Essential Oils Essays (Examples)

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Foeniculum Vulgare and Fennel Essential Oil Fennel

Words: 2609 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14809975

Foeniculum Vulgare and Fennel Essential Oil

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.var. vulgare) is a herbaceous plant that grows yearly with seeds that are beneficial to humans. They are commonly used as medicine both as homemade remedies as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. They indicate that the Foeniculum vulgare seeds secrete certain yellowish or sometimes clear oil that is used in the production of perfumery drinks through carminative and stimulant action. In addition the other parts of the plant such as the steams, leaves and flowers also produce essential oils that attract commercial interest. The paper reviews literature that point at fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and fennel essential oil's history, cultivation and production uses and mainly medicinal uses especially for conditions that include the eyes, diabetes and intestinal tract.

Discussion

Stefanini et al., in their article Essential oil constituents of different organs of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare), explain of an experiment…… [Read More]

References

Abou El-Soud, N., El-Laithy, N., El-Saeed, G., Wahby, M.S., Khalil, M., Morsy, F., et al.

(2011). Antidiabetic Activities of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill. Essential Oil in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 4 (2), 139-146.

Agarwal, R., Kumar, S., & Sunder, S. (2008). Oculohypotensive effects of foeniculum vulgare in Experimental models of glaucoma. Indian J. Physiol Pharmacol, 52 (1), 77 -- 83.

Alexandrovich, I., Rakovitskaya, O., Kolmo, E., Sidorova, T., & Shushunov, S. (2003). The
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Oil Prices the Effects of

Words: 1772 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86678855

The member nations of OPEC are relatively few, making it easier for them to form a producing conglomerate; the idea of a consumer conglomerate is untenable, as OPEC will always be able to find an extensive enough market for its commodity with other countries not in this conglomerate, and thus they can still control the price.

Conclusion

The oil industry is not fueled by supply or demand so much as it is by the simple motivator of most economic decisions -- greed. Economies exist precisely because there is competition for limited resources. Any more, the resources that are actually necessary for life are not limited in the developed world, and the competition for unnecessary resources ends up depriving other regions of basic necessities. The oil producing countries of the world are cashing in on the system like and "intelligent" economic actor.

orks Cited

Econbrowser. "New study of the effects of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Econbrowser. "New study of the effects of oil price shocks on the economy." Accessed 1 November 2009. http://www.econbrowser.com/archives/2007/05/new_study_of_th_1.html

Katayama, Munechika. "Declining Effects of Oil=price Shocks." University of California, San Diego. Accessed 1 November 2009. http://dss.ucsd.edu/~m1kataya/paper/OilShock.pdf

Lorde, Troy; Jackman, Mahalia and Thomas, Chrystol. "The macroeconomic effects of oil price fluctuations on a small open oil-producing country: The case of Trinidad and Tobago." Accessed 1 November 2009. http://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v37y2009i7p2708-2716.html

Reynolds, Alan. "Oil Prices: Cause and Effect." Cato Institute. Accessed 1 November 2009. http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=3947
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Oil Increased Access to Offshore

Words: 2906 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66820675

283). This led to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). This Act acknowledged the fact that there was a lack of knowledge about the ocean ecosystem. This was an important insight and "At its core, NEPA requires federal agencies to produce an environmental impact statement (EIS) whenever they propose a major federal action" but " it was unclear from the original language of the statute whether the lease of oil exploration rights was covered" (othbach, 2007, p. 283). However, in 1978 Congress amended this Act with regard to the current state of the law governing the leasing of offshore oil exploration rights. The 1978 amendments "…specifically state that if a plan for development and exploration of offshore oil resources is a major federal action, then an EIS must be produced" (othbach, 2007, p. 283). These events were to contribute to the growing concern about the environmental impact of…… [Read More]

References

Baird, S.L. (2008). Offshore Oil Drilling: Buying Energy Independence or Buying Time?. The Technology Teacher, 68(3).

Boesch, D.F., Butler, J.N., Cacchione, D.A., Geraci, J.R., Neff, J.M., Ray, J.P., et al. (1987). Chapter 1 an Assessment of the Long-Term Environmental Effects of U.S. Offshore Oil and Gas Development Activities: Future Research Needs. In Long-Term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development, Boesch, D.F. & Rabalais, N.N. (Eds.) (pp. 1-53). London: Elsevier Applied Science. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108893334

Boesch, D.F. & Rabalais, N.N. (Eds.). (1987). Long-Term Environmental Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development. London: Elsevier Applied Science. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108893325

Bradley, S.B. (1982). The Politics of Offshore Oil (J. Goldstein, Ed.). New York: Praeger.
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Oil to What Extent Would

Words: 12170 Length: 29 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3062529

If Nigerian local content law is not complied with equires licensee to submit a detailed programme for recruitment and training of Nigerians

(Nigerian Local Content Policy)

2.3. History of the LCL

The Local Content Law was signed into law in April 2010 by acting President Goodluck Jonathan. In brief, the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry Local Content Development Bill 2010 places "…obligations on upstream oil companies in the areas of finance, community and local workforce" (Examining Nigeria's Local Content Act). The process that led to this Bill began in 2007. The initiator of the Bill, Senator Lee Maeba, provides some interesting insight into the originating impetus that led to the final acceptance of the Act. He states,

I saw that there is no law guiding the activities of Nigerian companies in the oil and gas industry and because of that, there has been a capital drift...and that is the reason…… [Read More]

References

Adefulu a. Nigeria: National Treatment & Nigeria's New Local Content Legislation.

Retrieved from  http://www.mondaq.com/article.asp?articleid=102400 

Adefulu O. ( 2010) Does the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry Content Development Act

Conflict with the Country's International Treaty Obligations? Retrieved from  http://odujinrinadefulu.com/documents/Does%20Nigeria%27s%20local%20content%20legislation%20breach%20its%20international%20obligations.pdf
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Oil Firm Industry Analysis

Words: 2145 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48581352

Oil & Gas Management

An Analysis of OPEC's Pricing Strategy: Has Saudi Arabia underestimated the resilience of U.S. shale oil?

The global environment for oil and gas has changed significantly in just the last few years as a new set of market conditions have been created that can be defined by an increase supply in oil. These supply increases have largely come from technological developments that have allowed for new forms of oil to extract such as shale oil which has in turn reduced the dependence on the cartels and Middle Eastern oil (Doshi & Corrigan, 2015). There have also been changes in the demand due to technology development as well. Engines and efficiencies have reduced the total demand for oil per user despite the fact that the number of total oil and gas users have increased rapidly in the developing world.

The oil industry serves as the foundation for…… [Read More]

References

Agnihotri, G. (2015, October 7). Decoding Saudi Arabia's Strategy In Its Oil Price War. Retrieved from Oil Price: http://oilprice.com/Energy/Energy-General/Decoding-Saudi-Arabias-Strategy-In-Its-Oil-Price-War.html

Carroll, J. (2015, September 18). Shale Bargains. Retrieved from Bloomberg Business: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-09-18/exxon-said-to-be-on-the-hunt-for-shale-bargains-in-west-texas

Doshi, V., & Corrigan, J. (2015). 2015 Oil and Gas Trends. Retrieved from Strategy &: http://www.strategyand.pwc.com/perspectives/2015-oil-gas-trends

Egan, M. (2015, November 23). Oil crash sparks OPEC revolt against Saudis. Retrieved from CNN Money: http://money.cnn.com/2015/11/23/investing/saudi-arabia-opec-revolt-oil-prices/
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Oil Industry Background and History

Words: 4488 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63159137

While oil is a valuable resource,

Like... The river it is also a curse. Its flow is inconstant. In drought years, the supply of water falls; in other years, floods can take their toll, leaving death and destruction in their wake. It can become polluted, causing both health and economic problems for its users.

Davis J.)

The above analogy highlights some of the essential features of the modern oil industry and the way that it affects world economies. Oil is essentially a limited commodity as well as being a vital resource for the international economy. As such it is also affected by a range of different variables; including politics, international affairs, fluctuating market prices, environmental concerns and other factors that all combine to form of complex picture of the industry in relation to the international community.

One of the central features of the contemporary oil industry is the problem of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Analysis of the Impact of High Oil Prices on the Global Economy. 2004. August

16, 2007. http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:KDIgMEWpfHUJ:www.iea.org/textbase/papers/2004/high_oil_prices.pdf+impact+of+the+oil+industry+on+international+economy&l=en&t=clnk&d=22&l=uk

Davis J. "And then there were four..." A Thumbnail History of Oil Industry

Restructuring, 1971 -2005. 2006. 21 Aug. 2007. http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:uH5HUnEz1mUJ:www.ashgate.com/subject_area/downloads/sample_chapters/Changing_World_of_Oil_Ch1.pdf+impact+of+the+oil+industry+on+international+economy&l=en&t=clnk&d=6&l=uk www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11161466
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Oil and Gas Industry in

Words: 19369 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13266410

A large body of literature has treated many different aspects of these influences on Asia, Europe and the United States (Busser & Sadoi, 2003). The importance of the study relates to the current trends taking place in Libya where aggressive steps have been taken in recent years to normalize relations with the international community. For example, Libya opened up its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction to international scrutiny and renounced terrorism as a political tool (Libya, 2010). Moreover, the country's political leadership has been equally forthcoming in its efforts to normalize their relations with Western nations since 2003 (Libya, 2010). More recently, Libya has been removed from the U.S. State Department's list of states that sponsor terrorism in 2006 and in 2008, Libya joined the United Nations as a nonpermanent member on the UN Security Council during the 2008-2009 term (Libya, 2010).

Other signs that clearly point to…… [Read More]

References

About us. (2010). Mobil. Retrieved from http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/about.aspx.

Al-Waha Oil Company overview. (2010). Al-Waha Oil Company. Retrieved from http://www.

wahaoil.net/company_overview.htm.

Announcement of oil discovery. (2010, July). National Oil Corporation. Retrieved from http://en.noclibya.com.ly/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1423&
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Cross-Boundary Offshore Oil & Gas Resources Joint

Words: 4203 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81418808

Cross-oundary Offshore Oil & Gas Resources

Joint Development Agreements & Frameworks

1/6/2014

[Type the company name]

User

Table of Contents

1. Introduction 3

2. The rule of capture 3

3. The CooperationApproach 4

4. Legal framework to develop trans-boundary offshore O&G resources 5

4.1 Cross-border unitization agreements 6

4.2 Joint Development Agreements (JDA) 6

4.3 National law and its application in Co-operative Agreements 7

4.4 ilateral treaties for trans-boundary oil and gas exploration 7

4.5 The Framework Agreement Approach 9

4.6 The Third Party approach to dispute resolution 10

5. Conclusion 10

ibliography 11

Treaties & Conventions 11

ooks 11

Articles 12

Websites 13

1. Introduction

Subsea resources such as petroleum and natural gas are important sources of meeting the energy demand of countries. Cross-territory disputes are arising among different countries. Advancement in technology in exploration and extraction of subsea resources has expedited the overall procedure of competitive drilling. This…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Treaties & Conventions

Cross boundary petroleum cooperation between the UK and the Kingdom of Norway 2005

Treaty, Timor Sea. "Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste relating to the Unitization of the Sunrise and Troubadour fields Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Canberra (Dili, 6 March 2003)(1)." Accessed from

U.S-Mexico Trans-boundary hydrocarbons agreement 2012
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Tax Law Oil and Gas Is Currently

Words: 3220 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14203970

Tax Law

Oil and Gas is currently at the core of ussia's economy, even though there has been talk at the head of the ussian federation of intentions to attempt to move the economy from one which is based solely in these natural resources, to one which is based on rapidly evolving technology. Of course it will be at least a decade before movements and developments in this fashion are able to unfold with real significance. However, given the strong presence and foundation of the oil and gas sector in ussia's economy, it is natural that the bulk of the regulatory law is founded around these pillars.

Excise Tax

Excise taxes in ussia refer to taxes which need to be paid out on certain goods in ussia, such as raw and refined alcohol, alcoholic drinks which are stronger than 1.5% by volume, cars and motorcycles with engines that have horsepower…… [Read More]

References

Cfe-eutax.org. (2013). Excise duties in Russia. Retrieved from cfe-eutax.org:  http://www.cfe-eutax.org/taxation/excise-duties/russia 

Deloitte.com. (2012). Tax and Legal Guide. Retrieved from Deloitte.com: http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Russia/Local%20Assets/Documents/Energy%20and%20Resources/dttl_Guide-to-the-Russian-Oil-Gas-Sector_03092012.pdf

EY.com. (2011). Doing Business in the Russian Federation. Retrieved from EY.com:  http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/Doing-business-in-the-Russian-Federation-2011/$FILE/Doing-business-in-the-Russian-Federation-2011.pdf 

GFC. (2010). Reducing Carbon Emissions Through Transport Taxation. Retrieved from greenfiscalcommission.org.uk:  http://www.greenfiscalcommission.org.uk/images/uploads/gfcBriefing6_PDF_ISBN_v7.pdf
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Peak Oil the Global Oil Industry Covered

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26946651

Peak Oil

The global oil industry covered all of Earth's continents in search of oil, and the limited results that they found prompted geologist M. King Hubbert to declare an impending peak oil situation; but the prospect of peak oil has not been reached more than 60 years later, and in fact, the rate of new oil prospectus has been growing in the past decade. The reason for this is sheer innovation; from the ground to the pump, in achieving further gains from existing oil fields, and opening up entirely new regions of untapped oil.

The first new technology since the 1950s is the least exciting, but cheapest option. It is the practice of using steam and gas in existing oil wells in order to loosen the hardened oil that is not easily pumped out in a liquid form. This technology has been used effectively in oil fields like the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Hydraulic Fracturing Background Information." Home. 23 Mar. 2012. Web. .

Leovy, Jill. "Greenspace." Gulf Oil Spill: Drilling Technology Explained. 29 Apr. 2010. Web. .

"Local." Gov. Brown Welcomes Fuel-Efficient Boeing Dreamliner To Long Beach -- CBS Los Angeles. 12 Mar. 2012. Web. .

Mouawad, Jad. "Oil Innovations Pump New Life Into Old Wells." The New York Times, 5 Mar. 2007. Web. .
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International Environmental Laws on Oil Gas Production Effects

Words: 2138 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30626844

International Environmental Laws on Oil/Gas Production

Effects of Oil and Gas Production to the Environment in Norway

Over the years, oil and gas production companies have been a serious global concern. This is due to impacts on the environment associated with its production. International principles setup aims at governing the extraction and usage of such sources of energy. Norway is located in Europe, located near North Sea. Its high level of energy production has highly boosted the Gross National product (GNP) of Europe. Oil, gas and hydroelectric power having contributed significantly to the rapid development of industries in Europe and contribute around 50% to the economy. Discovery of oil and gas was in early 1960's, and currently, Norway is the seventh largest producer of oil and gas internationally. There have been contravenes between energy producing industries and the environmental activists. Several principles set to govern energy production have been set,…… [Read More]

References

Development of E.C.O.A., 2001. Environmental Performance Reviews: Norway. Holand: OECD publishers.

Edwards, J., 1998. Europe. Scandinavia: Nelson Thornes Publishers.

Fitzmaurie, M., 2010. Research Handbook on Iinternational Environmental Law. 3rd ed. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Gardinerr, S., Caney, S. & Jamieson, D., 2003. Climate Ethics: Essential Readings. 1 ed. Chicago: Springer.
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Drilling for Oil in the

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61859089

A petroleum geologist against drilling in the area writes, "For all practical purposes, the refuge is utterly pristine. It also encompasses an area 26 times larger than Yosemite National Park, almost nine times the size of Yellowstone" (Herndon). While few visitors seek out the Refuge, there are several small native villages in and around the area, and these Native Americans rely on the bounty of the Refuge for their continued survival. These Gwich'in people oppose drilling in the ANWR for a number of important reasons. They feel it will permanently damage the tender tundra, which is easily damaged and non-renewable once it has been damaged, and it could affect the Porcupine Elk herd, which migrates through the area, as well. Drilling could disrupt their traditional birthing and nursery grounds, which could cause them to migrate along a different route. Since the Gwich'in people rely on the caribou for sustenance, this…… [Read More]

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Project Management in the Oil

Words: 5052 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16699228

(Braunschweig; Day, 150)

Most of the current generation of project managers expects the project management tools to furnish them with almost real-time knowledge in order to facilitate their decision-making. Some of these tools like DOFF, "Field of the Future," "Smart Fields," Microsoft's "Oilfield Connectivity" and i-Fields are currently being examined by exploration and production oil companies. Some of these tools have the capability of generating information from apparently incongruent data and helping managers take important decisions based on them. (Oilfield Connectivity - Capturing the Value of the Digital Era)

There is substantial amount of risk in oil exploration and production since the concerned target is located many thousands of feet under the ground. There are a number of factors that can cause uncertainties and risks in these fields which may include the weather, people, geology, safety, and availability of tools and equipment. Agility is an important requirement in the oil…… [Read More]

References

Barkley, Bruce T. Integrated Project Management.

McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006.

Braunschweig, Bertrand; Day, Ron. Artificial Intelligence in the Petroleum Industry:

Symbolic and Computational Applications. TECHNIP. 1995.
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Economics of Oil Today 90

Words: 2469 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10919715

(Drawing the Line on Energy) the newly emerging economies are also trying to find more and more oil for their economies to advance rapidly.

There is a lot of difference among the countries in terms of the amount they produce and in terms of the quantities they export. In terms of production the order is Saudi Arabia, United States, ussia, Iran, Mexico, China, Norway, Canada, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, United Kingdom, Kuwait and Nigeria. In terms of exports, the order is Saudi Arabia, ussia, Norway, Iran, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Kuwait, Nigeria, Mexico, Algeria and Libya. It is clear that USA does not export as it consumes all the quantities that it produces. The need is for USA is to ensure that it gets all the oil it needs and that was probably the reason to attack Iraq. One of the persons contributing to that view was the Vice President…… [Read More]

References

Petroleum. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum#Future_of_oilAccessed on 6 May, 2005

Brooke, James. Drawing the Line on Energy. New York Times. 29 March 2005. Retrieved at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/Petroleum/naha.htm. Accessed on 6 May, 2005

Romero, Simon. Spanish Seek Oil Off Cuba, as Americans Watch Silently. New York Times. 6 July 2004. Retrieved at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/Petroleum/romero.htm. Accessed on 6 May, 2005

Sachs, Jeffrey. America's disastrous energy plan. Financial Times. 22 December 2003. Retrieved at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/energy/costs.htm. Accessed on 6 May, 2005
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Exxon's Oil Tanker Valdez Ran

Words: 2180 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29644320

The workforce should be clear about the implementation of technologies for protecting natural resources, through formulating strategies.

atification of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) 1984 Protocols

Domestic legislation on compensation and liability is needed to implement two IMO protocols related to compensation and liability. The United States should ratify the 1984 Protocols to the 1969 Civil Liability and the 1971 Fund Conventions. Expeditious ratification is essential to ensure international agreement on responsibilities associated with oil spills around the world' (A eport to the President: Executive Summary).

Introduction of Safeguards

It is imperative to establish such environmental safeguards so as to minimize the possibility of oil spillage, by improving transportation, production, storing facilities. 'The infrequency of major oil spills in recent years contributed to the complacency that exacerbated the effect of the Exxon Valdez spill' (CNN: Exxon found guilty).

Legislation on liability and compensation is needed

The Exxon Valdez incident has…… [Read More]

References

Michael Baffrey, Contracting Officer's, Technical Representative U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service Environmental Studies Section., Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Cleanup, and Litigation: A Collection of Social-Impacts Information and Analysis.

Science and Transportation United States. Congress Senate Committee on Commerce, United States Congress, Exxon Oil Spill: Hearing Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

Phillip Margulies., The EXXON Valdez Oil Spill.

Peter G. Wells., EXXON Valdez Oil Spill: fate and effects in Alaskan waters.
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Declining Oil Fields Giant Oil Fields Are

Words: 745 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13086361

Declining Oil Fields:

Giant oil fields are the most essential contributors to the total oil production in the world with approximately one percent of the total number of oil fields across the globe being classified as giant oil fields. In the past few decades, there has been an evolution of decline rates in these giant oil fields as well as smaller oil fields across the globe. These decline rates have been as a result of various factors that include production techniques and the impact of new technologies. Furthermore, these factors that have also led to the continual increase of the average decline rate of smaller oil fields around the world. Given that the decline rates are expected to continue more rapidly in the future, they will have significant implications on oil prices. Currently, oil prices are experiencing an ongoing rise because of the increase in demand with no increase in…… [Read More]

References:

"About the Crowding Out Effect." (n.d.). E-how.com: How to do Just About Everything.

Retrieved February 16, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/about_4571410_crowding-out-effect.html

Hook, M, Hirsch, R & Aleklett, K. (n.d.). Giant Oil Field Decline Rates and their Influence on World Oil Production. Retrieved February 16, 2011, from  http://www.postpeakliving.com/files/shared/Hook-GOF_decline_Article.pdf
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Environmental Science Class Title the Oil Industry

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19137747

Environmental Science class.. Title the Oil Industry Environment

APA Guidelines format 4-6 References I 4-6 Pages ritten text photos / data tables

The effects of the Oil Industry on the Environment

In spite of the fact that society has experienced significant moral progress in the recent decades, people continue to associate well-being with financial profits regardless of the effects that their actions have on society and this is reflected by the fact that the oil industry has inflicted great damage on the environment in the last few years. The fact that society has come to depend on oil makes it especially difficult for someone to experience positive results as a result of criticizing individuals involved in the oil business. Communities who have access to free oil wells are privileged and society has virtually learnt to exploit any oil source that it can possibly find. This has devastating consequences on the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Ali-Akpajiak, Sofo, C.A. Pyke, Toni, "Measuring poverty in Nigeria," (Oxfam, 2003)

Struzik, Ed, "Killing Wolves: A Product ofAlberta's Big Oil and Gas Boom," retrieved March 29, 2012, from the Yale Environment 360 Website:  http://e360.yale.edu/feature/alberta_canada_energy_boom_places_wolves_in_the_crosshairs/2459/ 

Taylor, Dorcetta, E. "Environment and Social Justice: An International Perspective," (Emerald Group Publishing, 2010)

McQuaid, John, "The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill:An Accident Waiting to Happen" retrieved March 29, 2012, from the Yale Environment 360 Website:  http://e360.yale.edu/feature/the_gulf_of_mexico_oil_spill_an_accident_waiting_to_happen/2272/
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Water An Overlooked Essential Nutrient You Are

Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70846723

Water: An Overlooked Essential Nutrient

You are a egistered Dietitian, and you have been invited to a Lunch and Learn program at a very large law firm. The firm must make a decision about which company they will select for a year long beverage contract. The lawyers must choose water, Gatorade, or PowerAde. Of the 55 attorneys attending your presentation, 32 of them workout regularly for 1 hour five days out of the week.

The firm has requested that you address all of the questions mentioned in the introductory paragraph while creating a handout that compares water, Gatorade, and PowerAde on the following categories:

Daily recommendations

Daily recommendations for water are an average of 3.7 liters (125 oz) for men about 2.7 liters (95 oz) for women. Some individuals who have higher than average fluid and electrolyte needs may need more (GSSI).

The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and…… [Read More]

References

Associated Content. (Oct 14, 2007). Gatorade vs. PowerAde: Which is the Better Sports Drink? Accessed online March 30, 2011:

http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/413298/gatorade_versus_powerade_which_is_the_pg2.html?cat=5

Gatorade FAQ. Accessed online March 30, 2011: http://www.gatorade.com/frequently_asked_questions/Default.aspx

Gatorade Ingredients and Nutrition Content. Pepsi Product Facts. Accessed online March 30, 2011: http://pepsiproductfacts.com/infobyproduct.php?prod_size=20&brand_fam_id=1043&brand_id=1002&product=Gatorade+Lemon+Lime.
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Upton Sinclair's Novel Oil And

Words: 2063 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57662374



In Sinclair's novel, the whole vision is altered because it focuses mainly on Bunny's perception of his father and of the broader social concerns of the day. Here the father is less of an individual and more of a representative of the emergent and destructive force of the cruel capitalism. It is not the beastly, inhuman character of a man that is brought into focus, but the inhuman force of capitalism. Even from the first pages, everything is rendered through the yet unripe but keen eyes of the son: "Sometimes you liked to put your hand up, and feel the cold impact; sometimes you would peer around the side of the shield, and let the torrent hit your forehead, and toss your hair about. But for the most part you sat about and dignified because that was Dad's way and Dad's way constituted the ethics of motoring."(Sinclair, 5) the wider…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Campbell, John. http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/amlit/realism.htm

http://www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/amlit/natural.htm

Sinclair, Upton. Oil! New York: Penguin, 2007.
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Functions of Management at Shell Oil How

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94773086

Functions of Management at Shell Oil

How External Factors Affect the Four Functions of Management at Shell Oil

There are many external factors influencing or affecting the four functions of management at Shell Oil. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate each of the four functions of management, explaining what external factors most influence their operations and performance. As Shell Oil is a process goods producer that transforms raw materials into finished goods, the factors most affecting the four functions of management are supply chain focused.

Planning

Shell Oil relies heavily on the Supply Chain Operations eference (SCO) model as a means to mitigate sourcing oil, gas and raw materials needed for creating their finished goods (azmi, Jolai, Hezarkhani, 2008). Strategic planning at Shell is highly dependent on how well integrated the company is with suppliers in the areas of exploration, mining or extraction, processing and refining oil- and…… [Read More]

References

Aguirre, Calderone, Jones (2004) -10 Principles of Change Management. Resilience Report, Booz, Allen Hamilton. New York, NY.

Raymond E. Miles (2007). Innovation and Leadership Values. California Management Review, 50(1), 192-201.

Jafar Razmi, Fariborz Jolai, Behzad Hezarkhani. (2008). Designing collaborative roles and responsibilities in supply chain. International Journal of Management Practice, 3(1), 96.
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Forgotten Yet Essential Soladaras in

Words: 3477 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31593768

However, over the years, history book publishers have not followed suit and described the soladeras in a positive way. For instance, one of Casaola's most well-known photos is of a harried soldadera in a train station. The photograph's saturated colors make the scene deeply emotional and compelling, with a feeling of urgency and dynamic motion. The spontaneity of the picture and transparency of reality provide an historical accuracy and high degree of precision. Yet, the caption of one history book, for example, relates how many of the soldaderas were forced to ride on the rooftops of the trains, instead of inside the wagons. Many of the women died early deaths when the train sped through dangerous ravines and cliffs. This was anything but a supportive interpretation of the photograph and not why Casola took the photographs.

On the other hand, Casola's photographs, especially this one in the train station, did…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Coerver, Don M.. Suzanne B. Pasztor and Robert Buffington. Mexico: an encyclopedia of contemporary culture and history Santa Barber, CA: ABC-Clio.

Fuentes, Andres. "Battleground Women: Soldaderas and Female Soldiers in the Mexican Revolution." The Americas 51 no. 4 (1995): 525-553.

King, Benjamin. "Iconography and Stereotype: Visual Memory of the Soldaderas" http://www.umich.edu/~historyj/pages_folder/articles/Iconography_and_Stereotype.pdf (Accessed May 3, 2010)

Macias, Anna. Against All Odds: The Feminist Movement in Mexico to 1940 Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1982
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Competitive and Global Market it Is Essential

Words: 1106 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17261722

competitive and global market, it is essential that companies have a means of continually making improvements to their products and services. This is called the total improvement process or quality management system (QMS). A QMS can take a variety of forms in order to consistently meet customer requirements. A QMS offers a number of benefits to an organization: enhanced customer satisfaction and confidence and improved market reputation and market share (Harrington, 1995, p.173).

In order to produce a product or service, a company relies on the materials and supplies from a number of vendors. The vendors must meet the same stringent criteria as the company as a whole to meet the customer requirements. It is very difficult for vendors to have different criteria for each company to which they sell. As a result, a group of professionals in the quality field realized that it would be much better if the…… [Read More]

References Cited

Duran, M. (June 2004). Journal Sentinel boasting seal of quality from new ISO certification. Retrieved from website October 12, 2005.

Harrington, H.J. (1995). Total improvement management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

ISO System. (2005). Retrieved from website October 12, 2005. http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/aboutiso/introduction/index.html#four

Rabbitt, J.T, & Bergh, P.A. (1993). The ISO 9000 book. White Plains, NY: Quality Resources.
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Aromatherapy in Addiction Treatment for

Words: 5849 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23652968

S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:

faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.

Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.

A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.

The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.

These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.

Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available:  http://www.moondragon.org/aromatherapy/aromatherapychart.html .

Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.
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Aromatherapy for Allergies From a Nursing Perspective

Words: 1268 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17727225

aromatherapy and allergies and the various nursing aspects and implications on the uses of aromatherapy as a treatment for allergies.

Aromatherapy is defined as the art of using essential oils taken from leaves, bark, roots, and flowers, to enhance moods, sharpen minds, awaken the individual's physical sense of being, and most important of all treat various allergies. y simply breathing in the fragrances present in the essential oils derived from these sources, an individual has a soothing effect on his or her soul, and arouses the sensual self. For thousands of years, man has used these essential oils of plants and flowers to improve both his physical as well as the emotional well being.

Though the effectiveness, strengths and the healing powers of the essential oils derived from various herbs, plants and flowers have proven in a number of ailments and allergies, their importance in aromatherapy has only recently been…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Author unknown, (2001) health meds. com, http://www.healthmeds.com/healthcontent/Aromatherapy/aromatherapy_contents.htm

Richerson, S.A., (2000) Aromatherapy Basics.  http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art197.asp 

Author unknown, (2001) Allergies, Healthmeds.com http://www.healthmeds.com/healthcontent/AilmentsandDiseases/allergies.htm

Buckle, J., (1999), Clinical Aromatherapy in Nursing, http://www.oup-usa.org/isbn/0340631775.html
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Health Natural Health Care Homeopathy

Words: 2837 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58073270

"Successful candidates become Diplomates of the American Board of Homeotherapeutics and may affix the designation D.Ht. after their name. They must maintain certain criteria of continuing homeopathic education and submission of Journal articles annually to maintain their Diplomate status" (Frequently Asked Questions, 2007).

Homeopaths care for patients based on genetic and personal health history, body type, and present physical, emotional, and mental indications. Patient visits tend to be long. Treatments are custom to each individual and it is not unusual for different individuals with the same situation to get dissimilar treatments. According to the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, which incorporated an inclusive survey of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by Americans, an anticipated four million U.S. adults and approximately nine hundred thousand children used homeopathy in the prior year. "People use homeopathy for an assortment of health concerns, from wellness and prevention, to the treatment of diseases and…… [Read More]

References

Frequently Asked Questions. (2007). Retreived from http://www.homeopathyusa.org/faq.html

Heal Your Body Naturally. (2011). Retrieved from  http://www.homeremedycentral.com/ 

Homeopathy: An Introduction. (2011). Retrieved from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/homeopathy/

Homeopathy - Topic Overview. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/learning-treat-depression/talking-your-doctor
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Aromatherapy Ecdriesbaugh Aromatherapy Is Considered

Words: 980 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38894

The amygdale manages our emotional response to an aroma. The memory and recognition of smell takes place in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is also where chemicals in an aroma trigger our unique repository of learned memories..." (Buckle, 2001).

Though there hasn't been much research, and most studies that have been done were small sample sizes, the healing qualities of aromatherapy look very promising. In 2005, Japanese researchers found that aromatherapy massage using lavender-based products reduced anxiety and stress and was helpful to the immune system. It was also noted that patients showed a considerable increase in lymphocytes (protective blood cells), while showing a decrease in depression.

Another study discovered that the use of aromatherapy after an operation lessoned the patient's feeling of nausea and vomiting. Antiemetics (drugs used to prevent nausea and vomiting) were reduced by almost 50% (Milivojevic, 2006). In small studies conducted in nursing homes, aromatherapy has indicated…… [Read More]

References

Archer, Shirley (2003). Aromatherapy Fights Dementia. The Futurist, 2. This article gives a brief overview of the effects of aromatherapy on patients with dementia.

Buckle, Jane (2001). Aromatherapy and Diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum, 124. This article summarizes the process of how aromatherapy works, and provides a brief overview of the effects of aromatherapy on diabetic patients.

Fowler, Newton (2006). Complementary and alternative therapies: the nurse's role. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 261. This article analyzes the nurse's role in integrating CAM for the purpose of increasing the quality and quantity of life among patients. It also supplies a brief overview of the concepts of CAM as well as case studies and statistical analysis.

Milivojevic, J., (2006). Just the essentials: you know they smell good, but are there any benefits to incorporating essential oils into your practice? Massage Therapy Journal, 64. This article explores the benefits of incorporating essential oil aromatherapy massage into traditional medical practice. It reviews several case studies and defines aromatherapy.
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Aromatherapy the Health Claims Associated

Words: 1155 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57766641

Some of the rather varied list of claims include mood alternative, as biofeedback tied in to relaxation, stress release, concentration and meditation."... "an alternative to synthetic drugs to feel good." "addresses the nervous system and the energy fields of the body. It soothes the body, cleans the body, clears the body, and tones the body."... The Complete Book of Essential Oils and Aromatherapy, by Valerie Ann Worwood, states that there are about 300 essential oils and that they constitute an extremely effective medical system. The web site of Beyond Aromatherapy has stated (allegedly quoting Hippocrates) "There is a remedy for every illness to be found in nature." Its online catalog includes descriptions of "ancient healing uses," astrological correspondence, and Chinese medicine characteristics of more than 80 essential oils. (Barrett MD, 2001, (http://www.quackwatch.com/01QuackeryelatedTopics/aroma.html)

Clearly the indication of these claims is not only far reaching but indicates their use as medicine. The…… [Read More]

Resources

Barrett, S. MD. (2001), "Aromatherapy: Making Dollars out of Scents." Retrieved September 10, 2007 at      http://www.quackwatch.com/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/aroma.html     

Russell, M.(ND). "Aromatherapy: A great Alternative Therapy." Retrieved September 10, 2007 at http://aromatherapy-guide-to.com/printview.aspx?articleid=350064
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Salvia Officinalis a Literature Review Introduction and

Words: 2195 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71883825

Salvia Officinalis a Literature eview

Introduction and History of Use

Salvia officinalis, or sage, is also called garden sage or common sage. It is a perennial, evergreen shrub (Clebsch & Barner, 2003). The leaves are grayish in color, and the flowers are purple or blue (Watters, 1901). Stems are woody, and the plant is native to the Mediterranean (Clebsch & Barner, 2003). However, it has now been naturalized in a number of places throughout the world. Its history is long, mostly detailing both culinary and medicinal uses. Modern times have also seen its popularity rise as an ornamental garden plant (Kintzios, 2000). There are many other species that also carry the common name "sage." Some are related and some are not. Sage was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus, and has been grown for centuries (Sutton, 2004). Its healing properties are impressive, and it is also used in the…… [Read More]

References

Akhondzadeh, S., Noroozian, M., Mohammadi, M., Ohadinia, S., Jamshidi, A.H., & Khani, M. (2003). Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Pharmacological Therapy, 28(1): 53 -- 9.

Clebsch, B. & Barner, C.D. (2003). The New Book of Salvias. NY: Timber Press.

Dos Santos-Neto, L.L, De, V., Toledo, M, Medeiros-Souza, P, & De Souza, G. (2006). The use of herbal medicine in Alzheimer's disease -- a systematic review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM 3(4): 441 -- 5.

Iuvone, T., De Filippis, D., Esposito, G., D'Amico, A., & Izzo, A. (2006). The spice sage and its active ingredient rosmarinic acid protect PC12 cells from amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 317(3): 1143 -- 9.
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Humulus Lupulus Common Hop

Words: 3720 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74382232

Humulus Lupulus

Hops (Humulus Lupulus) are well recognized and extensively grown for their use in preparing beer and lager. Whilst hops have been utilized in beer preparing in Europe from the oman times, they started their widespread utilization in Flanders in the 14th century. Hops got admired recognition in Britain in the 16th century for medical and drinking reasons. The pure characteristics given by the hops, developed beer as an everyday drink instead of water, in a lot of areas water was usually unhealthy for human utilization

The Hop plant is a perpetual climbing plant that in character strings itself around trees. It is an associate of the Cannabidaceae species. Hops and cannabis are the only two types in the family and there are a lot of resemblances amid hemp (Cannabis sativa) and the cultivated hop. However, there are no "chemical" connections amid them. The nettle family is in the…… [Read More]

References

Murakami, A. (2000). Hop variety classification using the genetic distance based on RAPD. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. May June 106(3): 157-161.

Yamazaki, T. (2000). Humulus lupulus L. var. cordifolius (Miq.) maxim. found in Chugoku District. Journal of Japanese Botany. April 75(2): 125.

Beatson, R.A. And T.E. Inglis (1999). Development of aroma hop cultivars in New Zealand. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. Nov. Dec. 105(6): 382-385.

De, K.D., F. David, et al. (1998). Automated reporting on the quality of hops and hop products. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 104(2): 75-82.
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Current Research on Staph Infections

Words: 1680 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78433754

Aureus

Current Areas of esearch

Much of the current research on staphylococcus aureus centers on the emergence of antibiotic-resistance strains. In particular, the resistant strain MSA is resistant to methicillin and related drugs. This has created a number of issues for medical practitioners, as staph infections are one of the more common infections that occur in a health setting.

One of the threads of research in this regard concerns the spread of staph infection in the hospital setting. It has long been believed that s. aureus infections were transmitted between patients. Where outbreaks have occurred, the response has generally reflected this view, with patients being segregated, and other similar remedies. ecent research has shown, however, that transmission between patients in the intrahospital setting does not occur nearly as much as previously thought (Long, Beres, Olsen & Musser, 2014). This is an important finding for health care facilities, because it changes…… [Read More]

References

Haba, E., Bouhdid, S., Solana, N., Marques, A., Espuny, M., Celma, M. & Manresa, A. (2014). Rhamnolipids as emulsifying agents for essential oil formulations:

Antimicrobial effect against Candida albicans and methicillin-resistant

Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Vol. 476 (2014) 134-141.

Kriegeskorte, A., Block, D., Drescher, M.., Windmuller, N.,Mellmann, A.,Baum, C., Neumann, C., Lore, N., Bragonzi, A., Liebau, E., Hertel, P., Seggeweiss, J., Becker, K., Proctoer, R., Peters, G., & Kahl, B. (2014). Inactivation of thyA in staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence and has a strong impact on metabolism and virulence gene expression. mBio. Vol.5(4) 1-15
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Aromatherapy Complimentary Medicines Have Long

Words: 2359 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13112800

One of the studies Halm reviewed, for instance, found an immediate reduction in respiratory rate during and immediately after aromatherapy treatment, but two hours after the treatment occurred there was no discernable effect (Halm 2008). This suggests that the commercial applications of aromatherapy, which tend to be long-term environmental applications rather than time- and person-specific treatments. Because the evidence shows that the calming effects of aromatherapy are really only present during the treatment and immediately after, long-term environmental applications of aromatherapy might be best.

There are problems with such an application in a medical setting, however. Chief among these is the entirely subjective nature of the sense of smell. Certain aromas which might be very pleasant -- and therefore presumably stress reducing -- for some might be particularly unpleasant for others. For these latter people, who do not enjoy a particular given aroma, stress might actually be increased by the…… [Read More]

Reduction of stress in nurses and medical staff will have a direct and casually and consciously observable effect on the treatment of patients. Speech and action both tend to be abbreviated during periods of stress, which can and most likely will have a direct effect on the way that patients perceive the quality of care they are receiving. This in turn will have an effect on the patient's stress level; if they feel that they are receiving a less-than-adequate level of care, their stress level is likely to rise, negatively impacting their recovery. On the other hand, if the nurses and medical staff are less stressed, this will also be communicated to the patient, and might have the opposite effect of improving patient attitude and enhancing their recovery.

Stress can be communicated subconsciously, too, perhaps to an even greater degree in subtle situations than the overt and conscious communications presented by alterations in observable attitude and action. This fact can only enhance the positive effects of the above suggestions of an available environmentally pervasive aromatherapy break room. Calmer people tend to help calm other people; if the nurses and medical staff are calm and less stressed, this will be unconsciously communicated to the patients as well, reducing their stress levels. Thus, it can be seen that pervasive aromatherapy might be even more efficacious in the treatment of patient stress and anxiety when provided to nurses instead of or in addition to the patients themselves.

All of this talk of environmentally pervasive aromatherapy is not to suggest that direct and patient-specific applications of aromatherapy not be utilized. The evidence clearly shows that such applications can be remarkable efficacious in the short-term as a stress reduction technique for patients and medical staff alike, even going so far as to reduce respiratory rates (Halm 2008). The evidence that aromatherapy can actually reduce levels of pain in critically ill patients has yet to be verified, but this is another avenue of aromatherapy application the merits further research (Halm 2008). In fact, aromatherapy in general is underutilized in this country, and the reports studied herein suggest that these practices should be changes if for no other reason than it will at least partially and temporarily reduce stress levels among patients and medical staff. The increase of the use of aromatherapy will also provide more evidence for further applications.
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Viuda-Martos M Ruiz-Navajas Y Fernandez-Lopez J and

Words: 547 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57370487

Viuda-Martos, M., Ruiz-Navajas, Y., Fernandez-Lopez, J., and Perez-Alvarez, J.. 2008. Antibacterial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.), mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L.), and orange (Citrus sinensis L.) essential oils. Journal of Food Safety 28: 567-576.

The article Antibacterial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.), mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L.), and orange (Citrus sinensis L.) essential oils is an explanation of the experiment conducted involving the testing of essential oils (EO's) from a variety of citrus sources as a means of inhibiting the growth of certain common bacteria. The author's stated purpose for this experiment was that since many consumers prefer natural based antimicrobial substances, they were testing naturally occurring EO's for their antibacterial properties. They did this by using six different strains of bacteria, grown on agar plates, and placing filter paper discs, 9mm in diameter and impregnated with between 2 and 40 L.…… [Read More]

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Foundation of Peace

Words: 7104 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18200902

Peace

Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Today's world is different from the one we faced just several years ago. We are no longer divided into armed camps, locked in a careful balance of terror. Yet, freedom still has enemies. Our present dangers are less concentrated and more varied. They come from rogue nations, from terrorism, from missiles that threaten our forces, our friends, our allies and our homeland.

Since the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1697, the island…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Beginning of Diplomatic Relations." Department of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. (January 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from      http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca     /latinamerica/haitirelations-en.asp.

Graham, Andrew. "Canada bolsters support to Haiti." Media Relations Office

Canadian International Development Agency. (July 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from
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Migraine Management Migraine Also Known as Hemi

Words: 3782 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72867345

Migraine Management

Migraine, also known as hemi crania and megrim, is a severe and recurring headache. Commonly known as sick headache, it often affects only one side of the head, and is usually accompanied by nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, and sensitivity to motion, light sound and odors.

'The, International Headache Society (HIS) has created a checklist by which migraine can be diagnosed. This is a simplified, standardized and globally accepted diagnostic test for migraine. The following criteria define common migraine, which is the migraine without aura:

A patient should have had at least five of these headaches.

The headache lasts from 4 to 72 hours.

The headache must have at least two of the following:

a. One sided location.

Pulsing or throbbing quality.

c. Moderate or severe intensity, making daily activities difficult or impossible to perform

d. Headache is worsened by routine physical activity. Such a bending over or climbing…… [Read More]

Reference:

1. Stewart J. Tepper, M.D, 2004, Understanding Migraine and Other Headaches, Jackson, Ms. Publication, University Press of Mississippi.

2. Kathleen M. Heins, April 2003, Stopping migraine pain: don't let the doctor dismiss your migraine symptoms. New medicines and treatments are giving millions of women relief from the worst headache of all - Second Opinion, Better Homes and Gardens.

3. Ben Harder, Feb 19, 2005, Against the migraine: a procedure's serendipitous success hints that some headaches start in the heart, Science News.

4. Karen Goldberg Goff, August 1, 1999, HEADING OFF Migraine pain: Finding "Trigger," Right Treatment for debilitating pain, The Washington Times, pg: 1.
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Saving the Brazilian Amazon Through

Words: 1384 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80122336

The women sustainably harvest items from the forest, and how produce essential oils, lotions, and soaps from the ingredients they harvest. Because they only harvest ingredients instead of using the entire plant, the forest lives on, while they still are earning an income from the sales of their products.

Many experts have ideas about how to improve on sustainable development in the region. Another expert says, "For instance, improving the monitoring of species loss reduces ignorance about the ecological system and may lead to patents for medicinal plants. The latter enables synergies that integrate indigenous knowledge into management/conservation" (eyer). Convincing companies to invest in these types of development have often fallen on deaf ears because of costs. Many very large global corporations have large operations in the rainforest, such as Mitsubishi and Georgia Pacific, and because the government essentially gives them free reign with little regulation, they exploit the rainforest…… [Read More]

References

Butler, Rhett a. "Deforestation in the Amazon." Mongabay.com. 2009. 19 March 2010.

.

Editors. "Rainforest Facts." Raintree Nutrition. 2010. 19 March 2010.

.
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Gender and Smell Recognition

Words: 2005 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32789944

Gender and Smell Recognition

WHOSE IS SHARPER?

It is common belief that women have a sharper sense of smell than men. However, there are separate studies suggesting that the sense is as strong in men as in women. Can women really identify smells better than men? Is women's sense of smell stronger in detecting certain types of scents, like cologne and perfume?

Feminine Smelling Ability Superior

Standard tests establish the superiority of women's smelling ability to that of men in terms of odor detection, discrimination and identification (SIRC, 2012). Women convincingly scored higher than men in these tests. A research said that this capability in females was shown in studied female newborns. ut other studies can refute this established finding. A separate study hinted that this feminine capability may be stronger to certain scents but not to others. Female sensitiveness to smell has been demonstrated to be 10,000 stronger to…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bjorn, G. (2011). Olfaction differences between the sexes. Science and Technology:

The Daily Smell. Retrieved on April 26, 2012 from http://dev.thedailysmell.com/2010/11/12/science-of-smell-olfaction-differences-between-the-sexes

Bhuta, M.F. (2007). Sex and the nose: human pheromonal responses. 100 (6) The

Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine: The Royal Society of Medicine. Retrieved on April 26, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1885393
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Million Americans Suffer From Migraine

Words: 4204 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23813287

Continued use of some anti-migraine drugs has been found to lead to what is known as "rebound headache," a condition marked by frequent and chronic headaches, especially in the early morning hours. The condition can be prevented if the patient takes the drugs only on a doctor's supervision and when taken only in minimal doses. Those suffering from frequent attacks may need preventive therapy (Robinson 1999).

There are alternative treatment modes aimed at preventing migraine (Robinson 1999). ecause it is often linked with food allergies and intolerances, the identification and elimination of the offending foods can contain or decrease the frequency of the attacks. Herbal therapy with the use of feverfew or chrysanthemum parthenium can work this way. iofeedback training may also help prevent some vascular changes when an attack begins by increasing the flow of blood to the extremities. The patient must put the lights down low, put his…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cottrell, C.K. et al. (2002). Perceptions and Needs of Patients with Migraine. Health and Fitness. Journal of Family Practice. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/mi_m6689/is_2_51/ai_83551751

Gaby, A.R. (2003). Preventing Migraine with Coenzyme Q10. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients: the Townsend Letter Group. (http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/mi_m)ISW/is_2003_Jan/ai_95676502

Huffman, G.B. (2002). Safety of Triptans in Migraine Therapy. American Family Physicians. The American Academy of Family Physicians. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/mi_m3225/is_12_65/ai_87721440

Khosh, F. et al. (2002). Natural Approach to Migraine Headaches. Townsend Letter to Doctors and Patients. The Townsend Letter Group. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/mi_mOISW/is_2002_August-Sept/ai_90794456
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Ponds Moisturizer Marketing Plan What

Words: 1114 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81696107



Functional benefits

Using Ponds reduces the appearance of fine lines, makes the skin feel softer and less irritated by the elements, and can also make the removal of makeup easier.

Psycho-social implication

Using Ponds makes a consumer feel more attractive, feminine, and conveys an overall sense of well-being. It makes the consumer feel as if she is making herself beautiful without spending a great deal of money. It also enables the consumer to remove her makeup, which is supposed to be 'good for the skin.

Instrumental values

Using Ponds immediately gives the consumer a sense of well-being, makes the skin appear softer momentarily, and also cleans the face.

Terminal values

Using Ponds night after night makes the consumer feel good about using a trusted product, allows the consumer to save money (versus using a department store brand) while still allows the consumer to enjoy the positive benefits of using a…… [Read More]

Reference

Biggest beauty trends of 2013. (2013). MSN. Retrieved:

http://living.msn.com/style-beauty/makeup-skin-care-hair-tips/biggest-beauty-trends-of-2013-plus-five-trends-that-we-hope-go-away-in-2013#12

Top 8 moisturizers by Consumer Reports. (2012). QVC. Retrieved:

http://community.qvc.com/forums/Beauty-Banter/topic/223354/top-8-moisturizers-by-consumer-reports.aspx
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Wicked Problem Royal Dutch Shell and Its

Words: 5672 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1285730

Wicked Problem: oyal Dutch Shell and Its esponse to the Nigerian Oil Spill

Major oil companies such as oyal Dutch Shell are responsible for hundreds of oil spills every year that cumulatively involve millions of barrels of oil. The harmful effects of such oil spills on the environment is well documented of course, but less well documented are the different types and levels of responses that are used in response to oil spills in developing nations and those used in affluent nations. While oil spills such as British Petroleum's recent rupture of its Macondo well offshore United States are the focus of a massive and expensive coordinated response, far less attention is paid to oil spills that affect emerging nations such as Nigeria. This is not to say, of course, that all major oil companies -- including oyal Dutch Shell -- are completely abrogating their corporate responsibilities for oil spill…… [Read More]

References

Cocks, T. (2011, December 27). 'Shell says Nigeria oil spill contained.' Thomson Reuters.

[online] available: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/12/27/us-shell-nigeria-spill-

idUSTRE7BQ0M220111227.

Duncan, H. & Duke, S. (2010, October 13). 'Royal Dutch Shell Wades in with Attack on BP
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Entrepreneurship and Innovation

Words: 2774 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58808042

drivers of using biofuel in the airlines industry are closely linked to the evolution of oil prices in the last decade, as well as to the risks associated with the use of petroleum fuel. First of all, the oil prices have continuously increased over the last decades and the evaluations that this would happen date back to after 2003.

As early as 2009, the predictions for the period 2009-2016 reflected oil was expected to increase by 50% (as a trend) from an average at that time of around $50 (Kitov, 2009). This was based on existing statistical facts and evaluations and past data, thus carrying a high level of abstract objectivity. These evaluations were translated in practice, with oil prices currently at $92. All this would translate into an increased cost for the airline carriers.

Even more worrying when it comes to oil is that much of the price is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Prajogo, DI & Ahmed, PK. 2006. Relationships between innovation stimulus, innovation capacity, and innovation performance. R&D Management, vol.36, no.5, pp.499 -- 515

2. Smith, Andy. 2011. Management practices and innovation capacity in enterprises. On the Internet at  http://avetra.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/20.00.pdf . Last retrieved on August 6, 2012

3. Chemers M. 1997. An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers

4. Ulrich, Dave (1996). Human Resource Champions. The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press
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Global Law and Politics Political and Legal

Words: 1871 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51280401

Global Law and Politics:

Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.

Aspects of a New Global System:

Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…… [Read More]

References:

Concannon, T (2004), Chapter 5 - Resource Exploitation in Nigeria, Pambazuka News, viewed

27 December 2011,

Ejimeke, A (2010), The Oil Spills We Don't Hear About, The New York Times, viewed 27

December 2011,
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Noaa Stands for National Oceanic

Words: 3867 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59858055



Legislation on liability and compensation is needed.

The United States should ratify the International Maritime Organization (IMO) 1984 Protocols.

Federal planning for oil spills must be improved.

Studies of the long-term environmental and health effects must be undertaken expeditiously and carefully.

How NOAA responds to spills?

NOAA is a 24/7 service that monitors and waits for a help if there is a spill. They help protect and conserve the natural resources. As soon as they got call they go to the scene as fast as possible. They inspect the vessel, and study the spill, damage and spread in the affected area. We determine the success of their operation through the response of NOAA. NOAA Office of Response and Restoration has a mission based on the online source, http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2004/s2353.htm:

OR& R. is currently assisting with trajectory modeling, oil fate forecasting, weather, and information management and participating in over flights and resource…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

"Clean-Up Techniques" [Online] Available at:

"Containment and Recovery of Floating Oil" [Online] Available at:



Etkin, D.S. 1997. Oil Spills from Vessels (1960-1995): An International Historical Perspective.
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World Energy Prospects 2050

Words: 3640 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77272743

Ultra Long-Term Perspectives World Energy

Energy is a very important part of our lives and the world that we live in today. It has always been important since the time that the humans used to do all their work by themselves to the times when they started using animals and even today when we make use of the energy sources around us to produce energy such as electricity.

Today our main source of energy are the fossils fuels that won't last forever as, they take millions of years to form and very little time to get used as a source of energy. One of the very important concerns of today's time is the speed with which we are consuming these fossil fuels and how it will be very difficult for us to keep up with the increased demand which is expected to double by 2050 as the population is expected…… [Read More]

References

European Renewable Energy Council EREC. (2010). Re-thinking 2050 - A 100% renewable energy vision of EU. Retrieved from http://www.erec.org/media/publications/re-thinking-2050.html

Jess, A. (2010). What might be the energy demand and energy mix to reconcile the world's pursuit of welfare and happiness with the necessity to preserve the integrity of the biosphere? Energy Policy, 38(8), 4663 -- 4678. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421510003009

Khatib, H. (2011). IEA World Energy Outlook 2010 -- A comment. Energy Policy, 39(5), 2507 -- 2511. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511000930

Khatib, H. (2012). IEA World Energy Outlook 2011 -- A comment. Energy Policy, 48, 737 -- 743. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421512005149
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Country of Origin Effect on

Words: 6167 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86751866

With this in mind communications strategy has to be developed and implemented. The central debate remains that of degree of uniformity. The pros and cons are obvious, i.e. economies of scale, consistent message across markets, centralized control, different market characteristics, media availability and costs and government regulations (alabanis & Diamantopoulos, 2011). The stronger argument appears to be that different strategy appears to work in different situations, rather than a totally standardized campaign. Once these geographical issues are decided upon then the scope of the campaign, objectives and elements of strategy can be worked on. If the organization develops a message for one market and then transposes this intact into others or if it develops a message with a number of markets in mind from the start, it may be centrally conceived in both cases (Han, 2009; Wills & Ryans, 1977).

This is popular because of co-ordination and control providing the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ahmed, S.A., a. d'Atrous and M.E. Adraoui. 1994. 'Country-of-Origin Effects on Purchasing Managers Product Perceptions.' Industrial Marketing Management 23 (July): 323-332.

Keller, Kevin Lane. 1993. Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57, No. 1. pp. 1-22

Shirin, Khosrozadeh; Kambiz, Heidarzadeh Hanzaee. 2011. The Effect of the Country-of-Origin Image, Product Knowledge and Product Involvement on Consumer Purchase Decisions. Chinese Business Review, August Vol. 10, No. 8, 601-615

Bailey, W. And S.A. Gutierrez de Pineres. 2007. 'Country of Origin Attitudes in Mexico: The Malinchismo Effect.' Journal of International Consumer Marketing 9 (3): 25-41.
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Aromatherapy Has Been a Controversial

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5672098

Secondly, they will complete a digit span test associated with the 'Anxiety-triad'. Each group will then receive a different treatment, with one group receiving the 'ylang-ylang' a frequently used aromatherapy, the second group receiving another pleasant smell without the supposed effects of 'ylang-ylang' and the control group which will receive no therapy at all, instead they will be given a placebo. The third group will be informed that the room they are entering is fragranced with aromatherapuetic smells.

The proposal is designed to confirm the effects of aromatherapy. Because the study will be conducted using a double-blind methodology the effects, or non-effects, will be either substantiated or not. The benefits of the study will be to conclude whether further use of a specific aromatherapy in regard to lowering stress and anxiety is conducive to continued usage.

Works Cited

Diamond, B., (2004) Complementary and Alternative Medicines in the Treatment of Dementia:…… [Read More]

Rho, K., Han, S., Kim, K., Lee, M., (2006) Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Anxiety and Self-Esteem in Korean Elderly Woman: A Pilot Study, International Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 116, No. 12, pp 1447-1455

Shelly, T. et al. (2007) Aromatherapy on a Large Scale: Exposing Entire Adult Holding Rooms to Ginger Root oil Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Mediterranean Fruit fly in Field Cage Trials, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, Vol 123, No. 2, pp 193-201, Blackwell Publishing

Williams, T.I., (2006) Evaluating Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Sleep in Children With Autism: A Pilot Study, Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3, No 3, Oxford University Press, pp 373-377
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Interventionism From the Perspective of Realism vs

Words: 13409 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80916514

interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…… [Read More]

'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.

Available from . [24 Aug 2013].

Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
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What Is China's Role in Globalization Why Is it Significant

Words: 7994 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75280432

AFICA'S PETOLEUM AND CHINA'S ECONOMIC GOWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

How Africa's Petroleum Supply Is Important to China's Economic Growth and Development

While China continues to grow, its oil demand is poised to grow rapidly. For China to ensure its oil security, it must obtain oil from the global world because it lacks adequate domestic resources to quench the thirsty appetite of the country's rapid economic development. Any approach for growth that the country takes in its demand for oil is likely to affect the global oil market and influence existing system and order of international oil. As one of its oil strategy, China's firms are reaching every corner of the world to purchase oil or invest in oil fields showing to have opportunities disregarding the possible enormous risks. Some of China's national oil enterprises have made outstanding investment activities in African countries (Ma, 2010). Today, China's largest imports from Africa continue…… [Read More]

References

Bhaumik, T.K. (2009). Old China's new economy: The conquest of a billion paupers. New Delhi: SAGE.

Brewer, J. & Miklancic, M. (2013). Convergence: illicit networks and national security in the age of globalization. Published for the Center for Complex Operations Institute for National Strategic Studies By National Defense University Press Washington, D.C.

Buss, T.F. (2011). African security and the African command: Viewpoints on the U.S. role in Africa. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.

Cheung, Y.-W., & Haan, J. (2013). The evolving role of China in the global economy. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
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Finding the Right Balance of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60537756

Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Fitness and Wellness

Fat is back. The American public is no longer fat-phobic. Fat is essential for the body to function in a healthy manner. The low-fat craze is dead and fortunately the supermarket shelves are no longer lined with cookies and crackers proudly proclaiming themselves to be healthy because they are low in fat. But it is critical that people get the right kind of fats, in the right balance. And that is where omega-3 fatty acids come into play.

Omega-3 fatty acids are called essential fatty acids. This means that your body cannot make them and you have to either get them through food or supplements (Ehrlich 2011). The best and most easily-absorbed omega-3s are found in fish. Salmon, tuna, and sardines are some of the most popular sources of omega-3s. All of these can be easily purchased at your local supermarket in canned…… [Read More]

References

Ehrlich, S. (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved  http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/omega3-fatty-acids 

LeWine, F. (2013). Fish oil: Friend of foe? Harvard Medical School. Retrieved from:

 http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/fish-oil-friend-or-foe-201307126467
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Globalization and Energy Demands in

Words: 5347 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49378131

S. pp). For more than ten years, Chinese officials have stated that production from Chinese firms investing overseas is more secure than imports purchased on the international market (U.S. pp). In order to secure more reliable access, Chinese firms are being directed to invest in projects in the Caspian region, Russia, the Middle East and South America (U.S. pp).

The National Intelligence Council's report also states that Europe's energy needs will probably not grow to the same extent as those of the developing world, partly because of Europe's expected lower economic growth and more efficient use of energy (U.S. pp). Europe's increasing preference for natural gas, combined with depleting reserves in the North Sea, will provide an added boost to political efforts that are already under way to strengthen ties with Russia and North Africa, since gas requires a higher level of political commitment by both sides in designing and…… [Read More]

Work Cited

"Globalization and Energy Supply: Strategic Risk in the 21st Century."

A Deloitte Research Viewpoint. May 2004.

http://www.deloitte.com/dtt/research/0,1015,sid%253D1009%2526cid%253D50472,00.html

Harris, Martha Caldwell. "The Globalization of Energy Markets."
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Saas and Paas for Business

Words: 2254 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65604433

Cloud Computing at Tullow Oil

Company Profile

Tullow Oil is one of the renowned multinational companies in the oil and gas exploration industry. The company is headquartered in London in United Kingdom. The firm had investment interests across 150 licenses in 25 countries and had up to 67 producing fields. In 2012, the firm produced 79,200 barrels on average each day. The largest activities are based in the Atlantic Margins and Africa where there is a discovery of oil provinces for places such as Uganda, Kenya, French Guiana, and Ghana. The company's main production is based in six African countries and Southern North Sea. Jubilee oil field in Ghana's offshore was discovered back in 2007 and production started in 2010. This is the largest discovery of the company.

Cloud Computing Case Analysis

As the storage and bandwidth prices continue to drop, the solutions of cloud-based services are translating into attractive…… [Read More]

References

Bahga, A., Madisetti, V., (2013). Cloud Computing: A Hands-On Approach. New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Barry, D.K. (2012). Web Services, Service-Oriented Architectures, and Cloud Computing: The Savvy Manager's Guide. New York: Newnes.

Erl, T., Puttini, R., Mahmood, Z., (2013). Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture. New York: Prentice Hall.

Furht, B., Escalante, A., (2010). Handbook of Cloud Computing. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
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Corporate Flaws That Contributed to the Gulf of Mexico Spill

Words: 1990 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44928084

corporate and public shortcomings that arguably resulted in the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill marked the U.S.'s worst environmental disaster. Whilst identifying the corporate and state cover-ups the triggered the disaster, this study recommends some of the solutions that can be adopted to prevent future disasters. BP's corporate flaws are largely to blame for the disaster.

The 20th of April of 2010 marked the largest oil spill disaster in the U.S. referred to as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (Lehner & Deans 2010). On this day, a fire explosion resulted in the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. The catastrophe led to the deaths of 11 workers. BP owned the oil well while Halliburton did the cementing of the well. Transocean Company was the owner of the rig. The three companies engaged in blame games while efforts to deter the oil spill lasted…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, K. (2010, 4 June). "The 2010 Oil Spill: Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Environment Policy Act (NEPA)" Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41265.

Bradshaw, E.A. (2014). State-Corporate Environmental Cover-Up: The Response to the 2010 Gulf of Mexico Oil. State Crime Journal, ISSN 2046-6056, 10/2014, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 163-181

Chen, J.C. (2010). "Bolstering Unethical Leaders: The Role Of The Media, Financial Analysts And Shareholders" Journal of Public Affairs, 10, 200 -- 215.

Gray, R. (2010). "Is Accounting for Sustainability Actually Accounting for Sustainability... And How Would We Know? An Exploration Of Narratives Of Organizations And The Planet." Accounting, Organizations, and Society. 35, 47-62.
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Royal Dutch Shell PLC a Brief Recent

Words: 5673 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19217563

oyal Dutch Shell PLC

A Brief ecent History of oyal Dutch Shell PLC

eason Behind Choosing

Information Gathering and Accounting Business techniques

esult, Analysis, Conclusion & ecommendations

SWOT Analysis of DSP

Porter's Five Forces Analysis of the Chosen Company

Financial Analysis of DSP

Finance is the name of allocating the funds at a place from where the likelihood of receiving a good return is bright (Bragg, S2006). Organization is basically referred to a place wherein hundreds of people work together just to achieve a specific goal (Cinnamon, & Larsen, B.2006). The goal may be of two fold, like the goal can be economical or can be non-economical. According to the organizational officials and analysts, investment decisions are always tough to take as far as an organization is concerned (Cinnamon, & Larsen, B.2006). The economic decisions include ad hoc research, analysis and lots of study as well. The essence of risk…… [Read More]

References

Bragg, S (2006), Financial Analysis: A Control Guide, New York McGraw Hill Publications

Cinnamon, R & Larsen, B.H (2006), How to understand Business Finance, New York McGraw Hill Publications

Christian, G (2007), Econometrics & Financial Analysis, California John Wiley & Sons Professional Publications

Danial, L (2009), Financial & Business Analysis Techniques, New York McGraw Hill Publications
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Role of Private Investment on

Words: 14411 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 672069

This also implies inadequacies in fiscal sustainability, which influences investments in private sectors.

The second channel happens through the level, composition and quality involved within the public investment, which shows the level at which the public investment replaces the private investments (Schmidt- Hebbel, Serven, & Solimano, 1996).

The final channel regards the level of taxation on the corporate earnings and the rules applicable in depreciations.

There have been arguments that fiscal policy and public expenditure reduces the private investments in two different manners. These include increasing the interest rates or lowering the private funds involved in financing the investments.

According to the neoclassical theory, the interest rate is also an imperative variable in finding the level of investment. Consequently, it results into a negative effect because it upsurges the interest payable in investments. Concurrently, McKinnon and Shaw, contends that this is likely to cause a positive relationship between the investment…… [Read More]

References

Shrestha, M.B. (2005), "ARDL Modelling Aproach to Cointegration Test," Proceedings of the 46th Annual Conference of New Zealand Association of Economists, Paper

No. 13, Wellington, July 2005.

Keynes, J.M. (1936). General Theory on Employment, Interest and Money., London,

Macmillan.
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Role of Fatty Acid on Endothelial Functions

Words: 3042 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56549440

ole of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Endothelial Functions

ole of fatty acid on endothelial functions

Antioxidants and Marine N-3 Fatty Acids Improves Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic People

The hypercholesterolemic people refer to the individuals who suffer from the high concentration of cholesterol in their bodies. These hypercholesterolemic people normally needs the improvement of their endothelial functions in order accommodate the high levels of cholesterol in their bodies. The individuals normally witness a change in their aortic consequently altering their endothelial functions. Hypercholesterolemia is responsible for alteration of dilatation function of the endothelium in the small blood vessels. Further, the alteration of the aortic functioning also makes the patients be susceptible to higher blood pressure. Studies show that the patients normally witness abnormality in the endothelium-dependent dilator function in the human circulation (Goodfellow et al., 2002). The extent of impairment (endothelium-dependent dilator) depends on the level of hypercholesterolemia. From this, it…… [Read More]

Reference

Kris-Etherton, M., Harris, S., & Appel, J. (2002). Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty

Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease. American Heart Association, Inc. Circulation

106:2747 -- 2757, DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000038493.65177.94

Goodfellow, J., Bellamy, M. Ramsey, M. & Jones, C, (2000). Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids improve systemic large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Volume 35, Issue 2, February 2000, Pages 265 -- 270,
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Geopolitical Energy Competition

Words: 2545 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41570776

Geopolitical Energy Competition

One hundred years ago, oil supplies were a non-issue. There was limited demand for oil, and hence limited supply. Today, oil is the most important factor shaping the geopolitical landscape. Global demand for oil is estimated to be 84.6 million barrels per day (OPEC, 2009). OPEC produces 24.845 million barrels per day, and non-OPEC nations produce a further 50.7 million barrels per day for a total production of 75.545 bpd (OPEC, 2008). Many observers believe that the world has already passed "peak oil," that is to say the point at which the majority of the world's oil reserves have been discovered and production maximized (Deffeyes, 2003). Demand in the United States is presently estimated to be 20.7 million barrels per day, some 68% of that going to meet transportation needs (Energy Information Administration, 2007). However, demand from emerging economies such as those in India and China are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

No author. (2009). 152nd Meeting of the OPEC Conference. OPEC. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.opec.org/opecna/Press%20Releases/2009/pr042009.htm

No author. (2008). 151st Meeting of the OPEC Conference. OPEC. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.opec.org/opecna/Press%20Releases/2008/pr172008.htm

Deffeyes, Kenneth S. (2003). Hubbert's Peak. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=fgDBgqhR_lsC&dq=peak+oil&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=Xp3iQQ8M6m&sig=BuO97Gq_zTX4h4gxnz8pqxOwPeo&hl=en&ei=kHvmSb_8Bc_gtgf7rYieBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2#PPA1,M1

No author. (2007). Energy Information Administration: 2007 Annual Review. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec5_3.pdf
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Evolution of the Saudi Arabian

Words: 542 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7418392

This situation, combined with the fact that countries from the former Soviet Union produced less oil, made the Western countries to consider Saudi Arabia their main oil supplier.

Saudi Arabia responded to the increased interest showed by the West by expanding its capacity plan for the oil industry. As a consequence, the largest Saudi Arabian companies in the industry increased their domestic crude oil capacity. These companies also invested in quality, not just in quantity. Although the country's economic relationships with the West significantly intensified, Saudi Arabia improved its regional trade sector by addressing markets like Iran, Central Asia, South Asia, and Kuwait.

However, the country was significantly affected by the Persian Gulf War. As a result of the war, the country's government finances were reduced. Not even the substantial revenues from oil could sustain the cost of the war. The country was forced to borrow money from international organizations…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. The Economy (2010). U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved January 21, 2011 from  http://countrystudies.us/saudi-arabia/34.htm .
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International Business Strategy Critically Analyze

Words: 3049 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30368093



Other than humans and the impact on their social and economic life, the oil companies also have a profound negative influence on the environment. The oil drilling and exploration process affect the environment at every stage. The first step is the identification of oil reserves in the region and assessing whether it can produce oil to cover the cost of drilling and exploration. The oil wells can be found inland or offshore. If the oil well is found inland, then it has to be dug out to assess its usability while for offshore drilling, the first step is to send seismic waves to understand its depth and exploration possibilities. This affects the organisms that depend on it especially the seismic waves can confuse the marine animals and disrupt their breeding grounds.

The next step is the exploration and this can lead to large scale displacement of people and misuse of…… [Read More]

References

Longwell, Harry. 2002. The Future of the Oil and Gas Industry: Past Approaches, New Challenges. World Energy. Vol 5(3). pp100-104

Inkpen, Andrew. 2010. The Global and Oil Gas Industry -- 2010. Thunderbird School of Global Management.
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Ride Alone Your Ride With

Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75354770

" One of those characteristics is being obese, and the stigma of being way to overweight leads to being "...sort of a screen through which all aspects of the person are viewed" (Henslin, 141).

FOUR: What Maher has stated over and over in his book is that there need to be changes made at the highest level of government. That's not likely of course with Bush but seeing Barack Obama's surge in the polls gives those wanting change new hope.

But in fact, talking about Obama's ascendancy, it has been true through the years that making those important changes upset the apple carts of powerful people. In The Social Reality (Chapter One) it is explained that when changes are needed that appear to threaten the powerful (such as demanding the use of clean energy instead of oil) those powerful interests "attack" back. On page 3 of The Social Reality it…… [Read More]

Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Maher, Bill. (2002). When you ride ALONE you ride with bin Laden. Beverly Hills:

New Millennium Press.
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Macroeconomic Subject and How it

Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29424156

With Iraq opened up, companies from the U.S. could benefit from an expanding market, with natural resources and qualified, cheap labor. The result is, however, that the current security environment is unstable, which means that the U.S. companies are only benefiting in a limited manner from the potential advantages of the market.

As a conclusion and result of the cost-benefit analysis, it seems that the war in Iraq had, in fact, limited or no benefits for the U.S. economy and that the effects of the war on the American economy were mostly negative. These included a negative impact on the federal budget, because of the accelerated spending with the war effort, a potential contribution to the financial crisis and to the increase in oil prices. On the other hand, the opportunity costs, associated to the war in Iraq, were also significant, including reducing funds for Afghanistan and for national projects.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Stiglitz, J; Bilmes, L. The Iraq War Will Cost Us $3 Trillion, and Much More. The Washington Post. March 9, 2008

2. Stiglitz, J; Bilmes, L. The true cost of the Iraq war: $3 trillion and beyond. The Washington Post. September 5, 2010

3. Leonhardt, D. America's Sea of Red Ink Was Years in the Making. The New York Times. June 2009.

4. Bloomberg chart from The Evolution of Crude Oil Prices Since 1970. On the Internet at http://hubpages.com/hub/The-Evolution-of-Crude-Oil-Prices-Since-1970. Last retrieved on October 1, 2010
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Production and Operations Management

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61099550

Production and Operations Management

Explain one possible option that Marathon could take to reduce the time involved in the production process.

Of the many potential strategies for reducing the time-to-market between initial arrival of the various grades of oil in the Gulf of Mexico-based receiving location through the refining process and finally to delivery of gasoline to Marathon retail locations, the company has many options for streamlining their supply chain. By alleviating the major lags in their supply chain logistics their entire production process could be significantly accelerated. As the video shown by Marathon indicates, the entire production process is more push-driven than governed by forecasts.

What Marathon Oil needs is to have a much greater level of intelligence and insight into their retail chains' demands. As the presentation from Marathon shows, the entire production system is very push-based, instead of taking into account variations in demand by retail channel…… [Read More]

References

Burak Kazaz. (2004). Production Planning Under Yield and Demand Uncertainty with Yield-Dependent Cost and Price. Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 6(3), 209-224.

Maethee Mekaroonreung, & Andrew L. Johnson. (2010). Estimating the efficiency of American petroleum refineries under varying assumptions of the disposability of bad outputs. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 4(3), 356-398.

Jawad Raza, & Jayantha P. Liyanage. (2009). Application of intelligent technique to identify hidden abnormalities in a system: A case study from oil export pumps from an offshore oil production facility. Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, 15(2), 221-235.

Varma, S., & Deshmukh, S.. (2009). Evaluating Petroleum Supply Chain Performance: Overcoming Shortcomings of Balanced Scorecard. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 10(4), 11-21.
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Establishment Energy Cooperation Establishment of Energy Cooperation

Words: 2234 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13924728

Establishment Energy Cooperation

Establishment of Energy Cooperation System East Asia

The economic growth and its sustainability of any developing and developed country are dependent on the basis of its energy requirements (Lincoln, 2004). The countries in East Asian region are also no exception. The energy requirements of the region are swelling with the increased focus on its development. The regional focus has also established grounds for the political and industry leaders to focus on the requirements and prepare their countries for future energy needs. The region is also dependent on the energy imports especially the fuel for energy including oil and gas. The increasing energy production requirements are also creating an issue for the local governments to manage the energy prices within the affordable range of its consumers.

The local cooperation among various countries in the region is affected by the political and territorial issues. However the regional cooperation organizations…… [Read More]

References:

Dent, C.M. (2008). East Asian Regionalism. USA: Routledge.

Dincer, I., & Rosen, M.A. (2012). Exergy: energy, environment and sustainable development. USA: Elsevier.

Economides, M.J., & Wood, D.A. (2009). The state of natural gas. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 1(1), 1-13.

Fujita, M., Kuroiwa, I., & Kumagai, S. (Eds.). (2011). The Economics of East Asian Integration: A Comprehensive Introduction to Regional Issues. USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
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Aid to Dependent Corporations the Government of

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18014298

Aid to Dependent Corporations

The government of United States is incurring heavy revenue loss on account of the corporate sector subsidies and other special rebates. The friendly policies of the government aimed at promoting a positive business climate are sadly being exploited. In their interests to evade tax, businesses today are taking undue advantage of the favorable federal policies. In this regard I feel that our governments tax policies and corporate procedures need to be reexamined in order to eliminate the loopholes in them and at the same time support the common welfare schemes. Let us analyze the scenario in a little detail so that we can better appreciate the situation.

One by one our leading business corporations are reeling under accounting scams. I need not mention how well such a giant corporation like 'Enron' managed to disguise its financial information from the government and the stockholders. In the prevailing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chuck Collins, "Dollars & Sense," 'Aid to dependent corporations: exposing federal handouts to the wealthy', May-June 1995, pg 15
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Energy Industry Is Heavily Dependent

Words: 3063 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79983114



Nuclear energy possesses perhaps the largest potential for growth over the next few decades. The reason for this is the simple fact that it creates a relatively small amount of environmental pollution and can be adapted for use in nearly any part of the world. It certainly poses some security risks if it this technology is misused or mishandled, but the benefits certainly outweigh the costs. This type of energy production does not create smog, or direct environmental wastes, and many scientists, entrepreneurs, and engineers are looking at low cost, micro-nuclear solutions for small cities and towns (Kruger, 2006). Instead of building huge, multi-billion dollar power plants, the focus has shifted to creating small, sustainable, community nuclear power plants. The sustainability level of nuclear power is quite high given that a very small amount of nuclear waste is created for a huge amount of power output, unlike coal-fired power plants…… [Read More]

References

Hekkert, Marko P.; Hendriks, Franka H.J.F.; Faaij Andre P.C. And Maarten L. Neelis.. (2005).

"Natural Gas as an Alternative to Crude Oil in Automotive Fuel Chains Well-to-Wheel Analysis and Transition Strategy Development," Energy Policy: Vol. 33: Iss. 5, pp. 579-594.

Hoffmann, Peter. (2002). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. MIT Press: Cambridge.

Kruger, Paul. (2006). Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy.
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Ethical Case Analysis JOHNSO62 on

Words: 3376 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71485907

The Tasman Spirit crew and financiers should work to investigate acute health concerns as well as the marine ecosystem surrounding Karachai. The American Club, likely one of two involved parties with the financial resources to affect significant change in the region which actually suffered the effects of the environmental disaster. ather than working against each other with suits and counter suits and the assorted other motions and legal actions underway, it would be most effective and positive for those two companies to work together with environmental awareness and protection agencies to restore the region.

Step Three

Affected Parties

This portion of the analysis is concerned with the specific affected individual parties. While it is important not to allow empathy for a specific group to outweigh the impartiality of an effective analysis it is also important to understand the relevant human components of a situation especially one which has such a…… [Read More]

References

1. Janjua, N.Z., Kasi, P.M., Nawaz, H. (2006). Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health, 6, 84. 435- 488.

2. Ha, M., Lee, W.J., Lee, S., & Cheong, H.K. (2008). A literature review on health effects of exposure to oil spill. Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health 45,5 345-354.
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Strategic Framework in BP-Deepwater Horizon Accident One

Words: 4053 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91654562

Strategic Framework in BP-Deepwater horizon accident

One of the most eminent names in the oil and gas industry is British Petroleum, considered as the largest provider of oil and gas to its customers for transportation, energy for heating and light and retail services for petrochemical products globally. The financial and operational picture of the company's performance is illustrated in table1 below.

Performance at a glance for 2010

Facts and figures

Sales and other operating revenues

eplacement cost profit

Number of employees

Proved reserves

etail sites

Upstream

efineries (wholly or partly owned)

efining throughput

$297,107 million (year 2010)

($4,519) million (year 2010)

79,700 (at 31 Dec 2010)

18,071 million barrels of oil equivalent

22,100

Active in 29 countries

16

2,426 thousand barrels per day (year 2010)

(BP's Corporate website, 2010)

On 20th April 2010 the company faced a serious challenge when one of its oil rigs started leaking and simply couldn't…… [Read More]

References

BP's Corporate website, 2010. Annual Report 2010. Retrieved through http://www.bp.com/sectionbodycopy.do?categoryId=9035798&contentId=7066618 on 12th August 2010

Corner, P. Kinicki, A. And Keats, B. (1994) Integrating organizational and individual information processing perspectives on choice, Organizational Science, vol. 3.

Drucker, P. (1954) The Practice of Management, Harper and Row, New York, 1954.

Gellerman, S. (1989) Managing Ethics from the Top to Down, Sloan Management Review;
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Production Possibilities Production Possibility Curves Are Representation

Words: 2527 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72793006

Production Possibilities

Production possibility curves are representation of the amount of two different goods that can be obtained by shifting resources from the production of one, to the production of the other. In addition, the graph represents maximum specified production level of one commodity that results given the production level of the other (Samuelson, 1962). The curve is used to describe consumers' choice between two different goods.

The curves represent a wide range of economic factors; scarcity, opportunity costs, and choice. According to the curve, scarcity is the fundamental economic problems all societies face; opportunity cost being the cost of anything used in the production in terms of what has to be given; these costs could be financial, but they could include individuals' time and other intangibles. Besides, the possibility curve shows two products and the consumer has the choice to choose the best one between them.

An individual earning…… [Read More]

References

Camerer, C. (2003). Behavioral Game Theory: Experiments in Strategic Interaction. Russell Sage Foundation.

Government of Alberta. (2012, July 25). Oil and Gas. Retrieved October 19, 2012, from www.albertacanada.com:   http://www.albertacanada.com/business/industries/oil-and-gas.aspx  

Lemieux, P. (2001, March 19). The Diminishing Returns to Tobacco Legislation. The Laissez Faire City Times.

McGraw-Hill Higher Education. (2003 ). Tutorial. Retrieved October 19, 2012, from www.highered.mcgraw-hill.com: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0070901651/student_view0/chapter10/tutorial.html
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Patenting Genes Should it Be

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37651054

They are therefore no different to any other derivative that comes from plant or mineral and has been altered to provide some useful medicinal diagnosis. Laypeople react with revulsion since they are unaware of the scientific steps that have gone into the procedure and resulted in a totally modified entity. Were they aware of this, ethical concerns may be obliterated.

Issue 20 -- Should the world continue to rely on oil as a major source of energy?

Issue Synopsis and Opinion

Energy researchers have developed a model called Hubbert's Curve that seems to indicate that oil is running out. As oil recovery technology has been introduced, this curve has lengthened leading some to say that we can continue relying on resources of oil. However, the curve is still there and contraction in oil supply has an enormous effect on the way that America functions in many aspects of its life.…… [Read More]

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Exxon Valdez Case Analysis Common

Words: 3133 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72188550

Like most litigations on such complicated issues the company had little to do but show reasonable accommodation, adopt better surface practices and wait out a lengthy period before their liability was reduced substantially by the courts.

Ethical analysis:

The key ethical issues of the case are pretty clear, did the captain knowingly endanger the environment by continuing to retain his position and navigate tankers through the area and did the company know that such was the case. Both ethical dilemmas are clear and were ruled upon by many hours of court time and subsequent appeals, though the final Supreme Court ruling on Exxon's liability for the spill was split 4:4 every other deciding body laid full responsibility on Exxon's lap. ("Exxon Valdez Damages educed," June 2008, NP). An additional ethical issue, though much less openly understood or known by the average American is weather it was ethical to pay fishermen…… [Read More]

References

Feinman, J.M. (2000). Law 101: Everything You Need to Know about the American Legal System. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Exxon Valdez Damages Reduced," June 2008, Business Law Prof Blog Retrieved November 18, 2008. http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/business_law/2008/06/on-wednesday-th.html

Greely, J. (1989, May 29). Alaska over the Barrels: The Spills and Spoils of Big Oil. The Nation, 248, 721.

Jasanoff, S. (2006) "Transparency in Public Science: Purposes, Reasons, Limits." Law and Contemporary Problems 69.3, 21.
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Environmental Policy

Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49385031

Exxon and Environmental Policy

Despite its assurance of the complete safety of its operations, the Exxon Valdez tanker hit a reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound at midnight of March 24, 1989 and poured 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil from a ruptured hull of the ship (Explore North 1999). Within the next two months following the wreck, oil had spread to 470 miles to the southwest. The initial cleanup in the succeeding three years cost more than $2 billion, although no lives were lost. Wildlife destruction was staggering and the full impact of the disaster may never be known. The State of Alaska and the federal government filed both criminal and civil suits against Exxon in October 1991

In settling the civil charges, Exxon agreed to pay the State of Alaska and the United States $900 million within a 10-year period and the money would be…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. Alaska Oil Spill Commission. SPILL: the Wreck of the Exxon Valdez. Final report, State of Alaska, 1995. http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/facts/details.html

2. Earle, Sylvia. Sea Change: a Message of the Ocean. Perspectives on Marine Environment Quality Today. 1998-Year of the Ocean. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, 1995. http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/yoto/meeting/mar_env_316.html

3. Explore North. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Disaster, 1998.  http://www.explorenorth.com/library/weekly/aa032499.htm 

4. Lefevre, Greg. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Cable News Network, Inc., 1998. http://www.cnnsf.com.newsvault/output/bigspill.html
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Economics International Trade

Words: 3214 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92125911

Intenational Tade Between Bahain and Saudi Aabia

This is a pape on Tade between Bahain and Saudi Aabia, focusing on how it affects thei intenational tade elations with special attention to OPEC, GCC and the Qata dispute. It uses 22 souces in MLA fomat.

Both Saudi Aabia and Bahain ae membes of the Gulf Coopeation Council along with Qata, UAE, Kuwait and Oman. Unde the GCC Ageement, pefeential taiffs apply among the membe states. Since independence in 1971, Bahain has essentially pusued a libeal tade and investment policy, and has integated its economy closely with those of othe counties in the egion, though the Unified Economic Ageement of the Gulf Coopeation Council (GCC).

Tade and economic gowth in Bahain is stongly affected by vaiations in intenational enegy pices. Real GDP gowth, as a esult, was slowe duing the 1990s compaed with the pevious decade, aveaging aound 3.6% annually since 1994.…… [Read More]

references

1. http://cf.heritage.org/index/country.cfm?ID=10

2. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE: BAHRAIN ECONOMIC POLICY AND TRADE PRACTICES. FEBRUARY 1994.

3.  http://www.worldbank.org/search.htm 

4. http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp139_e.htm
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BP Management Change Presentation

Words: 1426 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21955474

British Petroleum

hat is BP

British Petroleum (BP) is one of the world's largest oil and gas companies in terms of production capacity and revenue; BP explores for oil and natural gas in approximately 30 countries and possesses proved reserves of 18.1 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Hoovers, 2004).

BP owns 16 refineries

BP processes 4 million barrels of crude oil per day

BP markets these products in 80 countries

BP owns a network of 22,400 gas stations

BP's Global Projects (BP, N.d.)

BP's Issues

Oil and gas reserves are becoming increasingly hard to come by. Oil companies are now targeting some of the harder to access reserves. This requires a great deal of technological sophistication and drives up extraction prices. It also creates a substantial amount of risk for the organization which has recently manifested in the Gulf of Mexico.

In April 2010 an explosion occurred and a major…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abrams, L. (2013, December 5). BP's learned nothing: The oil company is pursuing its riskiest strategy yet. Retrieved from Salon: http://www.salon.com/2013/12/05/bps_learned_nothing_the_oil_company_is_pursuing_its_riskiest_strategy_yet/

BP. (N.d.). Global projects organization. Retrieved from BP: http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/careers/who-we-are/upstream/gpo.html

BP. (N.d.). We are BP. Retrieved from BP: http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/company-information/our-values.html

Downing, L. (2014, March 19). BP Scraps Renewable Energy Goal After Investing $8.3 Billion. Retrieved from Bloomberg News: http://www.businessweek.com/news/2014-03-19/bp-scraps-renewable-energy-target-after-investing-8-dot-3-billion
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Gas Prices High Gas Prices

Words: 1878 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74588412

This will require the evaluating organization to determine which competitors are already successfully entrenched in more innovative and 'green' auto designs, which are growing in market share for adopting such innovations and which are shrinking for failing to do so. The power of this knowledge should allow an organization to make constructive decisions about segmenting its own approach to a market which still depends on fossil fuels but which is also showing a will for change

Recommendations

The business imperative is therefore to make a change in practices that prefigures the inevitable tipping point toward the collapse of the petroleum industry. Indeed, "eber tells us that the eventual electrification is necessary for a number of reasons. He says: 'climate change is a fact,' and that: 'peak oil, maximum oil production could come as early as 2020.' it's this, as well as technological advancement and customer acceptance of alternatively powered vehicles…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Energy Information Administration (EIA). (2007). Country Energy Profiles. U.S. Department of Energy (U.S.DoE, 1). Online at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/country/index.cfm

Fortune, K. (2009). An Insider's View: Merc's Future Green Technology. Yahoo! Cars. Online at http://uk.cars.yahoo.com/04082009/36/insider-s-view-merc-s-future-green-technology-0.html

Gore, a. (2006). An Inconvenient Truth. Paramount Classics.

Online at http://www.climatecrisis.net/thescience/
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Biodiesel Business Plan Executive Summary

Words: 2519 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62176801

Historically one retailer in the area has offered 100 gallon drums of 100 to consumers for purchase, but has recently restricted sales to 500 gallons per purchase, no doubt to serve industry. While another retail location has spotty supplies that must be called upon, on a weekly basis to determine if 100 is even available, though conveniently they do sell it by the gallon. (iodiesel in Tampa Website)

Competition

One of the most essential aspects of beginning to build a biofuel infrastructure on a local level in a domestic city is to create such an infrastructure that would curtail the dominance of foreign biofuel in the region. As was seen in the first section of the work EarthFirst Technologies serves as a significant local and regional competitor as this company has seen and answered the need to import biodiesel to answer a growing need in the U.S. For such sources.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Biodiesel in Tampa Website Retrieved May 23, 2008 at http://www.forums.biodieselnow.com/forums/p/9832/63809.aspx

Adams D. Huettel, S.(November 19, 2005) Huge biodiesel shipment arrives: A Tampa company has lofty plans to continue importing the alternative fuel from Ecuador to sell for use in diesel engines. Tampa Bay Partnership Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.tampabay.org/press.asp?rls_id=1089&

EarthFirst Technologies Website Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.earthfirsttech.com/CompanyBackGround.asp

Florida Biofuel Coop Website Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.biodiesel.coop/
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Worldwide Energy Market Focusing on

Words: 2985 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35020422

However, they are worth considering on the long haul. Since the oil and gas reserves are suffering from a chronic shortage, a major company such as Exxon should think strategically and expand into this area. The discussion is more complex, in the sense that intensive research and development efforts are needed to both improve the above mentioned alternatives and to discover new sources of energy.

Exxon Financial esults

Due to the high crude-oil and natural gas prices, in the context of a busy hurricane seasons in the Gulf of Mexico, Exxon has reported record figures for 2005, mounting up to $36 billion in net income and 31% return on average capital.

Source: Exxon Mobil 2005 Company eport

The results Exxon reported for the 2005 fiscal year are impressive:

record earnings of $36 billion, up 46%;

net income per common share of $5.76;

net income to average shareholder's equity of 339%…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, M. 2003, Human resource management practice, (9th ed.), Kogan Page Limited, London

Litle, J. 2005, Get Rich - While Exxon Goes Broke, Retrieved Online from URL:    http://news.goldseek.com/DailyReckoning/1162413657.php   

Logan, A. And Grossman D. 2006, ExxonMobil's Corporate Governance on Climate Change, Ceres & the Investor Network on Climate Risk

Maxwell C. And Feshbach B., Energetic Discussion, Retrieved Online from URL: http://www.weedenco.com/welling/archive/li/v06i04lilogo.asp