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Ethical Systems: elativistic
Before discussing any ethical system it is important to understand what the terms ethics and ethical systems mean. Trevino & Nelson, (2007) define ethics as "the principles, norms, and standards of conduct governing an individual or organization," and the right action, or moral behavior in a particular situation is determined based on ethics, whereas, ethical system refers to the underlying ethical principles used by an individual in making decisions. Several ethical theories have been developed over time and these have come to be known as the ethical systems, they include duty-based, entitlement, goal-based, humanistic, relativistic, and rights-based ethical systems. However, this essay will deal with the relativistic ethical system since this has been chosen as the personal ethical system.
The relativistic ethical system, commonly referred to as relativism, often uses the personalized approach to ethics. This system is subjective and focuses on personal experience as a form…… [Read More]
198). In turn, greater information sharing is pivotal in achieving "a good negotiation outcome" (p. 198). Also, in the short-term, "face-to-face negotiation encourages greater trust development" than using the phone or emails, Lewicki explains. In long-term negotiations, Gregory A. Garrett asserts that building trust can "take years" to fully establish, and by "communicating the good, the bad, and at times the ugly goes a long way to building trust (Garrett, 2005, p. 39). Garrett also embraces the idea that a key element in building trust is how the negotiators handle "expectations" (beliefs or assumptions about potential future events) (p. 37). If expectations are pessimistic (the person plans "for the worst") the outcome long-term will not be what has been hoped for; however, if expectations -- which can be mitigated through consistent communication -- are positive, a far better outcome can be predicted, Garrett explains on page 38.
Defining and…… [Read More]
Ethical formalism. What is good is that which conforms to the categorical imperative. This is the ethical system of Immanuel Kant, which is normative and deontological. It is a universal ethic that asserts every person is to be treated with equal dignity and respect rather than as an object or a means to an end. A truly moral action is motivated by good will, not because the individual doing the good deed expects "payment, wants a return favor, or for any reason other than a good will," while immoral actions to achieve moral or ethical ends are not permitted (Pollock, 2006, p. 27). Ethical formalism could not support unjust laws that violated basic human rights because these "run counter to the categorical imperative that each person must be treated as an end rather than as a means, and to the universalism principle" (Pollock, p. 65). This is the…… [Read More]
' Although for major critics this is not an issue, given that their meals are paid for by their newspaper and they invariably will refuse, for bloggers and part-time critics from smaller newspapers whose meals are not 'comped' by their bosses, this makes the restaurant's behavior even shadier. It is as if the restaurant is paying for a good review that will not specifically be labeled an advertisement.
Of course, it could be argued that it is the critic's responsibility to conceal his or her identity, and the restaurant can do what it likes to receive a good review as part of its on-site advertising campaign. But while providing good service -- like giving a customer on a 'tipping' chair a new seat, or making sure the bread is fresh -- might not cross the ethical line, free food or service above and beyond what the average diner could hope…… [Read More]
Ethical System and Its Justification
In the definition of an ethical system, there are both the ethical theories and ethical principles. These provide the viewpoints upon which an ethical analysis is conducted Schwartz, 2003.
They provide guidance as to what path to take to arrive at the final decision James, 2000.
To me, good is defined as that action which is ethical in nature and which complies with the standards of the society at large.
There are several actions that I consider to be good. One example is helping another student revise for an exam. Secondly, there is the action of helping an elderly woman cross the street. There is also the act of encouraging and motivating people in their daily lives. Another action that I consider to be good is that of letting certain persons such as the elderly or a pregnant woman cut the line where you are…… [Read More]
Describe in detail
Teleological, deontological, and virtue ethics: A comparison
Teleological ethics are also called consequence-based ethics. Teleological ethical systems emphasize the results of ethical decisions, versus the moral principles behind such decisions. Utilitarianism is an excellent example of teleological ethics. The stress in utilitarianism is doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people, versus setting a precedent for all ethical actions. "It denies that moral rightness depends directly on anything other than consequences, such as whether the agent promised in the past to do the act now" (Armstrong 2011). What is good for the greatest number of people one day may not be the case several years from now, or even to morrow.
For example, no one would state that as an abstract moral principle, having to fire competent employees is a 'good thing.' However, bosses are often forced to do so, because of the…… [Read More]
The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…… [Read More]
From the utilitarian perspective, it can be assumed that the use of spyware will reduce the private use of computers and restore the lost work hours, which is a benefit for the company. Employee relationships with the company will be damaged, however, perhaps irrevocably, and this could also affect productivity. Managing the data from the spyware will also require company resources, which can be seen as a detriment. Deontologically speaking, it is generally considered wrong to spy, but it is also wrong to waste company time when an employee is accepting money in an agreement to work, not take care of private business. The two wrongs do not cancel each other out, but either decision leaves one side wronged, so neither system provides a direct answer to the problem.
A combination of the two approaches is not impossible, and in fact makes a great deal of sense in this scenario.…… [Read More]
Best Ethical Approaches and Alternatives
Frankly, the Satyam case is not one that requires splitting the proverbial hairs sometimes associated with more complex ethical analyses. Virtually every known ethical system other than egoism would condemn aju's conduct (osenstand, 2008; Shaw & Barry, 2007). Unfortunately, the magnitude of the harm caused and the vast numbers of individuals detrimentally affected by aju's subterfuge absolutely defies any conceivable ethical solution that relies on restitution or compensation to the victims.
In the Satyam case, aju would not benefit from any of the ethical systems considered. Act utilitarian ethical analysis would condemn aju's actions simply by virtue of their consequences on the countless victims of his conduct. ights-based ethical analysis would reach the same conclusion regardless of whether the system relies on objective or conventional ethical rules. Justice-based ethics would condemn aju's conduct because it violated both objective ethical principles and the formal rules governing…… [Read More]
Utilitarianism is most often used by healthcare organizations like insurance companies: to keep costs down for the many, a potentially valuable treatment may be denied to the individual because it is deemed experimental or unnecessarily costly. As unpalatable as the idea may be, no patient can be tested for every single conceivable illness he or she might contract. There must be some prioritization of high-risk groups. During his or her duties, a nurse may often ration her time, prioritizing where it will do the greatest good for the greatest number of people, based upon the severity of their need. However, in other instances a nurse may need to deploy the categorical imperative and state that something is clearly wrong or right, regardless of a financial calculus. A nurse must care for all patients to the best of his or her ability and preserve patient autonomy and privacy unless the patient…… [Read More]
system that contributes towards the development of the personal ethics. Further the paper also discusses the effect of personal ethics on work performance and the need of ethics in an organization.
Personal Ethics Development - Personal Ethical System and Ground ules, including its Origins and Development
Ethics are considered to be the principles and norms that shape the human personality and behavior and underlie the formation of the character. Ethics generally can be considered as personal code of conduct. (Griffith University, 2011)Ethics constitute of the following aspects mainly:
Assessing and evaluating personal values, (Griffith University, 2011)
Understanding of the requirements and standards of society as well as knowledge of personal and universal standards, (Griffith University, 2011)
Analyzing the available choices, their impact on others and society and then accepting the responsibility of the choice made and be hold oneself accountable for it. (Griffith University, 2011)
Ethics usually shape the…… [Read More]
The published codes of ethics for different professions try to make it clear that "professional" in that occupation will not misuse that power, and especially that the use will not be made for personal gain. Of course, in totality, the codes of ethics should provide guidance about the values to be upheld in the profession, specific ethical principles and specific standards. (Professional code of Ethics)
Since there is a wide variation in codes for different professions, it is required that codes from some professions be looked at to decide the ethical standards of a profession. However, studying ethical codes does not mean that the individual will be following the codes and behaving in an ethical manner. This is mentioned clearly in the code for National Association of Social Work as "a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving…… [Read More]
Deontology and Consequentialism
An Analysis of "Rightness" from Deontological and Teleological Perspectives
Deontological ethics stems from the notion that one is obliged by duty to behave in a "moral" manner. There are a number of theories that range from moral absolutism to Divine Command theory that may be described as deontological, but each differs in its approach to "morality" even though each recognizes an "obligation" to attend to a set of rules. In contrast to deontological ethics are teleological ethics, which gauge the morality of one's actions by their consequences. A number of theories may be classified as teleological, such as utilitarianism, pragmatism and consequentialism. This paper will explore the ideas behind deontological and teleological ethics and show how an approach to "morality" must observe at least some objective standard, and that it is the objective standard that makes an action "right," and not the dutiful adherence to the standard…… [Read More]
jihad with reference to the practices and believes of the Muslims regarding the word "jihad." Further the paper will develop ethical/moral arguments regarding the stoppage of violence by both Ireland and Syria. Although one can name many countries with reference to jihad and practices of Muslims against the violence attacks, but this paper will limit the discussion to the violent attacks of Syria and Ireland.
It is an Arabic word the root of which is Jahada, which means to strive for a better way of life. Jihad is not a war to force the faith on others, as many people think of it. It should never be interpreted as a way of compulsion of the belief on others, since there is an explicit verse in the Qur'an that says: "There is no compulsion in religion" Al-Qur'an: Al-Baqarah (2:256)." http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/reference/glossary/term.JIHAD.html
The definition of Jihad states that it is a struggle, a…… [Read More]
Ethical caring's great contribution is to guide action long enough for natural caring to be restored and for people once again to interact with mutual and spontaneous regard" (Noddings 1998: 187).
Noddings believes that rather than ethics shaping moral behavior, our moral, spontaneous caring is what is more important and must come first. This impulse is sometimes interfered with, which is why we need ethical systems, but caring comes before the creation of ethical systems.
Statement: "All human communities are founded upon specific shared information, and the basic goal of education in a human community is acculturation - the transmission to children of the specific information shared by the adults of the group or polis" (Hirsch cited by Coppola 2011).
Comment: This reflects Hirsch's belief in the need for a common curriculum, or shared values that must be transmitted to all students to create a more homogeneous and cohesive society.…… [Read More]
Contrasting Different Vantage Points Regarding the Role of CSR and Business Ethics
Introduction to Corporate Social Responsibility
Review of the Variety of Ethical Systems
Contemporary Vantage Points
Corporate social responsibilities as well as business ethics have served as hotly contested issues over the last few decades. There has yet to be a consensus reached, to say the least, as to what there composition should look like or even if they are necessary academic pursuits at all. Research was conducted in regards to the various categories of ethical systems in existence and concluded that each system has merit under various sets of circumstances. Furthermore, contemporary individuals who have acted to influence business culture were identified, compared, and contrasted. It was found that there arguments were reasonable based on their assumptions however these assumptions are inherently flawed. The article concludes, that given the growing body of evidence that suggests that life-sustaining…… [Read More]
That particular ethical concern may be harder to define precisely, simply because it may be too restrictive and no different from the types of decisions considered appropriate in the U.S. In that regard, provided it violates no domestic or foreign laws and that it is not undertaken for the purpose of shifting the environmental risk (osenstand, 2008), the relocation is no different from situating a similar plant in any local community that does not benefit from the existence of the plant.
osenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics.…… [Read More]
Ethical subjectivism could also be called 'relativism,' or the notion that there is no external, objective moral authority. We as humans create our ethical norms, and ethics are culturally contextual. Ethical subjectivism stands in contrast to objectivism, which holds that there are objective moral standards by which all moral actions should be judged. "Moral statements are made true or false by the attitudes and/or conventions of the observers, and any ethical sentence just implies an attitude, opinion, personal preference or feeling held by someone" (Ethical subjectivism, 2012, Philosophy Basics).
A good example of this can be seen in the pragmatic philosophy of William James. In his Varieties of eligious Experience, James argued that all faiths were effectively divided into two categories: that of the 'religion of healthy-mindedness' and the 'sick soul. "We have all known or met people who seem happy all the time, who are…… [Read More]
Despite the fact that codes of conduct and belief systems permeate everyone's life on an everyday basis, developing a universally acceptable concept of ethics or moral philosophy remains a seemingly impossible task that has plagued philosophers and the world's great thinkers since the beginning of time. Over time a great number of different philosophical theories have arise. Each one has its strengths and weaknesses and each has enjoyed its own period of popularity but, strangely, due to the fact that some of the world's greatest minds have spent their lives formulating other theories, the theory that seemingly has the greatest degree of validity is one of that has enjoyed the longest history: virtue ethics.
Virtue ethics were developed as a theory by the ancient Greek philosophers. Aristotle and Plato in developing their views toward ethics placed little importance on the rules that people should obey or follow and,…… [Read More]
Ethical treatment of prisoners is a complex question, involving the nature of the prison system in the U.S. And the nature of those incarcerated in it, as well as ethical obligations that individuals owe to society as well as those that society owes to those who are imprisoned. Deontological ethics might hold, for example, that those who have violated the law and the basic moral norms of society deserve to be punished but at the same time even those convicted and imprisoned have certain basic human rights. For example, they have the right to food, clothing, shelter and medical care, and cannot be tortured, abused or brutalized. Another problem from a deontological perspective would be to criticize a society where blacks and Hispanics are a minority of the population but also the majority of the prison population, including those on death row. Indeed, they are more likely to be profiled,…… [Read More]
Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies
The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…… [Read More]
Ethical Theory or System
Other names for theory
eal World example
This approach prioritizes the value attached to results of actions. Consequence based approach points at the results of one's action on the others and the fact that other people tend to play a leading role in ethical decision-making.
One needs to evaluate the potential positive and negative effect of the available options in a situation and use the evaluation as a basis of decision making.
teleological, from the Greek telos
I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves
Organization prohibits conduct that is dishonest because this will affect the firm's accreditation. The organization has instituted stringent policy that ensures that honesty is upheld more so in dealing with stakeholders, more so the customers.
This theory attributes value…… [Read More]
Problems with Utilitarianism
oss's Ethical Theory
Natural Law Theory
A Pennsylvania hospital is faced with a non-U.S. born 5-year-old daughter of undocumented immigrants who has a life-threatening need for a 2 million dollar transplant. Using critical analysis and your ethics knowledge render and defend a decision about whether to provide the transplant.
One of the ethical problems present is the fact that the 5-year-old was born in undocumented immigrants parents. She also was a non-United States citizen. Another problem is the child has a life threatening disease that requires a transplant for a substantiate amount of money that is two million dollar to be spending on a non-U.S. citizen. The case that is being presented brings into focus a number of the most currently vital questions that occur in the gap of medicine and…… [Read More]
Ethical Training -- Successes and Failures
Ethical Training: Successes and Failures
Ethics are often thought of as black and white, but that is really not the case. There are many shades of grey, and what is ethical in some instances may not be ethical in others. Additionally, there are concerns when it comes to what one person thinks is ethical vs. what another would find ethical. That is often why there are so many discrepancies and issues to consider when one talks about ethics. It is not just a simple issue where a person can say that something is always ethical or not ethical. Instead, the situation must be considered, as well as the people and the circumstances surrounding everything. In many cases, the issue comes down to ethical training, which does not always work out well. The plan is to train people to act ethically, but training someone to…… [Read More]
Ethical Advantages and Disadvantages of an Appointed vs. An Elected Judiciary: The Case of Justice Harry L. Carrico
Following more than four decades of noteworthy judicial service, Justice Harry L. Carrico retired simply because he finally became too old to remain on the bench after he turned 70 years old. The valuable service by Justice Carrico is a good example of one of the advantages of an appointed judiciary, but his retirement has raised some questions concerning the ethical advantages and disadvantages of an appointed vs. An elected judiciary. To gain some further insights in this area, this paper provides a review of the article, "Carrico Ending 42 Years On High Court, Virginia's Chief Justice etires After 42 Years of Judicial Service," followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
A wide range of appointed and elected approaches are in place for…… [Read More]
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…… [Read More]
Ethical Practices ithin Business
BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster
Over the past 20th century and in the 21st century, ethics has neither been an option nor a luxury. It has not only become a moral or legal responsibility, but has also been an organizational priority within all sets of work groups, including both public and private institutions, organizations and companies. Ethical practices have also become the only strategy to combat the growing impatience within the society, as well as their responsible competitions and/or actions. These ill and unethical acts may in the long run impoverish a section of the regional economy through various organizations while enriching the crafty economies. Organizational leaders must thereby keep abreast of the rapidly changing technological advancements together with their possible effects on globalization, competitor products and services, opportunities, and threats that their organizations may face. Over a century, BP, the formerly Anglo-Persian Oil Company…… [Read More]
ead the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure. Select three of the violations discussed in the document. Explain the violation, including its U.S. Code, use examples from your own career or the document, and discuss the possible fines / imprisonment for the violation.
Three possible violations of the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure include: bribery, fraud and gambling / other contest guidelines. In the case of bribery, the guide forbids anyone from taking kickbacks or money for special favors. In general, this can cost the government between $400 thousand and $1 million for every $115 thousand that is earned illegally. Under Section 18 U.S.C. § 201(c)(1)(B) (2003) it says that these practices, "Forbids any public official from accepting anything of value in exchange for an official act to be performed, or because of any official act already performed. Violations of this law can merit fines, imprisonment for up to 2 years,…… [Read More]
The business is also becoming one of the leading companies and a well-known case study of the fair trade principles within the market. The business is also creating a noble image within the target market through its efforts of creating awareness for paying the fair price to its coca producers. The image created by the business is significantly affecting its brand image as an ethical brand. The research of Britain (2007) is also evident of the findings presented above.
USA consumer attitudes:
According to Ma (2007) the consumers in United States are also familiar with the fair trade attitudes and principles. The young consumers are highly likely to purchase products that are manufactured by the businesses incorporating fair trade principles. The consumers of young age group prefer to value the contributions of manufacturers towards fair trade principles (Gropel, 2012). The graduates and educated high income group is also tilted towards…… [Read More]
Nonetheless, internet breach occurs routinely; further steps need to be taken.
Options for resolving these issues
Part of the issue revolves around ambivalent ways of defining PII as well as the fact that the constructs of identity are still in flux. PII, at one moment, can become non-PII during the next, and the reverse is the case, too. Moreover, computer science has shown that, in many instance, data that is consider non-PII and, therefore, not regulated, has been used to identify a person and that this data should, theorem, be called PII. The definition of PII, accordingly, transcends boundaries, and may be difficult to pin down. Given its malleability, some observers have even suggested altogether rejecting PII as the tool for defining privacy law.
The first issue, therefore (it seems to me) is to start off with a clear definition of PII and here we may adopt the approach of…… [Read More]
Ethical Concerns in Criminal Justice: Police Brutality
In the field of criminal justice, it is important to be mindful of the moral or ethical problems which might arise. In a perfect world, police officers, prosecuting attorneys, judges, and juries would always act above board and with the singular interest of seeking out justice. However, this is a highly imperfect world and every society has had an incidence at some point in their history wherein someone abused their position in the process of criminal justice for their own ends. Those involved in criminal justice must be ever mindful of these past abuses and keep a watchful eye on their cohorts to ensure that the occurrence of similar unethical behaviors is kept to a minimum in the future. One of the most controversial aspects of criminal justice in recent years has been the question of police brutality and the consequences of officer's…… [Read More]
In the article Ethical Issues in Information Technology, author Richard T. DeGeorge points out the existence of five interrelated ethical issues: issues in the usage of technology in business, issues in the it business, issues related to the Internet, issues in e-business and issues affecting the social background. Each of the five categories presents several ramifications. The article has a general coverage, an informal writing and throughout its 24 pages presents reduced details. The article merely highlights the existence of ethical problems and concerns in the information technology sector and poses questions as to how could these problems be best resolved. The academician also gives short but relevant examples as to how it procedures are being improperly used to deceive and cause harm. Among these examples, DeGeorge includes shortcoming of the medical systems, within organizations and individual usage of the Internet, mentioning at all times the inappropriate legislature.…… [Read More]
Ethical Treatment of Prisoners
The treatment of a society's prisoners has been an issue of debate for centuries. The emotions surrounding such treatment are considerable and reaching a consensus on the best and fairest method is often difficult. Torture is considered illegal in most civilized societies and, therefore, in order to maintain an acceptable level of treatment an alternative and more humane approach must be established (Filter, 2000).
There presently exist two leading schools of moral thought: utilitarianism and deontology (Gibbs, 1977). Despite what has been characterized as great differences between the two schools they seem to agree on most substantive issues.
Utilitarianism argues that the right action is the one, out those available, that maximizes one's total happiness. In the prisoner treatment situation this results in considering the emotional pain, physical discomfort, expense, and time involved in housing the prisoner against the advantages garnered by society such as retribution,…… [Read More]
Bans save cash. It is costly to encourage smoking in prisons. Smoke-harmed detainees and staff require costly medical care, for different tobacco impacts. Citizens pay, both by expanded duties, and by expanded insurance rates. The prison authorities must raise the issue with government officials and ask them how much smoking costs citizens. When inmates smoke in jail, more bills, hospital expenses, come to citizens: for the smokers' conditions, and for those of the nonsmokers around, being unconstitutionally pushed to inhale contaminated air (Ducat, 2009).
Approximately 50% of smokers die from tobacco related ailments (World Health Organization, 2007). Available evidence confirms that prisoners die from cancers related to smoking at higher rates than the public. Further, second hand smoking is also threatening lives of non-smokers within the system of prisons. They include workers, visitors, prison officers and other inmates. The ban on smoking in prison will dramatically reduce the…… [Read More]
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Ethical Behavior…… [Read More]
The model consists of five phases:
1. Perception of the ethical problem
2. Description the situation and objective definition of the ethical issue
3. Identification of alternatives
4. Selection of an alternative
5. esolution (Cooper, 2006).
This model has been implemented successfully in both the public and private sectors. The goals of the model are to create a management team consisting of responsible individuals that promote high standards, ethical decision-making practices on behalf of their code of ethics, transparency and accountability (Cooper, 2006). Ultimately, according to Cooper's model, ethical decision making is the process of identifying a problem, generating alternatives, and choosing among them so that the alternatives selected maximize the most important ethical values while also achieving the intended goal.
Most work-related decisions have an ethical component. With few exceptions, problems that involve people also involve ethical issues. Decisions that affect people's jobs and careers have an ethical…… [Read More]
More importantly, because the system needs to be perceived as fair, employee's opinions must be taken into account. e are not putting this system into place to be punitive, but rather to protect the interests of all of the employees.
It is believed that the system of inquiry will have a strongly positive effect on the organization. Verizon has long had some form of ethical code, but with the new code coming into effect in 2008 and the introduction of a system of inquiry, the firm is demonstrating strong ethical values. These are the values shared by most of the employees already. hat the code and system do within the company is to formalize the values that most employees already have. It improves the perception of fairness and presents a unified view of ethical issues throughout the firm.
This also will have strong impacts outside the organization. In an era…… [Read More]
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…… [Read More]
Emphasize the importance of courtesy, organization, and calmness to all staff members. These qualities on the part of the staff can reinforce the importance of generally good and ethical behaviour to the tourists, which may then carry over to their behaviour in the destination country.
Maintain a neutral stance on the culture of the destination country or countries. Making clear that all cultures have equal value and that ethical behaviour must be expected of all visitors. It must also be clear through explicit instructions and by example that tourists often have greater power than the people they are visiting and so must act with respect and restraint.
Obey the laws, regulations, customs, and traditions of both departure and destination countries. This is clearly linked to the above. (Fennell: 2006; Fennell & Malloy: 2007).
Charter airline companies are private corporations, which ensures that those who own them (either directly or indirectly…… [Read More]
Mudra did not act according to this principle when he ignored the warning signs of Daniel's condition.
The best course of action would therefore have been a focus on beneficence/non-maleficence rather than upon respect for autonomy. Daniel's age is also an important factor. Concomitantly with his condition, Daniel's immaturity and a desire to "prove" his independence to his parents, could have contributed to his death. When treating such young persons, it is perhaps advisable to place emphasis upon non-maleficence rather than respect for autonomy. In terms of these two principles, it would be acceptable for the parents to complain.
In terms of scope, the final principle, justice, is not as applicable to Daniel's case itself as it is to his parents. The parents feel aggrieved by the practitioner's lack of in-depth knowledge and action regarding Daniel's condition. They are seeking justice for themselves, but it is too late for such…… [Read More]
Use of information technology has also led to job replacement in many businesses. This has led to unethical dilemmas by some companies who are forced to employ less man power and hence reducing their workforce. This has also led to other companies giving their employees more roles hence bringing about an increase in the work pressure to the employees. The forcing of employees out of their work or even giving them more tasks with no extra benefits tied to them is an unethical business practice. Incase the employees have lost their jobs they should be compensated adequately but this is quite difficult for small businesses since they lack the sufficient resources and funds to compensate them.
Software Piracy is another ethical dilemma that is posed by use of information systems in businesses. This especially comes in when it affects small scale producers of software's as they will incur big losses…… [Read More]
The foundational ideas of the limits of science and medical ethics goes back a very long way and as it has evolved over the centuries, certain laws, rules, regulations and taboos have been put in place to protect the human race from that sometimes blurred line between scientific discovery and human existence. Medical ethics created a system, bound by the ideals of many that came before them to control this blurring and attempt to stand between sciences desire to discover and the public and individual's desire to remain safe and in control of one's own body. A long time medical ethicist discusses the history of medical ethics as one that was founded on the principles of the ancients, but that has now become one where medical ethicists are demanding concrete answers, even laws to guide and demand decisions regarding medical ethics be enforced. "My new colleagues were polite enough, to…… [Read More]
Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy Industry
The ethicacy of corporate behaviors are influenced by a myriad of factors yet most strongly reflect the internal culture, alignment of leadership to vision, and accumulated trade-offs made by management over years of ethical decisions, trade-offs and outcomes. In the study Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A life-cycle analysis of a company-based code of conduct in the toy industry (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011) the authors successfully provide insights into the moral and ethical dilemmas of operating a multinational corporation (MNC) that is highly dependent on Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP). The life-cycle analysis of company-based code of conduct also illustrates how creating a solid ethical foundation using a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) platform is only as effective as the aligning of senior management, vision and mission, and manufacturing, sourcing, supply chain and distribution is (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011). When…… [Read More]
For example, the plants produced through genetic modification can pollinate with the conventionally produced plants and can make them genetically modified as well. (Kaplan 1-15)
In addition to that, the genetically modified crops that were developed with a strong ability to resist herbicides, so that a large amount of strong weed killers can be used of them, have enabled the weeds to develop strong resistance against the herbicides and hence these genetically modified crops have led towards the production of 'super weeds' which are very difficult to control. There is a high probability that the genetically modified plants will lead towards the development of the 'super viruses' as the genes from the plants, which are designed to resist strong viruses, travel to other plants. (Kaplan 1-15)
Exclusion of People from the Experiment
If we keep aside the above discussed threats, another issue that confronts the genetic modification of plant is…… [Read More]
The Definition of Ethics
In practically all areas of society ethical subjects are rapidly increasing. Professionals in the health field struggle with ethical questions in relation to abortion, transplants, birth control, informed consent, life-support systems, malpractice suits, patient privacy, human genetics, and high costs of insurance, as well as care on the whole. Ethical matters in relation to nuclear power accidents, oil spills, disposal of industrial waste, defense weaponry, lead and asbestos poisoning, acid rain, as well as ecological balance challenge those in technology, science, and industry. People in the political ground deal with ethical queries in relation to unemployment, homelessness, foreign policy decisions, Social Security, welfare reform, electioneering costs, law enforcement practices, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities, racial and gender discrimination, immigration control, drugs, crime, and lobbying actions. The legal profession is blamed of unethical customs like engaging in doubtful plea-bargaining practices, motivating a harmful litigious spirit,…… [Read More]
The Tasman Spirit crew and financiers should work to investigate acute health concerns as well as the marine ecosystem surrounding Karachai. The American Club, likely one of two involved parties with the financial resources to affect significant change in the region which actually suffered the effects of the environmental disaster. ather than working against each other with suits and counter suits and the assorted other motions and legal actions underway, it would be most effective and positive for those two companies to work together with environmental awareness and protection agencies to restore the region.
This portion of the analysis is concerned with the specific affected individual parties. While it is important not to allow empathy for a specific group to outweigh the impartiality of an effective analysis it is also important to understand the relevant human components of a situation especially one which has such a…… [Read More]
Here, Aristotle recognizes the variances which appear
to define our establishment of the means to pursuing happiness, musing that
"the characteristics that are looked for in happiness seem also, all of
them, to belong to what we have defined happiness as being. For some
identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a
kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied
by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external
prosperity." (Aristotle, I: 8) Aristotle uses this as a divining rod for
dissecting the various relationships which are perpetuated amongst
individuals. His argument engages in the dialectical process to discern
that which is 'good' apart from that which is 'evil' or 'neutral.' Through
such an engagement, he achieves a satisfactorily defended notion of 'good':
"Aristotle identifies the distinctively human phenomenon of
action arising from reason as the function of the human being:…… [Read More]
For example, and employee might decide they will never be late for a meeting, which will appear to be a noble duty, but there might be a hidden reason towards this action. Maybe the employee prefers to sit in a particular place or sit. Another negative attribute of the deontology theory is the fact that it is mostly concerned with the individual's welfare and not others.
This theory deals with the individual's ability to foresee the consequences of their actions. A person will have to analyze the choice they make to ensure that they benefit more people Weymark, 2005.
Using this theory a person can compare similar past solutions, and develop a system that determines which choice will be most beneficial for a majority of people.
For a large corporation, this theory would be beneficial because employees will endeavor to perform their duties while analyzing the consequences of…… [Read More]
The mall in Shanghai is not representative of all shopping experiences in China, and the questionnaire and its use of imagery and descriptions lack clarity and precision needed for more extrapolative results. The study however does underscore the role of ethicacy as a key determinant in defining if a person is going to purchase a counterfeit product or not.
Analysis of Counterfeit Luxury Goods Online:
An Investigation of Consumer Perceptions
One of the most rapidly expanding selling channels for counterfeit products are websites and e-commerce sites. On the Internet a counterfeiter can be up and running within a day or less, selling counterfeit items globally using PayPal and other well-known payment processing systems to manage transactions. This area of counterfeit luxury products selling is the subject of the study Counterfeit Luxury Goods Online: An Investigation of Consumer Perceptions (adon, 2012). The methodology is loosely defined as those customers who have…… [Read More]
It might also involve taking a simple approach to save cash rather than initiating appropriate strategies to increase profits, this is unjust. Increasing premiums despite increasing profit margins at the expense of more uninsured people, as they cannot afford the rise is unjust. Injured patients who are loaded with the expenses of avoidable damage or compelled to sue indeed, when there is no carelessness is unjustifiable to both physicians and patients.
Integrity is the acting and speaking in congruence with professional values and ethics. Integrity is founded on the principle of honesty. It demands totality of actions and words. It partially adheres to a client's core values indicating a compromise of integrity. However, complete integrity is ideal. Health insurance managers tend to fall short of acting with integrity in their daily relationships with insurance applicants. Nevertheless, part of their integrity requires that they do fall short and constantly seek…… [Read More]
Ethical Issues in AIS
Ethical Issues in Accounting Information Systems
This essay examines ethical issues in accounting information systems as presented in the case of DHB Industries. Now known as Point Blank Solutions, the company, which supplied body armor to the U.S. military and law enforcement agencies, was charged by the SEC on March 1, 2011 for engaging in "massive accounting fraud" (SEC, 2011). The agency filed separate charges against three of the company's former outside directors and audit committee members for their complicity in the fraud.
According to the SEC, DHB Industries engaged in "pervasive accounting and disclosure fraud through its senior officers" (2011), along with misappropriating company assets to the personal benefit of the company's former CEO. Their accounting and disclosure fraud resulted in the company's filing "materially false and misleading periodic reports to investors" (2011). The SEC charged that the company's senior management manipulated the company's reported…… [Read More]
Various objections to capital punishment hinge on religious beliefs. On the other hand, the American justice system does not recognize religious principles.
Capital punishment also raises numerous ethical issues pertaining to the likelihood of errors in its administration. Lethal injection, for example, causes excruciating pain and a slow death from prolonged suffocation instead of instantaneous death if it is performed incorrectly. If suffering of this nature were considered torture when inflicted purposely, what incidence of error would be enough to prohibit lethal injection altogether on ethical grounds? Finally, does the prospect of erroneous conviction or disproportionate application to the poor or to racial minorities undermine all the other ethical justifications for capital punishment?
osenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York:…… [Read More]
In any case, patients can set out defined clause in the Power of Attorney telling operators how they might like them to act with respect to deathbed issues (Edge & Krieger, 2008).
Living wills and other development directives depict a patient's inclination with respect to medicine if the patient is confronted with a genuine mishap or disease. These authoritative reports represent the patient when he/she is not ready to represent himself/herself. Unforeseen end-of-life scenarios can happen at any age, so it is imperative for all grown-ups to have progress directives. Durable power of attorney for health care (POA) is an authoritative record that designates a single person to settle on restorative choices for a patient in case he/she is unable to do so (Kerridge, Lowe & Stewart, 2013).
A patient's advance directives incorporate the living will and durable power of attorney for health care. They may be the…… [Read More]
Ethical and Socially esponsive Business
Ethics in business has a human aspect and is directly related to the success of any business. This therefore means that corporate leaders in organizations have to be very careful about the ethical conduct of their business and how they address any ethical problem that comes up. This paper will look at the code of ethical conduct for a selected company.it will give a description of key areas of the selected company's code of conduct that have a significant importance to the business.it will also give an explanation of the key steps the company should take in order to ensure that its employees follow this code of conduct. Finally suggestions will be given on ways through which the company can take part in socially responsive activities within he community where it carries out its operations.
Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc. is a restaurant that is committed…… [Read More]
To the extent the totality of circumstances suggest that possibility, even acceptance of the most nominal gratuities (i.e. A cup of coffee) is ethically inappropriate.
Similarly, even where the gratuity involved is of nominal value and there is no potential misunderstanding on the part of the individual proffering an otherwise appropriate gratuity, there is the issue of creating the appearance or inference of an improper relationship from the perspective of others observing the exchange. For example, while the proffer and acceptance of a single cup of coffee is excusable within the framework of ordinary positive community relations, the conspicuous regular transfer of even nominal gratuities in the presence of third parties can create an apparent inference of inappropriate influence regardless of whether or not that inference is necessarily accurate.
The SOI is intended to ensure that police officers do not misuse their duly authorized latitude to take different degrees…… [Read More]
Utilitarian Abortion Considerations:
The utilitarian perspective applied to the abortion issue would focus on whether
permitting or prohibiting elective abortion would contribute more positively the interests of society Mill, 2003 p160). The principal difference between the utilitarian and deontological perspectives is that utilitarianism is wholly unconcerned with the underlying motivation for decisions. Whereas deontological formalism values the state of mind of the individual, utilitarianism focuses on the ultimate consequences of the act, irrespective of motivation Russell, 2002 p 99).
Within the utilitarian ethical perspective, rule utilitarianism would promote the choice associated with the overall benefit to others and to society if it were adhered to religiously in all circumstances, irrespective of isolated cases in which the rule produced a negative result Russell, 2002 p101-2). For example, in a society where relative birth and death rates were such that the continuation of society were in jeopardy, the utilitarian perspective might require…… [Read More]
Personal and organizational responsibility
As the vision and mission statement of Global Homage is clearly stated, anybody who would aspire to become a member must have the innate desire to serve the people. he/she will then consider it as his/her own personal responsibility, as it is the organizational responsibility to uphold the vision and the mission of the organization.
Everyone is expected to act professionally in adhering with all of the above stated code of ethics of the organization.
Global Homage is an organization whose leaders and members are committed to changing and helping the people to live a cleaner and healthier way of life. This is an organization whose members are capable of dealing and interacting with people from varied facets of life - from the people of the government and private sectors to the people from poverty and/or underdeveloped areas. This is an organization whose…… [Read More]
Through its partnership with the Department of Justice and the Human Health Services, the HEAT has expanded data sharing and improved information sharing procedures in order to get critical data and information into the hands of law enforcement agencies to enable them track patterns of fraud and abuse, and increase efficiency in investigating and prosecuting complex health care frauds (Department of Health and Human Services, HHS, 2011). The DOJ and the HHS have established cross government health care fraud data intelligence sharing work group that helps to improve awareness across the government on issues related to health fraud.
The Healthcare Fraud and Abuse Control Program (HFAC) is enshrined in the section 1128c of the social security Act. This Act authorized the Health and Human Services and works through the office of the inspector general and the department of justice to ensure that the control and designs towards control…… [Read More]
The decision making process of each decision maker must be supervised by his superior. Also, certain decisions and actions cannot be delegated to subordinates. In addition to this, the ethical role and ethical responsibilities of each employee, middle manager, and top manager must be identified before decision making.
Furthermore, this leads to identifying and analyzing objectives for each employee, in order to benefit from a well established and efficient decision making process. Although there are categories of employees that do not have a direct decisional role within the organization, they play a very important role in the decision making process.
This is because they can provide useful information to decision makers that should help them select the best alternative for the situation in case. Employees must be aware of the role they play in the decision making process and the importance of their activity in relation to that of the…… [Read More]
Officer response: Ethics
Police officers are given additional powers to enforce the law that ordinary citizens do not possess, such as the right to stop and frisk suspects and if necessary to use proportional force against a suspect. However, with additional powers comes additional responsibility. On a human level, it is easy to understand why it might be tempting to act violently against someone committing child molestation. But an officer cannot appoint him or herself judge and jury, and must ensure that justice is done through the legal system. He or she is a representative of that system, not a lone avenger.
First of all, the violent officer's actions could have severely compromised the prosecution's case. The defendant could have used the evidence of his beating and the fact that the officer was violent against him to support his claim that he was innocent and wrongly accused.…… [Read More]