Endocrine System Essays (Examples)

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Renin-Angiotensin System and Control of Blood Pressure

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89147192

Endocrine control of BP

Hormonal Control of Osmotic pressure: Stimulation

Arterial blood pressure (BP) is under tight control by the mammalian nervous system, cardiovascular system, kidneys, and endocrine system (Vivas et al., 2014). The VII, IX, and X cranial nerves conduct peripheral taste, osmo-sodium, volume, and baroreceptor information to the solitary tract, while the distinct bundles of neurons in the lamina terminalis respond to changes in plasma and cerebral spinal fluid sodium levels, osmolality, and angiotensin II levels. The information thus received is transmitted to the median preoptic, supraoptic, paraventricular, lateral parabrachial, and dorsal raphe nucleus for integration. The neurotransmitter systems involved include angiotensin, vasopressin, oxytocin, and serotonin.

The overall response to reductions in BP and electrolyte content of bodily fluids is to trigger the sympathetic nervous system, endocrine system, and appropriate behavior to correct the deficiency (Vivas et al., 2014). The most important arm of BP control is the…… [Read More]

References

Chopra, S., Baby, C., & Jacob, J.J. (2011). Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Suppl. 4, S281-8.

Duka, A., Duka, I., Gao, G., Shenouda, S., Gavras, I., & Gavras, H. (2006). Role of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors in normal blood pressure regulation. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, 291(2), E268-74.

Farrao, F.M., Lara, L.S., & Lowe, J. (2014). Renin-angiotensin system in the kidney: What is new? World Journal of Nephrology, 3(3), 64-76.

Vivas, L., Godino, A., Dalmasso, C., Caeiro, X.E., Macchione, AF., & Cambiasso, M.J. (2014). Chapter 9: Neurochemical circuits subserving fluid balance and baroreflex: A role for serotonin, oxytonin, and gonadal steroids. In L.A. De Luca Jr., J.V. Menani, & A.K. Johnson (Eds.), Neurobiology of body fluid homeostasis: Transduction and integration (pp. 141-166). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
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Tissue Maturation Body System Effects

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40406059

e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. About.com Guide. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa022808a.htm

Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm

Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.

Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot
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Main Systems of Human Body

Words: 3828 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37436002

The circulatory or cardiovascular system is responsible for moving nutrients, wastes and gases between body cells, transporting blood across the whole body and battling disease (Circulatory System). Its principal elements are the heart, numerous blood vessels, and blood.

The heart forms the circulatory system's core. This 2-sided, 4-chambered pump which distributes blood to various arteries comprises of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria. The ventricles, situated within the heart's lower half, are responsible for pumping blood to the whole body (away from our heart), whilst the atria, situated within the heart's upper half are in charge of receiving blood from different parts of the human body. The right and left ventricles pump de-oxygenated and oxygenated blood, respectively; de-oxygenated blood is pumped to lungs while oxygenated blood is pumped to the remainder of the human body (smith, 2013). These 4 chambers are connected to one another by…… [Read More]

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role of autoimmunity in three endocrine disorders

Words: 1330 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42809379

ole of Autoimmunity in Three Endocrine Disorders

A number of endocrine illnesses are immune mediated and can now be reliably predicted. Autoimmune disorders can occur in a person and people related to them. Families with history of autoimmunity, and has had antibody screening done, becomes aware of those that carry such risk. Knowing the prevalence of such disorders and the diseases associated with them can help in early diagnosis and prevent them from becoming more serious. Autoimmunity affects several glands in the body. Studies reveal that alleles are very important in the determination of tissue-specific targeting (Aaron W. Michels & George S. Eisenbarth, 2010).

The Process of Autoimmunity

Autoimmunity is necessary for the body to maintain its health by countering effects of external virulent and organic attacks. It involves regulatory networks that provide the body with immunity against infection. It has not yet been determined why instances arise where autoimmunity…… [Read More]

References

Aaron W. Michels, & George S. Eisenbarth. (2010). Immunologic Endocrine Disorders. Journal of Allergy, Clinical Immunology, 225-237.

Aleksandra Krzewska, & Iwona Ben-Skowronek. (2016). Effect of Associated Autoimmune Diseases on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Incidence and Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents. Biomed Research International.

Heves Kirmizibekmez, Rahime Gul Yesiltepe Mutlu, Nafiye Demirkiran Urganci, & Ayse Oner. (2015). Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 2: A Rare Condition in Childhood. Kirmizibekmez H, Yesiltepe Mutlu RG, Demirkiran Urganci N, Oner A. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 2: A Rare Condition in Childhood. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology. 2015;7(1):80-82. doi:10.4274/jcrpe.1394., 80-82.

Kohei KAKU. (2010). Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes and its Treatment Policy. Japan Medical Association Journal, 41-46.
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Osmoregulation Endocrines Osmoregulation Is the Process by

Words: 2423 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75085230

Osmoregulation

Endocrines Osmoregulation

Osmoregulation is the process, by which the body adjusts to a change in an environment of different water volume and amount of solutes in a cells and body fluid of organisms including vertebrates. Vertebrates are animals, which have a backbone, and can be warm either blooded or cold blooded. The body of such organisms adjusts in order to maintain the body balance both inside and outside their bodies in mild and harsh environments ranging from seawater, fresh water, and terrestrial habitats to very hostile environments. Endocrine glands found in such organisms play a major role in constant and persistent regulation of body balance, which secretes hormones directly into the blood whenever the body witnesses any environmental change (Bentley 45).

Endocrine glands present in vertebrates play a major role in controlling the level of water and salt in vertebrate's bodies. Hormones produced in vertebrates play a major role…… [Read More]

References

Bentley, P., 2002. Comparative Vertabrate Endocrinology. chicago: Cambridge university press.

Bentley, P., 2002. Endocrines and Osmoregulation. chicago: springer publishers.

Crvendish, M., 2006. Growing up with Science.. london: marshall carvendish publishers.

Kaiser, G., 2007. The Inner Bird.. New York: UBC press.
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Pituitary Gland Major Organ Systems

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2880402

Organ Systems: The Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland, according to Davies (2007), "is a pea-sized endocrine gland at the base of the brain," linked to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum. It is divided into several parts; i.e. The anterior lobe (front part) and the posterior lobe (back part). The anterior lobe secretes seven hormones that are essentially responsible for the regulation of a number of activities that take place in the human body - from reproduction to growth. Of the seven, five are tropic hormones (induce other glands to secrete hormones). The pituitary gland secretes only two hormones. The targets and effects of the nine are presented in the table below.

The Anterior Pituitary

Tropic Hormones

Hormone

Target

Function

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Adrenal glands

Involved in the stimulation of the cortex of the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol regulates blood pressure and blood sugar levels, as well…… [Read More]

References

Davies, J. (2007). Essentials of Medical Terminology (3rd ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning.

Turley, S. (2011). Medical Language: Immerse Yourself (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Myxedema Is a Potentially Deadly Endocrine Regulation

Words: 1022 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8566461

Myxedema is a potentially deadly endocrine regulation disease that usually arises in connection with pre-existing hypothyroidism, when the normal homeostatic mechanisms for responding to hypothyroidism are overwhelmed. It occurs most often in elderly women, and is usually characterized by swelling of the skin and other soft tissues (Wall, 2000).

The thyroid gland is central to homeostatic metabolic functions, and operates as part of a complex feedback loop involving both the pituitary and hypothalamus to control essential elements of fluid and electrolyte balance and thermoregulation. Under normal conditions, the hypothalamus influences pituitary hormonal output of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) via the secretion of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TH). Virtually any disruption of the precise functioning of these individual glands, or their complex interrelationships can precipitate conditions of hyperthyroidism and Grave's Disease or hypothyroidism and myxedema (MedicineNet, 2002).

Classic symptoms of myxedema include facial puffiness caused by subcutaneous accumulation of mucoploysaccharide, coarsening or…… [Read More]

References

Information on Hypothyroidism. (MedicineNet.com website)

Accessed July 25, 2004, at http://www.medicinenet.com/hyperthyroidism/page1.htm

Last updated: July 2, 2002

Manifold, C.A. Hypothyroidism and Myxedema Coma. (E-medicine.com website)
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Biology of the Mind The

Words: 1285 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34730696

This system results in stable blood concentrations of the hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland (Reiser and Kemp, p.1).

This complex system of self-regulation means that there are multiple opportunities for the glands to stop working properly.

The hypothalamus, which is located in the brain, is, in many ways, the control center of the endocrine system. The hypothalamus secretes hormones that, in turn, either suppress or stimulate hormone release by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland then uses the messages it receives from the hypothalamus to govern its secretion of stimulating hormones to other glands in the endocrine system. The pituitary gland sends messages to other glands in the endocrine system, as well as producing important hormones that regulate bodily functions without requiring the intervention of other glands. The hormones produced by the pituitary gland include: growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Harriet. "For Some, Psychiatric Trouble May Start in the Thyroid." The New York

Times. N.p. 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.

Rieser, Marianne and Stephen Kemp. "Anatomy of the Endocrine System." Emedicine Health.

1-11. 7 Dec. 2011. Web. 9 Dec. 2012.
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Psychology Applied

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50942775

Psychology

The nervous system is a part of an animal's body which is responsible for the coordination of voluntary and involuntary actions as well as the transmission of signals between different parts of the body. It is responsible for sending, receiving and the processing of nerve impulses all over the body. All the organs and muscles within the body rely upon the nerve impulses in order for them to function. The nervous system receives information from sense organs regarding the environment by means such as hearing, sight, smell, pressure, taste and pain. The nervous system consists of tow main parts; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system comprises of the brain and the spinal cord. It is surrounded by the bone-skull and the vertebrae. The peripheral nervous system comprises of numerous neurons which are its functional units. The central nervous system is responsible for…… [Read More]

References

Farr, G. (2002). The Nervous System - Advanced Version / What is the Nervous System?. Become healthy now. Retrieved 6, September 2014 from http://www.becomehealthynow.com/article/bodynervousadvanced/826

Powell, K. (2014). Nature vs. Nurture . about parenting. Retrieved 6, September 2014 from http://genealogy.about.com/cs/geneticgenealogy/a/nature_nurture.htm
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Nursing Consideration for Patients With

Words: 4208 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56689240

Behavioral approaches alone or combined cognitive behavior therapy may be used. Behavioral techniques might include simply not buying trigger foods or avoiding certain shops; that is, building up new habits to replace existing ones. Another example would be modifying eating behavior such as eating in the same place each day, or concentrating solely on eating and not watching television at the same time (Fiona Mantle, 2003)."

It is worth noting here that research has shown that people will change and transform their eating habits, once they learn the advantages and disadvantages of their eating behavioral patterns. However, at the same time, it is also worth noting here that since eating habits can be transformed through learning, they can also be unlearned, however, the process of unlearning may take place through a lengthy passage of time. As Fiona Mantle (2003) writes, "Eating behaviors are learned behaviors therefore they can be unlearned,…… [Read More]

References

Abraham S, Llewellyn-Jones D (2001) Eating Disorders: the facts. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Bruch H (1973) Eating Disorders: Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa and the Person Within. New York, Basic Books.

Bunnell, D.W., Shenker, I.R., Nussbaum, M.P., Jacobson, M.S., & Cooper, P. (1990). Sub-clinical vs. formal eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9, 357-362.

Cathie E. Guzzetta. (2001). Developing and implementing a comprehensive program for children and adolescents with eating disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing.
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Adrenal Gland Keeping the Body

Words: 2250 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25520423

S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.

Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC

Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall

Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
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Psychoneuroimmunology

Words: 1860 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73957139

Therefore, this explains why stress would have such an effect on the immune functions of the body, at least from the perspective of someone who is doing an evolutionary investigation into the issue of the reasons why we see these phenomena occur.

Thus, psychoneuroimmunology is one of the most important and fastest growing areas of medicine to bridge the gap between neurological theory and medicinal practice. The literature is quickly evolving and changing. Indeed, there is an increasing hope that this field may be the one to deliver on the promise of the discovery of "the scientific foundations for a new type of treatment whose essence is to combat disease by strengthening the body's own defenses against stress" ("Association for the Advancement of Applied Psychoneuroimmunology"):

What is of importance is not whether we have our emotional ups and downs, but rather that lingering unresolved emotions and inflexible ways of coping,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Association for the Advancement of Applied Psychoneuroimmunology." Retrieved November 26, 2003 at http://hometown.aol.com/AAAPNI/.

De Kooker, Margo. "Psychoneuroimmunology: An Overview." Retrieved November 26, 2003 at http://www.wellness.org.za/html/pni.html.

PNI Adaptiveness." Retrieved November 26, 2003, at http://www.lgu.ac.uk / psychology/staff/elander/health/PNIAdaptiveness.html.

Psychoneuroimmunology." Retrieved November 26, 2003, at http://www.datacomm.ch/kmatter/psychone.htm#_Toc442256827.
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Health Letter to Friend Hormone Problems Who

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92539532

Health Letter to Friend

Hormone problems. Who can't relate to those these days? People talk a lot about symptoms like high blood pressure, emotional ups and down, obesity, all of which might well be related to serious medical concerns that come with our age, or that might be caused by stress or junk food!

Which means you are right to have questions and a bit of anxiety. Some hormone conditions (minor or severe) need attention because they tell us how well the endocrine system is in balance -- and it's the endocrine system that influences how the body works and how different parts of our system function together. So the balance is important.

But hormone imbalances can vary a lot, and it takes information to figure out what's wrong. Diabetes (or being overweight), reproduction problems, infertility, thyroid conditions, high blood pressure, poor cholesterol levels and even lipids (not putting on…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Kemp, S., Chausmer, A.B., and Talavera, F., (2011) emedicineHealth, Anatomy of the Endocrine System. Retrieved on October 15, 2011 from  http://www.emedicinehealth.com/anatomy_of_the_endocrine_system/article_em.htm .
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Alcohol the Search for Pleasure

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7643887

Alcohol is classified as a depressant because it slows down the release of neurochemicals that inhibit certain behaviors. The subjective feelings associated with alcohol intoxication are due to its effects on the brain and central nervous system but that system also controls our behaviors. The depression of certain neurotransmitters often reduces reflex time and reduces general inhibitions.

The digestive system is also strongly affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol is absorbed almost entirely by the small intestine, from where the alcohol seeps into the blood. The liver is strongly affected by the absorption of alcohol and is in fact the main organ responsible for metabolizing alcohol. hen too much alcohol is consumed, the liver becomes overtaxed and cannot filter the toxins from the body as fast as it normally can. Over the long-term, the liver can become permanently damaged from too much alcohol consumption.

The heart and circulatory system are also…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alcohol Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination." California DUI Help. Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.californiaduihelp.com/dui_investigation/alcohol.asp

Boggan, Bill. "Alcohol Chemistry and You." Kennesaw State University, 2003.
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Actual Mechanisms Behind the Changes Associated With Aging

Words: 1178 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77671652

Physiological Changes Associated With Aging

Aging is the complex and inevitable process of tissue and organ system degeneration. Though largely influenced by genetics, aging is also dependent upon a number of environmental factors including exercise, diet, childhood personality, and exposure to ionizing radiation, pollutants, or microorganisms. The physiological changes that occur as an individual's age advances can be grouped into three, with the first category encompassing changes in such homeostatic mechanisms as extracellular fluid volumes, blood, and temperature; the second encompassing changes related to decreasing organ mass; and the third, changes in the body's functional reserve systems. Promoting the health of an aging population is crucial not only because it ensures the well-being of ageing individuals, but also because it significantly reduces the burden imposed upon a country's medical system. It is with this in mind that this text collates knowledge and research to examine, in a deeper sense, the…… [Read More]

References

Bherer, L., Erickson, K.I. & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A Review of the Effects of Physical Activity and Exercise on Cognitive and Brain Functions in Older Adults. Journal of Aging Research, vol. 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2014 from [HIDDEN]

Glassock, R.J. (2009). The GFR Decline with Aging: A Sign of Normal Senescence, Not Disease. Nephrology Times, 2(9), 6-8.

Heckman, G., Gray, L.C. & Hirdes, J. (2013). Addressing Healthcare Needs for Frail Seniors in Canada: the Role of InterRAI Instruments. Canadian Geriatrics Society Journal of CME, 3(3), 8-16.

Saber, A. (2013). Perioperative Care of Elderly Surgical Patients. American Medical Journal, 4(1), 63-77.
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Mitigating the Effects of Emerging Water Pollutants

Words: 2538 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46682089

Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment

Drinking water and wastewater contamination pose a significant threat to the public health sector. The contaminants affect the society in various ways, including causing diseases, developmental and growth problems. The causes of the problem are identifiable and can be managed by using the most applicable strategies. As such, necessities for the adoption of strategies that will help identify the contributing factors, results and adopt effective strategies that will prevent and reduce waterway pollution. Therefore, the research provides analysis on the effects, studies, and recommendations appropriate in reducing drinking water and wastewater contamination.

Introduction

A number of chemicals play a significant role in influencing human activities of the daily living. They enable the development of new technologies and improve the standards and quality of life. Because of the widespread use of technology, chemicals enter the environment. Although, it is unintentional in…… [Read More]

References

Altaf, M.M., Masood, F., Malik, A., 2008. Impact of Long-Term Application of Treated Tannery Effluents on the Emergence of Resistance Traits in Rhizobium sp. Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum. Turk J. Biol. 32, 1 -- 8

Bolong, N., Ismail, A.F., Salim, M.R., Matsuura, T., 2009. A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination 239, 229 -- 246

Chen, M., Ohman, K., Metcalfe, C., Ikonomou, M.G., Amatya, P.L., Wilson, J., 2006. Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors in Wastewater Treatment Effluents and in the Water Supply System. Water 41, 351 -- 364

Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States -- II) Untreated drinking water sources. Sci. Total Environ. 402, 201 -- 216
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Beef Hormones Are Naturally Produced

Words: 3695 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66250221

http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1)

There is no credible evidence about this statement. It must be noted that it is extremely illegal, not only in the U.S. But also to other or even milk-producing countries, for penicillin to be used specifically in low-level doses in the feed. In fact, penicillin is only use via injection, in concentrated doses, and only if the animals to be injected are sick or with high fever. Penicillin doses are usually once or twice only and the particular animal which has been injected with such medication is separated from other animals and would not be harvested within a certain period. This is to ensure that there is no penicillin residues left in any system or body parts of the animal http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1).

Moreover, as of latest survey, only 1% (or even less) of the cattle have recorded to ever had any doses of penicillin. Cattleman's Beef…… [Read More]

WTO Dispute Panel Report 1997. European Communities -- Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones): Complaint by the United States, Wr/DS26/R, August 18, 1997.

WTO Appellate Body Report 1998. European Communities Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), Wr/DS26/AB/R, January 16, 1998.

Zekos, Georgios I. An Examination of GATT/WTO Arbitration Procedures. Dispute Resolution Journal, 54(November): 72-74. 1999.
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Role of Hormones in the Control of

Words: 1898 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7095470

role of hormones in the control of body fuel/energy mechanism has been appreciated for close to a century (Dzamko & Steinberg,2009). This concept was identified by the groundbreaking findings by the scientists, Banting et al. (1922) that the hormone, insulin could effectively restore euglycaemia. This paper seeks to give an in depth understanding of metabolism by definition and gives the various component of metabolism and finally the hormonal influence of metabolism. This paper looks into the various substrates that are influence the hormonal actions in fuel metabolism, circumstances under which they occur and the various pathways followed during these metabolisms (Becker, 2001). The intermediary compounds are also considered to the effect. In conclusion, the paper discuses the medical conditions that would arise once these hormones fail to act.

Metabolism is a biological process that takes place in living organisms throughout their lives, once metabolism stops the individuals automatically dies. A…… [Read More]

References

Banting, F., Best, C., Collip, J., Macleod, J. & Noble, E. (1922). The effects of insulin on experimental hyperglycemia in rabbits. Am J. Physiol 62, 559 -- 580.

Campfield, L.A., Smith, F.J., Guisez, Y., Devos, R. & Burn, P. (1995). Recombinant mouse OB protein: evidence for a peripheral signal linking adiposity and central neural networks. Science 269, 546 -- 549.

Cusin, I., Sainsbury, A., Doyle, P., Rohmer-Jeanreneaud, F. & Jeanrenaud, B. (1995). The ob gene and insulin: a relationship leading to clues to the understanding of obesity. Diabetes 44,

1467 -- 1470.
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Taxa What Is Cnidaria What Is it

Words: 2243 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91414879

Taxa

What is Cnidaria? What is it made up of? Who are the members that belong to his group? Cnidaria is an exclusively aquatic phylum. It is a group that is represented by the members, who are also called 'polyps', and these are sea anemones and corals, and also by 'medusae', which are creatures like the jellyfish. In general, both a polypoid as well as a medusoid cnidarian will be either radially or biradially symmetrical and it is an uncephalized animal with one single body opening, which is the mouth. Stinging capsules, which are embedded in the tentacles that are placed around the mouth, generally surrounds the mouth. These stinging capsules are also known as 'nematocysts', and these are capable of acting both as agents of defense as well as of offense. The most important distinguishing feature of a phylum is the presence of the intrinsic nematocysts, and in turn,…… [Read More]

References

"About Corals, anemones, and their kin" Retrieved From

http://www.augsburg.edu/biology/aquaria/SpecialTopicsFiles/AboutCoralsAnemonesAndKin.html Accessed on 21 June, 2005

"Features unique to Cnidarians and to Ctenophores" Retrieved From

http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/a/j/aja192/biodiversity_files/Page365.htm
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Hospital Report Dermatology- the Dermatology Department Deals

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22971883

Hospital Report

Dermatology- The dermatology department deals mostly with skin related illnesses. The most common issues within this department pertain to skin, scalp, hair and nails. Many of our clients are female with more cosmetic needs. Many would like to retain their youthful appearance and believe minor surgery is the best solution. As such, our departments offer many cosmetic treatments including hair removal, hair transplants, laser therapy and tattoo removal. This past fiscal year has been quite difficult as many of our affluent clients have postponed treatment due to economic concerns with the U.S. We believe this trend to be transitory in nature, with a steady increase in treatments to occur in early 2012.

Oncology- The oncology department pertains mostly to cancer, its detection and diagnosis. The most common diseases in this department are various forms of cancer with the most common being breast cancer. We have recently overhauled our…… [Read More]

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Thyroid Hormone in Carcinoma Thyroid Hormones the

Words: 581 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52336124

Thyroid Hormone in Carcinoma

Thyroid Hormones

The author of this report is asked to review an article and the topic chosen from the acceptable list of topics regards the role and involvement of thyroid hormones in certain disorders. The particular article reviewed for this report focused on the activation of tumor cell proliferation by secretions from the thyroid gland in mice. The specific cancer involved was follicular thyroid carcinoma. Per the requirement of the assignment, the article in question is less than two to three years old. Indeed, it was published last year.

The article starts off by noting that thyroid cancer variants are by far the most common malignancy of the endocrine system in humans. The article notes that the main goal of the research behind the report had the goal of the parallels and similar causes of follicular thyroid carcinoma and thyroid carcinogenesis in general. To prove their…… [Read More]

References

Lu, C., Zhu, X., Willingham, M., & Cheng, S. (2012). Activation of tumor cell proliferation by thyroid hormone in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Oncogene,

31(16), 2007-2016. doi:10.1038/onc.2011.390
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Anorexia According to Guissinguer 2003 Anorectics React

Words: 2104 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62474991

Anorexia

According to guissinguer (2003) anorectics, "...react to loss of body weight by displaying adaptive responses that originally evolved to facilitate leaving food depleted areas." Discuss.

Anorexia is a disorder attributed to attempts to attain a fashionable shape, but numerous studies suggest that it is possible for psychological and societal factors to contribute in the development of this disorder. According to Kaye et al. (1998), anorexia is a disorder characterized by unusual feeding habits, weight control, perceptions of weight and shape, and the view of body shape. In this context, the people involved diet because they fear gaining weight. Nevertheless, the etiology of anorexia is complex, but numerous studies suggest that social, biological, and developmental process influence its growth.

Interestingly, the manner in which these processes interact to enhance its growth remains a mystery. Apparently, views towards the levels of attractiveness in a given society may influence the psychopathology of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Appetite. (2006). Monographic: Evolutionary perspectives on overeating and overweight. Appetite, 47 (1), pp. 1-35.

Eisler, I. (2005). The empirical and theoretical base of family therapy and multiple family day therapy for adolescent anoxeria nervosa. Journal of Family Therapy, 27, pp. 104-131.

Fredrickson, B.L., Roberts, T.A., Noll, S.M., Quinn, D.M., & Twenge, J.M. (1989). That swimsuit becomes you: Sex differences in self-objectification, restrained eating, and math performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75, pp. 269-284.

Guisinguer, S. (2003). Adapted to Flee Famine: Adding an Evolutionary Perspective on Anorexia Nervosa. Psychological Review, 110, pp. 745-761.
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Biologic Aging Theory Explained

Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66685694

Caregiver

The author of this report is put in a case study situation where a patient is aging and encountering some health issues. The patient is grumbling that her immediate family has not had the health problems that she has had. Those health problems include a heart attack within the last week, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. She is doing this grumbling while her hygiene is being attended. For the purposes of this story, it is the author of this report that is providing the hygiene and thus must give answers to these grumblings based on the perspective of an informed caregiver. The author is also charged with including the biologic aging theory in the overall answer and the patient's overall care plan. While genetics is indeed a major precursor for many major health issues, it is far from being the only one and this patient…… [Read More]

References

Jin, K. (2010). Modern Biological Theories of Aging. Aging And Disease, 1(2), 72. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995895/

Worcester, A. (2015). Social Gerontology: The Biology of Aging. Trinity.edu. Retrieved 28 September 2015, from http://www.trinity.edu/mkearl/ger-biol.html
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Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97294962

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues

Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from http://121.52.154.227/Isra%20Medical%20Journal%20Volume-III%20Issue-III.pdf#page=6

Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.

Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.

Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.
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Hang Over Effect

Words: 374 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17343543

Hang Over Effect

A hangover is caused by drinking too much. However, what level of alcohol consumption that triggers a hangover can vary from person to person. For some, a single alcoholic beverage could trigger the effect while in others it can take several drinks. It depends on a range of factors that include items like body mass, whether someone has eaten and what types of foods, general health, alcohol tolerance, and many others. Therefore there is a range of factors that contribute to the onset of a hangover in an individual.

The same can be said of the internal processes in which alcohol influences inside of the body. According to the Mayo clinic the various factors include (Mayo Clinic Staff, N.d.):

Alcohol causes your body to produce more urine.

Alcohol triggers an inflammatory response from your immune system.

Alcohol irritates the lining of your stomach.

Alcohol can cause your…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mayo Clinic Staff. (N.d.). Hangovers. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hangovers/basics/causes/con-20025464

Swift, R., & Davidson, D. (1998). Alcohol Hangover: Mechanisms and Moderators. Alcohol Health & Research World, 54-60.

Yikahri, R., Huttunen, M., & Harkonen, M. (1980). Hormonal changes during alcohol intoxication and withdrawal. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 131-137.
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Adolesents Development of Adolescents it

Words: 2058 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33357353



Farris (1990) cites Glasser's Control Theory as a foundation for developing activities to motivate adolescent learners. Briefly this theory asserts humans have five basic needs: the need for survival, belonging, power, freedom and fun. Effective teachers recognize and respond to students' needs and a critical part of that response lies in helping students accept and maintain that essential control.

Farris (1990) proposes possible classroom responses designed to meet these needs. To satisfy the need to belong a teacher should create a classroom with an accepting atmosphere, create a sense of ownership, recognize student's attempts to be accepted, praise students' performance, teach using groups, and discipline or reprimand in private whenever possible to avoid humiliating students. The need for freedom can be addressed by involving students in rule making, providing opportunities for free expression, encouraging creativity in assignments, and possibly consider eliminating assigned seating. The need for power can be addressed…… [Read More]

References

Caissy, G. (1986, November/December). Early adolescence: The physical transition. FWTAO newsletter.

Caissy, G. (1987a, January). Early adolecscence: A time of stormy emotions. FWTAO newsletter.

Caissy, G. (1987b, February/March). Early adolecscence: The social demension. FWTAO newsletter.

Caissy, G. (1987c, June). Early adolecscence: The intellectual domain. FWTAO newsletter.
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68 GA Dota TOC Radiopharmaceutical

Words: 1828 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95871544

Ga DOA OC Radio Pharmaceutical

Neuroendocrine tumors (NE) are neoplasms characterized by tissue immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine differentiation markers, appearance as a small mass that can be off white to yellow often in submucosa and prevalence throughout the body but typically found in the intestine or lungs (Oberg2011). he tumors can be malignant and are typically detected through hormone markers in a first diagnosis (Arnold 2003). Because of the diffuse nature of this type of tumor, detecting and imaging NEs requires scanning and typically requires a contrast agent to detect the location of tumors in tissue (an 2011). Many NE cells possess an overexpression of somatostatin receptors on their surface (Kwekkeboom 2005, VenEssen 2007). Somatostatin receptors are cell surface proteins that bind to somatostatin, a growth hormone inhibiting hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation (Florio 2002). he overexpressed somatostatin receptors can be used to both…… [Read More]

Tan, E.H.; Tan, C. (2011). Imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, World Journal of Clinical Oncology 2 (1) 28.

VanEssen, M. Krenning, EP., DeJong, M., Valkema, R., Kwekkeboom, D.J. (2007) Peptide receptor radionucleotide therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues in patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumors, Acta Oncology 46, 723-734

Veliklyan, I. Xu, H. Nair, M. Hall, H. Robust labeling and comparative preclinical characterization of DOTA-TOC and DOTA TATE. Nuclear Medicine Biology 18, 123-128.
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Reducing Stress Through Intentional Measures

Words: 1419 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12125227

stress conjures up different things for different people, yet stress is a universal: everyone experiences stress throughout their life. Stress can be both good and bad depending on how it impacts the person who is experiencing the stress, and what other variables are present in the person's life at the time. Stress can result from positive happy events in people's lives, such as when a new baby is born. Stress can also result from negative contexts or conditions over which people do not have control. Some types of stress and some ways of responding to stress are associated with higher levels of disease. Naturally, on the flip side, some ways of responding to stress actually serve to reduce the stress and the negative impact that the stress has on the individual person. Regardless of what people would like to believe or deny, stress impacts every aspect of people's lives: emotional,…… [Read More]

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Statistical Procedures in the New

Words: 862 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43247590

Thus, the researchers concluded that environmental factors were part of the overall equation, determined by comparing the amount of phthalates in those girls who live close to urban areas with factories that manufacture products containing phthalates. One other finding drawn from this sample group was that the levels of phthalates "were significantly higher than the average levels" determined by the CDC (Lee, 2009, Internet).

With the second group of four hundred, the researchers produced similar findings, even though this group preceded the first by some ten years, an indication that phthalates have been in the environment for at least this length of time. Also, via utilizing the one-way ANOVA model, the researchers discovered a correlation between phthalates and IQ which was lower in those girls with heavy exposure to the chemical. However, the researchers admit that this possible link may be simply "cause and effect or an accidental finding" (Lee,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Famoye, Felix and Carl Lee. (2009). "Statistical Procedures." Accessed from  http://calcnet.mth.cmich.edu/org/spss/StaProc.htm .

Lee, Jennifer B. (April 17, 2009). Child obesity is linked to chemicals in plastics. The New

York Times. Internet. May 21, 2009. Accessed from  http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com 

/2009/04/17/child-obesity-is-linked-to-chemicals-in-plastics/?hp.
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Aging Critical Issue in Aging

Words: 3649 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65154410

Suicide ates Among Geriatric Persons

The causes of death among the elderly are traditionally associated with the normal aging process or what would be called natural process, diseases associated with age and the debilitations it can cause. Yet, other factors also contribute to the cause of death an individual might succumb to, widowhood, retirement, forced relocation, and/or loneliness especially around the holidays. (Huyck Hoyer 1982) Still other studies are making it clear that murder and suicide rates are increasing dramatically among the elderly. (cf., Birren, Schaie, 1977) (Nussbaum, Pecchioni, obinson & Thompson, 2000, p. 294) Suicide was the eleventh leading cause of death among persons over the age of 65 in 1982. (iley, 1983, p. 144) Some strides have been made and between the years 1983 and 1998 suicide averaged as the fourteenth leading cause of death for persons over the age of 65, lower than the average for all…… [Read More]

References

Birren, J.E., & Schaie, K.W. (Eds.). (1977). Handbook of the psychology of aging. New York:

Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Coleman, P.G. (1995). 2 Facing the Challenges of Aging: Development, Coping, and Meaning in Life. In Handbook of Communication and Aging Research, Nussbaum, J.F., & Coupland, J. (Eds.) (pp. 39-68). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hudson, C.G., & Cox, A.J. (Eds.). (1991). Dimensions of State Mental Health Policy. New York: Praeger Publishers.
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Biology Function of the Metabolic

Words: 2030 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64208353

d.).

The primary organ that is accountable for regulating metabolism is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is situated on the brain stem and forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle of the cerebrum. The main functions of the hypothalamus is to control and integrate activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), production and regulation of feelings of rage and aggression, regulation of body temperature and regulation of food intake (Graham, 2005).

BM goes down with age and with the loss of lean body mass. Increased muscle mass and cardiovascular exercise can help to increase BM, even when the body is at rest. Measured in calories, metabolic rates vary with exertion, recent food ingestion, muscle exertion, environmental temperature, emotional state, body temperature, pregnancy, menstruation, level of thyroid hormones stress hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine), fear and illness. The human body requires energy in order to stay alive…… [Read More]

References

Basal Metabolic Rate. (2010). Retreived July 22, 2010, from Buzzle Web site:

 http://www.buzzle.com/articles/basal-metabolic-rate.html 

Basal metabolic rate. (2010). Retreived July 22, 2010, from Wellness.com Web site:

http://www.wellness.com/reference/fitness/basal-metabolic-rate/practice-theory-and-evidence
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Leptin Is a Protein Whose

Words: 1506 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21528685

As has been seen in this essay, leptin plays a very important role in not only obesity issues but also related issues. While the results of clinical trials have produced mixed results, there is however room for additional work in assessing the role of leptin, especially that which is administered from without the body. A continued process of discovery associated with leptin is crucial. Its effects on several obesity-related diseases need to be understood in the interest of the public health.

eferences

Bagchi, D., & Preuss, H.G. (2007). Obesity: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and prevention. Boca aton: CC Press.

Castracane, V.D., & Henson, M.C. (2006). Leptin. New York: Springer.

Friedman, J. (2009). Leptin's Legacy. Howard Hughes Medical Institute Bulletin, 16(1).

Friedman, J.M. (2002). The function of leptin in nutrition, weight, and physiology. Nutr ev, 60(10 Pt 2), S1-14; discussion S68-84, 85-17.

ichards, B.J., & ichard, M.G. (2002). Mastering leptin: the key to…… [Read More]

References

Bagchi, D., & Preuss, H.G. (2007). Obesity: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and prevention. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Castracane, V.D., & Henson, M.C. (2006). Leptin. New York: Springer.

Friedman, J. (2009). Leptin's Legacy. Howard Hughes Medical Institute Bulletin, 16(1).

Friedman, J.M. (2002). The function of leptin in nutrition, weight, and physiology. Nutr Rev, 60(10 Pt 2), S1-14; discussion S68-84, 85-17.
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Acupuncture Is a Traditional Chinese

Words: 1506 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70979384

There are many estern doctors who do not accept the traditional views and system of acupuncture but they have realized that it has certain effective aspects. estern doctors have therefore adapted acupuncture and used it as a way of regulating the nervous as well as the endocrine systems. There has also been widespread recognition of the painkilling aspects of acupuncture. hile there is still a general resistance to the deeper implications and world -view that acupuncture represents, yet there is no doubt that it is having an increasing impact on estern forms of medicine and healing praxis.

orks Cited

Acupuncture. May 4, 2007. http://skepdic.com/acupunc.html

American Academy of Medical Acupuncture: General Information. May 4, 2007. http://www.medicalacupuncture.org/acu_info/generalinfo.html

Definition of Allopathic. May 6, 2007. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612

Frequently asked questions. May 4, 2007. http://www.markgoulding.com/gpage.html

Pulse Diagnosis. May 4, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/pulse-diagnosis

The Fairbourne Clinic. May 4, 2007. http://www.fairbourneclinic.co.uk/therapies/acupuncture-Newbury-Berkshire.htm

Traditional Chinese Medicine: NHS. May 4, 2007. http://www.nhsdirectory.org/default.aspx?page=TCM&t=y…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Acupuncture. May 4, 2007. http://skepdic.com/acupunc.html

American Academy of Medical Acupuncture: General Information. May 4, 2007. http://www.medicalacupuncture.org/acu_info/generalinfo.html

Definition of Allopathic. May 6, 2007. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612

Frequently asked questions. May 4, 2007. http://www.markgoulding.com/gpage.html
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Unethical Experimentation Issues and Concerns

Words: 4124 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77212600

(Freyhofer 104)

Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.

Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.

Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.

Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
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Type II Diabetes Prevention While

Words: 4350 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23310470



Medical Conditions -- There are a number of factors that can increase the likelyhood of type-2 diabetes: hypertension, eleveted cholesterol, and a condition called Symdrome X, or metabolic syndrome (combination of obesity, high cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle, stress, and poor diet). Cushing's syndrome, cortisol excess and testosterone deficiency are also associated with the disease. Often, it is a number of co-dependent conditions that seem to give rise to diabetes (Jack & Boseman, 2004).

Genetics -- There is ample evidence that there is a strong inheritable genetic condition in type-2 diabetes. In addition, there is a genetic mutation to the Islet Amyloid Polypeptide gene that results in early onset diabetes (Lee & Hasim, 2001). There is a stronger inheritance pattern for type-2 diabetes with a significant association between family members. Typically, this is excacerbated by cultural and lifestyle factors that, while not inherited, are culturally shared. Gene expression promoted by a diet…… [Read More]

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Stress Definition of Stress Researchers Define Stress

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5991786

Stress

Definition of stress

esearchers define stress as a physical, mental, or emotional response to events that causes bodily or mental tension. Simply put, stress is any outside force or event that has an effect on our body or mind. Acute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting. Acute stress can be episodic or chronic.

Depending on the stressors and the types of changes or events, stress can manifest itself physically, emotionally and/or mentally. Physical stress occurs when the body as a whole starts to suffer as a result of a stressful situation. Symptoms can manifest in a variety of ways and vary in their seriousness. Emotional stress are responses due to stress affecting the mind…… [Read More]

References

AIS (NDI). Stress, definition of stress, stressor, what is stress?, Eustress?" The American institute of stress. Retrieved October10, 2011, from http://www.stress.org/topic-definition-stress.htm

Barr, N. (2008, August 14) What stress does to your body. Marie Claire. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.marieclaire.com/health-fitness/news/stress-effects-body

Mayo Clinic Staff (2010). Stress symptoms: Effects on your body, feelings and behavior. American psychological association's "Stress in America report." Mayo Clinic. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-symptoms/SR00008_D

Miller, L.H. & Smith, A.D. (1993). Stress: The different kinds of stress. American psychlolgical association. In The Stress Solution. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-kinds.aspx
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Is the Ankle Sprained Broken or Dislocated

Words: 856 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45710204

Musculoskeletal Examination

Is the ankle swollen?

Does it hurt when you do not put pressure on it?

How did you hurt your ankle in the past?

Was it a tear or a sprain or a break?

Does your ankle look twisted?

Is there any numbness in your ankle?

Are you able to put any weight at it all, or is it impossible to put any weight on it?

Is there any bruising?

You did not hear a cracking sound, it was distinctly a popping sound?

Can you describe the pain when you put pressure on it from 1-10: 1 being hardly any pain and 10 being intolerable?

Can you roll your foot around from side to side?

Can you move your foot at all if you hold your leg out from where you are seated?

Differential Diagnoses:

The differential diagnosis consists of a likely high ankle sprain. The popping sound…… [Read More]

References

Lynch, S. (2012). Assessment of the injured ankle in the athlete. Journal of Athletic

Training, 37(4): 406-412.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2015). HIPPA privacy rule and sharing information related to mental health. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/hipaa/for-professionals/special-topics/mental-health/index.html

Walker, H., Hall, W., Hurst, J. (2015). Clinical Methods. Boston: Butterworths.
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Analyzing Healthcare Cultural Assessment

Words: 5773 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24073629

cultural diversity issues and its impact on nursing professionals' practice. It assesses a client hailing from a different culture, and employs information derived from the assessment determining and reflecting on health practices and beliefs of the client's culture. Lastly, nurses' role in the care of patients hailing from diverse backgrounds care is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn.

Client Interview Data

Client's health beliefs in relation to cultural diversity

The client comes from a family-focused background, in which she plays the role of chief household organizer and attends to her family and their needs. She believes one ought to lead a life of a good and virtuous individual, and support one's family, particularly in times of need. In her opinion, sickness must be tended to, for preserving life. She believes in healthcare professionals and services they offer, for leading a healthy life. She is comfortable having healthcare professionals take care…… [Read More]

References

American Nurses Association. (1998). Discrimination and Racism in Health Care. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.

Anderson, L. (2012, October 10). Cultural Competence in the Nursing Practice. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://www.nursetogether.com/cultural-competence-nursing-practice

Coe, S. (2013, January 15). Cultural Competency in the Nursing Profession. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://www.nursetogether.com/cultural-competency-nursing-profession

Graue, M., Dunning, T., Hausken, M. F., & Rokne, B. (2013). Challenges in managing elderly people with diabetes in primary care settings in Norway. Scand J Prim Health Care, 31(4), 241-247.
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Biology of Psychology

Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8505585

Biopsychology

What is the overall point of the chapter?

The overall point of the chapter is that human psychology is a function of many complex interrelationships between the physiology of the brain and related systems (i.e. The endocrine system) and elements of conscious perception. Human perception and behavior comprises both "hardwired" biological components and "software" components in the form of conditioning. Neither physiology alone nor environmental conditioning alone explains or controls all human behavior. Both aspects of behavior contribute to behavior and perception simultaneously throughout our lives. The physiological processes that are responsible for perception and behavior are features of human evolutionary anatomy and they represent genetic influences in the same way that other aspects of human behavior (i.e. physical abilities, etc.) also depend on physical traits and on conditioning. Biology may set certain limits and establish certain predispositions but experiential conditioning is equally important.

2. What are 3 core…… [Read More]

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How to Treat Diabetes

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75648859

There are various types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body fails to produce adequate amounts of insulin. It most often is found in children and young adults which is why it is now referred to as juvenile diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when cells fail to respond to insulin. This subtle distinction makes a great deal of difference in terms of treating the two types of diabetes (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2006). It is also worth noting that type 2 diabetes tends to set in later in life, typically around middle age, though it can occur earlier. Moreover, 90% of all diabetes cases are type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnant women who have never had diabetes but who have high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Nearly one in ten women is at risk of developing gestational diabetes.…… [Read More]

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Rbst in the Milk Supply

Words: 1347 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79198666

Farms that contain the r-BST free labeling are typically from single farms that do their own proprietary retail packaging.

The study concluded that there were no differences in antibiotic levels in the milk samples. The purpose of the study stated, "the objective of this study was to compare these endpoints for conventional, rbST-free, and organic milk.," (Vicini, Etherton, & Etherton et al., p. 1199). By the time conclusions were drawn, the topic of rBST and organic milk, as stated in the research objectives, had been completely abandoned and replaced by conclusions regarding antibiotics, which are required to be zero for any milk, regardless of origin, that ends up on retail shelves.

The only studies that are provided to the public, and which are the basis of policy decisions, are highly suspect due to the financial interests between Monsanto and the research laboratory. The sampling techniques used, invalidate the conclusions drawn.…… [Read More]

References

Kroger. (2008). "Kroger to Complete Transition to Certified Rbst-Free Milk by Early 2008." Retrieved December 19, 2008 at  http://www.thekrogerco.com/corpnews/corpnewsinfo_pressreleases_08012007.htm 

FDA (n.d.)"Report on the Food and Drug Administration's Review of the Safety of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin." Retrieved December 19, 2008 at http://www.fda.gov/cvm/RBRPTFNL.htm

RBST-Facts.com (n.d.). The facts about rBST. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at  http://www.rbstfacts.org/ .

Monsanto. (2007). www.monsantodairy.comMonsanto. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at http://www.monsantodairy.com/about/general_info/index.html.
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Stressed Memories APA Citation Stressed Memories in

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6108766

Stressed Memories (APA Citation)

Stressed Memories

In the article titled "Stressed Memories: How Acute Stress Affects Memory Formation in Humans" researchers studied the hypothesis that acute stress can improve the formation of memory in the human brain. According to the authors, "Information encoded into memory during stressful experiences is generally well remembered." (Henckens, 2009, p.10111) In other words, what people experience during stressful or traumatic events is better remembered than experiences that occur under normal, or non-stressful conditions. The researchers in this article wanted to study the affects of stress on memory formation and determine the physiological processes that occur in the brain.

The study participants consisted of eighteen right-handed male volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 31 years with a median age of 22 years. There were a number of criteria which excluded participants including "history of head injury, treatment with psychotropic medications, narcotics, B-blockers, steroids, or any…… [Read More]

References

Henchens, Marloes, et al. (2009). "Stressed Memories: How Acute Stress Affects

Memory Formation in Humans." Journal of Neuroscience 29(32), 10111-10119.

Retrieved from  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/32/10111.full
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Regulations of Urine Output Through Hormones

Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41098157

Hormonal egulation of Urine

Human beings are made of 75% water. The huge percentage of water in the human body is attributed to the constant need to sustain fluid balance through drinking water. However, the quantity of ingested water needs to be balanced with the amount and concentration of urine generated so as to regulate the volume of fluid and osmolarity within an ordinary range. Urine is formed in the human body through three major processes that occur in the nephrons i.e. glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and turbular secretion (McCann et. al., 2002, p.605). The quantities of substances reabsorbed and secreted in the nephrons are varied by the kidneys, which contributes to changes in the composition of excreted urine.

Urine output or excretion is usually regulated by several hormones that also play a crucial role in regulation of urine. Vasopressin is one of the hormones that regulate urine output and…… [Read More]

References

McCann et. al. (2002). Illustrated manual of nursing practice (3rd ed.). Springhouse, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

McCann et. al. (2007). Straight A's in anatomy & physiology: a review series. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Rubin, R.H. & Pfaff, D.W. (2010). Hormone/behavior relations of clinical importance: endocrine systems interacting with brain and behavior. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc.
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Endocrinology Amazing Hormones Counterbalance of Sugar and

Words: 2340 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87661716

Endocrinology

AMAZING HORMONES

Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon

Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (owen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (owen).

Insulin and Glucagon

The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Biomed (2002). Insulin/glucagons. Brown University. Retrieved on November 25, 2013

from http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/B1108/B1108_2002_Groups/pancstems/stemcell/insulin_glucagon.htm

Bowen, R.A. (2001). Hormones, receptors and control systems. University of Colorado.

Retrieved on November 25, 2013 from  http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/index.html
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Born to Be Big Childhood

Words: 2102 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85178688

People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.

There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…… [Read More]

References

Adler, N.E., & Stewart, J. (2009). Reducing obesity: motivating action while not blaming the victim. Milbank Quarterly 87 (1), pp. 49-70. Retrieved from Academic Search

Premier database December 29, 2010.

Baillie-Hamilton, P.F. (2002). Chemical toxins: a hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 8 (2), pp. 185-192.

DOI: 10.1089/107555302317371479. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database December 29, 2010.
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Galectin-1 in the Regulation of

Words: 4060 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10094274



The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)

Muscle atrophy

Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)

All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…… [Read More]

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Adolescent Obesity in Saudi Arabia

Words: 3430 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52239278



There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors and has a number of possible poor consequences.

Mabrey et al. (2010) note that metabolic syndrome is on average 10 to 15% higher in the GCC states than in the rest of world and that females are disproportionately affected by metabolic syndrome. These researchers are among those who note that a strictly medical approach to such medical problems is far from sufficient. For while metabolic syndrome itself can be identified and described in purely medical terms, such an approach does…… [Read More]

References

Abraham, S. & Nordsieck, M. (1960). Relationship of excess weight in children and adults. Public Health 75: 263-273.

Alghamdi, K.M. (2010). The use of topical bleaching agents among women: A cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and practices. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24(10): 1214-1219.

Al-Qahtani, D.A., Imtiaz, M.L., Saad, O.S., & Hussein, N.M. (2006). A comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi adult females using two definitions. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 4(3): 204-214.

Al Qauhiz, N.M. (2010). Obesity among Saudi Female University Students: Dietary Habits and Health Behaviors. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 85(1-2):45-59.
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Autonomy Abuse and the Hippocampus

Words: 2602 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67428134

Current brain imaging surveys and other experiments also present evidence that child abuse could permanently damage neural structure and the functioning of the developing brain itself (Carloff).

Cohen (2001) discusses the merits of art therapy with its innate therapeutic qualities, which simultaneously activate the nervous system, the brain, the endocrine and the immune system in a uniquely particular way to support effective clinical management. Psycho-neuroendoimmunology connects an unregulated stress response to health, with stress as the underlying neurological dynamics of psychological and behavioral symptoms. Stress triggers an adaptive sympathetic nervous system response aimed at maintaining an optional state of functioning. This nervous system regulates the fight, flight, or freeze response to stress, which in turn provides the energy for survival and temporarily sharpens memory and brain function. Nature intends the use of this sympathetic adaptive response for survival, but the external reality is that our daily lives or urban environment…… [Read More]

References

1. Al-Kurdi, H. (2006). Messing with Our Minds. Dirty Tricks, Inc. VOXNYC.  http://www.voxfux.com/features/mind_control_child_abuse_cover_up.html 

2. Bower, B. (1996). Small Hippocampus Linked to Higher Risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Science News: Science Service, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n20_v149/ai_18319734

3. Brick, N.D. (2005). How Childhood Sexual Abuse Affects Interpersonal Relations. Smart News. http://members.aol.com/smartnews/howchildhoodsa.htm

4. Carloff, A. (2002). Child Abuse and Damage. Punkerslut.  http://www.punkerslut.com/articles/childabuse.html
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Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33544989

Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal Physiology During His Stunts

The objective of this study is to examine how Houdini was able to modulate his normal physiology during his stunts.

Harry Houdini caused the world to marvel at his skill in escaping the bondage of handcuffs and was referred to as the 'handcuff king' and as well Houdini performed many other magic tricks that required more than merely illusion but instead required that he be able to alter his own body's physiology. The modulation of physiology enabled Houdini to accomplish great feats and to capture the imagination and attention of a large base of fans across many years. Houdini is well-known for having spent a great deal of time and effort to invalidate individuals who were so-called mediums communicating with the dead because he detested this type of trickery.

Modulation of Physiology

The modulation of physiology is similar to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Randi, James (2001) My Heroes, The Pale Blue Dot, Houdini's Last Stunt. SWIFT. Online Newsletter of the JREP. 28 Dec 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.randi.org/jr/122801.html

Shermer, Michael (2001) Houdini's Skeptical Advice: Just Because Something's Unexplained Doesn't Mean It's Supernatural. Scientific American. 4 Feb 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=houdinis-skeptical-advice

Seabourne, Tom Dr. (nd) Breathing and Heart Rate Control. Universal Nutrition. Retrieved from:  http://www.universalnutrition.com/features/breathingheartrate.html
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Von Hippel-Lindau Von Hippel Lindau Disease Von

Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45262901

Von Hippel-Lindau

Von Hippel Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…… [Read More]

References

He's FJ, Hoppener JW, Lips CJ (2003). Clinical review 155: pheochromocytoma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 88: 969 -- 974.

Johnston LB, Chew SL, Trainer PJ, Reznek R, Grossman AB, Besser GM, Monson JP, Savage MO (2000). Screening children at risk of developing inherited endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 52: 127 -- 136.

Lindau A (1927). On the question of angiomatosis retinae and your brain complicatio. Acta Ophthalmol; 4: 193 -- 226.

Lonser R, Glenn G, Walther M, Chew EY, Libutti SK, Linehan WM, et al. (2003). Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Lancet;361:2059-67.
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Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments 10-Year Critical

Words: 14685 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28105173

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments: 10-Year Critical eview of the esearch Literature

Over ten million teenagers in the United States admit in a national survey that they drink alcohol, although it is illegal under the age of 21 in all states. In some studies, nearly one-quarter of school-age children both smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol. Over four thousand adolescents every day try marijuana for the first time. The dangers of use, abuse and dependency on each of these substances have been established. When we also consider that these three substances are considered gateway drugs, that is, drugs whose use is likely to lead to experimentation with "hard" drugs, the potential problem of such widespread use is even more severe. Additionally, use of these substances is known to co-occur with a number of other psychiatric conditions as well as health issues such as the incidence of sexually-transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies and…… [Read More]

References

Aarons, Gregory A.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hough, Richard L.; Garland, Ann F.; Wood, Patricia A. Prevalence of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders Across Five Sectors of Care (Statistical Data Included). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, April 2001 v40 i4 p419

Adger, Hoover Jr.; Werner, Mark J. The pediatrician (role in treatment of alcohol-related disorders). Alcohol Health and Research World, Spring 1994 v18 n2 p121 (6)

Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Symptoms of Adolescents. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence of the San Fernando Valley, Inc. [Online]. Retrieved January 20, 2003 from http:/ / www.ncadd-sfv.org/symptoms/teen_symptoms.html

Alcohol use and abuse: a pediatric concern (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Abuse). Pediatrics, March 1995 v95 n3 p439 (4)
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Stress Response Associated With Cardiac Bypass Surgery and Anesthesia Concerns

Words: 2550 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88266403

Cardiac Stress Response: The Use of Anesthetic Technique to Promote Positive Outcome; Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Technique

Cardiac surgery by nature elicits a powerful stress response resulting from activation of stress hormones including epinephrine, norpinephine and cortisol hormones among others. Surgical trauma and blood loss may contribute to this stress response. Some surgeons have suggested that cardio pulmonary bypass surgery in and of itself activates an inflammatory response that results in a stress reaction.

The role of the anesthesiologist in cardiac surgery is to as much extent as possible, to reduce the stress response that results form cardiac surgery. Stress response can be mitigated by a variety of anesthetic technique, including use of opioids and epidural anesthesia. These ideas are explored in greater detail below.

Cardiac Stress Response: The Use of Anesthetic Technique to Promote Positive Outcome; Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Technique

INTRODUCTION stress response may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cook, Richard I. "Adapting to New Technology in the Operating Room." Human Factors, Vol. 38, 1996.

Cook, R.I., Woods, D.D., Howie, M.B., Horrow, J.C. & Gaba, D.M. (1992). "Unintentional delivery of vasoactive drugs with an electromechanical infusion device." Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 6, 238-244.

Cuschieri, R.J., Morran, C.G., Howie, J.C., & McArdle, C.S. (1985). "Postoperative pain a dpulmonary complications: comparison of three analgesic regimens." British Journal of Surgery, 72, 495-499.

Glaser, J., Kiecolt-Glaser, MacCallum P., Marucha, P., & Page, G. "Psychological Influences on Surgical Recovery: Perspectives from Psychoneuroimmunology." American Psychologists, Vol. 53, 1998.
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Problems With American Boys

Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70212762

Boys Adrift

Book Critique on the book boys adrift

Book critique: Boys Adrift

For many years, there was a great deal of concern expressed about the poor performance of girls in schools. Although girls often excelled during the early grades, boys tended to edge out girls in terms of grades and on standardized tests, particularly in the sciences and math. However, girls have begun to catch up with their male counterparts in the wake of the influence of the feminist movement, which has profoundly changed the ways in which women are educated and viewed by the educational system. Now women are beginning to surpass their male counterparts according to some indicators such as college attendance. Women have not yet become able to earn as much money as men for the same work but their role in society has clearly changed. This has provoked a great deal of anxiety amongst some…… [Read More]

Reference

Sax, L. (2009). Boys Adrift. Basic Books.
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Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders of Motility

Words: 1287 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24499898

For example, in some patients, the stomach is unable to defend itself from the caustic nature of the acid, which creates lesions in the lining, called gastric ulcers.

How Age Might Impact the Pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and Gastritis?

GERD:

Most patients with GERD suffer from symptoms of other conditions such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) which produces pain, abdominal distress, and the need for frequent bowel movements (Gasiorowska 2009,-page 1829). GERD is more prevalent with patients who are over the age of forty although it has been found in patients much younger than this. Pregnant women or those who have other medical conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract, such as diabetes or hiatal hernia, are more likely to develop GERD. Age is a major factor as some of the preconditions for GERD such as slower stomach emptying come naturally age. There are three tests which have been traditionally used…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gasiorowska, A., Poh, C.H., & Fass, R. (2009). Gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) -- is it one disease or an overlap of two disorders? Digestive Diseases and Sciences. Springer. 54(1829). 1829-34.

Kahrilas, P. (2003, November). GERD pathogenisis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations. Cleveland Clinical Journal of Medicine. 70(5). S4-S19.

Kulber, D.A., Hartunian, S., Schiller, D., & Morgenstern, L. (1990, December). The current spectrum of peptic ulcer disease in the older age groups. The American Surgeon. Southeastern Surgical Congress: Atlanta, GA.

Peters, G., Rosselli, J., & Kerr, J. (2010). Overview of peptic ulcer disease. Jobson Publishing.
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Adipose Cells the Medical and

Words: 1574 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67763648

"Given the rising prevalence of obesity with age in both childhood and adult life, the prevalence of adult obesity cannot be predicted from childhood data, but increasing childhood obesity heralds a greater health burden in adult life"(James & al 2001, p. 232S). Thus, the future focus is on child obesity and how it can be treated to bring well-being for the adult.

esearch for adipose cells is not at the beginning, but has become increasingly intensive in the last years. Obesity is rapidly spreading across the globe but all the scientific breakthroughs won't do magic in the presence of disinterest and neglect towards the human body, so the first step should come from each individual.

eferences:

Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15

Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33,…… [Read More]

References:

Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15

Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 776-782

Gomillion, CT & Burg, KJL 2006, "Stem cells and adipose tissue engineering," Biomaterials, no. 27, pp. 6052 -- 606

Greenberg, AS & Obin, MS 2006, "Obesity and the role of adipose tissue in inflammation and metabolism," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 461-465
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Melatonin and the Pineal Gland

Words: 2598 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19486196

Melatonin & the Pineal Gland

The focus of this work is to examine melatonin and the pineal gland. Towards this end, this study examines the literature in this area of study and reports on the findings. The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland hormonal activity "is influenced by both the dark-light cycle and the seasonal cycle, causing it to play an important role in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive physiology."

Melatonin & The Pineal Gland

The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arendt, Josephine (1998) Melatonin and the pineal gland: in-uence on mammalian seasonal and Bercemi, N. et al. (2004) Melatonin for Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Summary: Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: Number 108. Retrieved from: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/melatsum.htm

Borijgin, J. And Snyder SH (1999) The pineal gland and melatonin: molecular and pharmacologic regulation. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1999;39:53-65.

Bowen, R. (2003) The Pineal Gland and Melatonin. Other Endocrine Tissues and Hormones 17 Mar 2003 Rerieved from:  http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/otherendo/pineal.html  circadian physiology. Reviews of Reproduction 3; 13-22. Retrieved from:  http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/revreprod/3/1/13.full.pdf 

Summation -- Fluoride and Pineal Gland (2012) Fluoride Action Network. Retried from: http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/pineal/