was the key motivational factor in driving employee performance. It was later found that other factors besides money effect their attitudes and work ethics (Lindner, 1998). This led to further studies in an attempt to understand the factors that motivate employees. These included Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two-factor theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's equity theory, and Skinner's reinforcement theory (Lindner, 1998).
Lindner, James R. Understanding Employee Motivation. Piketon Research and Extension
Center. The Ohio State University. Journal. June 1998, Volume 36, Number 3. http://www.joe.org/joe/1998june/rb3.html . Accessed May 2002.
Lorraine, Sherry, Shelley Billig, Daniel Jesse, and Deborah Watson-Acosta. Assessing the Impact of Instructional Technology on Student Achievement. The Journal. February 2001. http://www.thejournal.com/magazine/vault/A3297.cfm . Accessed May, 2002.
Indeed, effective problem solving in these circumstances often requires high levels of creative collaboration (ichards, 2007a, p. 34). In recognition of this reality, employers consistently name the ability to work together creatively as a primary and crucial skill -- even though many organizations have created cultures that undercut individual and collective creativity.
In order to solve this problem there is a need of a comprehensive review of the facility management and staff and to discover what is going wrong. As is discussed below there are many factors including low performing and lazy employee as well as lack of relevant skill among employees.
Plexus strategize its' manufacturing facility to fulfill and focus more on different type of OEM customer via its Customer Teams and the Focused Factory Concept (CFT) organization (Schmenner, Morgan and Swink, Nov 1997). Each manufacturing plant was divided into few CFT with customized marketing strategic to…
Atkinson, S., & Butcher, D. 2003. Trust in managerial relationships. Journal of Manager Psychology, 18(4), 282-304
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. 2004. Multifactor leadership questionnaire manual and sampler set (3rd ed.). Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden.
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. 1991. The full-range of leadership development. Binghamton, NY: Center for Leadership Studies.
Baer, H.C. 2008. Introduction - taking stock of integrative medicine: broadening biomedicine or co-option of complementary and alternative medicine?. Health Sociology Review 17(4), 11.
The design of this study will be conducted in a fashion that is different from the typical survey design. This study will be examine the effects of each pay scenario independently from the others. Employees will self-assign themselves to a group based on their answer to a particular question in the survey, which is worded in such a way that they will have the perception that they are voting on a new pay method. They will be divided into groups based on which method they chose. Therefore, a nonequivalent group design will be used.
The sample population can be divided according to their preferred method of pay. In addition, it can be divided into groups according to gender. ANOVA and non-equivalent group design will be used to examine the differences between males and females and between the three study groups. It is important to understand the differences between these groups,…
Cowling, S., Mitchell, W., & Watts, M. (2006). Work Choices: The Low Productivity Road to an Underclass. Australian Journal of Social Issues. 41 (2), 211- 216. Retrieved November 13, 2007 from Questia Database.
Hansen, F. & Smith, M. (2002). Rewards and Recognition in Employee Motivation.
Compensation & Benefits Review, 34 (5), 64-72. Retrieved November 13, 2007 from Questia Database.
Mckay, a. (2006). Some Types of Stress Are More Likely to Lead to Sexual Problems in Couple Relationships. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 15 (1), 47+. Retrieved November 13, 2007 from Questia Database.
Another method that a researcher can use for data collection is one on one interview with the employees, in this way a researcher can find out problems faced by employees during their working experience. The main concept is researchers understanding the specific factors underlying the levels of motivation at particular employer or in a company.
In order to get useful data a study should be carried out. Data collection involves surveys that should be carried out by different people on different employees. This information can be used for comparative analysis. The information gathered are mostly on issues affecting employees' motivation and the different ways that this could have a dramatic impact on a firm along with their ability to compete in the marketplace. The surveys will help in identifying the problems faced by employees at their work place and possible solutions to these problems can be found.
During the analysis…
For many people, especially those who are in their 30's, 40's, and 50's, they are motivated by the idea that they need to have built up a savings in order to retire. This is another form of financial motivation, but it seems to play out quite commonly among working professionals. In fact, many companies have retirement plans and financial tools for employees to help reach their retirement goals. These, coupled with medical and other benefits help to motivate an employee directly. But these external motivations are just that, external, and in no way create a bind or association between the employee and his or her output or product. In this way, external motivations tend to be less effective (Perry and Hondeghem, 2008). etirement plans also help to create a commitment to a particular company as many employees are required to work for a certain number of years or quarters in…
Cartwright, Susan and Holmes, Nicola. 2006. "The Meaning of Work: The Challenge of Regaining Employee Engagement and Reducing Cynicism." Human Resource Management Review. Vol. 16, No. 2. Pp. 199-208.
Collier, Jane and Esteban, Rafael. 2007. "Corporate social responsibility and employee commitment." Business Ethics: A European Review. Vol. 16, No. 1. Pp. 19-33.
Gagne, Marylene, and Deci, Edward L. 2005. "Self-determination theory and work motivation." Journal of Organizational Behavior. Vol. 26, No. 4. Pp. 331-362.
Heinrich, Carolyn J. 2007. "False or fitting recognition? The use of high performance bonuses in motivating organizational achievements." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. Vol. 26, No. 2. Pp. 281-304.
Mazoor, Q. (2012). Impact of Employees Motivation on Organizational. Business Management and Strategy, 1-13.
Quaratul-Ain Manzoor is affiliated with the Department of Management Sciences at the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. In 2012, he published an article in the journal Business Management and Strategy that addressed the factors that effects employee motivation and examining the relationship between organizational effectiveness and employee motivation. The audience for this journal article could include students, academic professionals, or professionals in the business community. The author wishes examine the way that empowerment and recognition may have positive effects on employee motivation and ultimately organizational effectiveness.
The study makes the assumptions that employee motivation is necessary for the organization to progress or achieve success. Thus the main focus of this article is the contributing factors that can facilitate higher levels of employee motivation towards organizational goals. The literature review identifies many factors related to employee…
Mazoor, Q. (2012). Impact of Employees Motivation on Organizational. Business Management and Strategy, 1-13.
Improving Employee's Involvement
Motivation is a complex subject yet important in the success of management and the organization if applied correctly. Actually, organizations in the modern business environment increasingly face the need to understand and apply effective strategies for promoting employee motivation and involvement in work processes. As the Chief Executive Officer, I have noticed that the production unit is experiencing employee dissatisfaction, which has generated the need for improving employee involvement and motivation. This will be accomplished through addressing various topics and subtopics related to employee motivation as shown below:
Factors that Contribute to Employee Motivation
Employee Engagement Survey
Define Engagement Goals
Motivation at Personal and Organizational Level
Barrier to Employee Motivation and Engagement
Lack of Knowledge
Poor Management Practices and Strategies
Employee Motivation Program
3.1. Awareness of Organization's Vision and Mission
3.2. Employee Training
3.3. Team Building Events
3.4. ewards and ecognition Program
"Employee Motivation: 5 Key Steps to Improve Employee Attitude." (2010, March 16). Compliance Tools for HR Professionals. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://hr.blr.com/HR-news/HR-Administration/Communication/Employee-Motivation-5-Key-Steps-to-Improve-Employe#
McMullen, T. (2013, July/August). Eight Recommendations to Improve Employee Engagement. Journal of Compensation and Benefits, 23-29. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.haygroup.com/downloads/us/jul%20aug%20-%20journal%20of%20compensation%20and%20benefits%20-%20mcmullen.pdf
The Wall Street Journal (2010). Motivating Employees. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://guides.wsj.com/management/managing-your-people/how-to-motivate-employees/
By jobs being restructured we understand a permanent update with industry trends (i.e. technological upgrades, foreign languages) for the same job or job rotation for the same employee. Both ways are meant to stimulate motivation.
Base rewards on job performance. Employees need to be determined to strive for better results. These results come with better performance and better performance comes from better motivation and enhanced abilities. To increase motivation, managers should let employees know that a part of their rewards (such as financial benefits other than the fixed salary) will be proportional with the performance. Employees will try to have better results to have better rewards.
Working conditions and workloads are the positive aspects of the survey's results. However, there were some individuals (22% for working conditions and 30% for the workload) that were unsatisfied with what company had to offer in this area. These two issues will…
Accel Team, http://www.accel-team.com/motivation/index.html, Accessed May 2007.
UTILISCAN - STUDY CASE
Employee Motivation: SAS Work Environment, Benefits Program, and Leadership
Headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, SAS Institute is a multinational dealer in decision support and data warehousing software. The institute was, in November 2013, named the "World's Best Multinational Workplace" by the Great Place to Work Institute, beating other established companies, amongst them Google. CEO and founder Jim Goodnight attributes this achievement to a facilitative and interactive leadership culture that makes working at the organization fun. At SAS, employees are the most important asset, and Goodnight points out that the leadership is committed to demonstrating just how much it cares for then, in word and deed. This description, however, fits a large number of companies. The all important question in this case, therefore, is; what exactly makes SAS unique? The subsequent sections demonstrate how the work environment, benefit plan, and leadership culture interplay to establish an employee-motivating workplace environment.…
Baker Jr., L.M., Ballard, R.D., Bangle, C., Baum, H., Butcher, S., Chuanzhi, L. & Eckert, R.A. (2003). Moving Mountains. Harvard Business Review, 81(1), 41-48.
Cialdini, R.B. (2001). Harnessing the Science of Persuasion. Harvard Business Review, 79(9), 72-79.
Conger, J.A. (1998). The Necessary Art of Persuasion. Harvard Business Review,76(3), 84-95.
Patterson, K., Brenny, J., Maxfield, D., McMillan, R. & Switzler, A. (2008). Influencer: The power to change anything. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Whole Foods uses stock options as a way to motivate employees and reward them for performance (COMPANY: Whole Foods Market, Inc., n.d.).
In a controversial new program, Whole Foods has started rewarding its healthiest workers with larger employee discounts. The goals of this voluntary agenda are to encourage and reward employees for making healthy, positive lifestyle changes and to reduce the costs of their health plan. Whole Foods employees are currently given a 20% discount to use throughout the store. With the new plan, participating employees will undergo a free screening to measure blood pressure, cholesterol, BMI, and nicotine use. Depending on an employee's test scores employees will be assigned to one of four categories with corresponding discount rates: bronze (22%), silver (25%), gold (27%), and platinum (30%) (The Bigger the Person, the Smaller the Discount, 2010).
Even though bronze level employees still get a larger discount than those opting…
COMPANY: Whole Foods Market, Inc. (n.d.). Retrieved April 3, 2010, from Web site:
Hard work has its rewards. (2010). Retrieved April 4, 2010, from Awards Network Web site:
IMPOVING EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AT WAL_MAT
Improving Employee Motivation at Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart is the largest retailer and the second largest corporation in the United States. It is also the second largest private employer in the United States, with approximately 1.3 million workers (Jordan, 2008). Wal-Mart has also become the symbol for corporate mistreatment of workers. There have even been documentaries in the mass media that highlighted how Wal-Mart treated their employees and the type of lifestyle they promoted. In 2010, Wal-Mart had a net income of over $11 billion, which brought them even more criticism for treating their employees poorly (Jordan, 2008). This research will explore the thesis that, "Employee empowerment is not the result of corporate policy, but that it must become a part of corporate culture that permeates every level of the organization."
Several key points about the organization will affect the results of this study. Wal-Mart…
Chiang, C., Jang, S., & Canter, D. et al. (2008). An Expectancy Theory Model for Hotel
Employee Motivation: Examining the Moderating Role of Communication Satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration. 9 (4), 327-351.
Channick, R. (2010, November 15). Macy's gets cold start for employee morale.
Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 14, 2011 from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2010-11-15/business/ct-biz-1115-top-macys-20101115_1_mike-dervos-macy-gold-star .
Increasing intrinsic motivational factors can have a great positive impact on the motivation of each employee within the organization (Spreitzer 1995). Such a move increases the perceived psychological power of the individual employee, making him or her believe that they are an integral part of the organization and such are directly involved in its successes and failures. Fredrick Herzberg believed that strong motivation can be channeled through providing challenging work in which each individual employee can assume a sense of responsibility in its formation and execution (Neff 2002). Challenging motivators and a feeling of ownership of their work helps to get employees excited about their work.
Lastly, there are other signs of motivation within organizations. The Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932, show that motivation does go beyond the idea of pure response to the idea of compensation. According to this research, "employees were motivated by…
Amabile, T.M. (1993). Motivational synergy: toward new conceptualizations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the workplace. Human Resource Management Review. 3(3):185.
H.J. Arnold. (1981). A test of the multiplicative hypothesis of expectancy-valence theories of work motivation. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 24:128-141.
Jurkiewicz, Carol L. & Massey, Tom K.(1997). What motivates municipal employees: a comparison study of supervisory vs. non-supervisory personnel. Public Personnel Management. 26(3): 365-371.
Neff, Theresa, M. (2002). Wat successful companies know that law firms need o know: the importance of employee motivation and job satisfaction to increased productivity and stronger client relationships. Journal of Law and Health. 17(2):385-394.
Motivation in the workplace
Work life at Amalgamated Biscuit (AB) appears to be pretty good. The labor force at the corporation seems to be generally happy, motivated and productive. On the other hand, the opposite seems to be the case at Federated Biscuit (FB). The workforce at the corporation appears to be not only discouraged but also demotivated. The chief executive officers at these two corporations are very much interested in quantifying the comparative level of motivation in the workplace. The main objective of this paper is to present two different methods that can be utilized to ascertain motivation and morale in workplaces like AB and FB and examine the strengths and weaknesses of these two selected methods.
Measuring Motivation through Performance Levels
The first approach of measuring motivation is through the measuring performance. Motivation can be measured in terms of performance levels at a certain task that is…
Bandura, A., & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 586–598
Bargh, J. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., Lee-Chai, A., Barndollar, K., & Trotschel, R. (2001). The automated will: Nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1014–1027.
Ferguson, M. J., & Bargh, J. A. (2004). Liking is for doing: The effects of goal pursuit on automatic evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 557–572.
Green, J. (2018). How to measure the motivation of your employee. Chron. Retrieved from: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/measure-motivation-employee-31647.html
Touré?Tillery, M., & Fishbach, A. (2014). How to measure motivation: A guide for the experimental social psychologist. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8(7), 328-341.
The role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation organizational success
In any organization, it is essential to keep the employees interested in whatever they are doing at all times as long as they are within the organization. It is the one thing that the HR department needs to keep alive by all means since the decline of motivation among the staff members will directly affect the productivity of the whole team and jeopardy to the continuity of the organization.
Monetary compensation is one the most common form of compensation for skills, time and energy used by employees in most organizations. It helps in showing appreciation for a job well accomplished to the agreed upon standards and over a given period of time. Money comes out as the most widely acceptable form of extrinsic motivation. However, there are levels of rewards systems that bring about intrinsic motivation.
The research herein concentrates…
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06, 2017 from http://www.infobarrel.com/The_Job_Performance_Model_And_Employee_Motivation
Management Study Guide, (2011). McClelland’s Theory of Needs. Retrieved October 06, 2017
If the economic/machine and affective/affiliation models are combined then the result would resemble the growth-open system theory of motivation (Cordner, 2013). The term 'open' in this model is meant to imply employees are influenced by their environment, including the environmental factors existing outside the workplace. The term 'growth' indicates that individuals will transition through several levels of need fulfillment depending on whether more basic needs have been met. This 'needs' hierarchy is based on the work of the psychologist Maslow, who proposed the first needs that must be fulfilled are the most basic, such as food, clothing, and shelter. If these needs are being met then an individual will next seek to protect themselves from threats to their physical and psychological health. The subsequent levels, according to Maslow, would be social needs, feeling valued and personal fulfillment, in that order. Since most police officers earn enough to meet their basic…
Cordner, G.W. (2013). Police Administration (8th ed.). New York: Anderson Publishing.
To support of refute the research problem requires looking at one research and two sub-questions to include:
Research Question 1
How does employee compensation contribute to the underlying levels of motivation at an employer?
What roles do managers / executives play in how enthusiastic staff members are inside a firm?
What is the impact of coworkers on new employees in the workplace?
These different elements are important, because they will offer specific insights about what factors is influencing employee motivation. Once this occurs, is when the data will be able to support or refute the hypothesis that has been presented.
Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is to understand the specific factors are contributing to the underlying levels of motivation in the workplace. As, these kinds of issues can have a dramatic impact on how effective an organization will be able…
Comparative Analysis. (2011). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/comparative-analysis.html
Qualitative Research. (2011). CSULB. Retrieved from: http://www.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa696/696quali.htm
Aswagen, S. (2008). Fresh Perspectives. Cape Town: Pearson Education.
Beazley, H. (2002). Continuity Management. New York, NY: Wiley.
Organizational Behavior & Culture
Complete summary of chapter 4
The chapter illustrates that the perception process is based on stages such as stimulation, organization, registration, and interpretation. The individual's acceptance and awareness levels for ascertained stimuli play critical roles in the perception process. The authors add that receptiveness towards certain stimuli remains highly selective in limiting a person's existing personality, motivation, attitude, and beliefs. People select various stimuli that satisfy certain needs (perceptual vigilance) while disregarding stimuli causing perceptual defense (psychological anxiety).
The chapter insists that guidelines facilitate companies in improving their workplaces through the surveying content. The employees can ask questions regarding observable behavior above thoughts and motives. The concept also includes items that are verified independently. The measures also attract behavioral consideration in the recognition of the company's performance. Attitude transformation requires time, determination, and effort to achieve. It is critical to relax expectations of changing an individual's…
Grant, A. (2013). Instead of Monitoring Employees, Try Motivating Them. The Huffington Post. Retrieved on 8th March 2015 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/adam-grant/instead-of-monitoring-emp_b_3869778.html
Porter, E. (2014). Motivating Corporations to Do Good. The New York Times. Retrieved on 8th March 2015 from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/16/business/the-do-good-corporation.html
Motivations in Company
To maximize productivity and employee job satisfaction, the heads of companies must provide some kind of monetary motivation for their employees. Often this motivation takes the form of such things as gift certificates, free food, stock shares, and cash bonuses. To ascertain the specific ways the company our group is investigating rewards and motivates its employees, I interviewed Jeremi Karnell, the CMO and founding partner; and Michael Donnelly, the Head of HR. Both men indicated the importance of monetary motivation for their employees and outline the specific ways their company provides it. They also offered their personal philosophy regarding employee monetary motivation. I concluded that for the company in question, financial rewards can effectively motivate employees and helps to create company loyalty and a sense of community within the corporation.
Jeremi Karnell, the CMO and founding partner, informed me that the company as a horizontal structure with…
Organizational behavior is a field of study that is of particular importance to enterprises and those in management positions. One of the major issues that firms have to deal with is the problem of motivation. The purpose of this discussion is to discuss how organizational behavior management concepts and principles are applied to the problem of motivation. We will begin our discussion by exploring the problem of motivation. We will then design and suggest a solution to the problem. Our discussion will also evaluate the effectiveness of the solution in terms of leadership, managerial and employee perceptions. Finally, we will discuss organizational behavior concepts and principles that are applicable to the successful solution to the problem.
Exploration of the problem
Motivation, as it applies to organizational behavior, is defined as the ability of an employee to exert effort and accomplish organizational goals. Many organizations experience problems keeping employees motivated…
Butkus, R.T. & Green, T.B., (1999). Motivation, Beliefs, and Organizational Transformation. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Forschungsgemeinschaft, D., www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=28535492"Kleinbeck, U., Quast, H., Thierry, H., Higcker, H., (Eds.). (1990). Work Motivation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
At which point, managers must be able to challenge them on an intellectual level. In many ways, one could argue that the most successful organizations will address these basic needs and will then find a way to continually challenge their employees (at the levels of self-actualization).
Incentives Offered to Employees to keep them Motivated
There are a number of different ways that executives can motivate employees the most obvious is: addressing the basic needs of everyone. Where, employers have to offer benefits that will go above and beyond their competition to include: having generous health insurance, increasing flexibility in how employees plan their schedules, the ability for the staff to prepare for retirement and those little extras that can improve the work environment (such as: health club benefits, employees discounts, company parties along with child care). These different elements are important, because they will address the basic needs of employees.…
Benefits. (2010). Google. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com/international/en/jobs/lifeatgoogle/benefits/index.html#bbb
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved from: http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
Bruce, A. (2006). How to Motivate Every Employee. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Kurtus, R. (2001). Basic Principals of Total Quality Management. School for Champions. Retrieved from: ( http://www.school-for-champions.com/tqm/principles.htm
Transformation leadership is 'authentic' leadership which "builds genuine trust between leaders and followers." Furthermore transformational leadership "concentrates on terminal values such as integrity and fairness. They see the responsibility for their organization's development and impact on society." (Ibid)
Homig and MacGregor in the work entitled:" Transformational Leadership" state that the following ten 'tenets' are inclusive in the transformational leader's style of leading:
1. Leaders have high moral and ethical values.
2. Leaders express genuine interest in followers.
3. Leaders have an inspirational vision.
4. Genuine trust exists between leaders and led.
5. Followers share leader's values and vision.
6. Leaders and followers perform beyond self-interest.
7. Participatory decision-making is the rule.
8. Innovative thinking and action is expected.
9. Motivation is to do the right thing.
10. Leaders mentor. (nd)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
While all of these theories were valid at some time or in relation to some…
Creating Futures (nd) Online available at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:k13BWFbu_wIJ:u wfoundation.org/newsletter/June2005/43565Camp NewsletterFI NAL.pdf+Jeffrey+H.+Brotman,+Leadership&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9
Costco Wholesale Investor Relations (2006) Online http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=83830&p=irol-govBio&ID=13292
Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity (2006) Section 2: Basic Approaches Used to Improve Productivity. Accel Team Online available at http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_03_mcgregor.html
Costco -5th Largest Retailer in U.S. And 11th Largest in the World (2006) http://www.customer-service.com/newsletter/126E.aspx
Motivation in the Workplace
The objective of this study is to examine motivation in the workplace with a focus on survival needs, security needs, belonging needs, respect needs, and fulfillment needs.
Motivation in the workplace is a subject of ongoing interest because employers desire to understand how to best motivate their workers to increase workplace productivity. A useful model in examining motivation in the workplace is that known as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Maslow's Hierarch of Needs
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory is one that emphasizes "meeting each level of development before going on towards self-actualization. The level of needs proposed by Maslow include those as follows:
(1) material needs;
(3) sense of belonging;
(4) love and friendship
(5) self-esteem; and (6) self-actualization. (Cruver-Plaza, 2009, p.1)
The following illustration shows the conception of the hierarchy of needs proposed by Maslow.
Maslow's Hierarchy of…
Applying Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory of Motivation To Training (2012) Self-Growth. Retrieved from: http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Applying_Abraham_Maslow_s_Hierarchy_of_Needs_Theory_of_Motivation_to_Training.html
Building a Better Workplace Through Motivation (2012) Kellogg's Case Study, Maslow. The Times 100 Business Case Studies. Retrieved from: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/kelloggs/building-a-better-workplace-through-motivation/maslow.html
Cruver-Plaza, J. (2009) Employee Motivation, and Job Performance: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory Applied to Corporate Downsizing (2012) Employment Suite 101. Retrieved from: http://suite101.com/article/employee-motivation-and-job-performance
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (2012) NetMBA. Retrieved from: http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
Lastly, Cummings and Worley (2007) surmise that employee involvement can also "improve capabilities of employees thus enabling them to perform better" (p. 353). The authors give the example that when organizations wish to increase their employee participation in decision making, this strategy must be accompanied by skill training in communication and group problem solving (p. 353).
All three of these facets improve employee satisfaction and well-being, due to an improved work environment and a more rewarding job. In a cyclical nature, improved productivity also increases satisfaction, especially when there are greater rewards associated with this increased productivity. Improved employee satisfaction, that's a result of employee involvement strategies and increased productivity, can have a secondary impact on the organization. This high level of employee satisfaction can further positively affect productivity by attracting the best employees and help ensure the retention of these valuable organizational resources (Cummings and Worley, 2007, p.…
Cummings, T.G., & Worley, C.G. (2007). Organization Development and Change (8th ed.). s.l.: Academic Internet Publ.
Rosso, a. (Oct 2010). "Awakening corporate soul." Collector, 76(3). p. 18-20.
The influence of employee involvement on productivity: A review of research -- June 2000. (22 Jun 2006). Retrieved December 6, 2010, from http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/cs/sp/hrsd/prc/publications/research/2000-002584/page03.shtml.
Wolf, E. & Zwick, T. (Apr 2008). "Reassessing the productivity impact of employee involvement and financial incentives." Schmalenbach Business Review, 60(2). o. 160-181.
Employee Satisfaction with a Company's Review Process
The following research examines the reason for a decline in employee satisfaction regarding the review process at XYZ, Inc. The results of the survey revealed that sample biases may have confounded the results and that the survey will have to be re-administered to reflect the true attitudes and results of the preliminary research leading up to the current survey. The result showed a high degree of satisfaction with the quality and quantity of management feedback. The results of this survey are inconclusive and further research will need to be conducted to eliminate the possible effects of sample bias.
Delimitations (See Leedy)
A. Literature Review
C. General Management Issues
D. Project Related Issues
F. Definition of Terms
H. Project Submission…
What is it like to have enthusiasm? Does this come from within one person? Are outside influences important as well? Can it change someone's life? One will discuss motivation and provide examples as to how it impacts an individual on regular basis.
Intrinsic motivation is what comes from inside a person. For example, he or she is motivated to learn at school in order to get the best grade possible. This can make someone work hard at achieving their goals. If he or she wants an A in Biology, then he or she will work twice as hard to accomplish this. In the long run, the individual may or may not get what it is they want despite having the drive. Extrinsic motivation is important as well.
When it comes to extrinsic motivation, a person looks outside of themselves in order to seek ways in which to do a…
These performance appraisals are usually given to employees by managers. Such appraisals occur once or twice per year, depending upon the industry and the position of the employee. In some cases, performance appraisals are carried out by colleagues. egardless of how feedback is given most organizations recognize it as a legitimate and productive way to judge performance and present employees with ways to improve job performance.
Examples of Employee motivation
According to Neff (2002) the ability to motivate employees is an essential component in creating an organization that is successful. The author points out that the most successful organizations in the world are always succeeding in making certain that job satisfaction and motivation are primary priorities. These organizations have realized that employees who are motivated are also more productive and therefore improve the bottom line. Greater productivity usually leads to greater job satisfaction and ultimately greater customer satisfaction. The author…
Brief, a.P., & Weiss, H.M. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace. 279+.
Cameron, J., & Pierce, W.D. (2002). Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Kermally, S. (2005). Gurus on Managing People. London: Thorogood.
London, M. (2003). Job Feedback: Giving, Seeking, and Using Feedback for Performance Improvement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Employment otivation and Engagement: How to Recruit and Retain Top-Quality Talent in a Competitive arketplace
Because employee performance and productivity are closely aligned with corporate profitability, there has been a great deal of research over the years concerning optimal approaches to motivating people in the workplace. The analysis of what motivates people to perform to their maximum effort, though, has becoming increasingly complex as the result of a growing number of theories concerning the antecedents of motivation and optimal job performance and motivational methods to achieve it. While the debate concerning which motivational approaches produce the best results continues, there is a consensus among organizational behavior researchers that pay ranks among the top factors that include employee motivation, perhaps the overarching factor in most cases. Despite these findings, studies have shown time and again that money talks when it comes to employee motivation. When people become convinced that their efforts…
Murphy, C., Ramamoorthy, N., Flood, P. & MacCurtain, S. 2006, July 1. Organizational Justice Perceptions and Employee Attitudes among Irish Blue Collar Employees: An Empirical Test of the Main and Moderating Roles of Individualism/Collectivism. Management Revue, 17(3), 329.
Overall it is evident from this discussion that the prevention vs. promotion focus has an important affect on how individuals act and interact with each other. The above discussion looked at the general application of such systems reflect individual behavior, however, a much more specific look at the effects of such actions within the workplace must be reviewed before a test study can be conducted to answer our hypothesis.
Promotion vs. Prevention: Application within the Workplace
The full implication of promotion vs. prevention focused mentalities is on the explicit strategy decisions individuals make within this framework. The impact on strategy decisions within employee-employer relations is extremely important. In this section, we will look at how strategy decisions are different between promotion and prevention mindsets.
One area that has specific application to workplace environment is the consideration of alternatives and new ideas. Promotion focused individuals tend to be much more eager…
Higgins, E.T., & Bianco, a.T. (2003). Speed/accuracy decisions in task performance: Built in trade-off of separate strategic concerns. Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90.
Higgins, E.T. (1998). Approach and avoidance strength during goal attainment: Regulatory focus and the "goal looms larger" effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75.
Friedman, R.S (2005). Effects of motivational cues on perceptual asymmetry: Implications for creativity and analytical problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88.
Motivation Systems for Hospitality Organizations: A Case Study of Motel
Generally speaking, the hospitality industry competes on a global basis by providing food and beverages services as well as accommodations for tourists and travelers. For instance, according to Lucas, "The term hospitality industry serves as an overarching label for businesses whose primary purpose is to offer food, beverage and accommodation for sale on a commercial basis" (2003:3). By contrast, hospitality services are associated activities that take place within the hospitality industry which are provided within different segments of the marketplace. Such hospitality activities are primarily involved with providing food and beverage services for a wide range of institutional operations including educational facilities such as colleges and universities, passenger airline carriers, healthcare and long-term care facilities as well as penitentiaries and jails (Lucas 2003). For the purposes of this study, the focus will be on the hospitality industry and hotels in…
A very important point is that online learning can be done individually or in groups (for example video conferences).
6. In general, in order to make a career choice one should be informed about the world of professions. Information about the profession that appears the most interesting and appropriate should be gathered. If possible, it would be important to read interviews or talk to people with similar jobs for a more accurate and realistic image. Another important part in a career choice is to assess individual strengths and weaknesses. Several personality tests are available for such a purpose (for example CPI - California Psychological Inventory, SDS - the Self-Directed Search questionnaire). For the persons in search for a career it is important to identify the skills they have and they most enjoy using. The career identified should be compatible with the interests and skills identified. In conclusion, a person who…
Drewes, G., Runde, B. (2002). Performance Appraisal, in Psychological Management of Individual Performance. Sonnentag, S. (Ed.) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fletcher, C. (2002). Appraisal: An Individual Psychological Perspective, in Psychological Management of Individual Performance. Sonnentag, S. (Ed.) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
K.J. Kennedy (2005). Evolution of Employee Benefits as Provided through the Internal Revenue Code, Retrieved from www.taxreformpanel.gov/meetings/docs/KennedyPresentation_fina_2.ppt
Hesketh, B., Ivancic, K., (2002). Enhancing Performance through Training in Psychological Management of Individual Performance. Sonnentag, S. (Ed.) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Industrial Organizational Psychology: Motivation
Applied behavioral science
This is a branch of science that comprises of fields such as sociology, psychology and anthropology that deals primarily with the human actions and seeks to give a general view on human behavior within the society. This is a field which takes an interdisciplinary approach when it comes to the study of human behavior. It explores the activities and interactions among human beings. Applied behavioral science therefore is a process of systematically applying interventions that are based on the behavioral science principles in order to bring an improvement of socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree and demonstrate that the interventions used are the ones that are responsible for bringing an improvement in behavior. This case study is explored from cognitive psychology which focuses on internal states like motivation, decision making, problem solving and so on.
In this case study Jasmine has to…
Grant, A. (2012). Leading with meaning: Beneficiary contact, prosocial impact, and the performance effects of transformational leadership.
This article is on the impact of transformational leadership in any organization. This article is relevant to the case study since it brings out the advantages of applying transformational leadership within the case study.
Ajang, P. (2011). Assessing the role of work motivation on employee performance. Retrieved July 7, 2014 from http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:140549/FULLTEXT01.pdf
This article looks at the importance of motivation of employees when it comes to their performance.it is relevant to the case study since we have seen the issue in the case study is the lack of motivation for employees hence it just emphasizes more on the fact that employee motivation is important when it comes to their performance.
How New Practices at Sodexho Align with the Essentials of Performance Management
Performance management, in basic terms, has got to do with an organization's involvement of employees with an aim of enabling them to achieve objectives and, hence, further enhance performance at both the individual and organizational level. Quite a number of changes have taken place at Sodexho since the entry of Ms. ohini Anand, the Senior Vice President and Global Chief Diversity Officer at Sodexho. To what extent do these changes and new practices align with the essentials of performance management?
To begin with, Sodexho has been able to not only define, but also clarify performance expectations. This, as will be indicated below, has been more so the case when it comes to identifying the exact performance expectations of various groups or categories of employees. As Ms. Anand points out, interviewers at Sodexho are trained on cultural…
Sims, R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
The current study aims to examine the effect of the lack of supervision and detachment between administration and low-level supervisors and beat officers and how this leads to low morale and motivation. Imperatively, low level of morale and motivation results in low productivity, which might give rise to absenteeism and poor watch, adversely affecting the society through increased level of crime. A questionnaire will be designed to achieve the purpose of this research study and will be distributed to selected beat officers working in different police precincts. The number of questionnaires analyzed will be to different police precincts. Data collected will be analyzed through SPSS using both descriptive statistics, correlation and regression data.
Organizations endeavor to have more productive personnel, who are deemed the most significant resources and a determining factor for success. Low levels of productivity can be linked to poor employee morale and motivation. The…
This paper investigates the issue of motivation as it applies to an organizational setting.
The research regarding motivation in the workplace has been a major area of investigation that is of interest to corporate leaders, managers, organizational psychologists, and educators. The issue that this paper will discuss has to do with the particular factors that managers and leaders can address to increase the motivation of their workers to perform as well as to increase the job satisfaction levels of their employees. However, motivation is only one issue regarding increased productivity or increased job satisfaction; we would certainly think that at a basic level an employee would need a certain level of motivation to perform as well as the ability to actually do the job (as it turns out the research is consistent with this type of common-sense thinking). However, the actual types of interventions/activities that can be used…
Argyris, C. 1993, Knowledge for action: a guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Chien, J.C. 2013,'Examining Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in a large Chinese chemical fiber company' World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 78, no. 248, pp.1433-1438.
Gneezy, U. And Rustichini, A. 2000, 'Pay enough or don't pay at all', Quarterly Journal of Economics vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 791-810.
Hackman, J.R. And Oldham, G.R. 1980, Work redesign. Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.
In the absence of both factors, employee motivation will not work. Green and Butkus also shared that although Vroom's model had been widely accepted for a number of years, it lacked applicability that it cannot be used in practice.
Aside from Vroom, Green and Butkus (1999) also shared about Green's own Belief System model. This model was actually a practical application of Viktor Vroom's Expectancy Theory and was reported to be better utilized by the workforce. The Belief System Theory focused on using a structured and facilitated meeting between the supervisor and the staff. This meeting becomes a venue to discuss motivational problems on the areas that Vroom had developed and will provide the manager and the employee with a specific period to help address motivational issues in their workplace.
Whiteley and Kerr's ideas focus on an individual's motivation and how it can be used to help him contribute…
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition. (2000). Houghton Mifflin Company.
Kerr, Steven. (1997). Ultimate Rewards: what really motivates people to achieve. Boston, Ma. Harvard Business School Press.
Whiteley, Philip. (2002). Motivation. Oxford, United Kingdom Capstone Publishing, Ltd.
Green, Thad B. And Butkus, Raymond T. (1999). Motivation, beliefs and organizational transformation. Westport, Conn. Quorum Books.
organization's ability to recruit and retain talented employees requires ensuring employees are rewarded proportionately for their contribution towards achieving organizational goals and profitability. To achieve this, a benefits and compensation policy is developed and implemented for all workers. This company has established a compensation policy that offers a full range of conventional benefits, dental, vision and medical benefits in addition to a rewards program that offers incentives based on employees' input. However, there are numerous complaints from the workforce that these benefits do not effectively address a growing problem. To address this growing problem, it's important to develop a Benefits and Compensation plan that offer packages that correspond to the employee type, reflects the organization's culture, and is comparable to the company's competitors.
Components of the Benefits and Compensation Plan
The current benefits and compensation plan is seemingly ineffective because it does not provides benefits and compensation based on the…
Dunne, P.M., Lusch, R.F. & Carver, J.R. (2014). Retailing (8th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Linton, I. (n.d.). Basic Responsibilities for Retail Workers. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/basic-responsibilities-retail-workers-36997.html
White, M.C. (2014, April 27). The Many Ways Retailers Pay and Reward Employees. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from http://www.jckonline.com/2016/02/19/many-ways-retailers-pay-and-reward-employees
Motivation is the process of initiating, guiding, and steering people into achieving some set goals with ease. Many motivational strategies target different needs like cognitive, biological, social, and emotional forces. Psychologists have come up with theories of motivation humanistic theory, instinct theory, and drive theory. The essential components of a successful motivational strategy intensity, activation, and persistence. Persistence entails the constant effort towards a given goal even with the existence of obstacles while intensity relates to the vigor and concentration. This report endeavors to explain the advice given to a line manager in the auto industry as a model of motivating employees in tough economic times. I have also identified factors that would motivate in my current job placement (Herzberg, 2003).
Advice to a line manager in the auto industry
Management team of most companies come up with procedures and policies that end up de-motivating employees…
Herzberg, F. (2003). One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review. January, 1-13. (Business Source Complete Database: AN 8796887.)
Nohria, M., Groysberg, B. & Lee, L. (2008). Employee motivation: A powerful new model. Harvard Business Review. July- August, 1-7. (Business Source Complete Database: AN 34403173.)
Sirota, D., Mischkind, L. & Meltzer, M. (2006). Stop de-motivating your employees. Harvard Business Review, January, 1- 6. (Business Source Complete Database: AN33018727.)
HR Performance Issues and Motivation
A performance issue that has occurred in the past was the problem of getting employees to volunteer for the fund drive. At the local radio station, the non-profit organization depends upon its seasonal fund drive to make the money it needs to stay in business. Because the radio station is the only one of its kind in town—it provides classical music 24/7 along with NPR talk shows—it is viewed as a valuable contributor to the local arts scene. Many wealthy donors contribute but the station also relies on loyal listeners to contribute every spring, summer, fall and winter as well to keep doors open and staff employed. Staff find the fund drive to be tedious and demeaning as they never feel that enough appreciation is shown them for all the extra hard work it requires of them. They have to work longer hours, be…
Discuss how private organizations differ from public organizations in terms of motivational tools. ecall that private organizations have the incentive of financial bonuses that are difficult for criminal justice agencies to generate.The video demonstrated that individuals are primarily interested in challenge, mastery, self-direction and making a contribution. For more standard and routine tasks standard forms of motivation will work. Here, higher pay will get better results as the tasks are structured and routine. However, for tasks that require a large amount of cognitive ability, higher pay does not equate to higher productivity and motivation. Instead, according to the video, it leads to lower performance. As a result, motivational techniques will need to vary in order to drive performance within an organization. This can vary between both public and private organizations. Private organizations have much more flexibility to motivate employees as they tend to have a profit motive. These profits can…
References 1. Bernstein, D. A., Clarke-Stewart, A., Roy, E. J., & Wickens, C. D. (1997) Psychology (4th ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Despite the fact that extreme poverty exists in many areas, Mexico's rising middle class is increasingly seeking out the trappings of American success. "The middle class in Mexico includes 39.2% (44 million people) of the country's total population. Mexico's middle class increased 11.4% during between 2000 and 2010" and these consumers are seeking out cellular phones and flat screen TVs in record numbers (Flannery 2013). Unfortunately, an increasingly affluent culture has brought forth one of the problems of industrialized prosperity, namely a rise in obesity. To take advantage of this concern, one possible product to market to the population coping with more sedentary jobs and a taste for highly caloric foods is that of gym memberships. Introducing a chain of low-cost gyms modeled on popular chains such as WOW and Planet Fitness, particularly in cities with high concentrations of white collar office workers would be an ideal way to…
Theory X and Theory Y (2015). Mind Tools. Retrieved from:
Motivation, Stress, And Communication
Ford motor is a global company dealing with the manufacture of vehicles. It has several offices/manufacturing plants in most parts of the world. For the company to run smoothly and efficiently, its operations are divided into several department headed by several departmental managers. One of the departments am in charge is the Supply Chain Systems Sales department a position I filled as the head of department.
A Supply Chain System Sales Operations Manager is in charge of two broad roles. One of roles concerns supplies while the other deals with sales of their locomotives. These two roles are interlinked in a way that the person in charge must ensures that their sales offices are supplied by their products (vehicles) for sales and shipping of new vehicles to other customers or to their sales offices in countries ford motors has no factory. Sales are an interactive kind…
Champoux, J. (2010). Organizational Behavior: Integrating Individuals, Groups, and Organizations: Taylor and Francis.
Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705-717.
Oldham, G.R., & Hackman, J.R. (2010). Not what it was and not what it will be: The future of job design research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 463-479.
Employee Customer Service Training
New Employee Customer Service Training Plan
Justify the use of a needs assessment of your company's proposed employee customer service training, stressing five (5) ways in which such an assessment would expose any existing performance deficiencies.
The employees of an organization act like the 'driving force' which can either lead the organization towards success or can turn out to be the cause of its failure. A company's progress not only depends on an employee's individual performance but the way these employees communicate with the customers has its own significance. Thus, in order to run a successful organization, it is quite essential to monitor the correlation between the outcomes and the employees' input on a regular basis. To ensure employees' effectiveness, organizations usually remain concerned about training their employees.
Training means a methodical intentional process of changing behavior of organizational members in a direction which contributes to…
Eisenberger, R., Rhoades, L. & Cameron, J. (1999). Does pay for performance increase or decrease perceived self-determination and intrinsic motivation? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1026-1040.
Gerow, J.R. (1997). Psychology -- An Introduction. 5th Edition. New York: Longman.
Hinrichs, J.R. (1976). Personnel training. In M. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Skokie, IL: Rand MsNally.
Miller & Osinski (1996). Training Needs Assessment. Retrieved November 18,
In the economy today change is inevitable in any organization in the world. This is because each and every organization strives to remain strong in the market as well as being relevant. The only way the organizations can achieve this is through evolving so as to ensure that they are at the same level with the rest of the world. Changes occur even in big organizations like Samsung electronics. Samsung electronics is among the largest phone makers in the world and change is inevitable for them. This is because there is a lot of evolution in the world of electronics and Samsung has to undergo changes within the organization that will ensure what they produce is exactly what the world wants. It is very difficult for Samsung to avoid change as it is the new ideas that promote its growth as an organization.
There are many reasons that…
Anderson A., (2013). The Five Top Qualities Needed for an Effective Leader to Facilitate Change in an Organization. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/five-top-qualities-needed-effective-leader-facilitate-change-organization-5.html
Miranda B., (2013). What Causes Resistance to Change Within an Organization. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/causes-resistance-change-organization-347.html
Nadler & Tushman, (1995).What Changes in Organization. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0073404993/579428/Sample_Chapter.pdf
Although his theory is not necessarily incompatible with Maslow and Alderfer's ideas, Herzberg places less emphasis on basic needs, and more upon using higher, internal needs to elicit optimal performance from the individual.
One common objection to theories of human motivation, of course, is that different types of people appear to be motivated by different things. For example, one teacher may choose his or her position because of job security, while another teacher may be more motivated by the idea of changing children's lives. This means that different strategies must be deployed in motivating people within the same organization or within different professions: a salesperson may be motivated by different things than a professor. "According to David McClelland's an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. Most of these needs can be classed as either achievement, affiliation, or power" (McClelland's theory of needs,…
Herzberg's Two-Factor theory. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
McClelland's theory of needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
The success, performance, as well as development of an employee are influenced by motivation. There are numerous methods and theories on motivation. McClelland, for instance, in his theory expresses that each employee has specific needs acquired over time based on life's experiences. His theory summarized the needs of people into achievement, power, and affiliation. Different employees get motivated in varying manners therefore a manager should not rely on one motivation technique to serve the entire workforce. This paper will address three motivational methods, and how they would be applied in the workplace.
One motivational method that would reap numerous benefits from the employees and commonly applied in most organizations is rewards. Everyone is familiar with the use of rewards as a motivator since as early as preschool and daycare, rewards such as sticker chart and snacks were given for good behavior. Even later in life rewards still appeal…
Atchison, T.A. (2003). Exposing the myths of employee satisfaction. Healthcare executive. 17(3), pp. 20.
Cummings, L.L., & Elsalmi, A.M. (1968). Empirical research on the bases and correlates of managerial motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 70, pp.127 -- 144.
When staff was asked for the reasons why they were quitting one of the responses was that EL's crisis management style was insufficient, better opportunities for career advancement, and that the "chain of command" was also great reason for unrest within the organization. These are all additional reasons that can lead to a lack of motivation in an organization; if an employee feels that there is no one to turn to, that there are no opportunities for advancement, and that the hierarchy does not communicate with them will give the employee reasons to be unsatisfied.
Additional problems in an organization that may be reasons for motivational problems found in EL include the inability of employees to see the finished product. Each department has their job, once their job has been completed, it is possible that the project is then transferred to another building to have other aspects of the project…
Motivation is the key to materializing energy and getting things accomplished. Organizational relationships require proper motivation from all sides of the relationships. Leaders must be motivated and workers must be motivated as well in order to succeed at any mission. The purpose of this essay is to design an organizational motivation plan that encourages and maintains a high level of performance from the members of the Woo Widget Company. The essay will first describe the need for the plan before introducing key components of the system that intends to increase the productivity and efficiency of the employees at Woo.
Before designing a motivational plan that will work in this environment, it is necessary to reveal some important facts that contribute to the motivating factors of the employees at this organization. WooWoo designs widgets, but the widget that WooWoo makes is a clone of a nationally known widget. Woo sells their…
Amabile, T. (1997). Motivating Creativity in Organizations. California Management Review 40, 1, 1997. Retrieved from http://bear.warrington.ufl.edu/weitz/mar7786/articles/amabile%20ccal%20mgt%20revie w.pdf
Osterloh, M. et al. (2002). The Dynamics of Motivation in New Organizational Forms. International Journal of the Economics of Business, 9,1, 2002; 61-77. Retrieved from http://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/366_02.pdf
Vallerand, R.J. (March 08, 1993). The Academic Motivation Scale: A Measure of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Amotivation in Education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 4, 1003-17.
The theory of motivation has as many various meanings as there are its function and intended the desired outcome for that mater. Motivation can be defined as a psychological element that prompts an organism into deeds focused on a set target or goal. Motivation is said to be the reason driving the action, or that which attaches direction, control and behavior to behavior of an individual (Word Net (2011).
It is considered the as the aspect that prompts, directs and sustains or maintains the target/goal oriented behavior of human beings. In the study of motor response and receptors, motivation is taken as what causes an organism to act or react, be it stepping off a thorn or streaming for the river by the animals to quench their thirst.
Motivation covers a wide range of disciplines from the cognitive, social and the biological drives that initiate behavior. In the day-to-day…
About.com, (2011). What Is Motivation? Retrieved March 18, 2011 from http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm
Word Net, (2011). Definitions of motivation on the Web. Retrieved March 18, 2011 from wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webw
Motivation at Work Application
In the case study, Making of Hotplates, Workers seems to be having jobs which are extremely specialized. Each task is balanced for three minutes per each station making the work to be extremely monotonous to the workers making them to become unhappy, Because of unhappiness of workers at the workplace; these would have resulted in poor morale as well as low motivation. Motivation in the workplace is a form of force that makes the employees to do things which will result to high production by having an inspiration of completing the tasks allocated. When there is motivation in organization, the employees try to put more effort to increase the output standard (Whiteley, 2002). This paper analyzes the importance of motivation to the workers in the workplace and problems that result when there is low motivation.
Changes in the workplace accounting for increase in productivity and decrease…
Rush, H.M. (2008). Job design for motivation; [experiments in job enlargement and job enrichment,. New York: Conference Board.
Stack, L. (2010). Super competent the six keys to perform at your productive best. New York:
Whiteley, P. (2002). Motivation. London: Capstone Pub.
Every person who had performed well and met the deadlines was offered a cash bonus at the end of six-month period when performance appraisals were done. However I realized that Sarah was not motivated by this cash reward. She had one child who went to kindergarten and her husband earned well. his meant she needed something other than money to motivate her. his was indeed a challenge since I had no idea how to discover her needs which could enhance her performance and inspire her to meet deadlines.
he first stage was to determine if the job actually suited her aptitude. I spoke to her personally and asked her if she really liked her job. But this was done in a candid manner so she wouldn't know what the real issue was. Sarah talked eagerly about her work and her ideas about the next month's magazine. Studying her resume, I…
This was a very interesting and enlightening survey. I spoke to Sarah and we discussed her various options. I told her that as long as she promised to meet her deadlines, I could allow her to work from home on Tuesdays and Thursdays and she could leave around 1 p.m. provided she guaranteed timely delivery of the work assigned to her. Needless to say, Sarah was thrilled. This is the last time we ever had a problem with her deadline issue. The new reward program motivated her so much that she was putting in extra effort to get everything done on job. The company had no problem with her new schedule and I was finally convinced that a happy employee is a company's best resource.
Ken Smith, Great minds in Management. Oxford University Press, 2005