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This may be done without the consent of the owner of the information thus also infringing on their right to privacy.
Education has also been revolutionized greatly by technology. As a result of technological advancements it is now possible for teachers and students to communicate over thousands of miles. Instructors are also able to give assignments which students can submit despite the distance. In this way, technology has enabled global learning. However, the ethical issue here concerns the setup where private information is gathered. Moreover, as a result of students going to the internet to research material for their classes, they are exposed to cyber predators who attempt to cheat the students into being raped or kidnapped.
In health, ethical issues have also arisen as a result of technology. One example is in biotechnology which was discussed earlier. Another good example involves the privacy and confidentiality of medical information. As…
Argandona, a. (2004). On Ethical, Social and Environmental Management Systems. Journal of Business Ethics, 51(1), 41-52.
Deshpande, S.P., Joseph, J., & Prasad, R. (2006). Factors Impacting Ethical Behavior in Hospitals. Journal of Business Ethics, 69(2), 207-216.
Eaton, M.L., & Kennedy, D. (2009). Innovation in Medical Technology: Ethical Issues and Challenges. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Finkel, E. (2005). Stem Cells: Controversy at the Frontiers of Science. Sydney: ABC Books.
Ethics, Morality, & Medicine in My Sister's Keeper
Ethics & Morality
Ethics, Morality, & Medicine in My Sister's Keeper
Ethics, Morality, & Medicine in My Sister's Keeper
Both ethics are morality of topics of philosophical discourse. Ethics is sometimes also referred to as moral philosophy. Moral philosophy or ethics may defend, recommend, and/or systematize behaviors that are right and wrong. Morality could be explained as the context within which ethics are codified. Morality is a code; it is the system that stratifies and codifies intentions, decisions, and actions, good (right) or bad (wrong). Ethics and morality are ever-present in the novel and film My Sister's Keeper. The ethics and morality of the Fitzgerald family as well as the ethics and morality of the lawyers (Campbell and Sara), and furthermore, the ethics of the hospital staff are at the center of the narrative. Arguably, the novel is the narrative of a…
Arras, J.D. (2001) "A Method in Search of a Purpose: The Internal Morality of Medicine." Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 26(6), 643 -- 662.
Pellegrino, E.D. (2006) "Toward a Reconstruction of Medical Morality." The American Journal of Bioethics, 6(2), 65 -- 71.
Picoult, J. (2004) My Sister's Keeper. Atria Books, NY, NY.
The Ethics Awareness Inventory and Psychology
There are few features that will define a person's life, experiences, interactions and self-image as pointedly as will one's ethical orientation. Indeed, the Ethics Awareness Inventory (EAI) is an instrument which allows the individual to effectively characterize his or her own distinct type of ethical orientation. In doing so, it also highlights the permeating relevance of this orientation in the areas of personal, professional, social and spiritual behavior. According to The illiams Institute (TI)(1995), which issues the instrument, "the EAI presents individuals with a series of questions in a self-scoring inventory to assist them in developing a deeper understanding of their own ethical style, the ethical beliefs of others and some of the challenges they may experience when working with others of a different ethical perspective." (TI, p. 1) In particular, within the context of the study of human psychology, it is…
Collack, V. (2007). Ethics Awareness Inventory. The Williams Institute.
Valasquez, M.; Andres, C.; Shanks, T. & Meyer, M.J. (2010). What is Ethics? Santa Clara University.
The Williams Institute (TWI). (1995). Ethics Awareness Inventory (EAI). TWI.org.
Ethics and Professional Behavior
The American court system is one that has existed as long as the constitution has been in existence. They are provided for in the constitution of the U.S.A. And have the powers and mandate as prescribed in the constitution. The courts are fundamental in the society in regards to maintaining law and order and also bringing amicable, legal and acceptable settlements among people, organizations, institutions and even groups. In a civilized society like ours, it is important that law and order is not only maintained but also felt and seen to have been done. The American society achieves this in a great way through the judicial system and it is important for us all to work hard towards maintaining the existing confidence in the judicial system lest we slip into absolute anarchy experienced in most underdeveloped countries and corrupt monarchies.
However, the criminal justice system has…
American Medical Association (1994). The Relation of Law and Ethics. http://www.ama-
Austin Cline, (2011).What is critical thinking. Retrieved April 7, 2012 from http//www.atheism.about.com/od/criticalthinking/a/criticalthink.html
Joe Lau & Jonathan Chan, (2011). What is Critical Thinking and why it is Important.
Ethics in an Organization
Ethics are the values and principles that a person utilizes in order to rule his actions and choices. In an association, a code of ethics is a set of moralities that direct the organization in its programs, rules and choices for the corporate. The ethical attitude an association uses to conduct commerce can affect the standing, efficiency and also what is considered to be the bottom line of the business. In this essay, it will discuss the importance of having ethics in an organization and also what the world would be like if there were none in a place of employment.
Ethics in an Organization
In today's culture, ethics appears to function as a very significant position in the achievement and development in the direction of upcoming development of corporations and administrations. However, from debates over drug-testing to examination of scandals on all Street, responsiveness to…
Anders, G. (2005, May 2). Inside Amazon's Idea Machine: How Bezos Decodes The Customer. Forbes. Chicago.
Covey, S. (2007). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Simon and Shuster.
O'Connor, C. (2008, May 2). Undercover Billionaire: Sara Blakely Joins The Rich List Thanks To Spanx. Forbes.
Rorty, M.V. (2009). The rashomon effect: Organization ethics in health care. HEC Forum, 16(9), 75-94.
Ethics in the Workplace
Organizational ethics is an area that is gaining increased importance in formal professional education. Ethics are moral rules that guide the behavior and conduct of an individual. Since ethics are shaped by personal factors like religion, family, society, law and culture, it is unlikely that two people share the same ethical standards or viewpoints (Weiss 2008, p. 116). This frequently gives rise to ethical conflicts or internal ethical dilemmas. Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in modern life because technological advancements are bringing people from diverse cultural and social backgrounds into interaction with one another more frequently. The modern workplace is the best example of an environment that can present ethical dilemmas for individuals as they try to differentiate between right and wrong from two or more choices none of which seems to be absolutely right or absolutely wrong. Philosophers and scholars have developed a number…
Bykvist, K. (2010). Utilitarianism: A guide for the perplexed. Continuum International Publishing Group.
Hinman, L.M. (2012). Ethics: A pluralistic approach to moral theory. Cengage Learning.
Mizzoni, J. (2009). Ethics: The basics. John Wiley & Sons.
Sheng, C.L., & Sheng, Q. (2004). A defense of utilitarianism. University Press of America.
I base my personal ethics on the rights and responsibilities lens from the Four Ethical Lenses. This lens focuses on the key questions such as:
What rules and duties must we follow? And What rights are relevant?
This standard of ethics is rooted in deontological ethics, where our actions are guided by our sense of right and wrong, and that sense is in turn guided by society's standards. Consider the aspect of caring -- surely everybody in our profession is caring in some way. The way that I approach the issue of caring is that I must follow my duties -- that is the best way to care for somebody -- by ensuring that you do as you are told and do not cut corners. People have rights, and that is something that also must play into it. I believe in fundamental human rights to be treated with…
Benefiel, Z. (2002). Values, morals, ethics -- personal ethics and life. Be the Dream. Retrieved January 22, 2012 from http://www.bethedream.net/ethics.htm
Melingagio, J. (2010) The big picture depends on your ethical lens. Business Ethics Alliance. Retrieved January 22, 2012 from http://www.businessethicsalliance.org/blog/?p=151
Ethics and Judges
Federal Judges are duty bound to adhere to a system of ethics, generally referred to as the "Code of Conduct for United States Judges," which has been officially sanctioned by the Judicial Conference of the United States. This code of conduct, based on a set of ethical guidelines, has been adopted for the purpose of informing Federal judges about what conduct is expected of them so that they may exercise their judicial duties in a fair and ethical manner. It also advises judges as to their behavior outside of their judicial duties so that not only will they act in an impartial manner when adjudicating cases, but will also maintain the appearance of impartiality as well. This is especially important since many judges engage in extra-judicial activities such as lecturing, writing, teaching, etc., and must maintain their impartiality when adjudicating cases. However, in the past, judges' personal…
"Section II: The Federal Sentencing Guidelines Model." Ethics Resource Center.
Retrieved from http://fsgo.ethics.org/Section+II
"Code of Conduct for United States Judges" United States Courts. Retrieved from http://www.uscourts.gov/RulesAndPolicies/CodesOfConduct/CodeConductUnitedStatesJudges.aspx
It is important that I am honest to anyone who I choose to be my mentor. Communication must be frank and honest, as learning is the key to research.
equirements for IB Approval
Institutional eview Boards (IB) are the governing bodies that determine what research may be conducted at the university. This is the approving authority for future knowledge and must be treated with honor and respect. As a student under the authority of the IB, it is important that I am aligned with the ethical approach that is promoted from this source. Before embarking on any research question, it will be wise to consult the published requirements of this institution's IB standards. Once IB approval is given, it is also important to follow through on my end of the bargain as many things can change in the course of a research project. Ethical behavior dictates notifying the board of…
American Psychological Association. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct
Standard 8: Research and Publication. Viewed 19 June 2013. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
DeVries, R. et al. (2006). Normal Misbehavior: Scientists Talk About the Ethics of Research. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics. 2006 March, 1(1): 43-50. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1483899/
Driscoll, D. & Brizee, a. (2012). Ethical Considerations in Primary Research. Owl Purdue Online Writing Lab. 21 Sep 2012. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/559/02/
In Goldman, Wall Street, and a culture crack up, Ken Makovsky describes an ethical issue in which a mid-level banker at Goldman Sachs, Greg Smith, alleged that the firm relegated client needs to its search for quick profits. What he describes is more behavior that reaffirms the idea of a culture of greed permeating Goldman Sachs prior to the financial meltdown. While Goldman had been the subject of a significant amount of outside criticism, criticism from inside the company had been rare. Goldman does not appear to have retaliated against the employee, but they have responded in an inconsistent manner to his claims, which have led to speculation that those claims have credence. The article gives good examples of how the firm should respond to the allegations.
So far, Goldman has not done a good job handling Smith's allegations; it released an internal memo that seemed to give…
Ethics in Statistics
Ethical Issues in Business Statistics
Statistical knowledge has been under gradual growth since the beginning of 20th century. This growth has subsequently advanced into broad dimensions of data handling and analysis, resulting into a fully-fledged scientific discipline. Statistics is a science that serves within the framework of construction, and theoretical mathematical applications in order to analyze a set of numerical data hence obtaining credible knowledge (Kemptborne, 1979). Statisticians, thereby, are lissome individuals whose responsibility is to solve data related problems, usually the interdisciplinary and further into formerly uncharted areas. Their ability in creativity during the building of interdisciplinary bridges may be risky and undertaking, especially when the served parties or clients are not conversant with the statistical processes. As a result, the statisticians face the ethical obligations since they have to make sense, out raw data and develop a proper means of interpretation of such data in…
Hill, R.A., (1981). Statistical Methods, Scientific Methods and Christian Worldview. New York,
Kemptborne, L. (1979). The statistics, chance, data analysis and statisticians. Journal of American Statistical Association, 67(4), 16-23.
Ethics and the Legal Environment
George Mackee has a problem. His wife is after him, his boss is after him, and one day soon, the whole community of Hondo, Texas may be after him. George has one very large, very simple problem: He works for Ardnak Plastics, Inc. Ardnack Plastics is a small manufacturing company making small parts for small machinery, yet its corporate problems are far larger. In the wake of tight margins and financial restraint, the Environmental Protection Agency is wagering fines to reprimand the satellite Hondo plant for its emissions violations. Facing eminent corporate relocation and certain unemployment or compromised ethics, George Mackee must find a solution.
Among the nuanced complexity of problems webbing around George Mackee, ethics is the liming factor. He has three core concerns in this vein: whether or not to conduct plant work at night in order to mislead the EPA about the…
"Every man has a conscience, and finds himself observed by an inward judge which threatens and keeps him in awe (reverence combined with fear); and this power which watches over the laws within him is not something which he himself (arbitrarily) makes, but it is incorporated in his being. It follows him like his shadow, when he thinks to escape. He may indeed stupefy himself with pleasures and distractions, but cannot avoid now and then coming to himself or awaking, and then he at once perceives its awful voice. In his utmost depravity he may, indeed, pay no attention to it, but he cannot avoid hearing it." Immanuel Kant, On Conscience, 1785.
I believe that honestly obeying your conscience is the key to living an ethical life. Although that "little voice" may be difficult to hear sometimes above the roar of peer pressure, media pressure, social pressure,…
Chryssides, George D. "Buddhism and Conscience." Conscience in World Religions (1999): 176-199.
CSUS, staff. Kantian Ethics. 2010. 2-12 2010
Fieser, James. "Ethics." 10-05 2009. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A Peer Reviewed Academic Resource. 2-12 2010 .
Ethics Case Study: To escue Others at What isk?
What is the Ethical Dilemma?
An ethical dilemma in the words of Fletcher, Holt, Brazier, & Harris (1995) "occurs when there are at least two possible courses of action that may be taken but each option is problematic" (p.7). With regard to the case study under consideration, the ethical dilemma each and every individual who has succeeded to make it to the roof faces is whether to take the risk of descending the stairs to save the lives of those trapped below or to remain on the roof where it is relatively safe. Those who elect to remain on the roof would be doing so to enhance their safety as they wait for help. In the scenario presented, no individual can embrace both alternatives, i.e. The individuals involved cannot remain on the roof in an attempt to enhance their safety and…
Corrigan, R. & Farrell, M.E. (Eds.). (2010). Ethics: A University Guide. Gloucester: Progressive Frontiers Press.
Fletcher, N., Holt, J., Brazier, M. & Harris, J. (1995). Ethics, Law and Nursing. Oxford Road, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Preston, N. (2007). Understanding Ethics (3rd ed.). Sidney: The Federation Press.
Tannsjo, T. (2008). Understanding Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Theory (2nd ed.). George Square, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Social work is bound by ethical codes that are developed within the profession, as well as legal codes that are developed external to, but in conjunction with, the professional body. The National Association of Social Workers maintains a code of ethics, which was originally approved in 1996, and revised in 2008. The National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics is "intended to serve as a guide to the everyday professional conduct of social workers," (National Association of Social Workers, n.d.). The code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers includes a preamble, in which the mission and values of the profession are carefully outlined. This outline of the mission and values of the National Association of Social Workers helps to provide the philosophical underpinning of the ethical codes that follow. The mission and values of the National Association of Social Workers also inform daily practice and…
International Association of Schools of Social Work (2004). Social work ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.iassw-aiets.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=27&Itemid=50
National Association of Social Workers (n.d.). Code of ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/default.asp
Reamer, F.G. (2008). When ethics and law collide. Social Work Today 8(5).
Ethics Awareness Inventory
The Individual Ethics Awareness Inventory examines which of four different components is the most critical in an individual's ethical position: character, obligation, results, and equity (COE). When a person makes a decision or analyzes a scenario, their personal ethical perspective helps determine how they approach the issue. When character is the most important issue, the person's ethical perspective s based upon what it is good to be, rather than what it is good to do (Brody, 2007). People who emphasize character believe that moral excellence is the goal, and that judging morality involves looking beyond actions and examining character (Brody, 2007). When obligation is the most important issue, the person is focused upon the obligation to do what is morally correct (Brody, 2007). People who focus on obligation believe that a set of identifiable ethical principles, involving universality and a respect for human dignity, drive the decision-making…
Brody, J. (2007, April 4). Ethics and awareness. Retrieved January 14, 2012 from Corporate
Guidance Solutions website: http://corporateguidancesolutions.blogspot.com/2007/04/ethics-awareness.html
EAI Scoring Summary. (2012). Retrieved January 14, 2012 from www.ethics-twi.org
Ethics in law
Ethical theory: Utilitarianism, deontology, and the Golden ule
To some extent, to define what is not 'ethics' is easier to define than what is 'ethics.' Ethics are not based in personal feelings, given that it can be emotionally difficult at times to hurt people's feelings even though it is the ethical thing to do. The law may not be strictly ethical (such as when a guilty man must go free because of legal technicality, to uphold the sanctity of the law). Cultural norms may also be unethical; religion and science may provide guidance but piety does not always mean that one automatically makes ethical choices. Science is descriptive and often amoral in its categorizations of behavior (such as the 'survival of the fittest.')
Given the challenges of defining ethical behavior, a variety of different contradictory perspectives have emerged that attempt to provide moral instruction for…
Velasquez, Manuel Dennis Moberg, Michael J. Meyer, Thomas Shanks, Margaret R. McLean,
David DeCosse, Claire Andre, and Kirk O. Hanson. (2009). A framework for thinking ethically. Santa Clara University. Retrieved:
ethical statement is the set of principles that an organization expects its members to follow. These principles are designed to create a more ethical and morally sound environment where concepts like professionalism, commitment and devotion are deeply valued. Ethical statement is in other words a code of conduct that gives organizational members a clear idea of what they are expected to do, what the common organizational goals are and why members should strive to achieve the same.
Ethical statement then serves as a guide to proper behavior and attitude, which helps in extending better service to the customers and also helps the organization not lose sight of it main objectives. In my organization, The American college, there exists a written ethical statement, which states some of the basic principles that the organizational expects its members to follow. The most important is providing good service to our students and meeting all…
The American College Credo, (faxed material)
The Basic problem-Mine is Better (faxed material)
Consequently, the underlying concept regarding the two different arguments is the actual point for the beginning of life. Through the application of several ethical theories, stem cell research is unethical because of the following reasons:
espect to All Persons:
Based on the utilitarian ethical theory or principle, stem cell research is unethical because it violates the need to respect all individuals and provide the greatest happiness to many people. The emergence of a fetus means that it should be considered as a fully-fledged person who deserves to be treated with respect and dignity. Through this respect and dignity, we will guarantee and provide the greatest happiness to the fetus or fully-pledged person who deserves access to the right to life.
Therefore, by destroying the fetus, stem cell research does not promote the need to provide the greatest happiness to many people. Actually, this practice is unethical because it does not…
Wolff, R.P. (2012). Ethical Theory. In About philosophy. Pearson Education, Inc.
Ethical Problems in Business
Ethics may be termed as the inner guiding moral principles, values and beliefs people use to indicate and identify what is acceptable and appropriate behavior whilst straying away from the opposite (Jones, 2007).
However each individual may perceive different behaviors as acceptable and appropriate depending on the individual's own self-interests, attitudes, beliefs and values.
To dig further into the aspects of business ethics, it is primarily a notion for businesses to act with socially responsible. This is what we may call the amalgamation of ethical behavior with corporate responsibility to ensure any 'wrong-doing' may be called for regulatory action (Fountain, 2012).
It may be considered as the fundamental distinction between right and wrong; morality and immorality applied towards business behavior (Lawrence, Weber, Post, 2004).
As established that ethics applied towards business differentiate from an individual perspective as well as on the corporate front.
Many class action lawsuits began their hearings
Global Sullivan Principles were developed with regards to globally implementing rules to promote corporate social responsibility (1999)
According to the dictionary definition, ethics refer to the "set of principles of right conduct, or more specifically, "the rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession." Ethics and morals are closely related, but ethics is the term more commonly used in the professional realm, whereas morals generally refer to guidelines for personal behavior. Both ethics and morals are reflections of beliefs and values, which are held by individuals and collectively, by whole societies. The development of ethics therefore stems from social and cultural factors as well as from personal ones. However, a few ethical codes are nearly universal. Ethics are complex; in the business realm they may vary widely from sector to sector. No organization is completely immune to ethics, even if the organization has no formal ethical code. Professional decisions are made with regard to personal ethics or to the…
Cline, Austin. "Ethics, Morals, and Values: How do They Relate?" About.com. Online at < http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/phil/blfaq_phileth_values.htm >.
'Ethics." Dictionary.com. online at .
The ethics of the design research demands that 'the research is valid and that threats to validity have been taken into account', and reporting has been accurate and sufficient details have been listed and supplemented for the clarity and appropriate interpretation of the research content, furthermore 'in qualitative research, it is important to be particularly careful about how to choose direct quotations from the data in the research, and ensure that they are representative' (Ian, 2003).
Many professional associations, government agencies, and universities have developed, adopted and practiced specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics i.e. East Carolina University, National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture have developed their own ethical rules related to the design research. Some of the influential ethical policies on design research includes, 'the Uniform equirements (International Committee…
David B. Resnik. What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 2006. Referred from www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources
Deni Elliott, Judy E. Stern. Research Ethics: A Reader. 1997. UPNE Publication. pp. 216
Ian Gregory. Ethics in Research. Continuum International Publishing Group. 2003. pp. 93
Helen Simons, Robin Usher. Situated Ethics in Educational Research. Routledge. 2000. pp. 84
Ethics add to the beauty of profession whether medicine, healthcare, sociology, politics, education, business and even technology. Lack of ethics might not kill someone in most of cases but it certainly does affect the beauty of life. In psychology, ethics does play a role in developing trust between the client and the professional. Single parenting is a social psychology problem that also demands ethical practice since it deals with trust and confidence. Whatever is a different behavior from normal practices might need psychological guidance. Often there is a need to train people, couples, students, job candidates and single parents. The psychologists are bound by social contract. They do not only have to follow the job description but also have to meet the expectations of the clients and the industry in terms of ethical performance. While the dignity of the profession matters most in psychology. From decision…
Canadian Psychological Association, (2000), Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists, Retrieved
Deontological theory might criticize Guido's choice if the initial assumptions included the rule prohibiting lying. However, deontological analysis is only as useful as the underlying rules with respect to which it is applied. Therefore, the solution to the deontological issues raised by the issue presented by the movie is simply to reformulate a less restrictive rule that is incapable of being applied to every situation. Instead of proposing the rule that prohibits lying, the better rule might be to prohibit only lying for immoral purposes.
In fact, the blind adherence to rules under deontological principles often produces distinctly immoral results: it is difficult to imagine the moral purpose of informing a dying patient that a loved one was also killed in the same accident; nor is there a moral purpose for informing a child who is to young to understand the concept that he was adopted. In Guido's case, the…
These automakers must adhere to the regulations and hiring practices of the U.S., and pay the prevailing wage to attract qualified workers (Freeman). If foreign automakers must adhere to the nation's regulations regarding employment, it seems fair that U.S. companies doing business in other countries should adhere to their hiring practices, as well, but only if they are close to the prevailing wages and regulations in the U.S. United States companies hold themselves in high regard around the world, and because of this, they should make the ethical decision and treat their foreign workers just as they treat any other workers in the U.S. We set high standards for our employees and our products, and to retain good will and our good reputation, it is the right and ethical choice to make.
Freeman, Sholnn. "Foreign Automakers in the U.S." WashingtonPost.com. 21 Aug. 2006. 23 Jan 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2006/08/18/DI2006081800987.html
Freeman, Sholnn. "Foreign Automakers in the U.S." WashingtonPost.com. 21 Aug. 2006. 23 Jan 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2006/08/18/DI2006081800987.html
Poznak, J.L. "Approaches to Ethical Decision Making." PoznakLaw.com. 2006. 23 Jan. 2007. http://www.poznaklaw.com/articles/bizethics.htm
Ethics and the Internet
As the computer has evolved in the modern world, so the potential for communication has also increased. The computer, and the development of the Internet, has meant that human society has become more connected than ever before and the barriers between nations and people around the globe have been broken down. While this is a positive development in many ways, the growth of the Internet has also meant that there has been an increase in a wide range of new problems. One of these is the issue of ethics. "Just as ethics evolve as human societies grow and change, so similar ethical questions are raised during the evolution of this global electronic community." (Ethics on the Web)
The more that technology for communication and open publication of information advances, the more questions are raised about issues relating to moral codes of behavior and problems about what…
Ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 11, 2005. http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/e/ethics.htm
Ethics on the Web. 1995, Accessed March 11, 2005, http://www.echonyc.com/~ysue/ethics.html
INTERNET ETHICS: OXYMORON OR ORTHODOXY? March 12, 2005.
Priority of values should be identified so as to aid the organization avoid breaking laws by following the stipulated requirements of operation.
The top three of four values should be reviewed to help the organization determine which values currently help it fulfill its mandate. For example, in the accounting department, the organization should identify accuracy and confidentiality as the key values to the success of the department. Values needed to identify current issues should be brought to fore. This should be done by selecting a few people to interview the members of the organization in identifying key areas that require attention in the organization. Out of the issues identified, determine which ones are ethical and device ways in which the organization can solve them.
It should be noted that not all remedies can be obtained for any ethical dilemma that might arise. Emphasis should be made on dilemmas that don't…
Ethics Awareness Inventory
According to the Ethics Inventory, I fell into two categories: those who are obligation-oriented, and those who are results-oriented. In some ways, the ethical beliefs of these two categories are in conflict; for instance, usually people who base ethical decisions on obligation or duty are not as concerned with results as with principles. However, I scored high in the results-oriented category as well. I believe that my ability to span both categories of ethical decision making have proved beneficial for me in the past and will continue to in the future. For example, the ethics awareness inventory analysis indicated that I do not operate in terms of absolutes; I do not feel that there can be any absolute standards of right and wrong because the world is too complex. Therefore, I am more prone to being open-minded and flexible than people who do feel that there should…
Ethics, Morality, Values, And Beliefs
According to "the ethics site," an Internet resource for college instructors regarding the teaching of different ethical systems, ethics may be defined as "the explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices. The difference between ethics and morality is similar to the difference between musicology and music. Ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality, just as musicology is a conscious reflection on music." ("Glossary," The Ethics Site, 2005) In other words, ethics is the philosophy of what is right and wrong, while morality is the practice of ethics, or virtue in action.
The analogy between a musician and a musicologist proposed by the positioning of ethics vs. morality is interesting, because one might understand music very well, and be able to explain its theory and teaching as a musicologist. However, a great musicologist might be only a middling musician. In contrast, there…
"Glossary." The Ethics Site. 2005. http://ethics.acusd.edu/LMH/E2/Glossary.html. [11 Feb 2005]
Education on ethics must be wider compared to "moral development" in that it must tackle the broader consideration of a wide-ranging vocation, and constricted in that it must tackle problems particularly to the accounting vocation. (esearch on Accounting Ethics)
Definite duties of the accounting profession are put forth in the different code of ethics circulated by important establishments like the AICPA. The AICPA's foremost rule of professional conduct declares: In discharging their duties as professionals, associates must implement responsive professional and moral views in all their works. (Business and Accounting Ethics) the failure of auditor sovereignty infringing ule 101 of the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct was the topic of a research project using 2,000 arbitrarily chosen AICPA members in public accounting profession as a staff auditor, senior, or manager. These executives were offered with 15 roles that are an infringement of ule 101 and were directed to give their…
Accounting and Accountability: A Challenge for corporate culture. The 13th International Symposium on Ethics, Business and Society. IESE Business School, University of Navarra. Barcelona, Spain. May 7-8, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.iese.edu/en/files/6_6343.pdf . Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
Schachter, Joseph. Research on Accounting Ethics. CPA Journal. April 1999. Retrieved at http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/1999/0499/News_Views/NV12.HTM . Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
Smith, Katherine T; Smith, Murphy. L. Business and Accounting Ethics. 21 June, 2003.
Retrieved at http://acct.tamu.edu/smith/ethics/ethics.htm. Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
We may act according to our personal principles, or we can act according to our common sense. I tend to use my common sense rather than personal prejudice when making ethical decisions.
My ethical reasoning entails that I would carefully consider any ethical issue before making a decision about it. One major limitation involved in this is the fact that others may perceive me as morally weak. A morally strong character tends to be one that is immediate in ethical decisions. I would therefore not be able to make immediate decisions such as those required of judges or surgeons.
It is therefore unlikely that I would thrive in a profession that is very clear and immediate with regard to its need for specific ethical decisions. I would be better in a profession that is not as dependent upon immediate decisions.
I do not believe that my ethical viewpoint…
Therefore, the best way to help employees act ethically is to view the workplace and daily operations as a training ground.
In your estimation why is there a growing need for organizational ethics programs? What are the factors contributing to ethical problems in the global corporate world? What are possible solutions?
The need for organizational ethics program is growing for several reasons. First, organizational ethics have become crucial for companies to avoid legal and financial distress. Second, ethics help businesses run smoothly and well, attracting the best caliber of employee. Ethics programs are important especially in large organizations with a diverse staff. Global and multinational companies will be working with people from around the world, who operate in unique ethical environments. Ethics programs help multinational companies create standards for employees that will help avoid conundrums and miscommunication. Ethics programs bring all employees together on the same page and therefore become…
Ethics Leadership Analysis
One of the biggest advantages of globalization is that many different companies are able to receive cheap labor to produce a wide variety of products that are sold at numerous retail stores in the United States. However, an ugly facet to what has been happening, is that there are a number of different sweat shops in a host of regions around the world and in some cases within the U.S. itself. Evidence of this can be seen with an investigation that was conducted by the Department of Labor. They found that over half of the companies they were looking at, were breaking numerous labor laws by operating 10,000 of these kinds of facilities illegally inside the nation. At the same time, they discovered that a variety of governments around the world were encouraging these kinds of factories. (Elliot, 2009)
In the case of Kathie Lee Gifford, her…
Youth and Labor. (2011). Department of Labor. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/youthlabor/
Elliot, J. (2009). Santa's Little Sweat Shop. Albimonitor. Retrieved from: http://www.albionmonitor.com/sweatshop/ss-intro.html
Farrell, O. (2009). Business Ethics. Mason, OH: South Western.
National Labor Committee. (2000). Children Found Sewing Clothes for Wal Mart. Harvard Law School. Retrieved from: http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/lwp/NLC_childlabor.html
All ethical approaches can be validly applied to family life education. Defined as "the educational effort to strengthen individual and family life through a family perspective," family life education views family through ethical lens. However, ethics in family life education extends beyond the ultimate goals of promoting high-level family functioning. The ethics of family life education pertains to the practitioner-client relationship. According to the National Council on Family elations (2012), practitioners need to be aware of the power and responsibilities they have when forming relationships with clients. Although all ethical approaches are equally as valid, relational ethics offers special insight into the nature of family life education. elational ethics "a contemporary approach to ethics that situates ethical action explicitly in relationship," (Austin, 2008). Ethics are primarily situational, but only because ethics evolves out of dialogue and cooperation and not out of rigid ascription to ethical rules. This is not…
Austin, W.J. (2008). Relational ethics. SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods.
Dahlberg, G. & Moss, P. (2004). Ethics and Politics in Early Childhood Education. Routledge.
Elliott, M. (1999). Classifying family life education on the World Wide Web. Family Relations 48(1): Jan 1999.
National Council on Family Relations (2012). Family life educators code of ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.ncfr.org/sites/default/files/downloads/news/cfle_code__of_ethics_2012.pdf
So it has been suggested that social context of care must be examined and to establish limits to the ethics of care. In contrast, constructive evaluation of care ethic indicates that sensitivity as well as emotional response to particular state of affairs such as family discussions with doctor provide significant guides to morally satisfactory actions plus care ethic also seem to favor accepting procedures from Conflict Resolution as well as Dispute Mediation as optional way to approach evident ethical disagreement (Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy, 1996).
So on the whole, if we think regarding repair as something that should involve tools at least the type of tools found in hardware as well as plumbing supply stores and at construction sites, our cast of fixing characters is frequently going to involve men not for the reason that all men have them or apply them even if they have them…
Virginia Held. The Ethics of Care. New York: Oxford University Press, Feb 2007.
Gilligan, Carol, et al. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Devolpment. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Ethics of Care." Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosphy 1996. April 4, 2008 http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/80130/part2/II_7.html .
Spelman, Elizabeth V. "2 the Household as Repair Shop." Setting the Moral Compass: Essays by Women Philosophers. Ed. Cheshire Calhoun. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Ethics inventory is a program that evaluates ones particular ethical style. Everyone has their own view of ethical behavior and expectations hence it is important everyone to realize for everyone to realize what that perspective is, hence this program asks various questions and evaluate the answers and eventually realize what type of ethical person one is. Most people base their ethical views on character, obligation, results or equity. People might have blended styles that place them in two categories at the same time (Collak, 2007). This paper will look at how educational experience has affected the way I think ethically. It will further look at how I use ethics in my way of thinking and every decision making process that I undertake. Finally the paper will highlight on the potential for conflict in situations where people have different interpretations of ethical behavior.
From the results of my ethical…
Collak, V. (2007).Ethics Awareness Inventory Interpretation. Retrieved December 7, 2012 from http://collak.net/index.php?view=article&id=50&tmpl=component&print=1&page=&Itemid=60
With the Starbucks code of conduct, there are a few goods things. First, it touches on a wide range of subjects. There are actually several different reports such as human rights, social responsibility, health care, animal welfare and supplier code of conduct (Starbucks.com, 2014). Second, I like the fact that it addresses the farmers from whom the company buys its beans -- these are people doing manual labor in hot countries, band often do not receive a living wage. So that is good. Third, I like that the company has targets and tracks some of its social responsibility outcomes. This will help the company to improve its social responsibility performance, as well as its ethical performance.
As for the McDonalds statement the company also reflects social responsibility in its statement. This is something that McDonalds has been forced to address by protests and negative publicity and there isn't any…
McDonalds. (2014). Standards of business conduct for employees. About McDonalds.com. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/investors/corporate_governance/codes_of_conduct/standards_of_business_conduct.html
Starbucks.com (2014). Starbucks on the issues. Starbucks. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from http://www.starbucks.ca/responsibility/learn-more/policies
The ole of Ethics in My Life
Ethics refers to the systematic and logical study of right and wrong behavior. The challenge with ethics is that ethical decisions are often subjective. Variables like personality, culture, and upbringing can all affect one's ethical character. Age and gender can also impact one's ethical decision-making process. The study of ethics has been an ongoing one in the field of philosophy, but it also has direct applications in fields ranging from law to medicine.
Almost all decisions have an ethical component. Even deciding what food to eat is an ethical decision, because the consumer chooses things like fair trade and organic over factory farmed and exploitative. Therefore, ethics can help me to create a more ethical and just society, by making choices that are congruent with core ethical principles. Ethical principles may include such things as fairness and the refrain from harm. Generally,…
Hill, Kate. "The bystander effect: keeping silent on family violence." ABC. Retrieved online: http://www.abc.net.au/local/photos/2014/05/07/3999663.htm
The utilitarian perspective focuses on the broad impacts of the actions, rather than just how the actions affect specific individuals (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many. The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. The argument can also be made that wealthier companies provide more jobs and wealthier insurance companies are better able to pay out to those who do receive payments. The counter to the former point is that this employment is theoretical -- not only may it not occur, but it may not occur in the United States. The counter to the latter is that insurance is largely price inelastic, so there is no improvement in coverage likely from handing more profits to insurance companies.
On the harm side, many…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v2n1/calculating.html
Cline, a. (2011). Deontology and ethics: What is deontology, deontological ethics? About.com. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://atheism.about.com/od/ethicalsystems/a/Deontological.htm
Miller, P. (2007). Genetic testing and the future of disability insurance: Thinking about discrimination in the genetic age. The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. Vol. 35 (2) 47-52.
Schafer, S. (2001). Railroad agrees to stop gene-testing workers. Washington Post. In possession of the author.
Chapter 4: Administrative responsibility: The key to administrative ethics
Administrators are responsible for complying with the law -- and also for complying with the administrative responsibilities. Ethics requires a delicate balancing of objective and subjective responsibilities on the part of administrators. All this is easier said than done, of course. The administrator's role is complicated by a network of often conflicting responsibilities -- responsibilities to his or her own ethics, to immediate superiors, to his or her specific agency, to elected officials who speak for the public, and to the public good (which may not always be fully articulated within the desires of public officials) Furthermore, the law is not always clear-cut but it must be an important cornerstone of administrative policies. Of course, when administrative policies are potentially conflict with the law, an immediate red flag should be raised.
If an administrator does not have the authority to resolve…
Ethics are a number of behavioral guidelines that essentially stipulate what acts are inherently wrong. These acts include murder, rape, fraud, deceit, slavery, genocide, and torture to name a few (Paul 2003). Ethics, as opposed to morals, tend to be the most general rules by which human beings should treat one another. Morals, however, are like the micro version of ethics: they are subject to interpretation by the individual and highly dependent upon circumstances. Whereas a Hindu and Christian may disagree upon the morality of slaughtering a cow, they would be forced to agree upon the ethics of slaughtering a human being. The difference is one of perspective.
This distinction can also be seen depending upon the circumstances (Ruggiero 2004). If one is to accept the ethical premise that it is wrong to kill another human being, they must conclude that killing a single individual to save many other lives…
1. Feinberg, Joel and Russ Schafer-Landau. (1999). Reason and Responsibility. New York: Wadsworth Publishing.
2. Paul, Richard and Linda Elder. (2003). The Miniature Guide to Understanding the Foundations of Ethical Reasoning. Dillon Beach: The Foundation for Critical Thinking.
3. Ruggiero. (2004). Thinking Critically about Ethical Issues: Sixth Edition. New York: McGraw Hill.
Ethics are "an individual's personal beliefs about whether a behavior, action, or decision is right or wrong" (Griffin, 2010). Is everyone considered a manager? Why, or why not?
The traditional functions of management include planning, organizing, staffing, and directing. All of these involve certain ethical considerations which will reflect both the individual's personal beliefs as well as the belief systems of the organization. Ethics is more than a gut instinct or a general sense of morality While moral inclinations arise as a result of custom and general, personal upbringing, ethical decisions involve making a decision in accordance with a belief system that assumes a certain degree of consistency.
In this sense, being a 'manager' is a very specific 'hat' to wear. No one is a manger all of the time. When at home, all of us make decisions that are inconsistent on occasion. We may insist that our dog does…
Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. (20080). Deontological ethics. The Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved:
Dowie, Mark. (1977). Pinto madness. Mother Jones Magazine. Retrieved at:
Consider the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter 1. Which of these would it be easier for utilitarianism to fulfill and which could well be more difficult for that system to fully meet?
Of the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter One, perhaps the easiest purpose for the ethical system of utilitarianism, as developed by the Englishman Jeremy Bentham, to meet would be to create a functional system of social ethics, or the ethical schema that holds a society together by its ethical 'glue.' Utilitarianism suggests that society, when pressed on many sides by the competition of different ethical claims, or even simply by different but equally valid claims for personal happiness, should choose the truth claim that allows for the greatest good for the greatest number of individuals within that particular society. For instance, the happiness of the many in my neighborhood to sleep late at…
Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.
Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.
Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…
Anderson, K. (2009). Ethnographic research: A key to strategy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://hbr.org/2009/03/ethnographic-research-a-key-to-strategy/ar/1
Gert, B. (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-definition/
Kohlberg, L. (1971) From Is to Ought: How to Commit the Naturalistic Fallacy and Get Away with It in the Study of Moral Development. New York: Academic Press.
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Training is part of this process, so that people explicitly understand the ethical culture of the company. Ethical cultures tend to be self-perpetuating because the people within the organization will hold themselves and their co-workers accountable. When you look at a company like Enron, large parts of that company were devoid of ethical standards, so it was much easier for the frauds to occur. Enron also highlights the need for ethical leadership in order to develop a highly-ethical culture. The organization looks to its leaders for ethical guidance and will likely adopt as part of the culture the ethical standards of the leaders. This is the point of the provisions in SOX holding the CEO and CFO accountable for accounting fraud and raises a lot of red flags about companies that would go private to dodge this requirement.
Lastly, there needs to be a compliance mechanism as well. Culture, training,…
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
IBE. (2010). Ethical due diligence in recruitment. Institute of Business Ethics. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from https://www.ibe.org.uk/userassets/briefings/ibe_briefing_17_ethical_due_diligence_in_recruitment.pdf
McConnell, T. (2010).. Moral dilemmas. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral-dilemmas/
Morgenstern, M. & Nealis, P. (2004). Going private: A reasoned response to Sarbanes-Oxley? SEC.gov Retrieved April 25, 2014 from https://www.sec.gov/info/smallbus/pnealis.pdf
Ethics in Health Care
The role of ethics within the medical profession is extremely important and it is extremely necessary to abide by a high standard of ethical behavior while working in this industry. The trust that patients and people place within the medical profession dictates this high level of ethical behavior. The purpose of this essay is to examine the influence of individual ethics on decision making the health care industry using the ACHE self-assessment test as a guide to highlight key issues regarding this approach.
The ACHE self-assessment provided some, but not much guidance on the way medical professionals should conduct their business. Many of the questions were quite superficial and did not really hit at the true ethical issues that are present within the medical field. For me, ethics cannot be standardized to the extent where there are automatic responses to challenging situations. ather, the ethical approach…
American College of Healthcare Executives. Ethics Self-Assessment.
Pharmaceutical drugs are among the most expensive products to produce globally and as a result have a major impact on the profitability of these firms. Without accurate financial reporting of these costs many investors have no idea of whether the companies are doing as well as they report they are.
The second most troubling issue that is impacting the community and the pharmaceutical industry is the lack of credibility of scientific research and its implications on the new drug development and marketing strategies of pharmaceutical firms (Verschoor, 2006). This continues to be a major concern specifically for government regulators who have seen pharmaceutical industry spend up to $5.5B a year to promote drugs to physicians, often citing inaccurate or falsified research (Verschoor, 2006). Not only does this impact the physician's credibility if the drugs do not perform, it also harms the patient.
The third major issue is the lack of…
Curtis C. Verschoor. (2006). Pharma Industry Has Many Ethics Issues. Strategic Finance, 87(8), 16, 18, 61.
It is this 'fluidity' in meaning and interpretation that makes ethics not only interesting as a branch of philosophy. Ethics is interesting because it is value-laden and time-dependent: changes in these factors highly influence the ethical interpretation of an event, action, or human behavior. A set of values considered to be deviant ten years ago might no longer be applicable today, and 'progressive thinking' paved the way for these perceived deviant beliefs and actions to become part of the norm that society deems acceptable and normative today. This dynamic quality of ethics as a field of philosophical study keeps it from developing further, making it complicated, yet, timely and responsive to the evolving human nature and the social environment it creates everyday.
Newall, P. (2005). "Intoroducing Philosophy 11: Ethics." The Galilean Library web site. Available at http://www.galilean-library.org/manuscript.php?postid=43789.
Newall, P. (2005). "Intoroducing Philosophy 11: Ethics." The Galilean Library web site. Available at http://www.galilean-library.org/manuscript.php?postid=43789.
Ethics Code: Importance of Written Form
A written code of ethics is highly important for the corrections system, for the simple fact that it greatly assists in keeping corrections personnel both honest and forthright in the carrying out of their duties. Additionally, a written code of ethics is fairly significant to the carrying out of various jobs performed within correctional institutions because there are a number of disparate parties that have a vested interest in the fulfillment of the obligations of those working within corrections. Such people of interest within the ethical stewardship of responsibility within correctional institutions not only include inmates, but "the families of such persons, the general public, and…commercial and industrial firms, with whom the Department does business" (State of New Jersey, 1978). To that end, it is highly significant to have a written code of ethical standards to ensure to such different people and organizations that…
Most ethical codes that members of corrections have to adhere to contain information that is not altogether different from ethical standards that can be found within other professions. Common components of such codes include employees not accepting any forms of bribes or gifts which might influence their work, or not undertaking any other sort of employment of formal interest which would conflict with the correct way of carrying out of one's job. The actual significance of having such a written code, of course, lies in its enforcement. According to guidelines approved by the Executive Commission on Ethical Standards and promulgated into effect on September 1, 1978, the violation of the written code was "cause for removal, suspension, demotion or other disciplinary action by the Department" (State of New Jersey, 1978). The value of the code, then, is in the disciplinary measures that may be taken to keep members of the corrections department honest in the performance of their respective jobs.
In terms of leadership from the top of such an organization as a department of corrections, it is fairly integral to have managerial or administrative support of such codes of ethics. One of the primary reasons why the involvement of those in the upper echelons of authority in a department of corrections is so vital is because oftentimes, it is this body which determines whether or not punishments should be disseminated, as well as whether or not there have been any transgressions of the ethical code of conduct. This fact is closely alluded to in the flowing quotation. "No disciplinary action shall be taken, however, except upon the referral of or with the approval of the Executive Commission on Ethical Standards" (State of New Jersey, 1978). In this case, the Executive Commission on Ethical Standards is the governing body which oversees issues of ethics related to a corrections department, and is the basis for any potential violations of ethics that may occur.
Furthermore, there is evidence that indicates that the code of ethics which members of corrections departments must adhere to is merely part
Before resuming my educational endeavors at the University of Phoenix I was fortunate enough to experience life and many of its travails as a business person and employee. During my tenure in those endeavors I observed a number of events that I considered unethical, and a number of actions taken by individuals that I found both reprehensible and repulsive. I was often amazed at the capabilities of mankind to justify their actions, when it was quite evident that such actions would not be considered ethical in any circumstances, no matter what the justification.
Ethics has always been a concern, whether individuals worked in education, business or even the medical field. One early study determined that there were many young managers that had reported being asked implicitly to do things they personally believed were unethical, and sometimes illegal (Badzek, Mitchell, Marra, Bower,1998). Oftentimes these young managers feel the pressure to…
Badzek, L.A., Mitchell, K., Marra, S.E., Bower, M.M., (1998) Administrative Ethics and Confidentiality/Privacy Issues, ANA Periodicals, Vol. 3, No. 3
Chaloner, C.; (2007) An introduction to ethics in nursing, Nursing Standard, Vol. 21, Issue 32, pp. 42 -- 46
Dessoff, A.; (2010) Battling sexual abuse, District Administration, Vol. 46, Issue 3, pp. 50-56
Rosenkoetter, M.M. & Milstead, J.A.; (2010) A code of ethics for nurse educators: Revised, Nursing Ethics, Vol. 17, Issue 1, pp. 137-139
More than replacing a Code of Ethics, solutions to the issue might revolve around simply understanding, adopting, and enforcing codes that are already in place. For instance, the IACP code of ethics for law enforcement has four major themes that would clearly handle most situations: 1) Fairness towards everyone -- the public, clients, the accused, colleagues, etc. Fairness also implies the maxim of not using one's power to take advantage of the public (e.g. bribes for service, etc.); 2) Service -- Public service is a calling -- the community holds law enforcement personnel to a high standard, and expects service to be part of the regular job description; 3) Importance of the law -- Upholding the Constitution or the statues of the law that are mandated by the profession, and; 4) the importance of personal conduct -- law enforcement professionals must hold a standard of behavior that is consistent and…
Banks, J. (2004). The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf
Chery, D. (May 7, 2009). Judges on Wrong Side of the Law. CBS News. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/08/04/national/main566433.shtml
IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology. (2012). Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions. Ethics.itt.edu. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://ethics.iit.edu/
Pollock, J. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
The nineteenth century German philosopher Immanuel Kant presented an ethical code that assigned a strict "right" or "wrong" to every action. Called the categorical imperative, Kant believed that it does not matter what the consequences or outcome of actions are; there are certain things that are right and certain things that are wrong. These ethical categories of right and wrong are not negotiable. It can never be "sometimes" ok to tell a white lie, or to steal. Instead, Kant created easy to understand categories that apply theoretically to all cultures and all people at all times. Human beings are always morally obliged to do the right thing in any given situation, even if doing so leads to suffering. Therefore, it would be considered right to tell the truth to a murderer and subsequently die rather than to lie to the murderer and survive. Davis (n.d.). uses the example of…
Davis, S.P. (n.d.). Three-minute philosophy: Immanuel Kant. [video] Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwOCmJevigw
"Ethics." Retrieved online: http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/kant.html
Johnson, R. "Kant's Moral Philosophy," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Retrieved online: .
Ethics in Decision-Making
Clegg, Stewart Martin Kornberger & Carl Rhodes. (2007). Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making. he Sociological Review, 55:2.
According to Stewart Clegg, Martin Kornberger and Carl Rhodes' article, "Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making" from the Sociological Review, ethical decision-making is not optimized with either an outcome-driven consequentialist approach nor a rule-bound deontological approach. "We suggest that rules for ethical decision making, rather than ensuring ethical outcomes, can work to insulate organizations from moral responsibility" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 393). Because of recent ethical scandals, there has been a drive to seek a heavily prescriptive and rule-bound approach to ethics, but the authors believe that "ethics is best considered in terms of the way that organizations are sites for ethical difficulties, dilemmas and deliberations (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 394). heorizing ambivalence in ethical decision-making is the ambitious goal of the article. he article uses the…
The solution of 'going by the rules' is often offered because of the difficulties and complexities of managerial decision-making in large organizations. Managers cannot perfectly calculate the 'correct' decision. In contrast to the ideal of perfect rationality, contemporary organizational theorists tend to see organizations as 'garbage cans' or mixes of personal and organizational ethical orientations. It is often uncertain what will 'tumble out' decision-wise, even when there are efforts to have policies in words. In the face of such randomness, a personal ethical orientation and sense of justice is required. "In Derrida sees decision-making as irretrievably implicated with issues of personal responsibility and ethics" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 398).
For Derrida, rules are not useful and future-oriented utilitarian calculus is impossible. To simply follow the rules enters into the 'madness' of rationality, and echoes the protests of Nazi war criminals that they were just following orders and therefore their crimes were excused. A sense of personal responsibility and investment in every decision that has potential ethical consequences is required, and no human being, regardless of his or her level of the organizational hierarchy, can abdicate responsibility. Organizational acts that use authority, routine, and above all bureaucracy are usually the least ethical rather than the most (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 403). This statement seems supported by recent history, in which some of the least ethical actions (the accounting fraud at Enron, 'robo-signing' for foreclosures after the housing crisis) were done as a matter of routine, according to the set procedures of the organization.
What is called for in the article is more humane but also more difficult -- the sharpening of the ethical faculty of all corporate decision-makers. Responsibility cannot merely be technical, and ethics strives to affirm the humanity of the person whose fate is being decided, rather than to distance the decision-maker from that person through the affirmation of 'rules.' Instead of forcing workers to learn a corporate manual by rote, managers should strive to create virtuous beings: "management's task in relation to ethics should be one of enhancing and maintaining structures within which moral agents face, understand and act within the conditions of undecidability (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 405).
Ethics Awareness Inventory (EAI) is a way of measuring different people's ethical approaches. It measures ethics in four different dimensions: character, obligation, results, and equity. The combined score for character was 8, the combined score for obligation was 4, the combined score for results was -4, and the combined score for equity was -8. My ethical profile was most closely aligned with character, and least closely aligned with equity. My obligation and results scores were opposites, which was interesting because those two traits are thought be diametrically opposed.
The character perspective is aligned with virtue theory, and looks at what is good to be, rather than what is good to do. In other words, actions are not as critical as character. This means that the character perspective is not overly focused on actions. In fact, character looks more broadly at ethics than a simple determination of right and wrong and…
While teaching all the students is important, so is identifying whether a child has some kind of learning impediment is also important, and ethically I would have to find the time to do both tasks well, and not rationalize that the educational referral was not necessary.
d. I do not think I would have any problem accepting the responsibility to make ethical decisions and take ethical actions. In the examples used here, I would never use that blackboard punishment for slow work. I would attempt to find out why the child was working slowly. If the problem represents an educational need I would attempt to meet that need. If it did not reflect an educational need, then the natural consequence for the student's choice would be in the grades, not at a circle on the blackboard.
I would also have no problem taking action by reporting child abuse once I…
Bologna, Theresa M.; Dorsey, Anne G.; Freeman, Nancy K.; and Ungaretti, Toni. 1997. "A Teacher Education Ethics Initiative: A Collaborative Response to a Professional Need." Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 48.
Luckowski, Jean A. 1997. "A virtue-centered approach to ethics education." Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 48
There are a couple of reasons for this. One is that outcomes are what the public sees. Therefore, it is the potential outcomes that should be the guiding ethical principles. Ethics are mainly a problem in business when a company is perceived as unethical. Monsanto is a great example - few people have any ethical problems with this company, so their lack of ethics does not impact their business prospects.
The other reason why outcomes should be the guiding principle is because one of the most significant sources of ethical problems for companies is front-line managers. These low-level managers face strong pressure from above, but are generally not the firm's best decision-makers. As a result, they make poor decisions in response to pressure. If these managers were guided by duty as their main ethical principle, they would respond to pressure by doing whatever they feel senior management wants them to…
Ethics: Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
The main thrust of the readings
The readings focus on the U.S. statutes prohibiting U.S. companies, citizens, and employees from issuing any valuable thing to foreign government executives for securing business benefits. The underlying thrust of the readings is twofold: first, that corruption must be deterred and second that government officials must promote economic relationships between their companies and foreign firms through the promotion of ethical foreign investment.
The rigid enactment of the FCPA has placed these two thrusts in a state of tension. Law enforcers and courts could interpret the readings broadly. For instance, any valuable thing includes not just payments in cash but also meals, gifts, entertainment and drinks. This element is not associated with any de minimis value and makes companies uncertain when they are expected to comply with the FCPA. From the readings, the FCPA has been enforced and institutes criminal…
Brenkert, G.G., & Beauchamp, T.L. (2010). The Oxford handbook of business ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cory, J. (2005). Business ethics: The ethical revolution of minority shareholders. New York: Springer.
Kumar, B.N., & Steinmann, H. (2008). Ethics in international management. Berlin, Ge: Walter de Gruyter.
Pastin, M., & Hooker, M. (1980). Ethics and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Business Horizons, 23(6), 43
Ethics in elationship to Power Structures
Ethical obligations allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office
Senator Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were accused of attempting to fix the mayoral ballot. They were allegedly reported having exchanged thousands of dollars in cash. This money was intended to pay off the officials of the epublican Party to agree to one of the Democrats, Smith on the GOP line. Halloran demonstrated clear ignorance as he walked into the evil bargain as the confidential witness dangled campaign funds for a personal interest bid. In the context of public ethics, the actions of Smith and Halloran raise questions their principles of justice, democratic society, and common good (Stensota, 2010).
Smith and Halloran must adhere to the principle of ethical policymaking. This principle requires that they hold one another accountable for what they know and value. As such, it draws…
Cody, J. (2012). Chicago called most corrupt city in the nation. CBS Chicago. Retrieved from http://chicago.cbslocal.com/2012/02/14/chicago-called-most-corrupt-city-in-nation/
Politico. (2013). N.Y. state senator arrested in alleged mayor race plot. Retrieved from http://www.politico.com/story/2013/04/nyc-mayor-race-rig-malcolm-smith-89536.html
Stensota, H. (2010). The Conditions of Care: Reframing the Debate about Public Sector Ethics. University of Gothenburg; Blackwell Publishing Limited. Retrieved from http://faculty.cbpp.uaa.alaska.edu/afgjp/PADM601%20Fall%202010/Reframing%20the%20debate%20about%20public%20service%20ethics.
Ventriss, C. (2012). Democratic Citizenship and Public Ethics The Importance of Civic Stewardship in an Era of Public Distrust and Cynicism. Public Integrity, Summer 2012, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 283 -- 297.
Whistle-blowing can have many adverse effects on the person doing the whistle-blowing and there are definitely feelings of loneliness that can arise when a whistle-blower decides to make some noise. Cooper gives some prime examples of whistle-blowing cases in chapter six, but he insists that there are still many who have "gone away quietly" (202), which may appear to be the safest option for the individual, yet that means that the public will never know the truth about what was going on -- and so, the individual really does have a moral responsibility to the public so that unethical behavior isn't allowed at any level as it will eventually seep into the very core of the organization and back into society.
Whistle-blowing, no matter what way it is looked at is "risky," according to Cooper (203). People who blow the whistle not only face scrutiny and alienation, but they may…
William J. Bennett assumes an old school, straightforward approach to ethics in The Book of Virtues: A Treasury of Great Moral Stories. The book contains several chapters on different moral or ethical concepts, like self-discipline, responsibility, courage, honesty, loyalty, and faith. Part of what makes Bennett's book unique is that he uses stories to show what the ethical principles mean. The stories in the book are great, because readers are familiar with many of them including the ones that have been appropriated by Disney such as Pinocchio. This makes the ethical concepts easier to understand, because I can apply the principles to my own life. While readers have heard it all before, Bennett presents the material in a unique and fresh way to show why ethics are important. As the author puts it, it's not about being caught for doing something wrong; it's about doing the right thing.
Bennett, William J. The Book of Virtues. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.