(Sims & Haggerty, Description section, 2006, ¶ 2).
A Palpable Goiter's Presence
The journal article, "Hyperthyroidism" (N.d.), explains that a goiter denotes the enlargement of the thyroid gland. The majority of individuals with a goiter will not likely realize it, until the goiter grows to a visible or palpable size, as a goiter may develop to enormous size prior to producing symptoms of compression. Frequently, a low iodine supply in the diet contributes to the development of a goiter. In areas of the world where dietary iodine is low, doctors note a larger number of patients with goiters. The thyroid gland implements this defense mechanism to maintain balance with the body's need for thyroid hormones
As a goiter may be associated with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, to rule out the abnormal functioning of the thyroid, the doctor orders blood tests. After these tests, the doctor will determines if the need for…… [Read More]
Endocrine / Nervous System
Based on Tanya's symptoms, and especially her out of shape condition, she is presumably showing signs of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, or insulin-resistant diabetes. Tanya is unlikely to have Type 1, an autoimmune condition in which the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are killed off, as this manifests itself predominantly in children. While Type 1 can appear in an adult, Type 2 is very frequently caused by poor dietary and exercise habits like Tanya exhibits.
Tanya's blood has a high level of sugar (hyerglycemia) but her cells are starved of sugar. This is due to the mechanics of Type 2 Diabetes, in which the body produces the hormone insulin -- which is responsible for the regulation of delivering glucose as fuel for cells (such as muscle or fat cells, which cannot absorb glucose without the action of insulin) -- but the cells themselves become resistant to…… [Read More]
Hormone (or endocrine) disruptors interfere with the normal functioning of the endocrine system. They can: mimic a natural hormone and thus fool the body into responding a certain way, interfere with the reception of hormones by hormone receptors, directly alter a hormone and impede its function, cause the body to overproduce or under produce natural hormones, or decrease or increase the number of hormone receptors. These effects are especially potent during prenatal development, when even minute exposure to hormones can severely disrupt the normal development process. Potential hormone disruption effects include abnormalities of the reproductive system, birth defects, behavioral changes, depressed immune systems, and lowered intelligence. (Pettit, 2000, p. 413)
Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to equire Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic…… [Read More]
e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…… [Read More]
The circulatory or cardiovascular system is responsible for moving nutrients, wastes and gases between body cells, transporting blood across the whole body and battling disease (Circulatory System). Its principal elements are the heart, numerous blood vessels, and blood.
The heart forms the circulatory system's core. This 2-sided, 4-chambered pump which distributes blood to various arteries comprises of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria. The ventricles, situated within the heart's lower half, are responsible for pumping blood to the whole body (away from our heart), whilst the atria, situated within the heart's upper half are in charge of receiving blood from different parts of the human body. The right and left ventricles pump de-oxygenated and oxygenated blood, respectively; de-oxygenated blood is pumped to lungs while oxygenated blood is pumped to the remainder of the human body (smith, 2013). These 4 chambers are connected to one another by…… [Read More]
ole of Autoimmunity in Three Endocrine Disorders
A number of endocrine illnesses are immune mediated and can now be reliably predicted. Autoimmune disorders can occur in a person and people related to them. Families with history of autoimmunity, and has had antibody screening done, becomes aware of those that carry such risk. Knowing the prevalence of such disorders and the diseases associated with them can help in early diagnosis and prevent them from becoming more serious. Autoimmunity affects several glands in the body. Studies reveal that alleles are very important in the determination of tissue-specific targeting (Aaron W. Michels & George S. Eisenbarth, 2010).
The Process of Autoimmunity
Autoimmunity is necessary for the body to maintain its health by countering effects of external virulent and organic attacks. It involves regulatory networks that provide the body with immunity against infection. It has not yet been determined why instances arise where autoimmunity…… [Read More]
Osmoregulation is the process, by which the body adjusts to a change in an environment of different water volume and amount of solutes in a cells and body fluid of organisms including vertebrates. Vertebrates are animals, which have a backbone, and can be warm either blooded or cold blooded. The body of such organisms adjusts in order to maintain the body balance both inside and outside their bodies in mild and harsh environments ranging from seawater, fresh water, and terrestrial habitats to very hostile environments. Endocrine glands found in such organisms play a major role in constant and persistent regulation of body balance, which secretes hormones directly into the blood whenever the body witnesses any environmental change (Bentley 45).
Endocrine glands present in vertebrates play a major role in controlling the level of water and salt in vertebrate's bodies. Hormones produced in vertebrates play a major role…… [Read More]
Organ Systems: The Pituitary Gland
The pituitary gland, according to Davies (2007), "is a pea-sized endocrine gland at the base of the brain," linked to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum. It is divided into several parts; i.e. The anterior lobe (front part) and the posterior lobe (back part). The anterior lobe secretes seven hormones that are essentially responsible for the regulation of a number of activities that take place in the human body - from reproduction to growth. Of the seven, five are tropic hormones (induce other glands to secrete hormones). The pituitary gland secretes only two hormones. The targets and effects of the nine are presented in the table below.
The Anterior Pituitary
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Involved in the stimulation of the cortex of the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol regulates blood pressure and blood sugar levels, as well…… [Read More]
Myxedema is a potentially deadly endocrine regulation disease that usually arises in connection with pre-existing hypothyroidism, when the normal homeostatic mechanisms for responding to hypothyroidism are overwhelmed. It occurs most often in elderly women, and is usually characterized by swelling of the skin and other soft tissues (Wall, 2000).
The thyroid gland is central to homeostatic metabolic functions, and operates as part of a complex feedback loop involving both the pituitary and hypothalamus to control essential elements of fluid and electrolyte balance and thermoregulation. Under normal conditions, the hypothalamus influences pituitary hormonal output of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) via the secretion of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TH). Virtually any disruption of the precise functioning of these individual glands, or their complex interrelationships can precipitate conditions of hyperthyroidism and Grave's Disease or hypothyroidism and myxedema (MedicineNet, 2002).
Classic symptoms of myxedema include facial puffiness caused by subcutaneous accumulation of mucoploysaccharide, coarsening or…… [Read More]
This system results in stable blood concentrations of the hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland (Reiser and Kemp, p.1).
This complex system of self-regulation means that there are multiple opportunities for the glands to stop working properly.
The hypothalamus, which is located in the brain, is, in many ways, the control center of the endocrine system. The hypothalamus secretes hormones that, in turn, either suppress or stimulate hormone release by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland then uses the messages it receives from the hypothalamus to govern its secretion of stimulating hormones to other glands in the endocrine system. The pituitary gland sends messages to other glands in the endocrine system, as well as producing important hormones that regulate bodily functions without requiring the intervention of other glands. The hormones produced by the pituitary gland include: growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating…… [Read More]
The nervous system is a part of an animal's body which is responsible for the coordination of voluntary and involuntary actions as well as the transmission of signals between different parts of the body. It is responsible for sending, receiving and the processing of nerve impulses all over the body. All the organs and muscles within the body rely upon the nerve impulses in order for them to function. The nervous system receives information from sense organs regarding the environment by means such as hearing, sight, smell, pressure, taste and pain. The nervous system consists of tow main parts; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system comprises of the brain and the spinal cord. It is surrounded by the bone-skull and the vertebrae. The peripheral nervous system comprises of numerous neurons which are its functional units. The central nervous system is responsible for…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
Behavioral approaches alone or combined cognitive behavior therapy may be used. Behavioral techniques might include simply not buying trigger foods or avoiding certain shops; that is, building up new habits to replace existing ones. Another example would be modifying eating behavior such as eating in the same place each day, or concentrating solely on eating and not watching television at the same time (Fiona Mantle, 2003)."
It is worth noting here that research has shown that people will change and transform their eating habits, once they learn the advantages and disadvantages of their eating behavioral patterns. However, at the same time, it is also worth noting here that since eating habits can be transformed through learning, they can also be unlearned, however, the process of unlearning may take place through a lengthy passage of time. As Fiona Mantle (2003) writes, "Eating behaviors are learned behaviors therefore they can be unlearned,…… [Read More]
S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More]
Therefore, this explains why stress would have such an effect on the immune functions of the body, at least from the perspective of someone who is doing an evolutionary investigation into the issue of the reasons why we see these phenomena occur.
Thus, psychoneuroimmunology is one of the most important and fastest growing areas of medicine to bridge the gap between neurological theory and medicinal practice. The literature is quickly evolving and changing. Indeed, there is an increasing hope that this field may be the one to deliver on the promise of the discovery of "the scientific foundations for a new type of treatment whose essence is to combat disease by strengthening the body's own defenses against stress" ("Association for the Advancement of Applied Psychoneuroimmunology"):
What is of importance is not whether we have our emotional ups and downs, but rather that lingering unresolved emotions and inflexible ways of coping,…… [Read More]
Health Letter to Friend
Hormone problems. Who can't relate to those these days? People talk a lot about symptoms like high blood pressure, emotional ups and down, obesity, all of which might well be related to serious medical concerns that come with our age, or that might be caused by stress or junk food!
Which means you are right to have questions and a bit of anxiety. Some hormone conditions (minor or severe) need attention because they tell us how well the endocrine system is in balance -- and it's the endocrine system that influences how the body works and how different parts of our system function together. So the balance is important.
But hormone imbalances can vary a lot, and it takes information to figure out what's wrong. Diabetes (or being overweight), reproduction problems, infertility, thyroid conditions, high blood pressure, poor cholesterol levels and even lipids (not putting on…… [Read More]
Alcohol is classified as a depressant because it slows down the release of neurochemicals that inhibit certain behaviors. The subjective feelings associated with alcohol intoxication are due to its effects on the brain and central nervous system but that system also controls our behaviors. The depression of certain neurotransmitters often reduces reflex time and reduces general inhibitions.
The digestive system is also strongly affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol is absorbed almost entirely by the small intestine, from where the alcohol seeps into the blood. The liver is strongly affected by the absorption of alcohol and is in fact the main organ responsible for metabolizing alcohol. hen too much alcohol is consumed, the liver becomes overtaxed and cannot filter the toxins from the body as fast as it normally can. Over the long-term, the liver can become permanently damaged from too much alcohol consumption.
The heart and circulatory system are also…… [Read More]
Physiological Changes Associated With Aging
Aging is the complex and inevitable process of tissue and organ system degeneration. Though largely influenced by genetics, aging is also dependent upon a number of environmental factors including exercise, diet, childhood personality, and exposure to ionizing radiation, pollutants, or microorganisms. The physiological changes that occur as an individual's age advances can be grouped into three, with the first category encompassing changes in such homeostatic mechanisms as extracellular fluid volumes, blood, and temperature; the second encompassing changes related to decreasing organ mass; and the third, changes in the body's functional reserve systems. Promoting the health of an aging population is crucial not only because it ensures the well-being of ageing individuals, but also because it significantly reduces the burden imposed upon a country's medical system. It is with this in mind that this text collates knowledge and research to examine, in a deeper sense, the…… [Read More]
Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment
Drinking water and wastewater contamination pose a significant threat to the public health sector. The contaminants affect the society in various ways, including causing diseases, developmental and growth problems. The causes of the problem are identifiable and can be managed by using the most applicable strategies. As such, necessities for the adoption of strategies that will help identify the contributing factors, results and adopt effective strategies that will prevent and reduce waterway pollution. Therefore, the research provides analysis on the effects, studies, and recommendations appropriate in reducing drinking water and wastewater contamination.
A number of chemicals play a significant role in influencing human activities of the daily living. They enable the development of new technologies and improve the standards and quality of life. Because of the widespread use of technology, chemicals enter the environment. Although, it is unintentional in…… [Read More]
http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1)
There is no credible evidence about this statement. It must be noted that it is extremely illegal, not only in the U.S. But also to other or even milk-producing countries, for penicillin to be used specifically in low-level doses in the feed. In fact, penicillin is only use via injection, in concentrated doses, and only if the animals to be injected are sick or with high fever. Penicillin doses are usually once or twice only and the particular animal which has been injected with such medication is separated from other animals and would not be harvested within a certain period. This is to ensure that there is no penicillin residues left in any system or body parts of the animal http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1).
Moreover, as of latest survey, only 1% (or even less) of the cattle have recorded to ever had any doses of penicillin. Cattleman's Beef…… [Read More]
Homeostasis, according to Nirmalan and Nirmalan (2017), is the propensity for living organisms to maintain relative stability in the internal environment. Homeostasis is made possible through the cooperation of several regulatory mechanisms and separate sub-systems which make up the normal physiology of a living organism (Nirmalan & Nirmalan, 2017). During critical illnesses internal or external stress can make an attempt at interfering with the self-regulation systems beyond what is considered as normal range in physiology. According to Palaparthi and Med (2017), the word homeostasis is derived from two Greek words i.e. ‘homeo’ (stands for similar) and ‘stasis’ (standing for stable). Homeostasis is the balance, equilibrium and the stability of the body or of the cell (Palaparthi & Med, 2017). Living organisms exhibit this character. The process of maintaining stability in the internal environment necessitates occasional internal adjustments as the environmental conditions continue to change outside and inside the…… [Read More]
role of hormones in the control of body fuel/energy mechanism has been appreciated for close to a century (Dzamko & Steinberg,2009). This concept was identified by the groundbreaking findings by the scientists, Banting et al. (1922) that the hormone, insulin could effectively restore euglycaemia. This paper seeks to give an in depth understanding of metabolism by definition and gives the various component of metabolism and finally the hormonal influence of metabolism. This paper looks into the various substrates that are influence the hormonal actions in fuel metabolism, circumstances under which they occur and the various pathways followed during these metabolisms (Becker, 2001). The intermediary compounds are also considered to the effect. In conclusion, the paper discuses the medical conditions that would arise once these hormones fail to act.
Metabolism is a biological process that takes place in living organisms throughout their lives, once metabolism stops the individuals automatically dies. A…… [Read More]
What is Cnidaria? What is it made up of? Who are the members that belong to his group? Cnidaria is an exclusively aquatic phylum. It is a group that is represented by the members, who are also called 'polyps', and these are sea anemones and corals, and also by 'medusae', which are creatures like the jellyfish. In general, both a polypoid as well as a medusoid cnidarian will be either radially or biradially symmetrical and it is an uncephalized animal with one single body opening, which is the mouth. Stinging capsules, which are embedded in the tentacles that are placed around the mouth, generally surrounds the mouth. These stinging capsules are also known as 'nematocysts', and these are capable of acting both as agents of defense as well as of offense. The most important distinguishing feature of a phylum is the presence of the intrinsic nematocysts, and in turn,…… [Read More]
Dermatology- The dermatology department deals mostly with skin related illnesses. The most common issues within this department pertain to skin, scalp, hair and nails. Many of our clients are female with more cosmetic needs. Many would like to retain their youthful appearance and believe minor surgery is the best solution. As such, our departments offer many cosmetic treatments including hair removal, hair transplants, laser therapy and tattoo removal. This past fiscal year has been quite difficult as many of our affluent clients have postponed treatment due to economic concerns with the U.S. We believe this trend to be transitory in nature, with a steady increase in treatments to occur in early 2012.
Oncology- The oncology department pertains mostly to cancer, its detection and diagnosis. The most common diseases in this department are various forms of cancer with the most common being breast cancer. We have recently overhauled our…… [Read More]
Thyroid Hormone in Carcinoma
The author of this report is asked to review an article and the topic chosen from the acceptable list of topics regards the role and involvement of thyroid hormones in certain disorders. The particular article reviewed for this report focused on the activation of tumor cell proliferation by secretions from the thyroid gland in mice. The specific cancer involved was follicular thyroid carcinoma. Per the requirement of the assignment, the article in question is less than two to three years old. Indeed, it was published last year.
The article starts off by noting that thyroid cancer variants are by far the most common malignancy of the endocrine system in humans. The article notes that the main goal of the research behind the report had the goal of the parallels and similar causes of follicular thyroid carcinoma and thyroid carcinogenesis in general. To prove their…… [Read More]
According to guissinguer (2003) anorectics, "...react to loss of body weight by displaying adaptive responses that originally evolved to facilitate leaving food depleted areas." Discuss.
Anorexia is a disorder attributed to attempts to attain a fashionable shape, but numerous studies suggest that it is possible for psychological and societal factors to contribute in the development of this disorder. According to Kaye et al. (1998), anorexia is a disorder characterized by unusual feeding habits, weight control, perceptions of weight and shape, and the view of body shape. In this context, the people involved diet because they fear gaining weight. Nevertheless, the etiology of anorexia is complex, but numerous studies suggest that social, biological, and developmental process influence its growth.
Interestingly, the manner in which these processes interact to enhance its growth remains a mystery. Apparently, views towards the levels of attractiveness in a given society may influence the psychopathology of…… [Read More]
The author of this report is put in a case study situation where a patient is aging and encountering some health issues. The patient is grumbling that her immediate family has not had the health problems that she has had. Those health problems include a heart attack within the last week, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. She is doing this grumbling while her hygiene is being attended. For the purposes of this story, it is the author of this report that is providing the hygiene and thus must give answers to these grumblings based on the perspective of an informed caregiver. The author is also charged with including the biologic aging theory in the overall answer and the patient's overall care plan. While genetics is indeed a major precursor for many major health issues, it is far from being the only one and this patient…… [Read More]
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues
Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…… [Read More]
Hang Over Effect
A hangover is caused by drinking too much. However, what level of alcohol consumption that triggers a hangover can vary from person to person. For some, a single alcoholic beverage could trigger the effect while in others it can take several drinks. It depends on a range of factors that include items like body mass, whether someone has eaten and what types of foods, general health, alcohol tolerance, and many others. Therefore there is a range of factors that contribute to the onset of a hangover in an individual.
The same can be said of the internal processes in which alcohol influences inside of the body. According to the Mayo clinic the various factors include (Mayo Clinic Staff, N.d.):
Alcohol causes your body to produce more urine.
Alcohol triggers an inflammatory response from your immune system.
Alcohol irritates the lining of your stomach.
Alcohol can cause your…… [Read More]
Farris (1990) cites Glasser's Control Theory as a foundation for developing activities to motivate adolescent learners. Briefly this theory asserts humans have five basic needs: the need for survival, belonging, power, freedom and fun. Effective teachers recognize and respond to students' needs and a critical part of that response lies in helping students accept and maintain that essential control.
Farris (1990) proposes possible classroom responses designed to meet these needs. To satisfy the need to belong a teacher should create a classroom with an accepting atmosphere, create a sense of ownership, recognize student's attempts to be accepted, praise students' performance, teach using groups, and discipline or reprimand in private whenever possible to avoid humiliating students. The need for freedom can be addressed by involving students in rule making, providing opportunities for free expression, encouraging creativity in assignments, and possibly consider eliminating assigned seating. The need for power can be addressed…… [Read More]
Ga DOA OC Radio Pharmaceutical
Neuroendocrine tumors (NE) are neoplasms characterized by tissue immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine differentiation markers, appearance as a small mass that can be off white to yellow often in submucosa and prevalence throughout the body but typically found in the intestine or lungs (Oberg2011). he tumors can be malignant and are typically detected through hormone markers in a first diagnosis (Arnold 2003). Because of the diffuse nature of this type of tumor, detecting and imaging NEs requires scanning and typically requires a contrast agent to detect the location of tumors in tissue (an 2011). Many NE cells possess an overexpression of somatostatin receptors on their surface (Kwekkeboom 2005, VenEssen 2007). Somatostatin receptors are cell surface proteins that bind to somatostatin, a growth hormone inhibiting hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation (Florio 2002). he overexpressed somatostatin receptors can be used to both…… [Read More]
stress conjures up different things for different people, yet stress is a universal: everyone experiences stress throughout their life. Stress can be both good and bad depending on how it impacts the person who is experiencing the stress, and what other variables are present in the person's life at the time. Stress can result from positive happy events in people's lives, such as when a new baby is born. Stress can also result from negative contexts or conditions over which people do not have control. Some types of stress and some ways of responding to stress are associated with higher levels of disease. Naturally, on the flip side, some ways of responding to stress actually serve to reduce the stress and the negative impact that the stress has on the individual person. Regardless of what people would like to believe or deny, stress impacts every aspect of people's lives: emotional,…… [Read More]
Thus, the researchers concluded that environmental factors were part of the overall equation, determined by comparing the amount of phthalates in those girls who live close to urban areas with factories that manufacture products containing phthalates. One other finding drawn from this sample group was that the levels of phthalates "were significantly higher than the average levels" determined by the CDC (Lee, 2009, Internet).
With the second group of four hundred, the researchers produced similar findings, even though this group preceded the first by some ten years, an indication that phthalates have been in the environment for at least this length of time. Also, via utilizing the one-way ANOVA model, the researchers discovered a correlation between phthalates and IQ which was lower in those girls with heavy exposure to the chemical. However, the researchers admit that this possible link may be simply "cause and effect or an accidental finding" (Lee,…… [Read More]
The primary organ that is accountable for regulating metabolism is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is situated on the brain stem and forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle of the cerebrum. The main functions of the hypothalamus is to control and integrate activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), production and regulation of feelings of rage and aggression, regulation of body temperature and regulation of food intake (Graham, 2005).
BM goes down with age and with the loss of lean body mass. Increased muscle mass and cardiovascular exercise can help to increase BM, even when the body is at rest. Measured in calories, metabolic rates vary with exertion, recent food ingestion, muscle exertion, environmental temperature, emotional state, body temperature, pregnancy, menstruation, level of thyroid hormones stress hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine), fear and illness. The human body requires energy in order to stay alive…… [Read More]
As has been seen in this essay, leptin plays a very important role in not only obesity issues but also related issues. While the results of clinical trials have produced mixed results, there is however room for additional work in assessing the role of leptin, especially that which is administered from without the body. A continued process of discovery associated with leptin is crucial. Its effects on several obesity-related diseases need to be understood in the interest of the public health.
Bagchi, D., & Preuss, H.G. (2007). Obesity: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and prevention. Boca aton: CC Press.
Castracane, V.D., & Henson, M.C. (2006). Leptin. New York: Springer.
Friedman, J. (2009). Leptin's Legacy. Howard Hughes Medical Institute Bulletin, 16(1).
Friedman, J.M. (2002). The function of leptin in nutrition, weight, and physiology. Nutr ev, 60(10 Pt 2), S1-14; discussion S68-84, 85-17.
ichards, B.J., & ichard, M.G. (2002). Mastering leptin: the key to…… [Read More]
There are many estern doctors who do not accept the traditional views and system of acupuncture but they have realized that it has certain effective aspects. estern doctors have therefore adapted acupuncture and used it as a way of regulating the nervous as well as the endocrine systems. There has also been widespread recognition of the painkilling aspects of acupuncture. hile there is still a general resistance to the deeper implications and world -view that acupuncture represents, yet there is no doubt that it is having an increasing impact on estern forms of medicine and healing praxis.
Acupuncture. May 4, 2007. http://skepdic.com/acupunc.html
American Academy of Medical Acupuncture: General Information. May 4, 2007. http://www.medicalacupuncture.org/acu_info/generalinfo.html
Definition of Allopathic. May 6, 2007. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612
Frequently asked questions. May 4, 2007. http://www.markgoulding.com/gpage.html
Pulse Diagnosis. May 4, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/pulse-diagnosis
The Fairbourne Clinic. May 4, 2007. http://www.fairbourneclinic.co.uk/therapies/acupuncture-Newbury-Berkshire.htm
Traditional Chinese Medicine: NHS. May 4, 2007. http://www.nhsdirectory.org/default.aspx?page=TCM&t=y…… [Read More]
Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]
Medical Conditions -- There are a number of factors that can increase the likelyhood of type-2 diabetes: hypertension, eleveted cholesterol, and a condition called Symdrome X, or metabolic syndrome (combination of obesity, high cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle, stress, and poor diet). Cushing's syndrome, cortisol excess and testosterone deficiency are also associated with the disease. Often, it is a number of co-dependent conditions that seem to give rise to diabetes (Jack & Boseman, 2004).
Genetics -- There is ample evidence that there is a strong inheritable genetic condition in type-2 diabetes. In addition, there is a genetic mutation to the Islet Amyloid Polypeptide gene that results in early onset diabetes (Lee & Hasim, 2001). There is a stronger inheritance pattern for type-2 diabetes with a significant association between family members. Typically, this is excacerbated by cultural and lifestyle factors that, while not inherited, are culturally shared. Gene expression promoted by a diet…… [Read More]
Definition of stress
esearchers define stress as a physical, mental, or emotional response to events that causes bodily or mental tension. Simply put, stress is any outside force or event that has an effect on our body or mind. Acute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting. Acute stress can be episodic or chronic.
Depending on the stressors and the types of changes or events, stress can manifest itself physically, emotionally and/or mentally. Physical stress occurs when the body as a whole starts to suffer as a result of a stressful situation. Symptoms can manifest in a variety of ways and vary in their seriousness. Emotional stress are responses due to stress affecting the mind…… [Read More]
Suicide ates Among Geriatric Persons
The causes of death among the elderly are traditionally associated with the normal aging process or what would be called natural process, diseases associated with age and the debilitations it can cause. Yet, other factors also contribute to the cause of death an individual might succumb to, widowhood, retirement, forced relocation, and/or loneliness especially around the holidays. (Huyck Hoyer 1982) Still other studies are making it clear that murder and suicide rates are increasing dramatically among the elderly. (cf., Birren, Schaie, 1977) (Nussbaum, Pecchioni, obinson & Thompson, 2000, p. 294) Suicide was the eleventh leading cause of death among persons over the age of 65 in 1982. (iley, 1983, p. 144) Some strides have been made and between the years 1983 and 1998 suicide averaged as the fourteenth leading cause of death for persons over the age of 65, lower than the average for all…… [Read More]
Is the ankle swollen?
Does it hurt when you do not put pressure on it?
How did you hurt your ankle in the past?
Was it a tear or a sprain or a break?
Does your ankle look twisted?
Is there any numbness in your ankle?
Are you able to put any weight at it all, or is it impossible to put any weight on it?
Is there any bruising?
You did not hear a cracking sound, it was distinctly a popping sound?
Can you describe the pain when you put pressure on it from 1-10: 1 being hardly any pain and 10 being intolerable?
Can you roll your foot around from side to side?
Can you move your foot at all if you hold your leg out from where you are seated?
The differential diagnosis consists of a likely high ankle sprain. The popping sound…… [Read More]
cultural diversity issues and its impact on nursing professionals' practice. It assesses a client hailing from a different culture, and employs information derived from the assessment determining and reflecting on health practices and beliefs of the client's culture. Lastly, nurses' role in the care of patients hailing from diverse backgrounds care is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn.
Client Interview Data
Client's health beliefs in relation to cultural diversity
The client comes from a family-focused background, in which she plays the role of chief household organizer and attends to her family and their needs. She believes one ought to lead a life of a good and virtuous individual, and support one's family, particularly in times of need. In her opinion, sickness must be tended to, for preserving life. She believes in healthcare professionals and services they offer, for leading a healthy life. She is comfortable having healthcare professionals take care…… [Read More]
What is the overall point of the chapter?
The overall point of the chapter is that human psychology is a function of many complex interrelationships between the physiology of the brain and related systems (i.e. The endocrine system) and elements of conscious perception. Human perception and behavior comprises both "hardwired" biological components and "software" components in the form of conditioning. Neither physiology alone nor environmental conditioning alone explains or controls all human behavior. Both aspects of behavior contribute to behavior and perception simultaneously throughout our lives. The physiological processes that are responsible for perception and behavior are features of human evolutionary anatomy and they represent genetic influences in the same way that other aspects of human behavior (i.e. physical abilities, etc.) also depend on physical traits and on conditioning. Biology may set certain limits and establish certain predispositions but experiential conditioning is equally important.
2. What are 3 core…… [Read More]
There are various types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body fails to produce adequate amounts of insulin. It most often is found in children and young adults which is why it is now referred to as juvenile diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when cells fail to respond to insulin. This subtle distinction makes a great deal of difference in terms of treating the two types of diabetes (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2006). It is also worth noting that type 2 diabetes tends to set in later in life, typically around middle age, though it can occur earlier. Moreover, 90% of all diabetes cases are type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnant women who have never had diabetes but who have high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Nearly one in ten women is at risk of developing gestational diabetes.…… [Read More]
Farms that contain the r-BST free labeling are typically from single farms that do their own proprietary retail packaging.
The study concluded that there were no differences in antibiotic levels in the milk samples. The purpose of the study stated, "the objective of this study was to compare these endpoints for conventional, rbST-free, and organic milk.," (Vicini, Etherton, & Etherton et al., p. 1199). By the time conclusions were drawn, the topic of rBST and organic milk, as stated in the research objectives, had been completely abandoned and replaced by conclusions regarding antibiotics, which are required to be zero for any milk, regardless of origin, that ends up on retail shelves.
The only studies that are provided to the public, and which are the basis of policy decisions, are highly suspect due to the financial interests between Monsanto and the research laboratory. The sampling techniques used, invalidate the conclusions drawn.…… [Read More]
Stressed Memories (APA Citation)
In the article titled "Stressed Memories: How Acute Stress Affects Memory Formation in Humans" researchers studied the hypothesis that acute stress can improve the formation of memory in the human brain. According to the authors, "Information encoded into memory during stressful experiences is generally well remembered." (Henckens, 2009, p.10111) In other words, what people experience during stressful or traumatic events is better remembered than experiences that occur under normal, or non-stressful conditions. The researchers in this article wanted to study the affects of stress on memory formation and determine the physiological processes that occur in the brain.
The study participants consisted of eighteen right-handed male volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 31 years with a median age of 22 years. There were a number of criteria which excluded participants including "history of head injury, treatment with psychotropic medications, narcotics, B-blockers, steroids, or any…… [Read More]
Hormonal egulation of Urine
Human beings are made of 75% water. The huge percentage of water in the human body is attributed to the constant need to sustain fluid balance through drinking water. However, the quantity of ingested water needs to be balanced with the amount and concentration of urine generated so as to regulate the volume of fluid and osmolarity within an ordinary range. Urine is formed in the human body through three major processes that occur in the nephrons i.e. glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and turbular secretion (McCann et. al., 2002, p.605). The quantities of substances reabsorbed and secreted in the nephrons are varied by the kidneys, which contributes to changes in the composition of excreted urine.
Urine output or excretion is usually regulated by several hormones that also play a crucial role in regulation of urine. Vasopressin is one of the hormones that regulate urine output and…… [Read More]
Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon
Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (owen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (owen).
Insulin and Glucagon
The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…… [Read More]
People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.
There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…… [Read More]
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…… [Read More]
There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors and has a number of possible poor consequences.
Mabrey et al. (2010) note that metabolic syndrome is on average 10 to 15% higher in the GCC states than in the rest of world and that females are disproportionately affected by metabolic syndrome. These researchers are among those who note that a strictly medical approach to such medical problems is far from sufficient. For while metabolic syndrome itself can be identified and described in purely medical terms, such an approach does…… [Read More]
Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal Physiology During His Stunts
The objective of this study is to examine how Houdini was able to modulate his normal physiology during his stunts.
Harry Houdini caused the world to marvel at his skill in escaping the bondage of handcuffs and was referred to as the 'handcuff king' and as well Houdini performed many other magic tricks that required more than merely illusion but instead required that he be able to alter his own body's physiology. The modulation of physiology enabled Houdini to accomplish great feats and to capture the imagination and attention of a large base of fans across many years. Houdini is well-known for having spent a great deal of time and effort to invalidate individuals who were so-called mediums communicating with the dead because he detested this type of trickery.
Modulation of Physiology
The modulation of physiology is similar to…… [Read More]
Von Hippel Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…… [Read More]
Cardiac Stress Response: The Use of Anesthetic Technique to Promote Positive Outcome; Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Technique
Cardiac surgery by nature elicits a powerful stress response resulting from activation of stress hormones including epinephrine, norpinephine and cortisol hormones among others. Surgical trauma and blood loss may contribute to this stress response. Some surgeons have suggested that cardio pulmonary bypass surgery in and of itself activates an inflammatory response that results in a stress reaction.
The role of the anesthesiologist in cardiac surgery is to as much extent as possible, to reduce the stress response that results form cardiac surgery. Stress response can be mitigated by a variety of anesthetic technique, including use of opioids and epidural anesthesia. These ideas are explored in greater detail below.
Cardiac Stress Response: The Use of Anesthetic Technique to Promote Positive Outcome; Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Technique
INTRODUCTION stress response may…… [Read More]
Book Critique on the book boys adrift
Book critique: Boys Adrift
For many years, there was a great deal of concern expressed about the poor performance of girls in schools. Although girls often excelled during the early grades, boys tended to edge out girls in terms of grades and on standardized tests, particularly in the sciences and math. However, girls have begun to catch up with their male counterparts in the wake of the influence of the feminist movement, which has profoundly changed the ways in which women are educated and viewed by the educational system. Now women are beginning to surpass their male counterparts according to some indicators such as college attendance. Women have not yet become able to earn as much money as men for the same work but their role in society has clearly changed. This has provoked a great deal of anxiety amongst some…… [Read More]
"Given the rising prevalence of obesity with age in both childhood and adult life, the prevalence of adult obesity cannot be predicted from childhood data, but increasing childhood obesity heralds a greater health burden in adult life"(James & al 2001, p. 232S). Thus, the future focus is on child obesity and how it can be treated to bring well-being for the adult.
esearch for adipose cells is not at the beginning, but has become increasingly intensive in the last years. Obesity is rapidly spreading across the globe but all the scientific breakthroughs won't do magic in the presence of disinterest and neglect towards the human body, so the first step should come from each individual.
Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15
Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33,…… [Read More]
Melatonin & the Pineal Gland
The focus of this work is to examine melatonin and the pineal gland. Towards this end, this study examines the literature in this area of study and reports on the findings. The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland hormonal activity "is influenced by both the dark-light cycle and the seasonal cycle, causing it to play an important role in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive physiology."
Melatonin & The Pineal Gland
The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland…… [Read More]
First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms. The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution. As will be demonstrated in the Literature eview, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate. Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the…… [Read More]
Norepinephrine, one of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, has been reported to be connected to several functions such as memory, cognition, consciousness, and emotion. It plays significant roles in the path physiology of depression. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) is responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine into presynaptic nerves and is one of the main targets of antidepressants (Sekine, Arakawa, Ito, Okumura, Sasaki, Takahashi & Suhara, 2010). The norepinephrine system is important in: attention like alerting, focusing and orienting, appetitive behaviors, hedonic or pleasurable properties of natural and drug-related reinforcement and mood, arousal, and regulation of blood pressure (Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS, n.d.).
Serotonin is a hormone, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine, in the pineal gland, blood platelets, the digestive tract, and the brain. Serotonin acts both as a chemical messenger that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells and that which causes blood vessels to narrow.…… [Read More]
The implant is inserted into the ear and is discarded at slaughter, thus, it does not enter the human food chain (Primer pp). The hormone in the implant is released into the bloodstream very slowly ensuring the concentration of the hormone remains relatively constant and very low (Primer pp). Moreover, the prescribed dosage is the level "which produces the maximum economic response in the animal -- the law of diminishing returns -- so that there is no economic incentive for a farmer to use additional implants," and ensures that the animals taken to slaughter have normal hormone levels (Primer pp). According to the Primer, beef from a bull contains testosterone levels over ten times higher than the amount in beef from a steer that has received hormones for growth promotion (Primer pp). Therefore, since the European beef market is predominately bull-sourced, while the American meat is steer-sourced, American hormone treated…… [Read More]