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Employee performance and his or her motivation is a key issue in an organization. The latter impacts the former: the more an employee is motivated, the better he is likely to perform. An important problem is that motivation is a complex undertaking: it is not always the financial package that is fundamental to an employee's performance.
Studies have shown that employees are also motivated (quite often even more motivated) by other factors. Campion and Thayer (1985), for example, concluded, following their research, that the more jobs are created to include motivational factors, the lower the efforts to complete them and the better the well-being of the employees. As Sager (1978) mentions, "it is essential to determine what an individual likes or needs in his work if motivation is to occur."
This paper proposes an approach based on Maslow's Theory of Needs to understand the role of promotion in an organization…
1. Sager, Donald, (1978). Leadership and employee motivation. Graduate School of Library Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
2. Campion, M.A., Thayer, P.W. (1985). Development and field evaluation of an interdisciplinary measure of job design. Journal of Applied Psychology. pp. 29 -- 4
3. Nohria, Nitin, Groysberg, Boris, Lee, Linda-Eling, (2008). Employee Motivation -- A Powerful New Model. Harvard Business Review.
4. Baack, D. (2012). Organizational behavior. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
He could for example, provide a different chapter for each type of performance review currently used, and a list of organizations that likely use it. He can then outline the strengths and weaknesses of these reviews, before he provides an explanation of the fixes he would use to change the outcome and perceived lack of interest in performance management.
Rudman also gives a very brief explanation of the complaints managers in the UK have of employee performance reviews, stating they take up too much time. Rather than lead in with very few statistics, Rudman should dedicate a chapter to this, and instead begin the book with dynamic testimonies by people that use his system and find it works. The goal is to entice and encourage the reader to continue pursuing the end result. Rudman may have much to say, but he is not a good salesman.
Potential Effects of Fixes…
Human esource Management -- Employee Performance
Human resource management (HM) has developed into a crucial component of the contemporary business organization and the professional business environment (Fyock, 2001; George & Jones, 2008; obbins & Judge, 2009). Today, formal approaches, practices, and procedures dominate employee recruiting, hiring, training, supervision, appraisal, and advancement and only the smallest organizations still perform those functions in the informal ad-hoc manner that used to be common throughout workplace environments. Especially in difficult economic periods and perpetually within industries with characteristically narrow profit margins or intense competition among organizations, HM functions can represent substantial cost savings and added value where they are administrated efficiently, or they can be the source of significant unnecessary costs and undermine competitive advantage (Fyock, 2001; George & Jones, 2008; obbins & Judge, 2009).
Within modern HM component functions, employee performance appraisal has emerged as a crucial area, largely because it is often…
Buckingham, M. And Vosburgh, R.M. "The 21st century human resources function: It's the talent, stupid!" Human Resource Planning. Human Resource Planning
NY. (2001). Retrieved April 06, 2011 from HighBeam Research:
Leadership Style on Employee Performance Management?
This paper looks into the effects of various leadership styles on the productivity of employees. The conceptual, theoretical and historical background of the study are elaborated along with a problem statement, objective of this study, research question, hypothesis, and the significance of conducting a research on the effects of leadership styles.
More and more stakeholders are looking into various leadership styles to better manage employees and the companies at large. The initial concept of personnel administration has all but been replaced by Human esource management. This has led to the need for integration of various leadership styles to better manage employees and enhance their performance. An effective leader is one who quickly diagnoses problems and adopts relevant styles to prevent problems or do away with them. There are various leadership styles based on the empowerment given to employees, directions and their decision-making power.
Adair, J. (2002). Effective strategic leadership. Pan Macmillan.
Carter M (2008) Overview of leadership in organization.
Dawson, C. (2002). Research made easy: Lessons for research students. Chicago, USA.
Fisher, S. (1995). The use of non-financial Rewards in performance measurements. M (Edn) Dissertation, Englewood cliffs, Prentice Hall.
Job Description for etail Sales Associate
The holder will have the responsibility of selling merchandise, services, and products within the retail setting, including electronics, shoes, clothes, jewelry, furniture, and IT services.
Make sales on specific services and products to prospective consumers.
Show consumers and illustrate products on ways of maximizing their features.
Defines different customizable features
Explain replacement parts and warranties.
Check inventory and verify all products are in stock.
Package and group purchases
Fold clothes, remove security devices, and place items neatly in ascertained packages.
Collect payment methods through the dispensation of change.
Promote and represent the firm with services and products within in-home product showrooms, home shows, and presentations as necessary.
Conduct outbound focus on follow-up calls to existing and potential customers through e-mail and telephone
Qualify potential leads through the sale of products and services.
Present viable solutions to the furniture buyers in…
Bourne, M., Neely, A., Mills, J., and Platts, K. (2013). Why Some Performance Measurement Initiatives Fail: Lessons From The Change Management Literature, International Journal on Business Performance Management, Vol. 5, No. 2-3.
Kotter, J.P. (2012). Leading Change, Why Transformation Efforts Fail, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 3, No. 4-7,
Oberg, C., Henneberg, S.C. & Mouzas, S. (2012). Changing Network Pictures: Evidence From Mergers and Acquisitions. Industrial Marketing Management. 36(7) pp926-940.
Ponterotto, J. & Grieger, I., (2012). "Communicating Qualitative Research," The Counseling Psychologist, vol. 35, n.3, pp.404-430.
Telephone Customer Service epresentatives
Employment Assessment - Telephone
How do you interpret the reliability results for the clerical test and work sample? Are they favorable enough for the company to consider using them for keeps in selecting job applicants?
A primary objective of evaluating two new methods of assessing candidates for positions as telephone customer service representatives for the Phonemin Company is to improve the caliber of the employment pool from which new hires are selected. The participation of customer service representatives in the telephone ordering system of the company is critical to this endeavor. Moreover, the company will be adding roughly 40 employees to the call center in order to meet the anticipated growth in phone order sales. From this, it is readily apparent that effective means of assessing candidates for the positions of telephone customer service representatives is needed. The reliability figures for the current employee candidate system,…
French, A., Macedo, M., Poulsen, J., Waterson, T., & Yu, A. (2008). Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). San Francisco, CA: San Francisco State University. Retreived http://userwww.sfsu.edu/efc/classes/biol710/manova/MANOVAnewest.pdf
Shoukri, M.M. (2010) Measures of interobserver agreement and reliability (2nd ed). Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.
Validity evidence: Types of validity. (2014). New York, NY: The College Board. Retrieved http://research.collegeboard.org/services/aces/validity/handbook/evidence
Employee Benefits Through Incentives
In every organization, the Human esource department plays the role of recruiting, training, supervising, and remunerating the employees. The H department is also responsible for offering incentives to the employees apart from the normal remuneration offered after a certain agreed period. The incentives are offered to employees when they perform efficiently in their respective jobs or motivation for them to continue working to the required standards or beyond the standards (Agarwal & Braguinsky, 2015). Incentive payments to the employees can be determined in two different ways as casual or structured incentives. Casual incentives are offered unexpectedly to the employees after accomplishing certain goals or duties in the organization. Casual incentives are not revealed to the employees but offered as a surprise. When the employees do a commendable job in their respective duties, the management or H department will decide to offer them an incentive so that…
Adom, K. (2015). Recognizing the Contribution of Female Entrepreneurs in Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Evidence from Ghana. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 20(01), 1550003.
Al-Tit, A. H. M. A. D., & Hunitie, M. (2015). The Mediating Effect of Employee Engagement between Its Antecedents and Consequences. Journal of Management Research, 7(5):47-62.
Bhattacharya, Y. (2015). Employee Engagement in the Shipping Industry: A Study of Engagement among Indian Officers. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 14(2), 267-292.
Agarwal, R., & Braguinsky, S. (2015). Industry Evolution and Entrepreneurship: Steven Klepper's Contributions to Industrial Organization, Strategy, Technological Change, and Entrepreneurship. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 9(4), 380-397.
Teamwork and Motivation
Various elements of an organization motivation plan are always aimed at encouraging low turnover, high-quality work, high productivity, and high job satisfaction. The first approach involved is the appreciation of employee feedback. The element of the motivation program includes the need to ensure that feedback offer the employees with established objectives. Organizational managers provide feedback through continuous processes without outright conformity during quarterly meetings. Managers focus on ensuring that they meet employees every quarter and updating them on the company's performance (Keller, 2009). Formal motivational reviews on a monthly basis are necessary and should exist in writing as opposed to other informal reviews under suggestions of weekly tracking. The quarterly feedback from top management becomes the basis for motivation plan evaluation and achievement determination for the employees. Objective ratings are based on scales of the set aspects of employee management. This element develops direct link to the…
Blankenship, D., (2012) A Collection of Compelling Motivational Thoughts. New York: AuthorHouse
Keller J., (2009) Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: The ARCS Model Approach. New York: Springer
Kornberger M., Pitsis T., Clegg S., (2014) Managing, and Organizations: An Introduction to Theory and Practice. New York: SAGE
Rainey H., (2009) Understanding and Managing Public Organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons
J.C. PENNEY COMPANY CHALLENGES: COMPENSATION AND BENEFIT SYSTEM
J.C. Penney Company Challenges with Its Compensation and Benefit System
C Penney Company is a company that mostly deals in the normal house merchandise and runs in some stores in the country. It is one of the biggest retail stores in the United States. The major concern is that people often subscribe to the services offered by this company with the view of getting the best of what can come out. The following the compensation and benefits system for the company in light of the strengths and weaknesses witnessed. The analysis identifies other companies that are experiencing problems in their benefits systems. The study also looks into the benefits of engaging in the said benefits of the compensation system. An analysis of the challenges offers an opportunity for the management to identify he possible solution in improving its system. The analysis is…
Caswell, B. (2009). Workmen's Compensation Benefits in Kentucky. Frankfort, Ky.: Legislative Research Commission.
Dessler, G. (2012). Human Resource Management (8th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Mecklenburger, J. (2014). Performance Contracting. Worthington, Ohio: C.A. Jones Pub.
Reilly, P. (2009). Flexibility at Work: Balancing the Interests of Employer and Employee. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Gower.
The initial recommendation comes from the employee's direct supervisor and is then discussed with the general director and the payroll manager.
At the fourth stage, the performance review, the employee and his direct supervisor come once again face-to-face to discuss the outcome of the performance appraisal process. The employee is informed of the managerial decision regarding future remunerations, and a date for a new meeting is set. The new meeting will establish goals for the following year, ergo the cyclic characteristic of the appraisal system (Grote and Grote).
Aside for meeting the three scopes previously identified, performance appraisals also present the company with several benefits. For instance, they create a context in which the employee is introduced to his own core competencies and limitations, based on which he can better direct his future formation. Then, the employees take an active role in their own evaluation and get to know themselves…
Armstrong, S., Appelbaum, M., Stress-free performance appraisals: turn your most painful management duty into a powerful motivational tool, Career Press, 2003, ISBN 1564146863
Coens, T., Kenkins, M., Block, P., Abolishing performance appraisals: why they backfire and what to do instead, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2002, ISBN 1576752003
Falcone, P., Sachs, R.T., Productive performance appraisals, 2nd edition, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, 2007, ISBN 0814474225,
Grote, D., Grote, R.C., the performance appraisal question and answer book: a survival guide for managers, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, 2002
Employee Privacy Torts
Issues relating to employee privacy have been at the forefront of businesses for many years. This has been fuelled by the dynamic workplace which changes constantly and also by employees and employers being more litigation-conscious. Technology has also spurred on employee privacy issues with e-mail and the internet being related to heightened concerns about vulnerability of employers to litigation. Many employers have thus exacerbated their concerns relating to employee privacy and especially monitoring of employee behavior. Employee privacy is respected in many of the large corporations. However, there still exist some breaches in employee privacy. Small business owners are at most risk as a result of their increased monitoring practices and close employer-employee interaction.
oberson v. ochester Folding Box Company
One of the major cases that brought employee privacy to the limelight was oberson v. ochester Folding Box Company
Franklin Mills Co. decided to appeal…
Anderson v. City of Philadelphia, 845 F. 2d 1216 (1988).
Borse v. Piece Goods Shop, 963 F.2d 611 (1991).
Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth, 524 U.S. 742 (1988).
City of Ontario v. Quon, 130 S.Ct. 2619, 560 U.S. (2010).
Given the need to improve organizational productivity through increasing employee performance, develop a performance management program that focuses on linking the organizations strategic objective with the individual effort outlining the benefits of improved performance, the consequences for lack of performance as well as the employee and managerial training that will be needed for implementation.
Purpose of the performance management program (PMP)
The purpose of the PMP is to align the motives of the employee with that of the organization so that the employee is encouraged to work for the good of the organization. Objectives are formulated that are in line with those of the employee, a system of rewards and consequences are established that attract the employee, and a system of monitoring and work appraisal, formalized together with employee, is established.
The PMP is strategic so that the organization's goals are clearly aligned with that of the…
Performance reviews, even from the organization's point-of-view, allow the organization to engage in some soul-searching as to what areas of employee performance are valued. They may even help the organization identify star performers that may not shine and glitter, but have made a measurable contribution to the organization by helping it meet its benchmarks. It can be an education and a valuable form of self-scrutiny for the organization as well as for the employee. Sadly, in today's litigious climate, performance reviews may also be a necessity simply from the point-of-view of demonstrating to a court of law, if the employer lets go a particular individual, that the employee was performing below 'par' on a consistent basis, review after review. It also helps the organization, if the appraisals are oral, gain feedback from both good and bad employees about what makes them perform at an optimal or sub-optimal level.
The Navy's HM strength lies in both its employee selection process and criteria and performance appraisal management program. However, these processes are not without their inherent weaknesses. While ideally, employee selection processes should be objectively conducted through job analysis, it is inevitable that HM personnel will have to depend on both objective measures and intuitive judgment (i.e., based on their experience screening applicants for the organization) to screen and determine the suitability of each applicant for the position. Fortunately, "A school" will ultimately determine the applicant's fit in both the job s/he is chosen for and the organization that is the U.S. Navy. However, to minimize the errors in the process and analysis, it is suggested that the HM should quantitatively determine the minimum mandatory requirements that will help them assess who is the most suitable candidate given that HM needs to screen numerous applicants and must come up with…
Armstrong, T. (2006). "Current recruitment and selection practices: a national survey of Fortune 100 firms." North American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 8, No. 3.
Bohlander, G. And S. Snell. (2010). Managing Human Resources. OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Bourne, M. And Borman, W. (2006). "Development of New Navy Performance Rating Scales and Counseling Procedures)." Available at: www.internationalmta.org/Documents/2006/2006019T.pdf
"Navy's Total Force Vision for the 21st Century." (2010). Published by the Department of the Navy Human Capital Strategy.
Employee Satisfaction with a Company's Review Process
The following research examines the reason for a decline in employee satisfaction regarding the review process at XYZ, Inc. The results of the survey revealed that sample biases may have confounded the results and that the survey will have to be re-administered to reflect the true attitudes and results of the preliminary research leading up to the current survey. The result showed a high degree of satisfaction with the quality and quantity of management feedback. The results of this survey are inconclusive and further research will need to be conducted to eliminate the possible effects of sample bias.
Delimitations (See Leedy)
A. Literature Review
C. General Management Issues
D. Project Related Issues
F. Definition of Terms
H. Project Submission…
Performance appraisal systems are complex and time consuming, especially for managers who supervise extended numbers of employees
Performance appraisal systems can be stressful and ineffective (Clark, 2011).
5. Structure of performance appraisal systems
The construction of a performance appraisal system is a complex endeavor, based on both theoretical as well as practical considerations. John J. Gabarro and Linda a. Hill (1995) for instance argue that managers ought to construct their appraisal systems in a critical manner, based on both pre-existent models and frameworks, but also on internal features within the organization. Cynthia Morrison Phoel (2011) and her co-editors argue that the main criterion to an effective appraisal system is represented by feedback.
Kevin . Murphy and Frank E. Saal (1990) then argue that there exists a triple structure to create frameworks for employee appraisal. The frameworks are constructed based on four criteria: the constituents, the goals, the specific objectives and…
Armstrong, M., 2000, Performance management: key strategies and practical guidelines, 2nd edition, Kogan Page Publishers
Armstrong, M., Baron, a., 2005, Managing performance: performance management in action, 2nd edition, CIPD Publishing
Baruch, Y., Harel, G., 1993, Multi-source performance appraisal: an empirical and methodological note, Public Administration Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 1
Clark, K., 2011, Advantages and disadvantages of performance appraisals, ZeroMillion, http://www.zeromillion.com/business/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-performance-appraisals.html last accessed on March 7, 2011
Together these metrics will help the firm understand where the project stands and how has it really impacted the performance of both the firm as a whole and the employees as part of its system. The firm is a major manufacturer of cosmetic products. It can measure its brand equity by comparing it with other brands in the same category. Higher sales on their own are important but when compared to rival's growth, they make more sense and can be explained more easily to senior management.
The impact of this performance improvement project
The impact can be assessed from the benefits that would accrue to the firm. Greater impact will be felt in employee efficiency and productivity. More coordinated research will bring about better results in all areas including marketing and sales.
Strategies and approaches could be used to "sell" the project to Management
The management may not understand the…
Senge, Peter, The Fifth Discipline NY: Currency/Doubleday, 1990
Kofman, Fred and Peter M. Senge "Communities of Commitment: The Heart of Learning Organizations." Organization Dynamics.
Daniel Aronson, Introduction to Systems Thinking, http://www.thinking.net/Systems_Thinking/Intro_to_ST/intro_to_st.html[Accessed 14th September 2005]
Furthermore, the customer is most likely not to be biased hence the credibility of the feedback. The sources of information will be integrated by analyzing the data and comparing the feedbacks to determine if they show consistency; before drafting the final report.
The performance appraisal method of evaluating the behavior for rating has a critical technique of analyzing information incorporated. Therefore, in developing the tool, the first approach is to establish the information that is required (Flynn, 2010). Once determined, the questioned are phrased and documented into questionnaires and interviews, which will then be administered to the supervisors, the co-workers and customers for feedback purposes. Additionally, the previous reports on the company's trends will be incorporated to show how the behavioral changes in the department affect the returns of the company. The information gathered is then consolidated into a report for the final scaling which is the report of…
Josiane Fahed-Sreih, (2009) "The HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy and Performance,"
Management Research News, Vol. 32 Iss: 3, pp.297-299
Maurer, S.D. (2002). A practitioner-based analysis of interviewer job expertise and scale format as contextual factors in situational interviews. Personnel Psychology, 55(2), 307-327.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220142693?accountid=35812
Hence, conflicts are generated only by misunderstanding or mischief (Edwards, 2003). Although unitarism have been proven to represent old-fashioned and unrealistic ideas, many managers nowadays follow this approach. They believe in a harmony of interests between them and their employers. However, practice has proven little resemblance between the employees' desires and interests, and those of their employers. Therefore, with such an approach to the employment relationship, conflict is inevitable. The 1998 Workplace Employee elations Survey revealed that 72% of workplace managers consult directly with the employees, and not with trade unions.
In the pluralist approach conflict is considered to be inevitable because various organizations take part in determining the rules of employment. Given the fact that each of these participating organizations has its distinct bases of authority, the risk of a conflict emerging is inevitable. The radical view is meant to be a critique of pluralism.
Conflicts are inevitable…
Gordon, Judith R. 1996. Organizational Behavior. A Diagnostic Approach. Fifth Edition. Prentice Hall International, Inc., Boston.
Dawson, Patrick. 1995. Troubles with TQM - Pirelli Cables Australia Limited. Managing Service Quality Journal, Volume no. 5, Issue no. 6, (online). Available at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkpdf&contentId=842457 .
Callahan, E.R., Fleenor, C.P. & Knudson, R.H. (1986). Undersanding Organizational Behavior - a managerial view point.
EIRO Thematic Feature of Collective Dispute Resolutions in an enlarged European Union - case of Malta. 2004. (online). Available at http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2005/08/word/nl0508103t.doc
An organization can achieve a competitive edge only and only with the help of its employees. Therefore, it is necessary that right employees are selected then trained and developed and a performance-based reward system. The question then comes to the performance measurement system. In a furniture retail store where I work they stick to the old practice of a meeting of top managers and supervisor who sit down annually and critically review the performance of all customer service personnel. They carry out a thorough examination of employee performance with respect to the goal set for them by the management. In this setting where only goals are there to guide employees and performance appraisal system is vague and subjective, most employees are just interested in meeting their targets and they do not strive to exceed their employers expectations. Performance evaluation should be an evaluation and development tool with the…
Sims, R. (2002). Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Quorum Books. Westport, CT.
Kreiner, J. (2000). Examining the human Body. The Washington Times. March 18.
Prasad, S., Tata, J., & Thorn, R. (1999). The Influence of Organizational Structure on the Effectiveness of TQM Programs. Journal of Managerial Issue. Vol. 11.
By opening stock options to middle management and employees, it was assumed that better employee performance would be incentivized. As company stock prices go up, it creates a greater spread between the option price when it was granted to the employee and the hypothetical sale price at the end of the vesting period. Consistently better performance over a longer period of time would yield greater reward when the option is exercised. However, as Hall and Murphy again point out, "even if employees can increase the value of the firm, their share of that gain through their option holdings is very small. Combining this enormous free-rider problem with the risk imposed on employees through stock-based pay, it seems obvious that cash-based incentive plans based on objective or subjective performance measures can provide stronger and more efficient pay-performance incentives."
Despite many early statements in the life of the practice that employee stock…
Calomiris, C. a. (2004, 01-08). Options Pricing and Accounting Practice. Retrieved 12-13, 2010, from Should We Expense Stock Options: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:tDxxxPDG3cwJ:www0.gsb.columbia.edu/faculty/ccalomiris/papers/Options%2520Pricing%2520and%2520Accounting%2520Practice.pdf+Stock+options+are+an+expense&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShtdjeKitOxVfuENYIeyxgGdUiOjraoDHCLwH-WWxt9w30pnL310kAkP21iDHhBpErxlJ6mC_GQS6NEu7L3UGdc6T1ky33N1e7CFGL_NSZAn5ntALxB4KVgA2vjEiww911f6x4d&sig=AHIEtbRx6dSwLFzFHZnpHTpV0lsNIVpCYw
Core, J. a. (2001). Stock option plans for non-executive eployees. Journal of Financial Economics (61), 253-287.
Engel, E. a. (2001, Jan.). The Roles of Performance Measures and Monitoring in Annual Governance Decisions in Entrepreneurial Firms. Retrieved 12-13, 2010, from an Analysis of Executive Compensation, Ownership, and Control in Closely Held Firms: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:5vp-iWjpPb4J:faculty.chicagobooth.edu/ellen.engel/research/egh-rev-11_2.pdf+%E2%80%98%E2%80%98Stock-based+pay+in+new+economy+firms%E2%80%99%E2%80%99.+Journal+of+Accounting+and+Economics,&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESifIyqUeDNwUoNkeDagDN_o40V-Jd9R56ECpswKKWzRQRdz_dZzpDHfcmTAKvZCDwZPpz9ZtR51HmXhCZ408jF-cv485C4m1xIxTy2zfTfQ4rp_g-4KFhIUdwKFVtmNCOWy82W5&sig=AHIEtbQapxbbbr0z-APPf2sdFQgWOYglLA
Glater, J. (2009, March 26). Stock Options Are Adjusted After Many Share Prices Fall. New York Times, p. B1.
In a good performance management system the manager plays a vital role. He is responsible to not only identify the employee strengths and weaknesses but also to acknowledge good performance and to provide developmental suggestions. The later part is very important, as it does no good to just spot the deficiency of an employee without providing positive suggestions for improvement. The employees for their part must be encouraged to provide their valuable input during every stage of the process. For example, some organizations even collect feedback from employees to evaluate the performance of their superiors. Thus, an appraisal denotes not just the supervisors assessing their subordinates but also rating from team members, rating by employees of their superiors, review by the HR department etc. Once such active and collaborative participation is achieved then the performance appraisal process attains its chosen objective, that of increasing the overall employee performance.
ANNUAL PEFOMANCE EVIEW
The supervisor and employee meet at the beginning of the review period and together identify and prioritize three to five primary job responsibilities from the employee's job description. Goals, objectives, and special projects may be identified at any time throughout the review period.
At the end of the review period, the employee self-evaluates his or her performance (job responsibilities, performance factors, and goals/objectives) using the rating scale, completes Part I of the Career Development section, and returns the form to the supervisor.
The supervisor evaluates the employee's performance of job responsibilities, performance factors, and goals/objectives using the rating scale. Supervisor comments are EQUIED for any evaluation of "Exceeds Expectations," "Improvement Needed," "Fails to Meet Expectations," and for the OVEALL rating.
The supervisor then meets with the employee and together they discuss the ratings, complete Part II of the Career Development section, and sign and date the…
Edmondson Bell, E.(2003) Your job-performance review: make your boss your partner in getting ahead. Advance preparation can help. Essence 34(2), 120-121.
Nowack, K.M., Hartley, J., & Bradley, W. (1999) How to evaluate your 360 feedback efforts Training & Development 53(4), 48-54.
Nowack, K. (2005). "Longitudinal evaluation of a 360 degree feedback program:
Implications for best practices." Paper presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Los Angeles.
Nankervis, .A., & Compton, .L. (2006) 'Performance management: theory practice?' Asia Pacific Journal Human esources, 44 (1), pp. 83 -- 101. Evaluate findings authors design, implementation, effectiveness performance management systems earlier studies conducted.
Performance management systems
Performance management systems have been defended as being advantageous to both employees and businesses alike by providing workers with feedback about how to improve their output. They have been criticized, however, because the use of performance reviews is said to be implicated in a focus on "short-term performance, annihilating long-term planning, building fear, demolishing teamwork and nourishing rivalry and politics" (Nankervis & Compton 2006: 84). However, flatter organizations and increased self-management have caused many managers to defend such reviews as necessities, given the lack of everyday direction many workers experience in their day-to-day existence (Nankervis & Compton 2006: 84-85).
According to Nankervis & Compton in their study of 992 Australian companies, performance reviews are…
This brings us to the costs that both employees and JVA Corp. will face if this strategy is implemented. The employees will lose because, after the economic crisis, they will find themselves at the same professional levels as before the crisis. As no performance management has been undertaken, there have been no training programs etc. And the employees will simply find themselves not adapted to the challenges of the environment. They will find it difficult to move to another organization or be promoted in the near future.
The costs for the organization are even more significant and the previous paragraphs had hinted towards this. The main cost for the organization translates into the decrease in performance, over time, of its human resource and, indeed, of the overall quality of the personnel. At the same time, an additional cost will be the company's inability to make accurate strategic decisions, since the…
1. Richards, Brian. 2010. How to Create an Effective Employee Performance Management System. Accelerated Outcomes. On the Internet at http://acceleratedoutcomes.net/how-to-create-an-effective-employee-performance-management-system / Last retrieved on August 2, 2011
2. Heathfield, Susan. 2011. Performance Management is NOT an Annual Appraisal. On the Internet at http://humanresources.about.com/od/performanceevals/a/performancemgmt_2.htm . Last retrieved on August 2, 2011
The Extent to Which Motivation Theory Underpins Performance Management Systems
Performance Management Systems attempt to answer questions about employee work objectives and their overall role within an organization. The performance manager system is designed to assist the manager in developing, assessing and monitoring a plan by which an employee’s contributions to the organizational strategy and strategic objective are identified, measured and reviewed. The questions that the Performance Management System will are: What is the role of the employee? What is the objective of the employee? How well is the employee meeting the objective? What could be done to help the employee meet the objective more effectively? In encouraging employees to reach their goals, motivation theory can be seen as underpinning performance management systems to a high extent.
Motivation theory is based on the concept developed by Abraham Maslow (1943) in “A Theory of Human Motivation.” Maslow (1943) constructed a Hierarchy…
With the operational environment becoming ever more competitive, and against the backdrop of austerity in resource management, the importance of performance-based management (PBM) cannot be overemphasised. Indeed, PBM has increasingly become a common practice in organisations of different sizes -- small and large -- and in diverse sectors -- manufacturing and service, as well as public and private sectors (Ploom & Haldma, 2013; Lutwama, Roos & Dolamo, 2013; Rivenbank, Fasiello & Adamo, 2016; Wierzbinski, 2016). Organisations now rely on performance data to make decisions relating to various organisational processes, including strategic planning, internal management, resource allocation, reporting, as well as monitoring and evaluation.
Defining PBM can be quite problematic, with the term being often confused with performance measurement (Rivenbank, Fasiello & Adamo, 2016). In addition, performance management is often thought to involve only personnel management processes such as employee performance appraisal (Turk, 2016). Furthermore, contention exists over whether it…
However, as Murphy (2008) notes, these original scores, and the weightings, are given by biased humans who may have another agenda than simply giving the most accurate appraisal possible. In addition, there is also the question about whether a truly accurate (when negative) appraisal is the best course of action due to the possible negative consequences.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Sudarsan (2009) surmises that, in the past, researchers have concluded that there are primarily three approaches to performance appraisals. The first approach -- the results focused approach -- is centered on determining whether a specific job has been performed or not. If these performance targets are met or exceeded, the employee is rewarded. The second approach -- the behavioral approach -- focuses on employee behavior. The actual output of the employee is ignored, but instead the methods the employee is using is evaluated. This approach has the benefit of being…
Addison, J. & Belfield, C. (Sept 2008). The determinants of performance appraisal systems. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 46(3). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Addison and Belfield compare the findings of Brown and Heywood's analysis of the Australia Workplace Industrial Relations Survey with their findings in Britain, using the Workplace Employment Relations Survey. Of particular interest for this paper was the conclusion from both studies that tenured employees are not strongly motivated by performance appraisals. This shows the ineffectiveness of appraisals, no matter what system is used, for those employees with tenure.
Banu, C. & Umamaheswari, P. (Jul 2009). A study on 360 degree performance appraisal systems in Reliance Life Insurance, Udumalpet. ICFAI Journal of Management Research, 8(7). Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Banu and Umamaheswari research the use of the 360-degree performance appraisal system on a life insurance company. It was found that this appraisal system was helpful in identifying training needs, in addition to evaluating the performance of employees. It was also found to be useful in determining rewards and incentives, as well as promotions. However, the authors failed to acknowledge the challenges inherent in this system, as found be other researchers.
Managers and Performance Evaluation
The fact that so many managers dislike performance evaluation is as old and common as human nature itself. Performance evaluation is so disliked by so many because it requires that one take a long and hard look at oneself and engage in the process of problem-solving and making changes. Finding solutions and making changes are two of the most difficult challenges to face human beings because it forces them to dig deep and engage in a process that doesn’t always have the clearest of steps and which may or may not be successful. However, performance evaluations are necessary because they force leaders in the workplace to make necessary changes and to find solutions for problems that are undermine the growth, development and success of the company. Regardless of a manager’s discomfort, performance evaluations at regular intervals are crucial to the success of the company. This paper…
size is an important consideration with regards to data collection for statistical analysis in a study. Sample size plays an important role in a research process since the identification of a suitable sample size for statistical analysis is crucial towards generating accurate results. Actually, the determination of sample size is closely linked to statistical estimation or determination. The significance of sample size is partly attributable to its relation to confidence intervals. The link between sample size and confidence intervals is that confidence intervals provide the probable range of a sample mean or proportion from the actual mean/proportion found in the study population. This allows the researcher to estimate the accuracy of findings or results generated from the sample in comparison with the true population. Moreover, sample size affects the margin of error or confidence levels though the actual size of the population does not influence margin of error (Johnson &…
Clark, P.F. & Clark, D.A. (2006). Union Strategies for Improving Patient Care: The Key to Nurse Unionism. Labor Studies Journal, 31(1), 51-70.
Heathfield, S.M. (2011). Performance Appraisals Don't Work. Retrieved February 13, 2016, from http://humanresources.about.com/od/performanceevals/a/perf_appraisal.htm
Johnson, R. & Kuby, P. (2012). STAT 2 (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Ethical Implications of Employee Monitoring
In recent years information technology (IT) has transformed workplaces tremendously. For instance, employers worldwide have embraced the use of technology to monitor the activities employees engage in during working hours and to increase the amount of work done on online business platforms. This was largely influenced by findings from numerous studies that established that if left unsupervised, employees tend to waste a lot of time and resources online. In fact, one Survey by Websense reported that one third of employees used the internet for personal reasons, which translates to costs of about $85 billion in America due to lost work time (Papini, 2007). Some employees may also use company resources for their own gain, which violates the organization's rules and procedures and decreases their productivity. According to a study done by the Work Surveillance Project of the Privacy Foundation[footnoteef:1], of the 100 million online workers…
Papini, J.S. (2007). Big Brother: The Effect of Electronic Employee Monitoring on Electronic Misbehavior, Job Satisfaction and Organiozational Commitment. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest Information and Learning Company
Stanton, J.M. & Stam, K.R. (2006) The Visible Employee: Using Workplace Monitoring and Surveillance to Protect Information Assets-Without Compromising Employee Privacy or Trust. New Jersey: Information Today, Inc.
Weckert, J. (2005). Electronic Monitoring in the Workplace: Controversies and Solutions. Heyshey, PA: Idea Group Publishing
Aggarwal (2013), the critical incident method of performance appraisal was first formalized by Fitts and Jones as early as 1947. The first purpose of the technique was to classify pilot error experiences with the reading and interpretation of instruments within aircraft. Although referring to "critical incidents" as "errors," the authors served as the harbingers of this method of performance appraisal in the workplace. John Flanagan was the first to refer to the method as the "Critical Incident Technique," defining it as a description of events associated with special significance in order to describe human behavior in various circumstances. For the workplace, this means that an employer or a team of analysts would monitor employee behavior in various circumstances or during specified events. This can then be used to determine the effectiveness or quality of employee performance.
According to Marrelli (2005), one of the main rationales for the critical incident method…
Aggarwal, A. (2013, Feb.). Techniques of Performance Appraisal -- A Review. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 2(3). Retrieved from: www.researchgate.net
Marrelli, A.F. (2005). Critical Incidents. Performance Improvement. 44(10). Retrieved from: http://www.ispi.org/pdf/suggestedreading/articlesix_criticalincidents.pdf
Performance management refers to the accomplishment of performance targets through the strategic management of people and the workplace environment. Thorough performance management needs to be able to resonate strongly throughout the entire organization as a core aspect of the business rather than a separate part of the business process: it is fundamental and integral and needs to be activated wherever targets are set and where resources are allocated in terms of their achievement. Performance management needs to be seen as both a strategic issue and a tactical issue (thecqi.org). The most strategic aspect of performance management is that it focuses on the setting of achievable goals for a specific organization and in the development of the competence and capabilities in accomplishing such goals: if the goals set are not realistic or if they are beyond the organization's capability, no amount of trying or encouraging of employees will ever assist in…
Hamlett, C. (2013). Examples of Performance Management Goals. Retrieved from chron.com: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-performance-management-goals-11829.html
Microsoft. (2008, August). The Role of Performance Management in Organizations. Retrieved from Microsoft.com: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc811594(v=office.12).aspx thecqi.org. (2013). What is performance management? Retrieved from thecqi.org: http://www.thecqi.org/Knowledge-Hub/Knowledge-portal/Interactions-of-organisations-and-people/Performance-management/
uw.edu. (2014). Manager's Guide to Performance Management. Retrieved from uw.edu: http://www.washington.edu/admin/hr/roles/mgr/ee-performance/perfmgmt/
A friend in California has just lost his job in a layoff together with 98 other employees in the same private sector company. The company's administrators have told him that he was included in the recent layoff because of his refusal to take a lie detector test regarding some drugs that were found in his company locker. He also declined to take a drug test since he was afraid that a positive result would make the state child protection agency to take away custody of his children. This situation is an example of a scenario with legal ramifications on the basis of several regulations such as Polygraph Protection Act, Worker Adjustment and etraining Notification Act, Privacy laws, Drug Testing laws, and OSHA.
Generally, the use of lie detector tests in the workplace is not geared towards determining whether an employee is telling the truth but to examine whether…
"Employees' Rights in the Workplace." (1999). The Maryland State Bar Association, Inc.
Retrieved May 9, 2014, from http://www.msba.org/departments/commpubl/publications/brochures/workplace.asp
"Lie Detector Tests." (2008). Can My Boss Do That? Retrieved May 9, 2014, from http://www.canmybossdothat.com/category.php?id=269
Performance Appraisal and the ole of Hr
ole of HM in Performance Management
The performance management process has to be connected with the H processes for success to be realized. The performance management process has to be consistent with the business strategy and ensure that all the processes are managed top-down. In most cases, employees must be provided with the right feedback for them to appreciate the feedback and work on it. Normally, it is the role of the HM in training managers to provide honest feedback concerning the performance of the employees. The role of the HM is related to making the process transparent and clear. This means that the performance management process should be consistent in every department in the organization. The HM ensures that the results of the employees are comparable as the outputs may be used in determining other H processes (Dusterhoff, Cunningham, & MacGregor, 2014).…
Bernardin, H. J., & Wiatrowski, M. (2013). Performance appraisal. Psychology and Policing, 257.
Dusterhoff, C., Cunningham, J. B., & MacGregor, J. N. (2014). The effects of performance rating, leader -- member exchange, perceived utility, and organizational justice on performance appraisal satisfaction: Applying a moral judgment perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(2), 265-273.
I work in a retail store that sells handbags, shoes, linens and similar household and clothing products. My company just had a bad quarter. Consequently, I have requested my senior management team to enhance the performance by employees in the retail section immediately in order to turn the trend around. I have requested that they establish a performance management system so as to change the performance of the current employees for the better. This can be achieved, firstly, by making the system effective through the creation of a job description for each employee and the retail sales associate (Smith, 2016). This can be attained as follows
The retail associates in our company are critical positions because they are best poised to deliver the retail objective of the company. A retail sales associate must polish his/her sales techniques and internalize the company's strategies aimed at boosting sales.…
Biro, M. M. (2012). 5 Leadership Behaviors Loyal Employees Trust. Forbes. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/meghanbiro/2012/06/04/5-leadership - behaviors-loyal-employees-trust/
Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2007). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Paul, A. M. (2013). Four Ways to Give Good Feedback. Psychology. Time Ideas. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://ideas.time.com/2013/03/18/four-ways-to-give-good-feedback/
Smith, L. (2016). Performance Management. Academia. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from https://www.academia.edu/9665199/HRM_3_sample_paper_Assignment_2
Employee Customer Service Training
New Employee Customer Service Training Plan
Justify the use of a needs assessment of your company's proposed employee customer service training, stressing five (5) ways in which such an assessment would expose any existing performance deficiencies.
The employees of an organization act like the 'driving force' which can either lead the organization towards success or can turn out to be the cause of its failure. A company's progress not only depends on an employee's individual performance but the way these employees communicate with the customers has its own significance. Thus, in order to run a successful organization, it is quite essential to monitor the correlation between the outcomes and the employees' input on a regular basis. To ensure employees' effectiveness, organizations usually remain concerned about training their employees.
Training means a methodical intentional process of changing behavior of organizational members in a direction which contributes to…
Eisenberger, R., Rhoades, L. & Cameron, J. (1999). Does pay for performance increase or decrease perceived self-determination and intrinsic motivation? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1026-1040.
Gerow, J.R. (1997). Psychology -- An Introduction. 5th Edition. New York: Longman.
Hinrichs, J.R. (1976). Personnel training. In M. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Skokie, IL: Rand MsNally.
Miller & Osinski (1996). Training Needs Assessment. Retrieved November 18,
Employee Privacy Torts
History of Employee Privacy
Changing Trends of Employee Privacy
Impact of Innovative Technology on Employee Privacy
ole of Social Media towards Employee Privacy
Impact of Changing Community/Society on Employee Privacy
Adaptation to the new Environment pertaining to Employee Privacy
Employee Monitoring and Surveillance
Laws and Employer Policies for Text Messaging and Social Media
Electronic Communication Privacy Act
Monitoring of Employee Conversations over Telephone & Email
ecommendations for creating Effective Policies
Future Implications of Employee Privacy
As years have passed and the human race has penetrated into the epoch of twenty first century, the technological advancements have conquered almost every facet of human life, especially the workplace. The widespread platform of the internet has become the integral part of a person's life, in the same manner as businesses are employing technological advancements to perform numerous activities like internet infrastructure, maintenance of computers and so on. It means that…
Baker, D., Buoni, N., Fee, M. & Vitale, C. (2011). Social Networking and Its Effects on Companies and Their Employees. Retrieved from: http://www.neumann.edu/academics/divisions/business/journal/Review2011/SocialNetworking.pdf
Bergh, N.V.D. (2000). Emerging Trends for Eaps in the 21st Century. Haworth Press, Incorporated.
Campbell, D. (2007). The Internet 2007: Laws and Regulatory Regimes. USA: Lulu.com.
Cate, F.H. (1997). Privacy in the Information Age. USA: Brookings Institution Press.
However, it has been a struggle to make employees view that these employee feedback programs are not just a tool for the companies to comply with has been a losing battle eports 12.
The good news of the matter is that these employee feedback programs provide duly needed positive and negative feedback which helps the management re-strategize their decision making process.
Organizational culture and employee feedback programs
The culture of the organization must at the same time reflect these employee feedback programs Gupta, Govindarajan and Malhotra 206.
Organizational culture is the personality that is exhibited by an organization through its employees. Members of the organization slowly come to sense this culture and try their best to express it in their actions in various situations. There are several effects of an organization's culture. These include influencing the technologies applied, image of the organization to the public, strategies, services and products of…
Bogardus, A. Phr / Sphr Professional in Human Resources Certification Study Guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Print.
Earl, Joanne, Melissa Dunn Lampe, and Andrew Buksin. "What to Do with Employee Survey Results." Gallup Management Journal (2008). Print.
Gomez-Mejia, L.R., D.B. Balkin, and R.L. Cardy. Managing Human Resources. London: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2009. Print.
Gupta, Anil K., Vijay Govindarajan, and Ayesha Malhotra. "Feedback-Seeking Behavior within Multinational Corporations." Strategic Management Journal 20.3 (1999): 205-22. Print.
Employee Handbook Privacy Section
ABC Widget Company: Employee Handbook Privacy Section
What privacy rights issues should be addressed?
In the Age of Information, there are increasing concerns being voiced about what can legitimately be expected to be kept private, and how these issues affect employees' rights in the workplace. According to Hayden, Hendricks and Novak (1990, most adults spend approximately one-half of their waking hours in the workplace today, and it is therefore not surprising that employment practices affect a broad range of privacy rights. With the sole exception of polygraph ("lie-detector") testing, there are not many areas of workplace activities that are addressed by the U.S. Constitution or national privacy laws. As a result, employers in the United States have a great deal of flexibility in collecting data on their employees, regulating their access to personnel files, and disclosing the contents of employee files to those outside the organization.…
Backer, T.E. & O'Hara, K.B. (1991). Organizational change and drug-free workplaces:
Templates for success. New York: Quorum Books.
Hayden, T., Hendricks, E. & Novik, J.D. (1990). Your right to privacy: A basic guide to legal rights in an information society. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Muhl, C.J. (2003). Workplace E-Mail and Internet Use: Employees and Employers Beware An
Lastly, Cummings and Worley (2007) surmise that employee involvement can also "improve capabilities of employees thus enabling them to perform better" (p. 353). The authors give the example that when organizations wish to increase their employee participation in decision making, this strategy must be accompanied by skill training in communication and group problem solving (p. 353).
All three of these facets improve employee satisfaction and well-being, due to an improved work environment and a more rewarding job. In a cyclical nature, improved productivity also increases satisfaction, especially when there are greater rewards associated with this increased productivity. Improved employee satisfaction, that's a result of employee involvement strategies and increased productivity, can have a secondary impact on the organization. This high level of employee satisfaction can further positively affect productivity by attracting the best employees and help ensure the retention of these valuable organizational resources (Cummings and Worley, 2007, p.…
Cummings, T.G., & Worley, C.G. (2007). Organization Development and Change (8th ed.). s.l.: Academic Internet Publ.
Rosso, a. (Oct 2010). "Awakening corporate soul." Collector, 76(3). p. 18-20.
The influence of employee involvement on productivity: A review of research -- June 2000. (22 Jun 2006). Retrieved December 6, 2010, from http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/cs/sp/hrsd/prc/publications/research/2000-002584/page03.shtml.
Wolf, E. & Zwick, T. (Apr 2008). "Reassessing the productivity impact of employee involvement and financial incentives." Schmalenbach Business Review, 60(2). o. 160-181.
All of these are admittedly challenging problems and the key to lasting change is that employees must first identify and internalize the need and desire for change for these strategies to succeed.
Yuen H. Chan, obert . Taylor, Scott Markham. "The ole of Subordinates' Trust in a Social Exchange-driven Psychological Empowerment Process. " Journal of Managerial Issues 20.4 (2008): 444-467,421-422. ABI/INFOM Global. ProQuest, 1 Mar. 2009
Fulkerson, John ., and andall S. Schuler.. "Managing worldwide diversity at Pepsi-Cola International." Diversity in the workplace: Human resources initiatives. 248-276. New York, NY U.S.: Guilford Press, 1992. PsycINFO. EBSCO. [2 Mar. 2009
Ann Gilley, Jerry W. Gilley, Heather S. McMillan. "Organizational change: Motivation, communication, and leadership effectiveness. " Performance Improvement Quarterly 21.4 (2009): 75. ABI/INFOM Global. ProQuest. 1 Mar. 2009
Edward Martin. "Employers boost perks to build workforce loyalty. " the Business Journal 22 Sep. 1997: 30. ABI/INFOM Dateline. ProQuest. 2 Mar.…
Yuen H. Chan, Robert R. Taylor, Scott Markham. "The Role of Subordinates' Trust in a Social Exchange-driven Psychological Empowerment Process. " Journal of Managerial Issues 20.4 (2008): 444-467,421-422. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest, 1 Mar. 2009
Fulkerson, John R., and Randall S. Schuler.. "Managing worldwide diversity at Pepsi-Cola International." Diversity in the workplace: Human resources initiatives. 248-276. New York, NY U.S.: Guilford Press, 1992. PsycINFO. EBSCO. [2 Mar. 2009
Ann Gilley, Jerry W. Gilley, Heather S. McMillan. "Organizational change: Motivation, communication, and leadership effectiveness. " Performance Improvement Quarterly 21.4 (2009): 75. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 1 Mar. 2009
Edward Martin. "Employers boost perks to build workforce loyalty. " the Business Journal 22 Sep. 1997: 30. ABI/INFORM Dateline. ProQuest. 2 Mar. 2009
This was accomplished by: breaking down into small teams and having everyone work directly with some of the top executives at the firm (i.e. Steve Jobs). This created an atmosphere that encouraged employees to discuss their ideas and the impact they are having on consumers. It is at this point, that Apple was able to integrate these different ideas into their performance evaluation procedures. (Stone 38 -- 40) (Snell 143 -- 179)
Clearly, the performance evaluation system that Apple is using is helping the firm to attract and retain the best employees. This is because there is a focus on ensuring that all candidates for a position meet: the basic educational and experience qualifications. During the next stage, is when they will be subject to: a series of interviews, a practical exam and other criteria. This allows the company to decide which individuals would be the best choice for…
Griffin, Ricky. Management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. Print.
Herbold, Robert. What's Holding You Back. San Francisco: Josey Bass, 2011. Print.
Highhouse, Scott. Stubborn Reliance. Industrial and Organizational Psychology 1:3 (2008): 333 -- 342
Snell, Scott. Managing Human Resources. Mason: South -- Western, 2012. Print.
Person Being Assessed: Jane Doe
Person ompleting Assessment: Jason Marshall
Position of Person Being Assessed: Administrative Assistant
Date of Performance Evaluation: 6/23/2014
Rating Scale to be Used:
Excels in Performance
Does Not Meet Expectations
Fails to Meet Performance Standards
The employee has a sufficient understanding of his/her job duties and when they should be completed
Employee is willing to help out internal employees when assistance is needed
Employee is willing to help clients and other external parties that need assistance as needed
Employee retains a positive attitude as a general habit
Employee is cool under pressure even when situations or deadlines created stress or tension
Employee is consistent in completing required job duties in a timely manner
Employee only needs to be told something once, or maybe twice, before something is learned and perfected
8) Employee maintains a positive attitude regardless of…
Confirmation of Completion by Manager
Date of Next Review -- 6/24/2015
Feedback regarding review from employee: ____
I would want to be evaluated through a form that would reveal whether or not I was conducting my assigned duties. Because of its specific nature, figure 11-3 would not only allow the evaluating manager to make an informed representation of my work, but also remind me of specific duties. Thus, as an employer and an employee, figure 11-3 is the superior form. It allows for the accurate and succinct evaluation of workers and the best chance of convincing those workers to continue to strive or make up for what they have lost.
When looking at the performance appraisals in figures 11-1 and 11-3, employers can find many factors on which to evaluate them. The first, job-relatedness, has already been discussed above, noting that the second form was superior in this area. While it may not have been nearly as job-related, the first form was probably less expensive.…
Do not penalize strong performers for being members of strong teams. Lackluster employees would be penalized because no one would want them on their 'team.' Now, there is an incentive to work with weak employees, to boost one's own relative performance rating. This idea seems strong, and although it world reduce competition on work teams, as there would be less jockeying for power and the chance to win the highest team ranking, on the other hand, such a system would seem to be more in keeping with Microsoft's emphasis on company cohesiveness, a company committed to driving its mission of innovation forward and boasts that its greatest reward is allowing its employees to work together "with great people," and have an impact" as a member of a team not merely as an individual ("Employee Profile: David -- HR General Manager," 2006, Careers -- United States Microsoft ebsite).
Employee Profile: David -- HR General Manager." (2006). Careers -- United States
Microsoft Website. Retrieved 28 Jan 2006 at http://members.microsoft.com/careers/epdb/profileDetailPage.aspx?profileID=107
Microsoft's 3.0 (or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Curve." (2005)
Mini-Microsoft Blog. Retrieved 28 Jan 2006 at http://minimsft.blogspot.com/2005/06/microsofts-30-or-how-i-learned-to-stop.html
Performance Management through the Lens of Keys v. Humana (2012)
Kathryn Keys, former employee of Humana Incorporated, filed a claim of racial discrimination under the Civil ights Acts of 1964 and 1991 (Keys v. Humana, 2012). The U.S. District Court for the Western District of Kentucky sided with the defendant, Humana Inc., in January 2010 and dismissed the case on the grounds that the facts were insufficient to support a claim of racial discrimination under the McDonnell Douglass framework. The McDonnell Douglas framework requires the plaintiff to show that they are a member of a protected class, were qualified to hold the job in question, were treated differently than others not belonging to a protected class or were replaced by an unprotected person, and were harmed by an employment decision. Specifically, the lower court found that Keys failed to show that Caucasian employees who were not fired were indeed performing…
Human Inc. (2012). Well-being starts with us. 2010 & 2011 Corporate Social Responsibility Report. Retrieved 26 Feb. 2014 from http://apps.humana.com/marketing/documents.asp?file=1853059 .
Keys v. Humana Inc., No. 11-5472 F.6th (Fed. Cir. 2012).
Littler Learning Group. (2009). Performance management and corrective action: A resource guide for managers & supervisors. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2014 from http://www.csus.edu/hr/docs/professional/perfmgmtandcorrectiveaction050109.pdf .
Van Bogaert, D.A. (n.d.). New legal battlegrounds for performance evaluations. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2014 from http://myweb.lmu.edu/dbogaert/newlegalbattlegroundspedvb.pdf .
A survey will be developed as a part of implementation of the BSC system in this hospital to track customer satisfaction with the services that they receive here.
A positive image of the organization translates into repeat business and a more positive reputation in the neighborhood, Patient satisfaction translates into increased future revenues. It also has some positive impact on risk assessment as well. The more satisfied the customer is, the less likely they will file an adverse lawsuit against the hospital. Patient satisfaction has a direct impact on the profitability of the organization. The number of complains that the facility receives can also be an important measure of the overall customer satisfaction. However, this number alone may not tell the entire story. A customer survey is the best method for addressing overall satisfaction with the facility.
Patient involvement was another important indicator of BSC technologies. Patient involvement means providing…
National Health Foundation of California. 2004. Survey of Hospital Performance Measurement Activities in California. National Health Foundation of California. Available at http://www.nhfca.org/reports/PMSCAExecutiveSummary.pdf [Accessed 30 April 2008].
Walker, K. & Dunn, L. 2006. Improving hospital performance and productivity with the balanced scorecard. Academy of Health Care Management Journal. Annual. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1TOQ/is_2/ai_n25009491 [Accessed 30 April 2008].
Bloodstream Infections in NICU
Bloodstream infections in the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) are a serious concern for parents and health care professionals. Exposure to bloodstream infections for most patients will caused delayed hospital stays and higher costs associated with hospital visit (Marschall et. al., 2008). There are many procedural changes that can be made at the hospital to decrease risk of bloodstream infections. ecommendations for decreasing bloodstream infections will be based on the practices of the Connecticut Children's Medical Center (CCMC), which is successful in decreasing bloodstream infections. In this paper I will discuss how to get the employees engaged in their work, how to receive buy-in for quality work, how this will reduce errors and increase the quality of work.
Engaging employees in their Work
It is important to train the employees on the recommended techniques for inserting a catheter since this is main cause of blood…
Buttes et. al. (2006). Drive down infection rates. Nursing Management. October.
Deaver, K. (2010). Preventing Infections in Hemodialysis Fistula and Graft Vascular Accesses. Nephrology Nursing Journal. 37 (5) 503-506
Marschall et. al. (2008). Strategies to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections in acute care hospitals. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 29 (1) S22-30.
The future that is fast heading our way is often thought to be associated with creative technologies and businesses that do online services. But this is definitely not the full picture. Many traditional businesses are also being impacted in regard to what will be expected about some of their core operations, including in regard to how they treat and motivate their employees. Basic manufacturing is no different. In order for companies like ours to be ready for the future, we have to look seriously at the ways in which we recruit employees and keep them here once they sign on. With 120 employees whose skills encompass a broad range of talents -- some basic skills others tied to quite sophisticated technological abilities -- we have the chance to position ourselves to be ahead of the curve as the entire field of payment, rewards and recognitions is examined yet…
Barton, H. And Laux, J. (2010). Executive pay inefficiencies in the financial sector. The Journal of Applied Business Research. Vol. 26, No. 4.
Carpenter, S. (2007). Design the right compensation plan for your business. Entrepreneur. Retrievable from http://www.entrepreneurship.org/en/resource-center/design-the-right-compensation-plan-for-your-business.aspx .
CompuData Surveys (2009). The real effects of today's economy on the manufacturing industry. Retrievable from http://www.compdatasurveys.com/Files/News/Manufacturing%20Whitepaper.pdf .
Scott, D. And McMullan, D. (2010). The impact of rewards programs on employee engagement. WorldatWork. Retrievable from http://www.worldatwork.org/waw/adimLink?id=39032 .
cannot automatically assume his or her right to serve. And even the American with Disabilities Act allows that all employers cannot necessarily accommodate all conditions, of all employees.
The eyco website, in response to criticism, defended its position, stating that smoking employees of Michigan businesses each drained their companies, and thus shareholders and fellow workers as well as company owners, of an additional $4,000 a year in absenteeism, medical benefits and the earnings that are lost to sickness and premature death. (McConnell, 2005) but handicapped employees who can still do their jobs effectively cannot be discriminated against, nor can an employee with a predisposition, genetically, to cancer, be excluded from an employee health care policy simply because he or she is more costly.
Again, these costs are not choices like smoking. But federal laws protect workers with conditions such as obesity and alcoholism, where there is at least some 'choice'…
McConnell, Beth. (8 Feb 2005) "Fired smokers, state senator protest Weyco policy." SHRM. Retrieved 9 Feb 2005 at http://www.shrm.org/hrnews_published/CMS_011315.asp#P-11_0
Weyers, Howard. (25 Jan 2005) "Why Weyer is Serious about Smoking?" Weyer Official website. Weyer News. Retrieved 9 Feb 2005 at http://www.weyco.com/web/company/news/012520050002.jsp
Effecting Employee Loyalty
As CEO of a company I would expect employee loyalty and promote it by ensuring that 1) we are all on the same page -- and that 2) it was a page everyone wanted to be on. Chet Holmes reminds his readers that "building rapport" is one of the most crucial elements of doing business with anyone, whether clients or employees (Holmes 60). A CEO should see himself less as an authoritative tyrant and more as a father who cares for his children, his employees. To ensure that "rapport" is built and that everyone is on the same page, I would follow Holmes' advice once more by holding weekly scheduled meetings with individual teams. This paper will discuss why rapport is crucial and why meetings help establish it.
Happy employees are those who love their job. They feel as though their own personal goals are…
Holmes, Chet. The Ultimate Sales Machine. NY: Penguin, 2007. Print.
Accreditation plan for the American Correctional Association
The accreditation of the correctional facilities is aimed at ensuring the well-being of the inmates but also is targeted at benefiting the employees, the victims, the courts as well as the legislators of a state. The standards that are set do allow the protection of the judicial system from embarrassment as well as allowing the correctional institutions to have and retain the autonomy from outside interventions.
Goals and functions of functional areas
Safety; this involves provision of conditions that are humane, protection of the inmates from rape and possible assault, giving of nutritious food as well as medical care, giving the inmates a hygienic living environment and recreation activities. This will ensure the inmates are safe from ill health or physical harm while within the walls of the facility as well as being safe from abusive guards.
Security; this functional are…
American Correctional Association, (2014). Public Correctional Policy on Standards and Accreditation. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.aca.org/government/policyresolution/view.asp?ID=44
David Ronald R., (2006). Evaluating American Correctional Association Accreditation of Adult Correctional Institutions. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEgQFjAE&url=https%3A%2F%2Fdspace.uta.edu%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F10106%2F478%2Fumi-uta-1244.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=r3YcU97SBubb7Aa2hIHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNGeh6YJwRQeOzwduuSGkhI3J9IXMg&sig2=jVsH_ysiTj7ZUyDagJDjSA&bvm=bv.62578216,d.bGE
Flynn E.E., (1977). The Correctional Facility: The Environment Today and in the Future. Library Trends. Summer edition.
Manitoba Laws, (1999). The Correctional Services Act. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/c230e.php
Performance Gap Policing
A performance gap exists when the police department's performance does not meet organizational expectations or citizens expectations. Management is a critical success factor for managing a performance gap when it exists. Many police administrators are contemplating community policing projects due to performance gaps. In order to solve the problem of a performance gap, police agencies must look internally and externally for solutions. They must develop an action plan that includes organizational goals and community goals in order to narrow the gap and foster a collaborative and successful work environment.
Many view community policing as an answer, as a means of "developing communication with the public and interest groups" and encouraging active participation from community members and police agents to further the best interests of the community as a whole (Fielding, 1995). Community policing strategies are being widely adopted in many police agencies as a means of improving…
Bouckaert, G. & Halachmi, A. "Organizational performance and measurement in the public sector: Toward service, effort and accomplishment reporting." Westport: Quorum: 1996.
De Vries, M.S. & Van Der Zijl, V.DH "The implications of community policing for police-citizen relationships." International Journal of Public Administration 26(8-9), 2003:1017.
Fielding, N.C. "Community Policing." Oxford: Clarendon Press:1995
Reiner, R. The Politics of the Police; Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2000
ole-Play a (with Manager a and Employee A)
In this example obert is meeting with Denise to go over her performance appraisal. When Denise is asked to tell obert how she feels she has done over the last year, Denise states that she feels satisfied with her performance and believes she is doing good because she has not received any feedback from obert otherwise. There are two issues to be concerned about with this statement. First, employees should be given regular and systematic feedback on their performance throughout the appraisal period, not just once a year (Ash & Quarry, 2010). Second, a yearly appraisal period is too long. Performance appraisals should be given at least twice per year, if not more often, in order to give equal credit to the good performance and not so good performance (Pardue, 1999). We tend to only remember what has happened recently…
Eve Ash & Peter Quarry (2010) 10 Steps to Flawless Appraisal Interviews. Gower, Training Point: Ash Quarry Productions. [DVD]
Pardue, Howard, 1999. Performance Appraisal as an Employee Development Tool. [Online]. Available at: < http://www.shrm.org/Research/Articles/Articles/Pages/CMS_000104.aspx > [Accessed December 13, 2010].
Performance Management: Implementing an Effective Performance Management System
Why Performance Management?
Performance management is the organized method that companies use to monitor the results of work activities, to measure and evaluate the performance of the employees, and to ensure that goals are met in an effective and efficient manner. According to Pulakos (2009), performance management is a key process that ensures that work gets done; and it is used by different organizations to communicate expectations and drive behavior towards achievement of important goals. For instance, ABC Company has offices in more than 50 countries across the globe and it employs over 40,000 employees from various cultural backgrounds, and it also deals with a diverse range of customers. It therefore needs to develop a performance management system that fosters an inclusive environment and channels different employees' talents and capabilities towards achievement of the organization's goals.
It is important to implement an…
Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance management: A new approach for driving business results. West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.-Blackwell Publishing.
Stone, R, D. (2009). Achieving Results with a Performance-Centered Design Framework. Performance Improvement Vol. 48(5) 37-44. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/237234715/AD71C5FFAAEA427APQ/1?accountid=39364
Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.
3. esults and analysis of the Jordanian property companies
The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:
c d e f g
x x x
x x x
x x x
Shortage of commercial properties
Availability and choice
2011, the world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook / last accessed on February 21, 2011
Performance Management Theories and Practices
Performance management is a continuous process by which an organization identifies, measures, and develops the performance of individuals. It aligns their performance, the resources and systems with the strategic goals of the organization. According to Leeuw and Berg (2011), companies that apply performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not.
The course has covered important performance management theories and practices. One key lesson learnt, for instance, is that for performance management practices to be effective, there must be constant communication between the management team and the employees; and it is imperative for the goals of the individual to be aligned with those of the organization (Pulakos, 2009). The performance management cycle also provided insight on how performance management systems should be implemented in the organization. The elements of this cycle include: setting the objectives; measuring the performance of individuals; providing feedback on…
Leeuw, S. & Berg, P (2011). Improving Operational Performance by Influencing Shopfloor Behavior via Performance Management Practices. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. (29) 3, 224-233. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/866083571/50E9B56B076C4E25PQ/1?accountid=39364
Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance Management: A New Approach for Driving Business Results. (1st Ed.). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers.
Personnel records are data pertaining to employees which consist of factual and comprehensive information of employee. All employee information is kept in systematic order which assists human resources manager to make an effective decision about employee. Typically, personnel records consist of employee past records, medical report and employee progress. Personnel record also consist of payroll records, leave records, and benefit record and turnover record. Training and development record contains training schedule, transfer cases, and appraisal reports. Health and safety record contains medical history, safety provisions, sickness reports, and insurance reports. The service record contains essential records that consist of bio-data, family information, residential information, and marital status, academic qualifications, past address and employment records. While some critics argue that personnel records is a waste of time and money, however, Yoder (1942) provides several benefits that organization could derive from personnel record:
Personnel record assists managers to identify crucial…
Ahmed, S. (2005).Analysis of Workplace Surveillance in a Quest for Ethical Stance. Journal of Business Systems Governance and Ethics .2(4).
American Bar Association.(2001).Employment: Proof of Discrimination. Mental and Physical Disability Law Reporter. 25( 5): 826-831.
Aswathapp, K. (2005).Human Resource and Personnel Management. (4th Edition) Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Aswathapp, K (2010). Employment Law for Human Resource Practice. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
Performance Management and People
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
The purpose of this paper is to discuss and critically evaluate the Performance Management model by Michael Armstrong and People Performance model by John Purcell. The paper starts with an ample introduction and significance of the employee performance management practices and proceeds by discussing the various concepts and strategies which are incorporated by business organizations all over the world. The major focus of the paper is to discuss the implications of these models for the success and prosperity of an organization. The main body of the paper discusses these models from a critical perspective and explains their major components in detail.
The most important strategies which are recommended by Performance Management model include performance appraisal and reviews, training and skills development, Management by Objectives (MBO), the techniques to manage the low performers,…
Armstrong. M, 2012, Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 12th edition. U.S.: Kogan Page
Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. 1996, "The impact of human resource management on organisational performance: Progress and prospects," Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 779-801.
Becker, B. & Huselid, M. 2006, "Strategic Human Resources Management: Where do we go from here?," Journal of Management, 32 (6): 898-925.
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. 2005, "Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research," Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (3): 67-94.