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Erich Fromm was born in 1900 in Frankfurt. His father was a businessman and, according to Erich, very moody, which of course may have played a role in Erich's life. His mother was frequently depressed. Again, perhaps a hint of coming attractions as far as Fromm's significant accomplishments.
Like Jung, Erich came from a very religious family, in his case orthodox Jewish. Fromm himself later transformed himself into what he termed an atheistic mystic.
In his autobiography, Fromm talks about two occurrences in his early years that propelled him along his now famous path. The first involved a friend of the family's:
"Maybe she was 25 years of age; she was beautiful, attractive, and in addition a painter, the first painter I ever knew. I remember having heard that she had been engaged but after some time had broken the engagement; I remember that she was almost invariably…
Fromm allowed people to transcend the determinisms that Freud and Marx attributed to human family and human economic life as inevitable.
In contrast, Fromm stated that human beings have, in the title of his famous 1947 text, Escape from Freedom, attempted to use authoritarian forms of political and religious control, destructiveness, and social conformity to choose to limit their freedom. But humans can also attempt to free themselves from these controls, as these controls are self-imposed. Structures of the family, like excessively symbiotic families or withdrawing families may contribute to ways humans chose to limit their freedom, and by actively choosing such political, familial, and social systems, and remaining within these structures, humans may accept limitations -- or throw off such influences by recognizing them and reorganizing their familial and political lives, and thus change their societies and personalities. "Fromm emphasizes that we soak up our society with our mother's…
Boeree, C. George. (1997) "Erich Fromm." Theories of Personality. Retrieved 30 Apr 2005 at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/fromm.html
Decker, Hannah S. (2005) "Fromm, Erich." World Book Online Reference Center. 2005. World Book, Inc. Retrieved 30 Apr. 2005 at http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/wb/Article?id=ar212230
Fromm, Erich. (1994) Escape from Freedom. First Printed 1941. New York: Owl Reprint.
Any law that promotes the oppression of one individual by another is unjust and should be disobeyed. This parallels your idea of conscience as opposed to unjust laws. In the case of injustice, the truly free human being follows his or her conscience instead of the status quo.
However, I also agree with your assessment regarding the majority of humanity, including those in power: "...while we are living technically in the Atomic Age, the majority of men -- including most of those who are in power -- still live emotionally in the Stone Age."
This is manifest in Mr. King's and many other political struggles throughout the world. One could however derive some encouragement from the fact that there are those like Mr. King and yourself who understand that disobedience in some cases is inevitable and essential. The one aspect of your letter that I find it difficult to agree…
If only one person is the relationship is contributing, the relationship will become weaker because one is giving and the other is either doing nothing or taking away. In short, love is an art but it is also work and this is why people fail in love. It is never like a fairy tale and the sooner we can accept this, the sooner we can be prepared for love. Fromm says that we spend the majority of our energy on this we consider worthy. Since many rarely devote as much time to learning about love as they do success and money, it is obvious why love results in failure. Love is not something that can stay the same - especially when all of the components in a relationship undergo change. It is best to view love as an organic process that is actually in a constant state of flux; however,…
Fromm, Erich. "Is Love an Art?" Textbook. City: Publisher. Year
One touching simile described by Jeanie Burton in this sermon is that of a child coming into her father's room and climbing onto his lap. When the father asked the child what he could do for her, the child merely says, nothing, I just wanted to feel close to you, father. This is exactly what one will feel for God at this stage of loving Him. This shows one's ability to get out of one's own self in order to love God just for what He is. (Love Grows Up)
The fourth stage of love as described by Bernard in his 'On Loving God' is that of love of one's self for the sake of God. This is an extremely surprising and radical viewpoint, and the fact that a theologian discovered it in the twelfth century is in itself quite amazing. Jeanie Burton, the preacher of this sermon, stated that…
Boeree, George. Erich Fromm, 1900 to 1980. Retrieved at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/fromm.html . Accessed on 18 January, 2005
Burton, Jeanie. Love Grows Up. February 1, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.fumclr.org/sub_sermon2_01_04.html . Accessed on 18 January, 2005
Factoids from Church History: The Stages of Love. Christian History Institute. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.gospelcom.net/chi/fun/Factoids/fact002.shtml . Accessed on 18 January, 2005
Is Love an Art? Art of Loving, Perennial Classics. Retrieved at http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0060958286/ref=sib_fs_top/103-3?%5Fencoding=UTF8&p=S00C&checkSum=Uj144KX%2FB7Q2Io9X1k4q1aUlmPc1XKcBNLoeOl2VSlY%3D#reader-linkAccessed on 18 January, 2005
He goes so far as to say that disobedience may be the thing that eventually saves the human race. His argument is that if people blindly follow the commands of the leaders of their nations, and the leaders of their nations have a reason to bomb one another, then the human race will be eradicated because those people obeyed the commands to push those bomb-sending buttons (Fromm). According to this argument, disobedience must at the very least be considered valuable and worth contemplation.
Fromm supports his claim regarding the value of disobedience with examples from two very popular myths. The first is the Hebrew myth of Adam and Eve, the first human beings to walk the earth. The story is told that Adam and Eve disobeyed a command to stay away from the fruit of one particular tree in their home, the Garden of Eden. hen they disobeyed this command,…
Asch, Solomon E. Opinions and Social Pressure.
Fromm, Erich. Disobedience as a Psychological and Moral Problem
Zimbardo, Philip G. The Stanford Prison Experiment
This was true for the most part of the 20th century, when the concept of "work" involved going to the office or the factory. For many, the term "work" additionally meant working for an employer or a boss, a person who was usually not liked. Very few people had the option of leisure, working independently or going into business for themselves.
With telecommuting technology, however, many people are re-defining traditional notions of "work." Staying at the office for eight hours a day is no longer a requirement. This technology allows many parents, for example, to spend more time in with their families, a pursuit that many people certainly find more liberating that being yoked to a desk.
Other people are able to spend extra time pursuing less profitable interests, such as volunteering for charity, writing a novel or taking continuing education classes.
For many people, the technology work itself is…
newdemocracyworld.org/ar/Pogo.htm).Reported by John Spritzler, this is what Zimbardo and Milgram found:
The usual points of reference in psychology are two classic studies that attempted to explore the capacity for evil residing in "normal" people. In 1971, Stanford psychologist Philip Zimbardo created a simulated prison and randomly assigned students to be either guards or prisoners. ith astonishing speed, the "guards" indulged in forms of torture and humiliation not unlike those horrifying us today. This followed on earlier experiments by Yale psychologist Stanley Milgram on obedience to authority. Milgram recruited volunteers to participate in what he described as a study on learning. An actor sat in a chair that students believed was wired with electricity. Each time this actor would give an incorrect answer, the students would be directed by Milgram to deliver a larger shock. As the subject in the electric chair seemed to suffer more and more, 2 out of…
Abu Ghraib Guard Admits Seven Charges of Abuse." Daily Post (Liverpool, England) 3 May 2005: 6. Questia. 13 Feb. 2008
psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?
In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.
The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…
Bowlby, John 1999, Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2nd Ed. Basic Books, New York.
"Depth Psychology" Stepping Stones: bringing depth psychology to everyday life [online] viewed March 23, 2011, www.depthpsychologytoday.com.
Gay, P 1989, The Freud Reader, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York.
Hall, CS 1954, A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Books, New York.
The model that emerged from the study proposes that there is a relationship of life mission with transformational learning and self-directed learning. Adult educators may improve their learning process when they provide some way for learners to understand their life's mission and relate it to learning. This may help the learning experience go from being teacher-directed to being more student-directed. The study suggests that purpose seeking must be included in emancipatory learning as well as awareness building (Kroth, p.134).
Stephen Brookfield recently published a study of the theory entitled epositioning ideology critique in a critical theory of adult learning about adult learning and how it differs from other types of theories. Looking at contemporary readings in adult educational, particularly those of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, as interpreted by Habermas, who taught "risk sliding into an exclusive engagement with the pragmatic dimensions of his thought to the exclusion of…
Brookfield, S. (2001).Repositioning ideology critique in a critical theory of adult learning. Adult Education Quarterly, vol. 52(11.
Brookfield, S. (2002). Overcoming alienation as the practice of adult education: the contribution of Erich Fromm to a critical theory of adult learning and education. Adult Education Quarterly, Vol. 52(2).
Barry-Craig P. Johansen and Gary N. McLean (2006). Worldviews of adult learning in the workplace: a core concept in human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, Vol. 8(8.)
Belzer, a. (2004). "It's not like Normal School": the role of prior learning contexts in adult learning. Adult Education Quarterly, Vol. 55(1).
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
The evolution of mankind on all levels, and especially the new focus of the modern society on technology and material development, has brought about an estrangement from the spiritual life.
The new world offers "alternatives," as it were, to love, through a complexity of personal, both material and social developments, that seem to been able to replace or fill the spiritual needs.
Although men and women still interact what happens between them seems to be different from what was called love before, and it is often said that more and more isolation and solitude result from these interactions. The pressure of the material complex world and of the various social facts do not allow for the openness required by love. It can be said that the complexity of the modern society influence the emotional sates of the individual and make it impossible for him or her to return to the…
Alighieri, Dante Divine Commedy translated by Longfellow, Project Gutenberg at http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext97/0ddcl10.txt
Dickinson, Emily Poems Poetry x http://poetry.poetryx.com /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Philosophy of Love
The author of this report has been charged with picking a film or novel that centers on love. For the purposes of the report, the author has chosen The Notebook as memorialized in both book and film form. The book was written by Nicholas Sparks. The author of this report will cover several main sections in this report. The first section will be a quick paragraph or two that summarizes the story of The Notebook. The storyline, developments and details of The Notebook will then be compared and contrasted to several pieces of scholarly literature that relates to, in whole or in part, the subjects of love, social justice and fairness. While many people date and marry based on things like race, class and prestige, there are indeed many people that unapologetically and joyfully break that trend, much to the potential dismay of their family and/or friends.…
Abramson, K., & Leite, A. (2011). LOVE AS A REACTIVE EMOTION. Philosophical
Quarterly, 61(245), 673-699. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9213.2011.716.x
Charles, K.K., Hurst, E., & Killewald, A. (2013). Marital Sorting and Parental
Wealth. Demography, 50(1), 51-70. doi:10.1007/s13524-012-0144-6
What Fromm was implying is that the form of education described is seen as a way of having rather than being.
Fromm wrote those words back in 1957, but it is still utterly true in that education, now more than ever, is viewed as a commodity; we are told from the time we are very small children that education is an investment. In the society we live in, there is no doubt that it is. The education we either have or don't have is a direct influence on what kind of job we get and, ultimately, what kind of life we lead. We very rarely -- if ever -- think of our education as a piece of the puzzle -- that is, as a way of being directly associated with human flourishing. By gaining the best education we can, we wouldn't be readily willing to agree that it is alienating…
Fromm, E. (1957) the Art of Loving (1995 edn.) London: Thorsons.
Zajda, Joseph., Davies, Lynn., Majhanovich, Suzanne. (2008) Comparative and Global
Pedagogies: Equity, Access and Democracy in Education (Globalisation,
Comparative Education and Policy Research). Springer; 1st edition.
ut if they can manage to terminate the temporary relationship, they will become more emotionally balanced and mature persons (Young).
Why Choose the Peplau Model
oth its interpersonal theory and nursing process have a concrete sequence of use and focus on the therapeutic relationship (Current Nursing, 2012). oth utilize appropriate problem-solving techniques, which aim in common at filling the client's needs. oth use observation and communication as well as recording as basic tools, which are already used in nursing care. The four phases inter-relate and inter-weave the varying components of each phase. The Theory or model is applicable to endeavors, which follow the concepts of client, health, environment and nursing. It proceeds in a logical and systematic manner in viewing and processing nursing situations. Its generalizability rests in its simplicity in the logical progression of the partnership. It has produced testable hypotheses. It can be used in psychiatric patients. It…
Current Nursing (2012). Theory of interpersonal relation. Current: Current Nursing.
Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from http://www.currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/interpersonal_theory.html
Landry, a, (2009). Hildegard Peplau: interpersonal relations theorist. Suite 101:
Suite 101.net. Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from http://www.alicelandry.suite101.com/hildegard-peplau
family, friendship and love are addressed by the collection of authors in the readings. Specifically, these include issues of sexuality, gender, homosexuality, and the relationship between parents and children. All these issues have changed as the world developed sociologically and technologically. Current technological and informational developments for example have a profound effect on the morals and norms relating to the above issues.
In terms of sexuality, Erich Fromm suggests that erotic love is frequently deceptive, as it is mistaken for the phenomenon of love itself, rather than an extension of the emotion. When the union is however achieved, no barriers are left to conquer and the tendency is to crave a new union with another stranger. This urge is however frequently curbed by the ethics of sexuality imposed by society as described by Bertrand Russell. Although the structure of society favors polygamy, monogamy is often imposed by the subconscious that…
Rosman JP, Resnick PJ. Sexual attraction to corpses: a psychiatric review of necrophilia. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1989;17(2):153-63.
It is not legal for me to reprint the article and copy you on it, since you are purchasing this paper (and copyright would be breached because you would, in form, be purchasing the article without reprint permission) -- but the article IS available for free online (your college should provide access to Google SCHOLAR and that gives not only the full article but all the times since its publication in which it has been cited or invoked in another academic or professional publication) of from PubMed. I can, however, legally provide you with the abstract
JAKE and JSTOR, both journals of jointly administered knowledge, offer the article in-full to students through their libraries.
Department of Psychiatry, Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Ohio 44109.
The authors review 122 cases (88 from the…
And if one can work through and delineate the antecedents and the if the group can see behavior as change-worthy, the process of effecting change can then be determined. She saw that the most consistent hope for progress, despite the most troubled situation, is the truly intellectual person who is educated lifelong and constantly involved in the problems and growth of the field. Hildegard Peplaus, first of all, that person and that is how she tried to shape the young ones entering her field. She did not share the aspirations of the fortunate who filled the ranks of the profession in her time. She, instead, saw that nursing and the medical professions as sharing common goals and services, but each with a different and separate health mission in addressing and meeting the health needs of the people. She never felt uncertainty in identifying with her profession and in her sturdy…
Callaway, B. (1999). In Memoriam. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Nursing. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Clarke, a.R. (1999). Remembering Hldegard E. Peplau. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Gregg, D.F. (1999).Hildegard E. Peplau: Her Contributions. Perspectives of Psychiatric Care
Holden, M.A. (1999). Hildegard Peplau. Perspectives of Psychiatric Care
college education, learning and practicing the social responsibility and the significance of inculcating a strong sense of social responsibility in college students.
Man's main task in life is to give birth to himself, to become what he potentially is. The most important product of his effort is his own personality"- Erich Fromm.
This personality is shaped and refined through the enlightenment gained through education, personal experiences and personal efforts to ameliorate one's personality by tapping the dormant talent and by adhering to the learned moral and social values. In order to keep our values intact for the rest of our lives and to become what we potentially are education is a must, for mentors at all levels inculcate a strong sense of discipline and responsibility in the college-going students, qualities that facilitate them in being productive and successful citizens.
Where educational institutions fulfill their social responsibility by providing various facilities…
Fromm E. Available at http://www.quoteland.com/topic.asp?CATEGORY_ID=108 (October 24, 2002)
Vaughn W (1999). From Sociality to Responsibility: Graduate Employee Unions and the Meaning of the University. Perspectives: Issues in Graduate Education.
Clayton M (1999). Cultivating character. The Christian Science Monitor, 06-15, pp 15
Arawi T (2002). Values in Education, Volume: 2, Journal of College and Character.
Modern America lacks a true love ethic. riters like M. Scott Peck and Bell Hooks argue that our confusion about love stems from an inability to see love as an action rather than a noun, and the confusion of romance and sex with love. Instead, they argue that true love is based on choice and the desire to nurture the self or another spiritually.
Hooks specifically argues that much of our confusion about love stems from our paternalistic culture that teaches men that to love is to be weak and inferior. As such, love has become associated with what is feminine and weak in our culture. In their works, June Jordan and Sonia Sanchez describe the gamut of what is considered love in our culture, from the sensual and romantic, to the understanding that love of humanity can help create a more meaningful and functional relationship with ourselves, others,…
Jordan, June. 2003. Some of Us Did Not Die: New and Selected Essays. BasicCivitas Books
Hooks, Bell. 2001. All About Love: New Visions. Perennial.
Peck, M. Scott. 2003. The Road Less Traveled, 25th Anniversary Edition: A New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values and Spiritual Growth. Touchstone Books.
Sanchez, Sonia. 1999. Like the Singing Coming Off the Drums. Beacno Press.
Brave New orld
The two books 1984 and Brave New orld reflect futuristic views that are quite different and dichotomous. Indeed, 1984 reflects a world of dystopia and punitive government while the work Brave New orld reflects one of more utopian conditions but is no less controlled and crafted by a master plan. The noted social critic Neil Postman postulates that Huxley's version of the world in Brave New orld more closely matches that of our current actual world. However, while there is some grain of truth to that, there are some facets of Brave New orld that are not in place now and the chances of that changing in the foreseeable future is practically nil in the view of the author of this report.
First up on this report will be a compare and contrast of the two works in general terms. First off, an obvious difference between…
Huxley, Aldous. Brave new world. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2006.
Orwell, George, Thomas Pynchon, and Erich Fromm. Nineteen eighty-four: a novel.
Centennial ed. New York City: Signet, 2003. Print.
Authors From the Frankfurt and Birmingham Schools
The Frankfurt School and the Birmingham School are similar in that both partake in a critique of popular culture. Both have roots in Marxism, as well, though the latter rejected the fundamentals of Marxist thought. In one sense, the Birmingham School grew out of the Frankfurt School and expanded or deepened the critical interpretation of popular culture begun by the Frankfurt School authors. In another way, the Birmingham School established its own unique take on popular culture that broke with the perspective of the Frankfurt School and its assessment of why the working class failed to rise up and overthrow the ruling class, as Marx had predicted. This paper will compare the theories of two authors from these two schools and show how they are oppose one another at times, how they reflect one another on other occasions and how they complement one…
Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. NY: Continuum.
Hoggart, R. (1957). The Uses of Literacy. UK: Chatto, Windus.
Hoggart, R. (1973). 'Culture: Dead and Alive,' in Speaking to Each Other, vol. 1:
About Society. UK: Penguin.
Humanistic psychology has made a tremendous impact on the overall field of psychology and the social sciences in general. Since Rogers first introduced the concepts of unconditional positive regard, the ideals of professional competence in psychotherapy have changed towards client-centered perspectives and practices (McArthur & Cooper, 2017). However, humanistic psychology often eschews quantitative research methods, diverges considerably from the views in cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and has been occasionally perceived or portrayed of as too soft to be relevant to the social sciences (Wong, 2017). More recently, humanistic psychologists have gained ground in acquiring greater credibility for the contributions of their paradigm. In particular, humanistic psychology has a greater potential to offer multimodal interventions than other approaches to psychology, For example, psychological wellness is conceived of in a broad-minded manner encompassing multiple domains of life including the interpersonal, community, occupational, psychological, physical, and economic (Duff, Rubenstein &…
Nature.... General Will
The ideas to create just and liberal society go all the way back to ancient times. The first examples of civil society were proposed by Plato and Aristotle, who saw the ideal state to be a republic ruled by the wise men and aristocrats as "first among equal." They didn't go in depth to explain its structure, functions of government in details, etc. These were the first discourses about the state where the harmony and equality established by the laws of nature will be preserved and developed. But the history shows that Greek republic failed under the pressure of power-gaining ome and Greek democracy was forgotten for centuries, but some of its principles preserved and where later developed by the philosophers of Enlightenment.
Enlightenment or renaissance of political thought and birth of civil political teachings was represented by a new idea of state, where the power was…
1. Locke, John, The Second Treatise on Government, ed by Thomas P. Peardon, Indianapolis, In.; The Library of Liberal Arts, 1952
2. Lavine, T.Z From Socrates to Sartre Bantam; Reissue edition, 1985
3. Camus, Albert The Stranger Vintage; Reissue edition, 1989
4. Marx, Karl Communist Manifesto Signet Classics; Reprint edition, 1998
He joined an existing conspiracy because other German officers knew that Germany was going to lose the war and that a more orderly, civilized government had to be in place when they did in order to negotiate with the Allies.
There is one noted misconception displayed in the film. It involves General Fritz Erich Fellgiebel, who, at the time was the head of Hitler's signal corps -- his main communications guy. He was also deeply involved in and committed to the conspiracy to kill Hitler. It was his function to cut off communications from the Wolf's Lair to the outside world after the bomb exploded.
The film treats him as if he is reluctant to become involved and desiring not to participate in the assassination plot at all. This is inaccurate. Fellgiebel had been committed to the conspiracy since 1939 -- long before von Stauffenberg came onboard. Fellgiebel was court-martialled…
American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. "Operation Valkyrie and the July Plot to Assassinate Hitler." 2009. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 26 July 2009 .
American-Israieli Cooperative Enterprise 2. "Claus von Stauffenberg." 2009. Jewish Virtual Library. 27 July 2009 .
Gisevius, Hans Bernd, Allen W. Dulles and Peter Hoffmann. Valkyrie: An Insider's Account of the Plot to Kill Hitler. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press, 2008.
Kershaw, I. Hitler: 1936-45: Nemesis. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2000.
"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).
When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).
One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his…
Rosenfels, P. (1980). Freud and the scientific method. Ninth Street Center.
Paul Rosenfels discuses Freud's determination to consider that inequality governed the human society. In addition to expressing his opinion regarding the "men are superior to women" concept that was common at the time, he also related to a series of other relationships that he considered imbalanced. Freud practically considered that there was no relationship that did not involve an inequality rapport, as he typically focused on people's problems and tried to emphasize them in order for individuals to understand the reason for their inferiority while in a relationship. Rosenfels also speaks about how Freud used personal experience in producing theories regarding social inequalities.
Boeree, George. "Sigmund Freud." Retrieved October 16, 2011, from the Shippensburg University Website: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
Boeree describes some of the basic characteristics of Freud's personality theory and focuses on the importance of the unconscious in comparison to the conscious and the preconscious. The doctor also relates to how Freud came to consider that human behavior is determined by factors that are not immediately accessible. Boeree also relates to each trait of the personality theory in particular and explains the way that it functions in regard to people's activities. This source recounts Freud's determination to discuss a subject that people living contemporary to him generally considered to be unimportant, especially given that most individuals were inclined to favor easy explanations when trying to come up with a solution for some mental illnesses.
Erick Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
Erik Erikson, American psychoanalyst, is known in the field of psychology for his contribution in studying the socioemotional aspect of development among humans. Called the theory of socioemotional development, Erikson posits in his theory that, "people grow and develop "socialized by and socialize others -- parents, siblings, peers, teachers... processes that involve changes in an individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality" (Santrock, 2001:338). Erikson identified different dichotomies that specifically delineate positive and negative aspects of socioemotional developments among individuals. These dichotomies are placed at various levels, where different socioemotional characteristics are manifested at each level of the individual's development.
Erikson's theory is an essential tool to understanding human behavior because it serves as a guideline for people to understand the different changes in socioemotional characteristics of people as they grow older. Of course, there are certain exceptions…
Dundy, E. (1976). "Life is all ups and no downs on this carousel." New York Times Web site (NYTimes.com). Available at http://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson-carousel.html .
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.