Employee Motivation Essays (Examples)

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Using the Reward System to Measure Employee Commitment

Words: 2025 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75247216

The role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation organizational success
In any organization, it is essential to keep the employees interested in whatever they are doing at all times as long as they are within the organization. It is the one thing that the HR department needs to keep alive by all means since the decline of motivation among the staff members will directly affect the productivity of the whole team and jeopardy to the continuity of the organization.
Monetary compensation is one the most common form of compensation for skills, time and energy used by employees in most organizations. It helps in showing appreciation for a job well accomplished to the agreed upon standards and over a given period of time. Money comes out as the most widely acceptable form of extrinsic motivation. However, there are levels of rewards systems that bring about intrinsic motivation.
The research herein concentrates…… [Read More]

CEO Flow, (2008). The Four Rewards of Intrinsic Motivation. Retrieved October 06, 2017 from
Hinzie Media (2011). The Job Performance Model and Employee Motivation. Retrieved October
06, 2017 from  http://www.infobarrel.com/The_Job_Performance_Model_And_Employee_Motivation 
Management Study Guide, (2011). McClelland’s Theory of Needs. Retrieved October 06, 2017
from http://www.managementstudyguide.com/mcclellands-theory-of-needs.htm
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Employee Relations

Words: 1315 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41704950

Employee relations belong to employer-employee relationships that give satisfactory productivity, motivation, and self-confidence. Employee relations are involved with preventing and resolving problems related to individuals that occur or change work situations. Supervisors are given advice on how to correct poor performance and employee misconduct (Gennard, 2005). On the other hand, employees are given information on how to promote a better understanding of the company's goals and policies. For this paper we have chosen Tesco plc and its employee relationship. Tesco plc is the largest global grocery store based in UK. This is the second largest retailer in the world when measured in terms of benefits and third when measured in terms of income. The company has employed more than 326,000 employees around the world where 237,000 of them in Europe where it has its largest private employer.

Strategy Integrating Job Performance and Training

Job Performance and training forms the vital…… [Read More]


Gennard, John Graham Judge. (2005). Employee Relations. London: The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Hollinshead, Graham, Peter Nicholls Stephanie Tailby. (2003). Employee Relations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Lewis, Philip, Adrian Thornhill Mark Saunders. (2003). Employee Relations. London: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.

Roger W. Griffeth and Peter W. Hom, (2001). Retaining Valued Employees, Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, p. 2.
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Motivation and Problem Resolution

Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13518644

Motivation and Employee Engagement

Motivation and Employment Engagement

elationship between Motivation of Followers and Motivation Theories

McClelland's needs Based theory identifies three distinct needs and explains how these needs may be able to motivate employees to improved performance at the workplace. The three needs consist of the need for achievement, the need for power, and the need for affiliation. Employees possess each of these needs at varying levels depending on their personality and innate drives. Employees who have a high need for achievement are motivated by the opportunity to prove themselves to be better than their peers by meeting or surpassing performance standards. They are willing to assume personal responsibility for solving problems and making decisions. These employees can be motivated by specifying performance standards, delegating responsibility for the outcome to them, and by giving them ongoing feedback on their performance. Employees with a high need for power are motivated…… [Read More]


Bassford, T.E., Offermann, L.R., & Wirtz, P.W. (2012). Considering the source: The impact of leadership level on follower motivation and intent to stay. Journal of leadership and organizational studies, 19(2), 202-214. doi: 10.1177/1548051811436279.

Chaudhry, A.Q., & Javed, H. (2012). Impact of transactional and laissez faire leadership style on motivation. International journal of business and social science, 3(7), 258-264. Retrieved from EBSCO Business Source Complete.

Cheng, P.L.K., & Robertson, R.W. (2006). Not for bread alone-Motivation among hospital employees in Singapore. Public Organization Review, 6(2), 155-166. doi: 10.1007/s11115-006-0004-1.

Robbins, S.P. (1996) Organizational Behavior. 7th edn. Prentice Hall International.
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Motivations in the Company

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71391589

Motivations in Company

To maximize productivity and employee job satisfaction, the heads of companies must provide some kind of monetary motivation for their employees. Often this motivation takes the form of such things as gift certificates, free food, stock shares, and cash bonuses. To ascertain the specific ways the company our group is investigating rewards and motivates its employees, I interviewed Jeremi Karnell, the CMO and founding partner; and Michael Donnelly, the Head of HR. Both men indicated the importance of monetary motivation for their employees and outline the specific ways their company provides it. They also offered their personal philosophy regarding employee monetary motivation. I concluded that for the company in question, financial rewards can effectively motivate employees and helps to create company loyalty and a sense of community within the corporation.

Jeremi Karnell, the CMO and founding partner, informed me that the company as a horizontal structure with…… [Read More]

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Employee Performance and His or Her Motivation

Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49132234

Employee performance and his or her motivation is a key issue in an organization. The latter impacts the former: the more an employee is motivated, the better he is likely to perform. An important problem is that motivation is a complex undertaking: it is not always the financial package that is fundamental to an employee's performance.

Studies have shown that employees are also motivated (quite often even more motivated) by other factors. Campion and Thayer (1985), for example, concluded, following their research, that the more jobs are created to include motivational factors, the lower the efforts to complete them and the better the well-being of the employees. As Sager (1978) mentions, "it is essential to determine what an individual likes or needs in his work if motivation is to occur."

This paper proposes an approach based on Maslow's Theory of Needs to understand the role of promotion in an organization…… [Read More]


1. Sager, Donald, (1978). Leadership and employee motivation. Graduate School of Library Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

2. Campion, M.A., Thayer, P.W. (1985). Development and field evaluation of an interdisciplinary measure of job design. Journal of Applied Psychology. pp. 29 -- 4

3. Nohria, Nitin, Groysberg, Boris, Lee, Linda-Eling, (2008). Employee Motivation -- A Powerful New Model. Harvard Business Review.

4. Baack, D. (2012). Organizational behavior. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
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Motivation Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation Plays a

Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18835708

Motivation: Intrinsic vs Extrinsic

Motivation plays a critical role in the success of an organization. Employees who are motivated to achieve organizational goals and targets leave a positive impression on the overall performance of that organization. While there are many theories and strategies concerning motivation, the one that is most critical is the debate regarding intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Motivational theories like Maslow's theory or Vroom's expectancy theory fail to completely answer the question of which kind of reward is more important for motivation: intrinsic or extrinsic. For example can we truly motivate a person by showing him how extra effort on a task can enhance his knowledge or do we really need to attach a monetary reward with it? A student may be motivated to study harder for intrinsic reward like more knowledge and higher learning but without appreciation and recognition, will he continue to put in the effort…… [Read More]


Weinberg R, & Gould, D (2003). Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology:

Human Kinetics.

Deci, E.L. And Ryan, R.M. (1994). Promoting Self Determined Education.

Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. 38, 3-41.
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Motivation Organizational Behavior Is a Field of

Words: 1249 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30131666


Organizational behavior is a field of study that is of particular importance to enterprises and those in management positions. One of the major issues that firms have to deal with is the problem of motivation. The purpose of this discussion is to discuss how organizational behavior management concepts and principles are applied to the problem of motivation. We will begin our discussion by exploring the problem of motivation. We will then design and suggest a solution to the problem. Our discussion will also evaluate the effectiveness of the solution in terms of leadership, managerial and employee perceptions. Finally, we will discuss organizational behavior concepts and principles that are applicable to the successful solution to the problem.

Exploration of the problem

Motivation, as it applies to organizational behavior, is defined as the ability of an employee to exert effort and accomplish organizational goals. Many organizations experience problems keeping employees motivated…… [Read More]


Butkus, R.T. & Green, T.B., (1999). Motivation, Beliefs, and Organizational Transformation. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Forschungsgemeinschaft, D., www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=28535492"Kleinbeck, U., Quast, H., Thierry, H., Higcker, H., (Eds.). (1990). Work Motivation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Motivation Over the Last Several

Words: 1057 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3531782

At which point, managers must be able to challenge them on an intellectual level. In many ways, one could argue that the most successful organizations will address these basic needs and will then find a way to continually challenge their employees (at the levels of self-actualization).

Incentives Offered to Employees to keep them Motivated

There are a number of different ways that executives can motivate employees the most obvious is: addressing the basic needs of everyone. Where, employers have to offer benefits that will go above and beyond their competition to include: having generous health insurance, increasing flexibility in how employees plan their schedules, the ability for the staff to prepare for retirement and those little extras that can improve the work environment (such as: health club benefits, employees discounts, company parties along with child care). These different elements are important, because they will address the basic needs of employees.…… [Read More]


Benefits. (2010). Google. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com/international/en/jobs/lifeatgoogle/benefits/index.html#bbb

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved from:  http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/ 

Bruce, A. (2006). How to Motivate Every Employee. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Kurtus, R. (2001). Basic Principals of Total Quality Management. School for Champions. Retrieved from: ( http://www.school-for-champions.com/tqm/principles.htm
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Motivation Is Regarded as a Measure of

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24827940

Motivation is regarded as a measure of internal drive to achieve a goal. It is an essential human instinct, because without motivation people would lack the ability to progress. The amount of internal drive an individual has is influenced by a variety of factors such as personal gain, individual need, attitude and consequence of actions, to name a few. hile capturing and classifying all of the different types of motivation can be a daunting task, a few academic scholars have drawn connections between an individual's environment and personal attributes as influences on the types of motivation the individual has.

As explained in an article about motivation and study habits, N.J. Entwistle, Jennifer Thompson and J.D. ilson explain that the major classifications of motivation are intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is centered on the task at hand and is most often a measure of personal ability, the conquering of a fear,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W.D. (1994). Reinforcement, reward and intrinsic motivation: a meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 64(3), 363-367.

Eby, J.E. (1999, July 17). Employee motivation strategies. New Straits Times, pp. 4-EX.

Entwistle, N.J., Thompson, J., & Wilson, J.D. (1974). Motivation and study habits.

Higher Education, 3(4), 379-395.
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Motivation & Leadership the Objective

Words: 2002 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58196405

" (Ibid)

Transformation leadership is 'authentic' leadership which "builds genuine trust between leaders and followers." Furthermore transformational leadership "concentrates on terminal values such as integrity and fairness. They see the responsibility for their organization's development and impact on society." (Ibid)

Homig and MacGregor in the work entitled:" Transformational Leadership" state that the following ten 'tenets' are inclusive in the transformational leader's style of leading:

1. Leaders have high moral and ethical values.

2. Leaders express genuine interest in followers.

3. Leaders have an inspirational vision.

4. Genuine trust exists between leaders and led.

5. Followers share leader's values and vision.

6. Leaders and followers perform beyond self-interest.

7. Participatory decision-making is the rule.

8. Innovative thinking and action is expected.

9. Motivation is to do the right thing.

10. Leaders mentor. (nd)


While all of these theories were valid at some time or in relation to some…… [Read More]


Creating Futures (nd) Online available at wfoundation.org/newsletter/June2005/43565Camp NewsletterFI NAL.pdf+Jeffrey+H.+Brotman,+Leadership&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9

Costco Wholesale Investor Relations (2006) Online http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=83830&p=irol-govBio&ID=13292

Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity (2006) Section 2: Basic Approaches Used to Improve Productivity. Accel Team Online available at  http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_03_mcgregor.html 

Costco -5th Largest Retailer in U.S. And 11th Largest in the World (2006) http://www.customer-service.com/newsletter/126E.aspx
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Motivation in Workplace

Words: 449 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97189052

Employee Motivation

Motivation in the Workplace

The objective of this study is to examine motivation in the workplace with a focus on survival needs, security needs, belonging needs, respect needs, and fulfillment needs.

Motivation in the workplace is a subject of ongoing interest because employers desire to understand how to best motivate their workers to increase workplace productivity. A useful model in examining motivation in the workplace is that known as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

Maslow's Hierarch of Needs

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory is one that emphasizes "meeting each level of development before going on towards self-actualization. The level of needs proposed by Maslow include those as follows:

(1) material needs;

(2) safety;

(3) sense of belonging;

(4) love and friendship

(5) self-esteem; and (6) self-actualization. (Cruver-Plaza, 2009, p.1)

The following illustration shows the conception of the hierarchy of needs proposed by Maslow.

Figure 1

Maslow's Hierarchy of…… [Read More]


Applying Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory of Motivation To Training (2012) Self-Growth. Retrieved from:  http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Applying_Abraham_Maslow_s_Hierarchy_of_Needs_Theory_of_Motivation_to_Training.html 

Building a Better Workplace Through Motivation (2012) Kellogg's Case Study, Maslow. The Times 100 Business Case Studies. Retrieved from:  http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/kelloggs/building-a-better-workplace-through-motivation/maslow.html 

Cruver-Plaza, J. (2009) Employee Motivation, and Job Performance: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory Applied to Corporate Downsizing (2012) Employment Suite 101. Retrieved from: http://suite101.com/article/employee-motivation-and-job-performance

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (2012) NetMBA. Retrieved from:  http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
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Employee Satisfaction With a Company's Review Process

Words: 7400 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74633360

Employee Satisfaction with a Company's Review Process

The following research examines the reason for a decline in employee satisfaction regarding the review process at XYZ, Inc. The results of the survey revealed that sample biases may have confounded the results and that the survey will have to be re-administered to reflect the true attitudes and results of the preliminary research leading up to the current survey. The result showed a high degree of satisfaction with the quality and quantity of management feedback. The results of this survey are inconclusive and further research will need to be conducted to eliminate the possible effects of sample bias.

Delimitations (See Leedy)



Research question(s)

Evaluation Objective

Development Objectives



Survey Group(s)


Site contact


Chapter II

A. Literature Review

B. Introduction

C. General Management Issues

D. Project Related Issues

E. Conclusions

F. Definition of Terms

G. References

H. Project Submission…… [Read More]

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Employee Involvement and Workplace Productivity

Words: 1682 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6769762


Lastly, Cummings and Worley (2007) surmise that employee involvement can also "improve capabilities of employees thus enabling them to perform better" (p. 353). The authors give the example that when organizations wish to increase their employee participation in decision making, this strategy must be accompanied by skill training in communication and group problem solving (p. 353).

All three of these facets improve employee satisfaction and well-being, due to an improved work environment and a more rewarding job. In a cyclical nature, improved productivity also increases satisfaction, especially when there are greater rewards associated with this increased productivity. Improved employee satisfaction, that's a result of employee involvement strategies and increased productivity, can have a secondary impact on the organization. This high level of employee satisfaction can further positively affect productivity by attracting the best employees and help ensure the retention of these valuable organizational resources (Cummings and Worley, 2007, p.…… [Read More]


Cummings, T.G., & Worley, C.G. (2007). Organization Development and Change (8th ed.). s.l.: Academic Internet Publ.

Rosso, a. (Oct 2010). "Awakening corporate soul." Collector, 76(3). p. 18-20.

The influence of employee involvement on productivity: A review of research -- June 2000. (22 Jun 2006). Retrieved December 6, 2010, from http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/cs/sp/hrsd/prc/publications/research/2000-002584/page03.shtml.

Wolf, E. & Zwick, T. (Apr 2008). "Reassessing the productivity impact of employee involvement and financial incentives." Schmalenbach Business Review, 60(2). o. 160-181.
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Motivation What Is it Like to Have

Words: 408 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30852688


What is it like to have enthusiasm? Does this come from within one person? Are outside influences important as well? Can it change someone's life? One will discuss motivation and provide examples as to how it impacts an individual on regular basis.

Intrinsic motivation is what comes from inside a person. For example, he or she is motivated to learn at school in order to get the best grade possible. This can make someone work hard at achieving their goals. If he or she wants an A in Biology, then he or she will work twice as hard to accomplish this. In the long run, the individual may or may not get what it is they want despite having the drive. Extrinsic motivation is important as well.

When it comes to extrinsic motivation, a person looks outside of themselves in order to seek ways in which to do a…… [Read More]

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Motivation Organizational Behavior Has Long

Words: 2654 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62198919

These performance appraisals are usually given to employees by managers. Such appraisals occur once or twice per year, depending upon the industry and the position of the employee. In some cases, performance appraisals are carried out by colleagues. egardless of how feedback is given most organizations recognize it as a legitimate and productive way to judge performance and present employees with ways to improve job performance.

Examples of Employee motivation

According to Neff (2002) the ability to motivate employees is an essential component in creating an organization that is successful. The author points out that the most successful organizations in the world are always succeeding in making certain that job satisfaction and motivation are primary priorities. These organizations have realized that employees who are motivated are also more productive and therefore improve the bottom line. Greater productivity usually leads to greater job satisfaction and ultimately greater customer satisfaction. The author…… [Read More]


Brief, a.P., & Weiss, H.M. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace. 279+.

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W.D. (2002). Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Kermally, S. (2005). Gurus on Managing People. London: Thorogood.

London, M. (2003). Job Feedback: Giving, Seeking, and Using Feedback for Performance Improvement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Motivation of Employees

Words: 1861 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95955965

Employment otivation and Engagement: How to Recruit and Retain Top-Quality Talent in a Competitive arketplace

Because employee performance and productivity are closely aligned with corporate profitability, there has been a great deal of research over the years concerning optimal approaches to motivating people in the workplace. The analysis of what motivates people to perform to their maximum effort, though, has becoming increasingly complex as the result of a growing number of theories concerning the antecedents of motivation and optimal job performance and motivational methods to achieve it. While the debate concerning which motivational approaches produce the best results continues, there is a consensus among organizational behavior researchers that pay ranks among the top factors that include employee motivation, perhaps the overarching factor in most cases. Despite these findings, studies have shown time and again that money talks when it comes to employee motivation. When people become convinced that their efforts…… [Read More]

Murphy, C., Ramamoorthy, N., Flood, P. & MacCurtain, S. 2006, July 1. Organizational Justice Perceptions and Employee Attitudes among Irish Blue Collar Employees: An Empirical Test of the Main and Moderating Roles of Individualism/Collectivism. Management Revue, 17(3), 329.

Ibid., 330.

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Employee Relations the Field of Employee Relations

Words: 2943 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63614107

Employee Relations

The field of employee relations encompasses the entire spectrum of the relationship between employing organisations and their employees. It rough chronological order, modern employee relations is a fully comprehensive process that includes the functions and responsibilities of recruitment, hiring, new-hire orientation, employment benefits management, promotion of organisational culture and ethical values, personnel management, change management, employee motivation, performance appraisal and review, career advancement, conflict resolution, policy enforcement, legal compliance, retirement, voluntary departure, involuntary termination, and post-employment benefits management (Robbins & Judge, 2009). More broadly, the field of employee relations also impacts the political, economic, social, and technological organisational environment (PEST). That is particularly true in connection with legal compliance with employment laws and environmental regulations, the economic prospects for organisational growth, business cycles that inform hiring and personnel management decisions, the economic considerations dictated by inflation interest, and income patterns, and numerous social or socio-cultural factors (Russell-alling, 2008).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational

Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2009). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati,

OH: West Legal Studies.
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Motivation Is a Central Principle

Words: 3903 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53359506

Overall it is evident from this discussion that the prevention vs. promotion focus has an important affect on how individuals act and interact with each other. The above discussion looked at the general application of such systems reflect individual behavior, however, a much more specific look at the effects of such actions within the workplace must be reviewed before a test study can be conducted to answer our hypothesis.

Promotion vs. Prevention: Application within the Workplace

The full implication of promotion vs. prevention focused mentalities is on the explicit strategy decisions individuals make within this framework. The impact on strategy decisions within employee-employer relations is extremely important. In this section, we will look at how strategy decisions are different between promotion and prevention mindsets.

One area that has specific application to workplace environment is the consideration of alternatives and new ideas. Promotion focused individuals tend to be much more eager…… [Read More]

Higgins, E.T., & Bianco, a.T. (2003). Speed/accuracy decisions in task performance: Built in trade-off of separate strategic concerns. Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90.

Higgins, E.T. (1998). Approach and avoidance strength during goal attainment: Regulatory focus and the "goal looms larger" effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75.

Friedman, R.S (2005). Effects of motivational cues on perceptual asymmetry: Implications for creativity and analytical problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88.
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Motivation Systems for Hospitality Organizations A Case

Words: 3760 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74343947

Motivation Systems for Hospitality Organizations: A Case Study of Motel

Generally speaking, the hospitality industry competes on a global basis by providing food and beverages services as well as accommodations for tourists and travelers. For instance, according to Lucas, "The term hospitality industry serves as an overarching label for businesses whose primary purpose is to offer food, beverage and accommodation for sale on a commercial basis" (2003:3). By contrast, hospitality services are associated activities that take place within the hospitality industry which are provided within different segments of the marketplace. Such hospitality activities are primarily involved with providing food and beverage services for a wide range of institutional operations including educational facilities such as colleges and universities, passenger airline carriers, healthcare and long-term care facilities as well as penitentiaries and jails (Lucas 2003). For the purposes of this study, the focus will be on the hospitality industry and hotels in…… [Read More]


About Motel 6. (2010). Motel 6. [online] available: http://www.motel6.com/about/.

"Accor North America Opens 34 Franchise Locations." 2010 Motel 6. [online] available: http://www.motel6.com/about/press_room/release.aspx?Document=428.

Brody, R.G., Lane, S. & Steed, E. 2004 "The Development of an Accounting Performance Measure to Minimize Inter-departmental Conflicts in the Hospitality Industry." International Journal of Management 21(3): 324-325.

"Career Opportunities." 2010 Motel 6. [online] available: http://www.motel6.com/about/careers / default.aspx.
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Employees Use the 360 Degree

Words: 3428 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42868307

A very important point is that online learning can be done individually or in groups (for example video conferences).

6. In general, in order to make a career choice one should be informed about the world of professions. Information about the profession that appears the most interesting and appropriate should be gathered. If possible, it would be important to read interviews or talk to people with similar jobs for a more accurate and realistic image. Another important part in a career choice is to assess individual strengths and weaknesses. Several personality tests are available for such a purpose (for example CPI - California Psychological Inventory, SDS - the Self-Directed Search questionnaire). For the persons in search for a career it is important to identify the skills they have and they most enjoy using. The career identified should be compatible with the interests and skills identified. In conclusion, a person who…… [Read More]


Drewes, G., Runde, B. (2002). Performance Appraisal, in Psychological Management of Individual Performance. Sonnentag, S. (Ed.) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Fletcher, C. (2002). Appraisal: An Individual Psychological Perspective, in Psychological Management of Individual Performance. Sonnentag, S. (Ed.) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

K.J. Kennedy (2005). Evolution of Employee Benefits as Provided through the Internal Revenue Code, Retrieved from www.taxreformpanel.gov/meetings/docs/KennedyPresentation_fina_2.ppt

Hesketh, B., Ivancic, K., (2002). Enhancing Performance through Training in Psychological Management of Individual Performance. Sonnentag, S. (Ed.) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Motivation Among Employees

Words: 1365 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66444249

Industrial Organizational Psychology: Motivation

Applied behavioral science

This is a branch of science that comprises of fields such as sociology, psychology and anthropology that deals primarily with the human actions and seeks to give a general view on human behavior within the society. This is a field which takes an interdisciplinary approach when it comes to the study of human behavior. It explores the activities and interactions among human beings. Applied behavioral science therefore is a process of systematically applying interventions that are based on the behavioral science principles in order to bring an improvement of socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree and demonstrate that the interventions used are the ones that are responsible for bringing an improvement in behavior. This case study is explored from cognitive psychology which focuses on internal states like motivation, decision making, problem solving and so on.

In this case study Jasmine has to…… [Read More]


Grant, A. (2012). Leading with meaning: Beneficiary contact, prosocial impact, and the performance effects of transformational leadership.

This article is on the impact of transformational leadership in any organization. This article is relevant to the case study since it brings out the advantages of applying transformational leadership within the case study.

Ajang, P. (2011). Assessing the role of work motivation on employee performance. Retrieved July 7, 2014 from  http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:140549/FULLTEXT01.pdf 

This article looks at the importance of motivation of employees when it comes to their performance.it is relevant to the case study since we have seen the issue in the case study is the lack of motivation for employees hence it just emphasizes more on the fact that employee motivation is important when it comes to their performance.
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Motivation and Performance Management Organizational Behavior

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20846551

Organizational Behavior

How New Practices at Sodexho Align with the Essentials of Performance Management

Performance management, in basic terms, has got to do with an organization's involvement of employees with an aim of enabling them to achieve objectives and, hence, further enhance performance at both the individual and organizational level. Quite a number of changes have taken place at Sodexho since the entry of Ms. ohini Anand, the Senior Vice President and Global Chief Diversity Officer at Sodexho. To what extent do these changes and new practices align with the essentials of performance management?

To begin with, Sodexho has been able to not only define, but also clarify performance expectations. This, as will be indicated below, has been more so the case when it comes to identifying the exact performance expectations of various groups or categories of employees. As Ms. Anand points out, interviewers at Sodexho are trained on cultural…… [Read More]


Sims, R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
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Motivation in the Workplace

Words: 6253 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88271910

Workplace Motivation

This paper investigates the issue of motivation as it applies to an organizational setting.

The research regarding motivation in the workplace has been a major area of investigation that is of interest to corporate leaders, managers, organizational psychologists, and educators. The issue that this paper will discuss has to do with the particular factors that managers and leaders can address to increase the motivation of their workers to perform as well as to increase the job satisfaction levels of their employees. However, motivation is only one issue regarding increased productivity or increased job satisfaction; we would certainly think that at a basic level an employee would need a certain level of motivation to perform as well as the ability to actually do the job (as it turns out the research is consistent with this type of common-sense thinking). However, the actual types of interventions/activities that can be used…… [Read More]


Argyris, C. 1993, Knowledge for action: a guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Chien, J.C. 2013,'Examining Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in a large Chinese chemical fiber company' World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 78, no. 248, pp.1433-1438.

Gneezy, U. And Rustichini, A. 2000, 'Pay enough or don't pay at all', Quarterly Journal of Economics vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 791-810.

Hackman, J.R. And Oldham, G.R. 1980, Work redesign. Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.
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Motivation the Success of Any

Words: 1355 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71535381

In the absence of both factors, employee motivation will not work. Green and Butkus also shared that although Vroom's model had been widely accepted for a number of years, it lacked applicability that it cannot be used in practice.

Aside from Vroom, Green and Butkus (1999) also shared about Green's own Belief System model. This model was actually a practical application of Viktor Vroom's Expectancy Theory and was reported to be better utilized by the workforce. The Belief System Theory focused on using a structured and facilitated meeting between the supervisor and the staff. This meeting becomes a venue to discuss motivational problems on the areas that Vroom had developed and will provide the manager and the employee with a specific period to help address motivational issues in their workplace.


Whiteley and Kerr's ideas focus on an individual's motivation and how it can be used to help him contribute…… [Read More]


The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition. (2000). Houghton Mifflin Company.

Kerr, Steven. (1997). Ultimate Rewards: what really motivates people to achieve. Boston, Ma. Harvard Business School Press.

Whiteley, Philip. (2002). Motivation. Oxford, United Kingdom Capstone Publishing, Ltd.

Green, Thad B. And Butkus, Raymond T. (1999). Motivation, beliefs and organizational transformation. Westport, Conn. Quorum Books.
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Employee Benefits and Compensation Plan

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33997874

organization's ability to recruit and retain talented employees requires ensuring employees are rewarded proportionately for their contribution towards achieving organizational goals and profitability. To achieve this, a benefits and compensation policy is developed and implemented for all workers. This company has established a compensation policy that offers a full range of conventional benefits, dental, vision and medical benefits in addition to a rewards program that offers incentives based on employees' input. However, there are numerous complaints from the workforce that these benefits do not effectively address a growing problem. To address this growing problem, it's important to develop a Benefits and Compensation plan that offer packages that correspond to the employee type, reflects the organization's culture, and is comparable to the company's competitors.

Components of the Benefits and Compensation Plan

The current benefits and compensation plan is seemingly ineffective because it does not provides benefits and compensation based on the…… [Read More]


Dunne, P.M., Lusch, R.F. & Carver, J.R. (2014). Retailing (8th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Linton, I. (n.d.). Basic Responsibilities for Retail Workers. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/basic-responsibilities-retail-workers-36997.html 

White, M.C. (2014, April 27). The Many Ways Retailers Pay and Reward Employees. Retrieved October 14, 2016, from http://www.jckonline.com/2016/02/19/many-ways-retailers-pay-and-reward-employees
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Factors Contributing to Employee De-Motivation

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78739853


Employee Motivation

Motivation is the process of initiating, guiding, and steering people into achieving some set goals with ease. Many motivational strategies target different needs like cognitive, biological, social, and emotional forces. Psychologists have come up with theories of motivation humanistic theory, instinct theory, and drive theory. The essential components of a successful motivational strategy intensity, activation, and persistence. Persistence entails the constant effort towards a given goal even with the existence of obstacles while intensity relates to the vigor and concentration. This report endeavors to explain the advice given to a line manager in the auto industry as a model of motivating employees in tough economic times. I have also identified factors that would motivate in my current job placement (Herzberg, 2003).


Advice to a line manager in the auto industry

Management team of most companies come up with procedures and policies that end up de-motivating employees…… [Read More]


Herzberg, F. (2003). One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review. January, 1-13. (Business Source Complete Database: AN 8796887.)

Nohria, M., Groysberg, B. & Lee, L. (2008). Employee motivation: A powerful new model. Harvard Business Review. July- August, 1-7. (Business Source Complete Database: AN 34403173.)

Sirota, D., Mischkind, L. & Meltzer, M. (2006). Stop de-motivating your employees. Harvard Business Review, January, 1- 6. (Business Source Complete Database: AN33018727.)
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Employee Relations Financial Crisis Managing Employee Relations

Words: 2413 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53303609

Employee Relations Financial Crisis

Managing Employee Relations in the Event of a Financial Crisis

A Look into Management can Effectively Navigate through Adverse Conditions

Austerity Protests (Dowling, 2012)

Employee relations can often be a difficult aspect of maintaining the overall health of an organization. In general, employee relations often refer to the act of fostering productivity, motivation, and employee morale in an organizations human resources pool. However, there are some circumstances in which it is virtually impossible to maintain high levels of morale. One example of this is during a period of economic turmoil. During the global financial crisis of 2008, the world's economy took a sharp turn for the worse. This economic downturn had many implications for businesses and their employees. The level of unemployment rose quickly in many nations and pressure was also applied to lower employee wages.

In the event of such an economic downturn, it is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BLS, 2012. The Recession of 2007-2009. [Online]

Available at:  http://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2012/recession/pdf/recession_bls_spotlight.pdf 

[Accessed 12 September 2012].

Business and Marketing, 2009. Consumers in a Recession. [Online]
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Motivation Using 2 Theories

Words: 759 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75782424


Organizational Behavior Analysis: Motivation

Organizational Behavior is a multi-disciplinary field that studies human behaviors in an organizational setting or how individuals interface with an organization or group of people. This field has many implications for business and human resources since in can help facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. Management can use insights gained through the study of this field to try to optimize different components of organizational behavior such as motivation. Motivation is one of the critical components that must be maximized in high achieving organizations.

There are many models of motivation that have been proposed in the field of organizational behavior. One of the reasons that some many models have been developed is that motivation is a complex concept that contains many facets of human behavior. Some of the earlier theories that tried to explain an individual's level of motivation include Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dunham, D. (2010, January 27). At Whole Foods Thinner Employees Get Fatter Discounts. Retrieved from That's Fit: http://www.thatsfit.com/2010/01/27/whole-foods-thin-employees-get-discounts/

Underwood, R. (2005, October 1). Whole Foods nurtures democracy, putting their health plan to a company-wide vote. The outcome: satisfied workers and ultimately happy customers. Retrieved from Fast Company:  http://www.fastcompany.com/53854/employee-innovator-runner-whole-foods-market
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Motivation Stress and Communication

Words: 2043 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34417540

Motivation, Stress, And Communication

Ford motor is a global company dealing with the manufacture of vehicles. It has several offices/manufacturing plants in most parts of the world. For the company to run smoothly and efficiently, its operations are divided into several department headed by several departmental managers. One of the departments am in charge is the Supply Chain Systems Sales department a position I filled as the head of department.

A Supply Chain System Sales Operations Manager is in charge of two broad roles. One of roles concerns supplies while the other deals with sales of their locomotives. These two roles are interlinked in a way that the person in charge must ensures that their sales offices are supplied by their products (vehicles) for sales and shipping of new vehicles to other customers or to their sales offices in countries ford motors has no factory. Sales are an interactive kind…… [Read More]


Champoux, J. (2010). Organizational Behavior: Integrating Individuals, Groups, and Organizations: Taylor and Francis.

Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705-717.

Oldham, G.R., & Hackman, J.R. (2010). Not what it was and not what it will be: The future of job design research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 463-479.
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Employee Relations Develop a Strategy Specific to

Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16192930

Employee elations

Develop a strategy specific to your organization for integrating job performance and training.

Job performance is an integral aspect within the health care services industry's overall. For one, it holds both associates and management accountable for their respective actions. This accountable provides a means of deterring any subpar performance on the part of employees who might otherwise be a detriment to the overall operations of the firm. By linking job performance to training, the organization can train those deficient in certain skills. In many instances training allows a means for personnel to acquire skills deemed necessary by leadership. By integrating both concepts, organizations can minimize waste while also growing talented personnel within the organization. This is particular important in regards to the changing landscape of the health care industry overall. Excessive and meaning regulation has created fundamental change within the industry overall. As such, job training must reflect…… [Read More]


1) Draper, Elaine, Joseph LaDou, and Dan J. Tennenhouse. 2011. "Occupational Health Nursing and the Quest for Professional Authority," New Solutions 21, 47 -- 81

2) Fang, D., Wilsey-Wisniewski, S.J., & Bednash, G.D. (2006). 2005-2006 enrollment and graduations in baccalaureate and graduate programs in nursing. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing

3) Levsey, K.R., Campbell, D., & Green, A. (2007). Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow; Challenges in Securing Federal Support for Graduate Nurses. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(4), 176-183

4) Lucia, Patricia R.; Otto, Tammy E.; Palmier, Patrick A. (2009). "Chapter 1
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Employee Customer Service Training New Employee Customer

Words: 1621 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41521495

Employee Customer Service Training

New Employee Customer Service Training Plan

Justify the use of a needs assessment of your company's proposed employee customer service training, stressing five (5) ways in which such an assessment would expose any existing performance deficiencies.

The employees of an organization act like the 'driving force' which can either lead the organization towards success or can turn out to be the cause of its failure. A company's progress not only depends on an employee's individual performance but the way these employees communicate with the customers has its own significance. Thus, in order to run a successful organization, it is quite essential to monitor the correlation between the outcomes and the employees' input on a regular basis. To ensure employees' effectiveness, organizations usually remain concerned about training their employees.

Training means a methodical intentional process of changing behavior of organizational members in a direction which contributes to…… [Read More]


Eisenberger, R., Rhoades, L. & Cameron, J. (1999). Does pay for performance increase or decrease perceived self-determination and intrinsic motivation? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1026-1040.

Gerow, J.R. (1997). Psychology -- An Introduction. 5th Edition. New York: Longman.

Hinrichs, J.R. (1976). Personnel training. In M. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Skokie, IL: Rand MsNally.

Miller & Osinski (1996). Training Needs Assessment. Retrieved November 18,
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Employee Resistance in the Economy Today Change

Words: 1945 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16721301

Employee esistance

In the economy today change is inevitable in any organization in the world. This is because each and every organization strives to remain strong in the market as well as being relevant. The only way the organizations can achieve this is through evolving so as to ensure that they are at the same level with the rest of the world. Changes occur even in big organizations like Samsung electronics. Samsung electronics is among the largest phone makers in the world and change is inevitable for them. This is because there is a lot of evolution in the world of electronics and Samsung has to undergo changes within the organization that will ensure what they produce is exactly what the world wants. It is very difficult for Samsung to avoid change as it is the new ideas that promote its growth as an organization.

There are many reasons that…… [Read More]


Anderson A., (2013). The Five Top Qualities Needed for an Effective Leader to Facilitate Change in an Organization.  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/five-top-qualities-needed-effective-leader-facilitate-change-organization-5.html 

Miranda B., (2013). What Causes Resistance to Change Within an Organization. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/causes-resistance-change-organization-347.html 

Nadler & Tushman, (1995).What Changes in Organization. Retrieved May 2, 2013 from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0073404993/579428/Sample_Chapter.pdf
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Motivation Difference Between Internal Needs

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73203039

Even Google's famous 'perks' such as free food and fitness classes are based more upon an internal motivation strategy rather than an external motivation strategy. The happier people are to be at work and the more free time they have to think about work vs. mundane details of life like commuting to lunch or fitting in the gym after work, the more productive people will be. Theory Y leaders believe that once the basic needs of the worker are met to obtain a certain basic standard of living, then workers must be motivated by more intrinsic factors. Even lower-level employees can be motivated by feeling that they have made a contribution to the organization.

The Theory X/Theory Y philosophy is based upon an older theory of motivation: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow conceptualized worker needs as existing on a hierarchy: first, an employee's most basic physiological needs must be fulfilled,…… [Read More]


Bartle, P. (2013). Participatory management. Retrieved:


Theory X and Theory Y (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved:

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Motivation Theory The Implementation of Motivation in

Words: 1071 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9109242

Motivation Theory:

The Implementation of Motivation in the Workplace

Motivation lends a hand to one to achieve goals and can be either intrinsic or extrinsic (TheManager.org, 2001). In multiple theories, motivation is the need to decrease pain or increase one's happiness. Through the study of motivation, a management team will be better able to inspire their employees and the company as a whole. The satisfaction the employees may have the possibility to create internal happiness, a pleasant work environment, and an increase in productivity. This is especially true when one's motivation comes directly from bodily deficits, which then causes them to work towards reversing said deficit (Houghton Mifflin, 1998).


A retail or commission-based job often requires a certain amount of products or services to be sold by an employee in a given set of time. In the financial bank setting, it is a common practice for the financial bankers…… [Read More]


Houghton Mifflin. (1998). Teaching concepts: Motivation. Retrieved January 21, 2011 from  http://college.cengage.com/education/pbl/tc/motivate.html 

TheManager.org. (2001). Motivation -- Basic concepts and theories. Retrieved January 21, 2011

from  http://www.themanager.org/Resources/Motivation.htm
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Motivation Methods the Success Performance as Well

Words: 1198 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36341825

Motivation Methods

The success, performance, as well as development of an employee are influenced by motivation. There are numerous methods and theories on motivation. McClelland, for instance, in his theory expresses that each employee has specific needs acquired over time based on life's experiences. His theory summarized the needs of people into achievement, power, and affiliation. Different employees get motivated in varying manners therefore a manager should not rely on one motivation technique to serve the entire workforce. This paper will address three motivational methods, and how they would be applied in the workplace.

One motivational method that would reap numerous benefits from the employees and commonly applied in most organizations is rewards. Everyone is familiar with the use of rewards as a motivator since as early as preschool and daycare, rewards such as sticker chart and snacks were given for good behavior. Even later in life rewards still appeal…… [Read More]


Atchison, T.A. (2003). Exposing the myths of employee satisfaction. Healthcare executive. 17(3), pp. 20.

Cummings, L.L., & Elsalmi, A.M. (1968). Empirical research on the bases and correlates of managerial motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 70, pp.127 -- 144.
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Motivation Two Views of a

Words: 1100 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87849770

Although his theory is not necessarily incompatible with Maslow and Alderfer's ideas, Herzberg places less emphasis on basic needs, and more upon using higher, internal needs to elicit optimal performance from the individual.

One common objection to theories of human motivation, of course, is that different types of people appear to be motivated by different things. For example, one teacher may choose his or her position because of job security, while another teacher may be more motivated by the idea of changing children's lives. This means that different strategies must be deployed in motivating people within the same organization or within different professions: a salesperson may be motivated by different things than a professor. "According to David McClelland's an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. Most of these needs can be classed as either achievement, affiliation, or power" (McClelland's theory of needs,…… [Read More]


Herzberg's Two-Factor theory. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.


McClelland's theory of needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.

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Motivation Problem Electro Logic EL

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22609897

When staff was asked for the reasons why they were quitting one of the responses was that EL's crisis management style was insufficient, better opportunities for career advancement, and that the "chain of command" was also great reason for unrest within the organization. These are all additional reasons that can lead to a lack of motivation in an organization; if an employee feels that there is no one to turn to, that there are no opportunities for advancement, and that the hierarchy does not communicate with them will give the employee reasons to be unsatisfied.

Additional problems in an organization that may be reasons for motivational problems found in EL include the inability of employees to see the finished product. Each department has their job, once their job has been completed, it is possible that the project is then transferred to another building to have other aspects of the project…… [Read More]

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Motivation Theory Organizations Include Many Different Types

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23970919

Motivation Theory

Organizations include many different types of people and personalities that in turn create a need for different types of motivational strategies. In organizations we can have three types of setting that we work in: sales, production, and educational. Every individual is molded and shaped by the experiences that life has presented to that individual, and these experiences can impact the manner and attitude by which they perceive motivation. To a degree, motivation is very personal and what may initiate the motivational drive in some people may not do so for others. Motivation processes set the tone of the organizational goals, which is why organizations should develop comprehensive and diverse motivational strategies. The theory that I propose combines Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory and the Maslow-based Existence, elatedness, and Growth (EG) theory of motivation. I will call this theory the Motivational Balance Theory. The ultimate goal of this thorough motivational theory…… [Read More]


"ERG Theory." NET MBA. Retrieved online:  http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/erg/ 

"Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Two Factor Theory)." NET MBA. Retrieved online:  http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/herzberg/ 

Weller, M. (2005). General principles of motivation. Los Angeles Business Journal, March 14, 2005. Retrieved online: http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/motivate.htm
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Motivation Is the Key to Materializing Energy

Words: 1065 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44006105

Motivation is the key to materializing energy and getting things accomplished. Organizational relationships require proper motivation from all sides of the relationships. Leaders must be motivated and workers must be motivated as well in order to succeed at any mission. The purpose of this essay is to design an organizational motivation plan that encourages and maintains a high level of performance from the members of the Woo Widget Company. The essay will first describe the need for the plan before introducing key components of the system that intends to increase the productivity and efficiency of the employees at Woo.

Before designing a motivational plan that will work in this environment, it is necessary to reveal some important facts that contribute to the motivating factors of the employees at this organization. WooWoo designs widgets, but the widget that WooWoo makes is a clone of a nationally known widget. Woo sells their…… [Read More]


Amabile, T. (1997). Motivating Creativity in Organizations. California Management Review 40, 1, 1997. Retrieved from http://bear.warrington.ufl.edu/weitz/mar7786/articles/amabile%20ccal%20mgt%20revie w.pdf

Osterloh, M. et al. (2002). The Dynamics of Motivation in New Organizational Forms. International Journal of the Economics of Business, 9,1, 2002; 61-77. Retrieved from  http://www.bsfrey.ch/articles/366_02.pdf 

Vallerand, R.J. (March 08, 1993). The Academic Motivation Scale: A Measure of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Amotivation in Education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 4, 1003-17.
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Motivation the Theory of Motivation Has as

Words: 1178 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58667479


The theory of motivation has as many various meanings as there are its function and intended the desired outcome for that mater. Motivation can be defined as a psychological element that prompts an organism into deeds focused on a set target or goal. Motivation is said to be the reason driving the action, or that which attaches direction, control and behavior to behavior of an individual (Word Net (2011).

It is considered the as the aspect that prompts, directs and sustains or maintains the target/goal oriented behavior of human beings. In the study of motor response and receptors, motivation is taken as what causes an organism to act or react, be it stepping off a thorn or streaming for the river by the animals to quench their thirst.

Motivation covers a wide range of disciplines from the cognitive, social and the biological drives that initiate behavior. In the day-to-day…… [Read More]


About.com, (2011). What Is Motivation? Retrieved March 18, 2011 from http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm

Word Net, (2011). Definitions of motivation on the Web. Retrieved March 18, 2011 from wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webw
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Motivation at Work Application in the Case

Words: 970 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65647864

Motivation at Work Application

In the case study, Making of Hotplates, Workers seems to be having jobs which are extremely specialized. Each task is balanced for three minutes per each station making the work to be extremely monotonous to the workers making them to become unhappy, Because of unhappiness of workers at the workplace; these would have resulted in poor morale as well as low motivation. Motivation in the workplace is a form of force that makes the employees to do things which will result to high production by having an inspiration of completing the tasks allocated. When there is motivation in organization, the employees try to put more effort to increase the output standard (Whiteley, 2002). This paper analyzes the importance of motivation to the workers in the workplace and problems that result when there is low motivation.

Changes in the workplace accounting for increase in productivity and decrease…… [Read More]


Rush, H.M. (2008). Job design for motivation; [experiments in job enlargement and job enrichment,. New York: Conference Board.

Stack, L. (2010). Super competent the six keys to perform at your productive best. New York:


Whiteley, P. (2002). Motivation. London: Capstone Pub.
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Motivation Is Critical to Success

Words: 1190 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96846245

Every person who had performed well and met the deadlines was offered a cash bonus at the end of six-month period when performance appraisals were done. However I realized that Sarah was not motivated by this cash reward. She had one child who went to kindergarten and her husband earned well. his meant she needed something other than money to motivate her. his was indeed a challenge since I had no idea how to discover her needs which could enhance her performance and inspire her to meet deadlines.

he first stage was to determine if the job actually suited her aptitude. I spoke to her personally and asked her if she really liked her job. But this was done in a candid manner so she wouldn't know what the real issue was. Sarah talked eagerly about her work and her ideas about the next month's magazine. Studying her resume, I…… [Read More]

This was a very interesting and enlightening survey. I spoke to Sarah and we discussed her various options. I told her that as long as she promised to meet her deadlines, I could allow her to work from home on Tuesdays and Thursdays and she could leave around 1 p.m. provided she guaranteed timely delivery of the work assigned to her. Needless to say, Sarah was thrilled. This is the last time we ever had a problem with her deadline issue. The new reward program motivated her so much that she was putting in extra effort to get everything done on job. The company had no problem with her new schedule and I was finally convinced that a happy employee is a company's best resource.


Ken Smith, Great minds in Management. Oxford University Press, 2005
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Motivation in Sport

Words: 19272 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9769558

Motivation in Sport

Take a look at the animal world and you will find the proof that game is an inherent feature of the virtually evaluated species. This has an important part in literacy and evolution. We witness many a mock fights between kittens and pups so as to enhance their stamina, speed, tolerance and will. Through such hatred free games, they rub their hands for survival and satisfy their urge for challenge and ecstasy. The human species is not just a species of animals based on reason. There is an unquenchable thirst in the humans for wisdom, truth and joy. These spiritual features are the ones which differentiate human beings from animals. In the proceeding development of human civilization, sports and games have had a part in revealing the human ability.

At each and every phase of the evolutionary process, sport has had an important part in giving a…… [Read More]


Anshel, M.H. (1997). Sport Psychology: from Theory to Practice. (Third Edition). Scottsdale, Arizona: Gorsuch Scarisbrick

Bakker, F.C., De Koning, J.J., Van Ingen Schenau, G.J., & Gert, D.G. (1993).

Motivation of young elite speed skaters. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 24, 432-

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
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Employee Attitudes to Performance Appraisal

Words: 2139 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77114068

Performance appraisal systems are complex and time consuming, especially for managers who supervise extended numbers of employees

Performance appraisal systems can be stressful and ineffective (Clark, 2011).

5. Structure of performance appraisal systems

The construction of a performance appraisal system is a complex endeavor, based on both theoretical as well as practical considerations. John J. Gabarro and Linda a. Hill (1995) for instance argue that managers ought to construct their appraisal systems in a critical manner, based on both pre-existent models and frameworks, but also on internal features within the organization. Cynthia Morrison Phoel (2011) and her co-editors argue that the main criterion to an effective appraisal system is represented by feedback.

Kevin . Murphy and Frank E. Saal (1990) then argue that there exists a triple structure to create frameworks for employee appraisal. The frameworks are constructed based on four criteria: the constituents, the goals, the specific objectives and…… [Read More]


Armstrong, M., 2000, Performance management: key strategies and practical guidelines, 2nd edition, Kogan Page Publishers

Armstrong, M., Baron, a., 2005, Managing performance: performance management in action, 2nd edition, CIPD Publishing

Baruch, Y., Harel, G., 1993, Multi-source performance appraisal: an empirical and methodological note, Public Administration Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 1

Clark, K., 2011, Advantages and disadvantages of performance appraisals, ZeroMillion,  http://www.zeromillion.com/business/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-performance-appraisals.html  last accessed on March 7, 2011
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Motivation I Recently Discovered That a Female

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79646152


I recently discovered that a female employee was being paid more than I even though we were both hired at the same time. The reason (as I discerned it) was that they had to pay her more because she was needed for a project that required at least one female on the team. However, I was doing most of the work and getting paid less than her. This made me angry, and as I remember it, made her feel guilty. She knew that I was more qualified but that did not matter to the employer, instead I was informed that I should just live with it. Reacting to this situation was a classic response according to the equity theory. I felt less like doing the work, and more apt to take a more casual approach to the project itself. My performance was still okay, but could have been much…… [Read More]

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Employee Comp the Future That Is Fast

Words: 2828 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51091963

Employee Comp

The future that is fast heading our way is often thought to be associated with creative technologies and businesses that do online services. But this is definitely not the full picture. Many traditional businesses are also being impacted in regard to what will be expected about some of their core operations, including in regard to how they treat and motivate their employees. Basic manufacturing is no different. In order for companies like ours to be ready for the future, we have to look seriously at the ways in which we recruit employees and keep them here once they sign on. With 120 employees whose skills encompass a broad range of talents -- some basic skills others tied to quite sophisticated technological abilities -- we have the chance to position ourselves to be ahead of the curve as the entire field of payment, rewards and recognitions is examined yet…… [Read More]


Barton, H. And Laux, J. (2010). Executive pay inefficiencies in the financial sector. The Journal of Applied Business Research. Vol. 26, No. 4.

Carpenter, S. (2007). Design the right compensation plan for your business. Entrepreneur. Retrievable from http://www.entrepreneurship.org/en/resource-center/design-the-right-compensation-plan-for-your-business.aspx.

CompuData Surveys (2009). The real effects of today's economy on the manufacturing industry. Retrievable from  http://www.compdatasurveys.com/Files/News/Manufacturing%20Whitepaper.pdf .

Scott, D. And McMullan, D. (2010). The impact of rewards programs on employee engagement. WorldatWork. Retrievable from http://www.worldatwork.org/waw/adimLink?id=39032.
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Motivation Extensive Research Strongly Supports

Words: 1129 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10743459

According to Nolan (2010), the right incentive program can help with this process.

Nolan (2010) reports that a motivated and goal-oriented staff is essential to any optometric practice, since staff / patient interaction accounts for about 70% of the patient's total time in the office. If the staff is not content, patients will not be treated appropriately and will look for eye-care services someplace else. Also, the cost of finding and training new staff members is much more costly than ongoing training and retaining activities. In addition, staff productivity significantly influences a practice's volume. Nolan (2010) therefore recommends a three-part incentive process: The first is to set annual financial goals for the practice, or else the staff will not be motivated to achieve them. In the fourth quarter, establish specific goals in attracting new patients and retaining present ones, revenue-per-patient, eye-wear sales and cash receipts. Second is to schedule a…… [Read More]

References Cited:

Gatlin, R (July 1, 1997) How to effectively reward employees. Industrial Management, 1-4.

Nolan, B. (2005) Reward your staff to build your practice: by setting financial goals for your practice, scheduling productive staff meetings and offering staff-incentive programs, you'll retain your current employees and grow financially. Review of Optometry 142(12) 36+.

Opperman, M. (2007) Give your team a cut: by offering quarterly bonuses based on employee performance, you give your team a strong incentive to succeed -- and help your practice thrive. Veterinary Economics 48(3), 49+.

Schrag, R.L. May I Speak Frankly. Retrieved March 10, 2010.  http://mayispeakfrankly.blogspot.com/
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Motivation for Many Years Motivational

Words: 1332 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75688400

The vertical differentiations are associated with the components of abstraction that permit individuals to determine both their intentions and their behaviors. The horizontal differentiation is associated with different intentions including the completion of the project.

Tubbs and Eckeberg (1991) assert that understanding the intentional model has implications associated with understanding the effects of goal setting. The authors argue that the intentional behavior model explains the cognitive effects of goals which is rarely seen in research pertaining to work motivation. The authors posit that the research is important because it is the first time that research has sought to determine the impact that goals have on people.

Finally Latham and Pinder (2005) discuss Work Motivation Theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century. The author point out that interest in motivational theories has not waned since they first begin to surface. According to the authors, work motivation represents a…… [Read More]


Klein J.I. (1990) Feasibility Theory: A Resource Munificence Model of Work motivation and Behavior. Academy of Management Review. 15 (4) pgs. 646-645.

Latham G.P., Pinder, C.C. (2005) Work Motivation Theory and Research at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century. Annual Review of Pyschology. 56: 485-516.

Tubbs M.E., Eckeberg S.E. (1991) Academy of Management Review. 15(1) pgs. 180-199.
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Motivation for Managers

Words: 524 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89071277

Motivation in the Workplace

My needs are being satisfied by a combination of being provided with the opportunity to do something that I am particularly fond of and being given a satisfactory sum of money for the respective activity. My life has largely been based on a trial-and-error system in which I came across a series of experiences and gradually filtered them until I was satisfied with my condition.

My first jobs involved enthusiastic managers who seemed to believe that bonuses are one of the most effective methods to motivate employees. As a consequence, they were inclined to encourage employees to do everything in their power in order to finish their projects earlier. Profits are obviously one of the most important things in a business and managers are thus sometimes inclined to believe that by providing employees with appealing bonuses they are more likely to make the business as a…… [Read More]

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Employee Stock Ownership Plans Employee

Words: 2838 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19281764

By opening stock options to middle management and employees, it was assumed that better employee performance would be incentivized. As company stock prices go up, it creates a greater spread between the option price when it was granted to the employee and the hypothetical sale price at the end of the vesting period. Consistently better performance over a longer period of time would yield greater reward when the option is exercised. However, as Hall and Murphy again point out, "even if employees can increase the value of the firm, their share of that gain through their option holdings is very small. Combining this enormous free-rider problem with the risk imposed on employees through stock-based pay, it seems obvious that cash-based incentive plans based on objective or subjective performance measures can provide stronger and more efficient pay-performance incentives."

Despite many early statements in the life of the practice that employee stock…… [Read More]


Calomiris, C. a. (2004, 01-08). Options Pricing and Accounting Practice. Retrieved 12-13, 2010, from Should We Expense Stock Options: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:tDxxxPDG3cwJ:www0.gsb.columbia.edu/faculty/ccalomiris/papers/Options%2520Pricing%2520and%2520Accounting%2520Practice.pdf+Stock+options+are+an+expense&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShtdjeKitOxVfuENYIeyxgGdUiOjraoDHCLwH-WWxt9w30pnL310kAkP21iDHhBpErxlJ6mC_GQS6NEu7L3UGdc6T1ky33N1e7CFGL_NSZAn5ntALxB4KVgA2vjEiww911f6x4d&sig=AHIEtbRx6dSwLFzFHZnpHTpV0lsNIVpCYw

Core, J. a. (2001). Stock option plans for non-executive eployees. Journal of Financial Economics (61), 253-287.

Engel, E. a. (2001, Jan.). The Roles of Performance Measures and Monitoring in Annual Governance Decisions in Entrepreneurial Firms. Retrieved 12-13, 2010, from an Analysis of Executive Compensation, Ownership, and Control in Closely Held Firms: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:5vp-iWjpPb4J:faculty.chicagobooth.edu/ellen.engel/research/egh-rev-11_2.pdf+%E2%80%98%E2%80%98Stock-based+pay+in+new+economy+firms%E2%80%99%E2%80%99.+Journal+of+Accounting+and+Economics,&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESifIyqUeDNwUoNkeDagDN_o40V-Jd9R56ECpswKKWzRQRdz_dZzpDHfcmTAKvZCDwZPpz9ZtR51HmXhCZ408jF-cv485C4m1xIxTy2zfTfQ4rp_g-4KFhIUdwKFVtmNCOWy82W5&sig=AHIEtbQapxbbbr0z-APPf2sdFQgWOYglLA

Glater, J. (2009, March 26). Stock Options Are Adjusted After Many Share Prices Fall. New York Times, p. B1.
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Motivation in a Highly Multicultural

Words: 5601 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62421736

... led me to suggest, as an alternative to assimilation, the value of being asimilao.

IV. eminders to Help

Kim & Lyons (2003) report that games can be successfully used to instill and enhance individuals' abilities to succeed in a multicultural firm. Game playing possesses numerous characteristics which could enhance the learning of competencies areas of skills, attitudes and beliefs, and knowledge. Games which include low-risk potential can increase a sense of safety, reduce vulnerable feelings, while also, and enhancing multicultural awareness.

For example, the use of games can balance out the inherent hierarchy between the trainees and the instructor (i.e., it levels the playing field) and potentially lead to an increased sense of safety on the part of the trainees" (Kim & Lyons, 2003). Increasing an individual's sense of safety can work tom eliminate prejudices and allow students and trainees to more readily examine their personal norms; cultural values;…… [Read More]



Chang, C.Y. (2003). Chapter 5 Counseling Asian-Americans. In Counseling Multicultural and Diverse Populations: Strategies for Practitioners, Vacc, N.A., Devaney, S.B., & Brendel, J.M. (Eds.) (pp. 73-92). New York: Brunner-Routledge. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91054568

Cunningham, M.J. (2001). B2B: How to Build a Profitable E-Commerce Strategy. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000786585

Diversity or Diversion? Experts Express Their Views about the Effectiveness of Diversity Programs and Offer Suggestions on How to Improve Them. (2002, July). Black Enterprise, 32, 82+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14677163
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Employee Conflict in a Medium-Sized

Words: 435 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91382811

e. what is the cause of increasing employee conflicts, is best addressed by focusing on more narrowly defined questions with more direct answers. The questions that could be answered in a literature review provide some of these: what circumstances/developments have been shown to lead to an increase in employee conflicts in the past? To what degree can certain of the identified causes of employee conflicts be eradicated/mitigated, and to what extent is it an issue of individual personalities? what methods have proven successful in combating increases in employee conflicts within healthcare organizations specifically and in other organizations at large? how can these methods best be adopted by a profit-dependent organization with minimal disruption to service or the profit margin? These questions simply begin to address the myriad of background issues that are attendant upon the primary research question and instructional need, but they provide a specific avenue into the topic.…… [Read More]

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Human Resources - Motivation Employee

Words: 971 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30211558

Modern business has now fully integrated computer technology and Internet connectivity within the professional business environment, but has been comparatively slow to adapt the new reality that many professional business functions are fully capable of being conducted from the home, for at least some significant portion of the typical office employee's work week.

Research Question:

Is it possible to increase employee motivation by providing increased employee input into factors that normally are not subject to employee preference in the professional business environment? Specifically:

To what extent would greater autonomy and individual choice of work shift hours and structure (length of shift, work hours, etc.) improve employee motivation while at work?

To what extent would the opportunity to work from home improve employee satisfaction and therefore, motivation at work?

To what extent is the prospect of improving employee motivation through implementation of greater autonomy in relation to work shift structure and…… [Read More]

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Motivating Employees You Pick 2 Companies Write

Words: 2690 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45661278

Motivating Employees

you pick 2 companies write their motivation techniques. I pick intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. And compare companies. Do papers have database, searches people pulled web. You find UOPHX Website writes companies listed, pick.

Motivating employees at two companies:

Ben & Jerry's versus Southwest

Motivational theories by their very nature address companies in a fairly generic, prescriptive format. However, two corporations exist that continue to be very successful, after many years of impressive financial growth, seem to break all molds, yet confirm one of the most noteworthy theories regarding what motivates employees -- intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation. Ben & Jerry's began as a small company based in Vermont that, despite or because of its ethical ideals, has become an integral part of American culture. Ben & Jerry's changed the way Americans consume ice cream, shifting the focus from quantity to quality. Southwest Airlines is a largely regional airline…… [Read More]


Activism. (2012). Ben & Jerry's. Retrieved:


Bailey, Jeff. (2008). Southwest. The New York Times. Retrieved: