Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
As Europeans, they came from countries that, although quite poor, had very good education opportunities. As part of the mainstream culture, my ethnic group also took part in the discrimination against racial and ethnic minorities, including the African-Americans, the Hispanic-Americans, the Asians or the Native Americans. As part of the white group in America, the Scots presumably inflicted most of the forms of discrimination upon the racial and ethnic minorities, from the extremely overt and violent domination of the African-Americans during the period of slavery, to the more recent forms of discrimination, such as redlining, institutional discrimination, glass ceiling, environmental justice problems and so on.
The English and the Scots formed the first great waves of immigration into the United States, and along with their settlements they also established their supremacy over the other racial or ethnic minorities. These problems are reflected in a number of Immigration Acts that were…
Brock, William R (1982). Scotus Americanus: A Survey of the Sources for Links between Scotland and America in the Eighteenth Century. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
Landsman, Ned C. Nation and Province in the First British Empire: Scotland and the Americas. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2001.
according to the results, "in the early history of the exchange, Jewish and German applicants were significantly more likely to be rejected, while Irish applicants were slightly favored. The advent of the WWI in 1914 raised the probability that applicants with German names would be rejected by 10%."
At the beginning, the German ethnicity was kept away from labor market discrimination thanks to their significant skills. However, the political and historical developments of the world resulting into two world wars that divided the nations in two groups, with Germany being the most important element in the equation is believed to have slightly changed the situation.
Today, according to Census ureau data, the Germans are the largest ethnic minority living within the U.S.A. borders ("Largest Ethnic/Racial Groups in the U.S.). "In fact, there is an estimated 47 million German-Americans according to the year 2000 census of the United States."(Mitchell) It is…
Darity, W.A. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 2nd edition, 2008
"Largest Ethnic/Racial Groups in the U.S.," Retrieved, October 6, 210 from http://names.mongabay.com/ancestry/ancestry-population.html
Mitchell, A. "America's largest ethnic group." Article way. 5 September, 2009.Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://www.articlealley.com/article_1067397_27.html
Moser, Petra. "Ethnic Discrimination at the NYSE?." 23 September, 2005, Retrieved October 6, 2010 from http://emlab.berkeley.edu/users/webfac/eichengreen/e211_fa05/e211-moser.pdf
Additional Information on Irish-Americans: The U.S. Census 2000 reflects that there are approximately 34,688,723 Irish-Americans presently living in this country, which is quite a bit down from the 1990 Census of 40,165,702. There is only one group (ethnic group) in the U.S. that is larger than the Irish-American group, and that is German-Americans.
Irish-Americans are both Irish Catholics and Irish Protestants; Irish Catholics are concentrated in large cities throughout the north and eastern portions of the United States. Most notably, Irish-Americans prefer cities like Boston, New York, and Chicago, all of which have neighborhoods with high concentrations of Irish-Americans, according to ikipedia. The most heavily Irish community in America is said to be Milton, Massachusetts, with approximately 38% of its 26,000 residents of Irish heritage.
Irish mayors have been elected in numerous communities in recent years: among those are Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Houston, Newark, New York City, Omaha, Scranton,…
Answers.com. (2007) Retrieved May 27, 2007, from www.answers.com.
De Leon, Arnoldo. (2002). Racial Frontiers: Africans, Chinese, and Mexicans in Western
America, 1848-1890. Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press.
Hulei, Elaine; Zevenbergen, Andrea a.; & Jacobs, Sue C. (2006). Discipline Behaviors of Chinese-American and European-American Mothers, the Journal of Psychology, 140(5),
Deutsch, Sarah. 1987. No separate refuge: culture, class, and gender on an Anglo-Hispanic frontier in the American Southwest, 1880-1940. New York: Oxford University Press.
ace has excluded people of color and ethnic groups in the Southwest. Deutsch draws parallels with all forms of subjugation around the world. Hispanic identity in particular was viewed as a threat by white Americans. White Americans began to cling to nativism, which was a theory that was related to white supremacy. This systematically excluded Hispanics, but especially Latin American women, from having access to social, cultural, and financial capital. Exclusion was built on race, as positions of power in politics, government, and business were reserved for white males. Stereotyping has been an important way for race to be used as a method of exclusion.
The theme or thesis on people of color and ethnic groups in the United States is that subjugation is the…
Deutsch, Sarah. 1987. No separate refuge: culture, class, and gender on an Anglo-Hispanic frontier in the American Southwest, 1880-1940. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jacobson, Matthew Frye. 1998. Whiteness of a different color: European immigrants and the alchemy of race. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Ruiz, Vicki. 1998. From out of the shadows: Mexican women in twentieth-century America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Taylor, Quintard. 1998. In search of the racial frontier: African-Americans in the American West, 1528-1990. New York: Norton.
However, the Germans fared much better than the Native Americans when it came to assimilating and becoming a part of American culture. As mentioned before, a large group of them settled in Germantown, PA but many also settled in other states throughout the country. Germans for the most part were well accepted into American society. They generally fared better than the Irish immigrants and managed to hold onto their culture while blending in with the indigenous as well as other members of the American society. They were known for their printing skills before they immigrated to the United States, and this is a skill that they brought with them from their country and they continued to be excellent printers while here in America.
Germans were treated fairly well because they were the group of immigrants that adjusted quite well to working hard during the industrial revolution. As mentioned previously, Germans…
Bockrath, Joseph. "The Bridge of Roebling and Crane." Legal Studies Forum 27.1 (2003): 1-20.
"Chapter Two - The History Of The German Immigration To America - The Brobst Chronicles." RootsWeb Genealogical Data Cooperative. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 July 2010. .
"Christopher Sower." The Columbia Encyclopedia: Sixth Edition. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 30 July 2010 ( http://www.encyclopedia.com ).
Eller, David B. "The Germans Have Landed." Christian History & Biography 84 (2004): 18-21.
Blacks or African-American Groups and compare / contrast them with Whites people on the following characteristics: depiction in firms, treatment in society, and employment and education.
Depiction in Films
The mass media have long influenced the popular image of minorities. From the 19th century's journalism and ethnic cartoons to the imagery of contemporary movies and television, the mass media have contributed powerfully to the way that minority groups are viewed, including the ways minority members view themselves.
Hollywood has a long history of portraying African-Americans in a negative or stereotypical manner. In general, Blacks are presented as basically different from other people, as taking no relevant part in the life of the nation, as offering nothing, contributing nothing, expecting nothing. The negative images of blacks are fed by portrayals of blacks in movies, television and elsewhere, primarily portraying them as moonshine runners, criminals, and murderers. Some other depictions are blacks…
Benzon, W.L. (1993). The Evolution of Narrative and the Self. Journal of Social and Evolutionary Systems, 16 (2), 129-155.
Collier, J.L. (1993). Jazz: The American Theme Song. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hacker, A. (1992). Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal . New York: Ballantine Books.
" Not only did they give up traditional clothing, but they slowly and irreversibly adopted American traditions related to the wedding ceremonies and religious and national holydays. They still celebrated their holydays according to the religious calendar, but in a more discreet way. They encountered difficulties in processing the changes they were more or less forced to adopt by the new living style, but these were not very violent from a psychological point-of-view. They proved to be able to understand that differences did not necessarily mean a negative approach and the diversity they met every step of they way convinced them of the positive effects of intercultural change and being open minded. As Galitzi cites another Romanian pondering the effects of change in tradition, especially from the religious point-of-view, a men who came from a country where his parents and grandparents taught him that he would go to Hell if…
Galitzi, Christine Avghi. A Study of Assimilation among the Roumanians in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press, 1929. Questia. 2 Aug. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8855336 .
Romanian Communities. Romanian-American Network, Inc. Copyright © 2004 Ro-Am.net. Retrieved Aug 2, 2008 at http://www.ro-am.net/index.php?page=ro-am-communities#Anchor-44685
Galitzi, C.A. A Study of Assimilation among the Roumanians in the United States. p. 136
Racial Ethnic Groups, Richard T. Schaefer, Thirteenth Edition. The term paper required a minimum 5 pages, double spaced, size 12 font, computer generated.
This year marked the 65th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that supports equal rights and liberties for everyone, regardless of race, gender, language, religion, nationality, etc. Nothing as atrocious as the two wars has ever happened since the declaration was adopted in 1948. Nevertheless, what it stands for is, as the title suggests, universally valid. Moreover, when contemporary societies address the importance of interrelation between nations as perhaps never before, members of different groups more so need to relate to one another nonjudgemental. Unfortunately, America has a long history of discrimination on account of either race or ethnicity. As much as we would try to persuade ourselves no such issues are nowadays regular, we might discover different. However, this paper deals not so much…
Nagata, Donna K. Psychological Effects of Camp. Densho Encyclopedia, 19 March 2013. Web. 28 Jul 2013.
Racial and Ethnic Groups
What would you consider the three most important achievements in civil rights for African-Americans since 1900? What roles did White and Blacks play in making the events happen?
Probably the three most important achievements in Civil Rights for African-Americans since 1900 include the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. This is important because it showed that African-Americans were willing to work together to make their lives better, and it brought attention to others that they were living under harsh conditions that were unfair and prejudicial. They began to fight segregation and make legal challenges against it, and to lobby Congress for African-American rights. They are also important in the black community today, and continue to lobby for African-American rights and justice. The NAACP is largely made up of black individuals, although there are white members too.
acial and Ethnic Groups: Hispanics Living in the United States
To suggest that Hispanics comprise a single ethnic group is to ignore the tremendous diversity among the different Hispanic ethnic subgroups. Depending on the heritage country, these different Hispanic groups may have very different cultures. Examining the linguistic, political, social, economic, religious, and familial conventions of these different ethnic subgroups helps highlight their similarities and differences. This paper will examine those features in four Hispanic groups: Mexican-Americans, Puerto icans, Cuban Americans, and Central South Americans.
Mexican-Americans are Americans of Mexican descent. Mexican-Americans are primarily Spanish speakers, though the language spoken in the home may not be Spanish. Spanish is the official language of Mexico, but it is important to realize that "the indigenous people of this nation - almost five centuries after The Conquest - still speak approximately 288 Amerindian languages" (Schmal, 2004). Catholicism is the dominant religion among Mexican-Americans,…
Schmal, J. (2004). The linguistic diversity of Mexico. Retrieved September 28, 2011 from Houston Institute for Culture website: http://www.houstonculture.org/mexico/ling.html
Serpa, M. (2005). Family structures. Retrieved September 28, 2011 from The Language
Minority Assessment Project website: http://www.ldldproject.net/cultures/puertorico/differences/family.html
This is because our authority figures are tainted by the same prejudices and discrimination that affect everyone. Thus, preventing these events would have only been possible if the police in the odney King instance didn't act in this manner toward an African-American, and in the Chicago instance, if the police would have arrested the white rock thrower in the first place.
Bush, G. (1992, May 1). Address to the nation on the civil disturbances in Los Angeles,
California. etrieved December 17, 2011 from George Bush Presidential Library
Henry, M. (2004). ace, poverty, and domestic policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Keyes, . (2006). The quote verifier: Who said what, where, and when. New York: St.
Kwong, P. (1992). "The First Multicultural iots," in Hazen, D. (ed.) Inside the L.A. riots:
What really happened- and why it will happen again. San Francisco: Institute for Alternative…
Bush, G. (1992, May 1). Address to the nation on the civil disturbances in Los Angeles,
California. Retrieved December 17, 2011 from George Bush Presidential Library
Henry, M. (2004). Race, poverty, and domestic policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Hell is portrayed as a bleak, dreary place. This suggests that the reality conceptualized by materialists, namely a reality with no transcendent significance in heaven, is the place to which all human beings who are believers are damned. As in the Screwtape Letters, a failure of religious intensity is shown as being linked to a kind of failure of imagination. hen confronted by heaven, the souls of human beings are awestruck, not at the surreal nature of heaven, but how real it seems, compared to their own, past existences. It is the spirits who are ghostly, not the actual substance of heaven.
In hell, those who are damned are not necessarily those who committed the worst crimes -- in heaven, there are even murderers. Instead, the damned are those who adopt the type of materialistic mindset that ormwood attempted to coax 'the patient' into adopting -- a mindset that salvation…
Lewis, C.S. The Great Divorce. Harper One, 2001.
Lewis, C.S. The Problem of Pain. Harper One, 2001.
Lewis, C.S. The Screwtape Letters. Harper One, 2001.
In this sense, "During the 1950s and 1960s, especially after the falling-out between hina and the former Soviet Union, the hinese government actively relocated Han hinese to frontier provinces such as Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Heilongjiang, in order to consolidate the border in light of possible military threat from the Soviets"
. Therefore, the decision to intervene in the ethnic composition of the region was not only a choice related to the national identity of the country but also to geostrategic aspects.
After the end of the old War, the region remained of importance for hina form the perspective of the national identity as well as crucial natural resources, which include oil reserves. From this perspective, massive investments have been conducted in the region, stating the official reason to be the reduction of the disparities between the regions of hina. In this sense, "Rich in natural gas, oil, and warm…
Ethnic Music Humanities
a) Origin and Development of Traditional and Contemporary Ethnic Music
My personal experience in learning this subtopic reveals to me that music is a global cultural practice found in every known culture, both in the past and present, but with a wide variation with regards to time and place of practicing it. Since every ethnic group around the world, including some of the most secluded tribal groups, depicts their own forms of musical practices, I conclude that music might have been present among the ancestral populations prior to the dispersion of human populations around the world. This confirms that music must have been existing and evolving into different forms for over 50,000 years, and the first music might had been invented in Africa, which is regarded as the cradle of humankind. Then the music evolved through diverse parts of the world during human dispersion to become the…
Hence, his plan here was not even based upon the assumption of ethnic plurality, but simply upon his own hunger for territorial power.
Franjo Tudjman, equally power hungry, was the elected president of Croatia in 1990. His focus was not ethnic plurality. Rather, his aim was to establish a Croatian state for Croatians, without providing any minority rights to other citizens. For this reason, his focus on Bosnia was also to annex the Croatian areas of the country.
The respective nationalistic and dictatorship tendencies of these two leaders, far more than intergroup ethnic conflict, have led to the complete destruction of ethnic plurality in Bosnia. Even in cities, such as Sarajevo, where ethnic groups lived peacefully side by side, political manipulation has caused only destruction. Instead of ethnic pluralism, media such as television has caused rampant nationalism, which fed on the historic fears of ethnic groups to stir them to…
Timmons (1994) in his study presents a three-dimensional model of practical application of a good idea:
Comprehensive evaluation of the opportunity;
Comprehensive evaluation of one's own expertise and inclination; and Comprehensive evaluation of the resources gathering process to maintain the launch of business venture.
Long and McMullan (1984) propose that application of a good idea depends on two processes; namely, elaboration and evaluation. Singh (1998) found that those entrepreneurs who spend more time studying the pros and cons of an idea before embarking on its application tend to set up fewer businesses than those who spend less time in the elaboration and evaluation phase. However, Singh (1998) points out that higher majority of successful entrepreneurs are those who spend more time in elaboration and evaluation.
1.4 Traits of entrepreneurs
Wright et al. (1997a) studied motivational drivers of entrepreneurs and found that entrepreneurs are primarily driven by either one or both…
Adler, P. & Kwon, S. (2000). Social capital: The good, the bad and the ugly. In E. Lesser (Ed.), Knowledge and social capital: Foundations and applications (pp. 80-115). Boston: Butterworth-Heineman.
Aldrich, H. & Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. In D. Sexton and R. Smilor (Eds), the art and science of entrepreneurship (pp. 3-23). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
Aldrich, H., Rosen, B., and Woodward, W. (1987) "The impact of social networks on business foundings and profit: a longitudinal study," in Churchill, N.C., Hornaday, J.A., Kirchoff, B.A. et al. (eds) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Welles-ley, MA: Babson College.
Amabile, T.M. (1988) "A model of creativity and innovation in organizations," in Staw, B. And Cummings, L.L. (eds) Research in Organizational Behavior, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Ethnic Conflicts in Kosovo and Afghanistan: Why a "One-Size-Fits-All" Analytical Approach Will Not Work
Today, Kosovo is recovering from decades of ethnic violence, and the same came be said of Afghanistan to some extent as well as the American military presence continues to draw down. Although both countries have experienced their fair share of such ethnic-based violence over the years, there is no "one-size-fits-all" analytical approach to examining the multifaceted problems that are being experienced by these countries because of the fundamental differences that exist between them and these issues are discussed further below.
As can be seen from the breakdown of Kosovo and Afghanistan language, population and ethnic groups, Kosovo is populated mostly by Serbians (92%) with two official languages (Albanian and Serbian) and one main religion (Islam) while Afghanistan is comprised of several primary ethnic groups and dozens of others, all with their own languages. Furthermore, the populations…
Archer, S.E. (2003). Kosovo present and future. Military Review, 83(6), 31-33.
CIA world factbook. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ .
Jalali, A.A. (2009). Winning in Afghanistan. Parameters, 39(1), 5-7.
While under the conditions of crushing poverty and without a strong movement based on the working class and peasantry and are able to explain and fight for a socialist alternative to the devastation that capitalism and imperialism brought along, conflicts that arise from religious and ethnic differences are bound to develop (Simpson, 2004). Simpson (2004) further writes that the reactionary elements within many ethnic groupings have intervened into the vacuum and as a result increased the already present divisions, thereby creating an ideological basis for increasing these divisions as a means of underpinning the hold they have established on the power amongst the masses.
In conclusion, the ethnic cleansing that is taking place in Sudan and especially Darfur has surpassed the wandan genocide of 1994. Simpson (2004) wrote that the ongoing cycle of wars, poverty and starvation, which is the lot of the population of sub-Saharan Africa, is the product…
Children's Hunger Relief. (n.d.). Horrifying Conditions continue in Sudan. Retrieved August
13, 2010, from http://www.chrf.org/sudan.html
Blum, R., Stanton, G.H., Sagi, S. And Richter, E. (2007). 'Ethnic Cleansing' bleaches the atrocities of genocide. The European Journal of Public Health Advance Access, 18(2),
According to Phinney and Alipuria (1987), ethnic self-identity is the sense of self that an individual feels; being a member of an ethnic group, along with the behavior and attitudes with that feeling (p. 36). The authors point out that the development of ethnic identity is an evolution from the point of an ethnic identity that is not examined through an exploration period, so as to resonate with a specified and attained ethnic identity (p. 38).
Ethnic identity refers to a feeling, attitude and identification of one with the behavior and character of people of a specified culture and cultural ethos. They often have a common origin, values, beliefs, practices, customs and other commonalities. Therefore, as opposed to the race concept in which the physical traits are the main controlling factor, ethnicity relates to the common values, beliefs and concepts help by a group of people (Yeh & Huang,…
ethnic conflict in the light of various authors. It has 4 sources.
Anthropological history may trace the dawn of civilizations as groups of ethnic people gradually growing in numbers and strength while taking over other weaker groups. The tendency to over take and eliminate social groups is thus not a new concept it has been around for sometime and can be said to be in evolutionary terms, the survival of the fittest. Modern day historians and ethnographers condemn the totalitarian and territorial nature of social groups such as the Nazis, African and Latin Guerillas and Communists for they create and generate conflict. However, considering the reality of the concept Charles S. Maier, Martha Minow and Priscilla Hayner identify the cause for the emergence and implantation of such conflicts in the society rather than condemning them.
In their analysis, each author presents the various aspects of ethnic conflict. For example according…
Charles S. Maier. Hot Memory... Cold Memory: On the Political Half Life of Fascist and Communist Memory. Transit. 2002.
Martha Minow. Between Vengeance and Forgiveness.
Hayner, B. Priscilla. Unspeakable Truth. Routledge, New York and London. 2000.
Charles S. Maier. Forum Essay: Consigning the Twentieth Century to History: Alternative Narratives for the Modern Era. American Historical Review 2000.
For example, the ethnic client who paints a huge red heart with an arrow piercing its center is communicating a universally understood message: I have been affected by love/passion/emotion.
Natalie Rogers, founder of the Person Centered Expressive Therapy Institute is a strong proponent of expressive art. In this form of art therapy, the ethnic client is encouraged to "express inner thoughts by creating outer forms."
When treating a client with art therapy, Ms. Rogers uses many techniques of expressive art: drawing, coloring, dancing, musical demonstrations, and the like.
Once these exercises are completed, the participants are encouraged to explore the nuances involved in the interaction: did communication occur? Was it a pleasant experience? Were boundaries an issue? Who led? Who followed?
Despite the fact that this work is not done solely with ethnically displaced clients, the premise remains the same; through expressive creativity, one's self may be realized, recognized, and…
Art Therapy, a Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: Brunner/Mazel,
Burt, H. (1993). Issues in art therapy with the culturally displaced American Indian youth. Arts in Psychotherapy. 20: 143-151.
Cohen, B., Barnes, M., & Rankin, a. (1995). Managing Traumatic Stress Through Art. Maryland: Sidran Press.
Wearin' of the Green
An Irish-American's Journey
Margaret-Mary clutched her daughter's tiny hand. Watched with pride as the five-year-old waved the little Irish Flag in her other hand. It was a cold, blustery day, but then it always was on St. Patrick's Day. Yet as Margaret-Mary braved the wind and the crowds, she didn't feel the least bit cold. Never did, but especially not today. It wasn't just that today she was sharing a special moment -- a communion if you will -- with all her Irish brothers and sisters the world over. No, it was more than that. This was a day long looked forward to, a day that had demanded special preparations like getting up at five in the morning, wrapping Colleen in the embracing warmth of a sweater of real Irish wool -- green of course --and rushing off into the frigid pre-dawn to wait for the…
ethnic, racial, and religious group is subject to stereotyping from others. This means that there are terms and ideas prescribed to a group of people based on certain characteristics that makes assumptions on those individuals because of these assumed characteristics. Stereotypes are rarely if ever based upon true characteristics but upon archaic and prejudicial ideas. There are both positive and negative stereotypes, but even ones that seem to compliment the specific group are still offensive because they give all individuals in that group the same characteristics, denying the people their individuality. Stereotypes are some of the most prevalent and ingrained ideas within the society. Even people who understand the fallacy of stereotyping and do not believe in them are aware of the terms applied to certain groups and may find themselves buying into some of them on a subconscious level. This is because these ideas have become conditioned into the…
ethnic and minority group relations and how it was affected by the events of 9-11. The writer's former perspective is presented as well as the way that perspective changed when the attacks occurred. In addition the writer provides ideas to strengthen future relations. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
The day it happened changed my perspective forever. I turned on the television and saw what looked like a movie set exploding buildings. It took several seconds for me to register that it was live and it was real and it was us. The attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 changed America forever (Giuliani, 2001). Gone are the carefree thoughts when we see a low flying plane, and in their place are fears it is being driven into the ground. Gone is the belief that we are invincible and in its place is the…
Raghunathan, Abhi (2002). Day-Care Agency Senses Sting of 9/11 Ethnic Bias; Muslim Staff Unnerves Some Prospective Clients., The Washington Post, pp B01.
Media Campaign Encourages Tolerance in Response to American Tragedy: "Hate is Our Enemy"(accessed, 11-26-2002). http://www.aaiusa.org/pr/release10-01-01.htm
Giuliani, Rudolph W. One Nation: America Remembers September 11, 2001
Little Brown & Company
I'm quite independent now and do not plan on showing differences between my children when I have them.
My brothers both worked on outside chores, and I had to help my mother around the house. I had to make meals, clean the house and do other "womanly" things. My brothers worked with my father in the garage and barn, fixing up the car and equipment. They also got to spend a lot more time playing outside than I did. When we became old enough to work outside of the home, they went to a job and I did not.
Other activities were also different for us. They went to more of the athletic events and played more sports. As a result, they spent more time with my father growing up, and I with my mother. I had music lessons, girl scouts and tennis lessons. They went out on dates a…
For example, the conflict in former Yugoslavia is often studied as a case of ethnic conflict, and the Serbian atrocities against Bosnians is usually described as "ethnic cleansing." But Serbs, Croatians, and Bosnians "are all South Slavs, sharing a common ethnic origin and speaking basically the same language: Serbocroatian" (Perlmutter). Serbs and Croatians share the same religion as well (with different denominations), while Bosnians, with the exception of their Muslim identity, have experienced a shared history with the other two. And all three are former Communists. Nevertheless, all three groups have identified themselves as different ethnicities during the conflict in the 1990s.
Dominique Moisi (2007) argues that, in addition to the problem of clash of civilizations, the world today faces a clash of emotions. There is a culture of fear, displayed by the est, of foreign nationals, of losing the identity in a complex world, of losing their economic power,…
Moisi, Dominique. "The Clash of Emotions." Foreign Affairs 81.6 (2007).
Psalidas-Perlmutter, Foulie. "The Interplay of Myths and Realities." Orbis 44.2 (2000): 237.
Through policies of systematic discrimination and persecution of national minorities, Serb nationalists indirectly strengthened the radical wing of Albanian nationalist movements. The wing was represented by KSA (Kosovo Liberation Army). Most of the KSA leadership, Hedges writes, has formerly been imprisoned for separatist activities, and many were imprisoned by the Tito's communist government. The KSA's ideological base, Hedges writes, comes from a bizarre mixture of fascist and communist factions. Later in the 1990s, KSA began to receive financial and logistical support from Islamist radical groups in the Gulf States as well.
Hedges argues that KSA initially did not have the support of the majority. The radical group began to garner support after the policies pursued by Ibrahim Rugova have allegedly failed. The continuing mistreatment of Kosovo Albanians by the Serbian state and the inability of the international community to resolve the issue (for example, the European Union's recognition of Yugoslavia…
Hedges, Chris. "Kosovo's Next Masters?" Foreign Affairs 78.3 (1999): 24-42.
Mertus, Julie. "Slobodan Milosevic: Myth and Responsibility." OpenDemocracy (16 March 2006).
Ethnic Cleansing Among African Tribes
Can past and present campaigns for ethnic cleansing among some African tribes be attributed to illiteracy? While empirical evidence exists supporting some evidence that illiteracy may contribute a small amount to ethnic cleansing, it is not the primary impetus behind mass genocide. esearch shows that campaigns for ethnic cleansing among certain African tribes cannot be entirely prevented with only the eradication of illiteracy because of territorial conflicts, historical grievances and religious intolerance. Shaw (2003) notes that historically, territorial grievances and religious intolerance are among the top reasons for ethnic cleansing throughout the world. Consider the case of Hitler, where mass ethnic cleansing reached its peak, primarily for reasons including religious intolerance, with secondary factors including history and territorial imperialism. It is critical to gather qualitative evidence supporting this theory to attempt to salvage what little hope there is left for African nations that…
Abdul-Jalil, M.A. (2006). "The dynamics of customary land tenure and natural resource management in Darfur," Land Reform, 2: 9-23 FAO.
A review of African past and historical troubles, including immense suffering in Darfur; study of conflicts between civil, government and religious institutions, and how these have resulted in calamity and ethnic cleansing.
Chua, A. (2004). World on fire: How exporting free market democracy breeds ethnic hatred and global instability. New York: Anchor Books.
Argues and analyzes how "market dominant" ethnic minority groups are often the primary targets for violence from poor majority, especially when opportunities arise from wealthy minority arise as in during elections to remove poor minority or eradicate poor minority from influence.
Ethnic and Religous Sources of Conflict
Reference groups within my workplace.
I work part-time in a tax preparation office, answering phones, filing, helping with a calling campaign, Xeroxing, setting up furniture, answering customer questions, setting up appointments, and doing other tasks and errands, as needed. Reference groups in my workplace are (Group 1) the group of us five part-time assistants: Wendy, Tiffany, Angelica, Dawn, and myself; (2) twelve tax preparers, Steve, Marcia, Katrina, Obie, Lyle, Silvia; Erika; Dwight; Tim; John; Rocio, and Mark; and (2) two office supervisors, David and Luz.
Group 1: Of my own part-time assistant group, two people are African-American, two are white, and one is Hispanic.
Group 2: Of the tax preparer group, four are African-American; four are white; three are Hispanic, and one is Native American.
Group 3: Of the Office Supervisor group, one is white and one is Hispanic.
Identify the situation in my…
There was a conspicuous lack of cigars, however, perhaps a nod to modern American views on smoking in restaurants.
To finish the meal, it is an essential part of the experience that one has Cuban coffee. This can be obtained at your table, but Versailles also has a coffee counter outside, which is a more authentic experience. The coffee counter is a take-out window at which Cuban coffee can be ordered. The intent is that it is consumed on the spot. If one watches the locals, there is an entire system and lingo for ordering Cuban coffee at Versailles that can be difficult to penetrate without a strong working knowledge of Spanish. However, a simple shot can be ordered. The cost is absurdly cheap compared with espresso in most coffee shops, but the coffee counter at Versailles has very low overhead and high turnover. The coffee is thick and very…
Hundreds of Chinese people had been murdered and Chinese women had been raped and insulted in the streets in front of crowds of Indonesians. Some of the Chinese that escaped the massacre had taken refuge in the nearest countries.
The Indonesians have adopted an anti-Chinese nature in the recent decades and most Chinese are denied several human rights. On of the reasons for why Indonesians might hate Chinese people would be their wealth. In reality, the number of poor Chinese-Indonesians is far greater than that of the wealthy Chinese-Indonesians with most of them owning small businesses or having low-skilled jobs.
As a method of making Chinese leave the country, Indonesians have adopted a series of laws restricting Chinese people from following their customs and traditions in public display. Furthermore, names of Chinese origin had been forbidden, Chinese people being forced to choose Indonesian names.
According to Hoon Chang Yau, after…
Harsono, Andreas. "Indonesian Chinese Fear Economic Discrimination." 2004. 5 Dec. 2008. http://andreasharsono.blogspot.com/2004/11/indonesian-chinese-fears-economic.html
Chinese Identity in Post-Suharto Indonesia: CY Hoon's New Book." Knowledge SMU. 4 Nov. 2008. 5 Dec. 2008. http://knowledge.smu.edu.sg/article.cfm?articleid=1173
The Chinese dilemma." BBC News. 1 Jun. 1999.
Yet its democracy has passed the test of time.
The main reason for this is the rise of a pluralist nationalism in the country. In reaction to the colonialism of the time, the anti-colonial Indian National Congress was founded as representative of all cultures in the country unified against colonialism. This paradigm remained as an essential cornerstone of the compromises that had to be made to legitimize the pluralist paradigm of democracy in India. This is a significant concept in both emerging and existing democracies. As the world is becoming more integrated, the ideal of pluralist nationalism is becoming increasingly viable.
merging democracies can then learn from India in terms of creating a pluralist democracy, where no single group takes precedent or power over any other. Instead, it is a collective national effort towards the success of the truly democratic principle.
Kesavan, Mukul. India's Model Democracy. BBC News, 15…
Emerging democracies can then learn from India in terms of creating a pluralist democracy, where no single group takes precedent or power over any other. Instead, it is a collective national effort towards the success of the truly democratic principle.
Kesavan, Mukul. India's Model Democracy. BBC News, 15 Aug. 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/6943598.stm
GOUP LEADESHIP SKILLS refer to the ability of a leader to manage a group in a manner that ensures maximum cooperation between group members and helps each make significant contribution for the accomplishment of organizational goals and objectives. ecent studies in the field suggest that group leadership skills may differ from individual leadership but the essential core competencies probably remain the same. For this reason, let us first understand what leadership means and how crucial a role in plays in organizations today.
Fenton (1990) explains who a leader is: "Leaders stand out by being different. They question assumption and are suspicious of tradition. They seek out the truth and make decisions based on fact, not prejudice. They have a preference for innovation."
Leadership is therefore "an interactive process that influences, motivates, and elicits human potentialities in the pursuit of group goals or interests" (Sogunro, 1996, p. 31). The most damaging…
Adrianna Kezar, Reconstructing static images of leadership: an application of Positionality theory. Journal of Leadership Studies. Volume: 8. Issue: 3. 2002. 94+.
Bavelas, A. (1969). Leadership: Man and function. In C.A. Gibb (Ed.), Leadership. (Pp. 9-16). Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books.
Beal, G.M., Bohlen, J.M., & Raudabaugh, J.N. (1962). Leadership and dynamic group action. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
Dimock, H.G. (1987). Factors in working with groups: Leadership and group development. (Rev. ed.). Puslinch, ON: Center for Human Resource Development.
Groupthink can also influence the wider cultural context. Mullen, Calogero and Leader (2007) for example examined the phenomenon known as ethnonyms among different racial groups. Ethnonyms is a term referring to the designations that an in-group uses to distinguish itself from out-groups. These influence the groupthink dynamic, as it encourages homogeneous thinking and paradigms. Indeed, the authors found that intergroup hostility is directly related to these ethnonyms. The dangers of groupthink can therefore be avoided by encouraging diversity and critical thinking on the internal level.
Mullen, Brian, Calogero, achel M., Leader, Tirza I. (2007, Apr.). A social psychological study of ethnonyms: Cognitive representation of the in-group and intergroup hostility.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol 92(4), pp. 612-630.
Sommers, Samuel . (2006, Apr.). On racial diversity and group decision making: Identifying multiple effects of racial composition on jury deliberations.
Journal of Personality and…
Mullen, Brian, Calogero, Rachel M., Leader, Tirza I. (2007, Apr.). A social psychological study of ethnonyms: Cognitive representation of the in-group and intergroup hostility.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol 92(4), pp. 612-630.
Sommers, Samuel R. (2006, Apr.). On racial diversity and group decision making: Identifying multiple effects of racial composition on jury deliberations.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol 90(4), pp. 597-612.
Ethnic Domain Clarksville, TN
Similar to the states in South Eastern USA, Tennessee, although housing some of the region's most underprivileged and segregated cities, has acquired its fair share of ethnic and racial diversity. Its ten biggest cities include Clarksville and Knoxville, ranked as the least and most diversified in terms of income, respectively, for the African-American racial group. Further, Clarksville is a city of interest as it has achieved low income gaps and high fusion and diversity levels (Sharma). Similarly, a declaration of Clarksville's Industrial Development oard indicates the city's chief employers are: Clarksville City (9,989 workers), Clarksville-Montgomery County School System (3,900 workers), and Montgomery County Government (921 workers). The chief opportunities in Morristown lie in the following sectors: manufacturing (7,660 workers), administrative or office jobs (5,980 workers), material transport (4,380 workers), sales and associated jobs (4,320 workers), and education/library/training (3,390 workers) (LS).
Clarksville city underwent swift growth. y…
BLS. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of labor new release report # USDL-14-0948; 2014. Accessed on 01/21/2015 at http://www.bls.gov/lau/
National Park Service. "National Register Information System." National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service, 2009.
Satz, Ronald. Tennessee's Indian Peoples. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1979.
Sharma, Madhuri. "Income Divide and Race/Ethnicity in Tennessee Metropolises." International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research (2017): Vol. 4: No. 1, Article 1.
Silver Lake ethnic neighborhood of Los Angeles. Silver lake is a hilly located in the east of Hollywood and northwest of Downtown Los Angeles. When walking along the broad way street of the region, it is like Mexico City. This is because everyone speaks Spanish, from the vendors hawking, little girls' partying, dressing code, mode of interaction and the way families conduct their weekly shopping. There are colorful murals, shop for fresh corn tortillas, shopping malls, architecture buildings, studios and handmade tamales. From a distance, there are sounds of mariachi bands the preferred music within the region.
Silver Lake had more women, children and old people because most men and young people are working and searching for jobs in large cities within Los Angeles. The region has a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups even though Mexicans dominate the largest part. The region has a high number of electric gatherings…
Ethnicity and ethnic groupings are socially constructed ideas. This means that the things we consider to be designations between peoples, such as their skin color or nationality, are really just arbitrary determinations. For example, take someone who is African-American, or "black." Educated people know that the skin color of the individual will have little if any bearing on the individual. However, the stereotype of the person will be that he or she is uneducated, that they are potentially involved in crimes or criminology, or at the very least they will have a relative who is. Additionally, they will have an anger and prejudice against the other ethnicities, particularly white people. These are all stereotypical constructions. If someone does not conform to these ideas, they are considered by some to be beyond the norm and to be rejecting his or her stereotypical behaviors. Sociologically-imposed labels are everywhere. This is also…
Macionis, John J. (2006). Society: The Basics. Pearson.
Macrae, C. Neil (1996). Stereotypes and Stereotyping. New York, NY: Guilford.
Smith, Eliot R., Mackie, Diane M. (2000). Social Psychology. UK: Taylor & Francis.
Wyer, Robert S. (1998). Stereotype Activation and Inhibition. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Against the Emergence of an American Ethnic Pattern by Nathan Glazer
In the text, The Emergence of an American Ethnic Pattern by Nathan Glazer, the author argues that affirmative action is creating a 'tribal' America. Rather than a cohesive American identity, Glazer argues that Americans are becoming increasingly identified with their personal racial, religious and ethnic differences. Glazer states that this stands in defiance of the fact that "the United States has become the first great nation that defines itself not in terms of ethnic origin but in terms of adherence to common rules of citizenship." However, Glazer confuses this idealized view of American history with the realities of discrimination that have been perpetuated upon minorities, and which minorities continue to suffer in America. Glazer argues his case as if America were not a nation with a history marked by racial divisiveness, despite the goal of racial harmony advocated by…
Hawaiian Ethnic Cultures
When people think about Hawaii, they tend to think in terms of its island people. Polynesian or Asian perceptions often come to mind because of our familiarity with the influence of the Japanese, Chinese and Filipino peoples. But the fact is that Hawaii is very much flavored by other national and ethnic influences too, including the those of two distinct Hispanic groups, the Puerto icans and the Portuguese, whose impacts have been all but forgotten (Mira, 2008).
In the simplest of terms, the differing historical perceptions of these two groups arises from the fact that one (the Portuguese) was seen positively viewed before their initial influx occurred. The other, the Puerto icans, suffered more from the timing of their migration in regards to other non-Hispanic ethnicities and because of the degree of surprise that came from their more forced integration. The Portuguese were basically blessed with having…
Baker, Susan. Understanding Mainland Puerto Rican Poverty. Temple University, 2002.
Camacho Souza, Blase. Trabajo y Tristeza: "Work and Sorrow:" The Puerto Ricans of Hawaii, 1900-1902.
Lopez, Iris and David Forbes. Borinki identity in Hawai'i: present and future. Centro Journal, Vol. XIII, Num. 1, 2001, pp. 110-127. New York.
McDermott, John, F., Wen-Shing Tseng and Thomas Maretzki, People and cultures of Hawaii: A Psychocultural Perspective.pp. 100-110. (1980).
There were a lot of white people around, and many of them were angry that the blacks had been freed. Some of them were actually hostile toward the blacks and their newfound freedom, so the blacks learned quickly that they had to be careful. They needed to settle a little bit away from the hostile whites and do their best not to make waves or cause trouble, in the hopes that they might one day be accepted (Reconstruction, 2002).
During the first few years after the Emancipation Proclamation and the subsequent freedom of all blacks in the United States, many blacks began working very hard to educate themselves. In there minds, education meant the ability to negotiate with whites over land, earn a fair wage to pay for it, and take care of their families. lack families were often large, so many of the members could work to help support…
Black Farming and History. 2002. Homecoming. http://www.itvs.org/homecoming/history1.html .
Carroll J. 1998. Organizational learning activities in high-hazard industries. Journal of Management Studies, 35: 699-717
Reconstruction and its aftermath. 2002. African-American Odyssey. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart5.html .
VandeCreek, Drew E., Ph.D. 2000. Frontier Settlement. Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project. http://Lincoln.lib.niu.edu/frontier.html .
The following quotation underscores this fact. "the province, the ethnic nest, remains the point from which everything begins and from without which, probably, it could not begin; but the province, the ethnic nest, is not enough, it must be transcended" (Howe 3). To underscore the point that the author makes with this quotation, he precedes it by citing a number of eminent 20th century authors and the "ethnic nest" they came from as demonstration of the fact that merely clinging to one's beginnings is relatively unimportant, and that the work that one achieves is what is really important. To that end, Howe certainly does not believe that it is necessary to return to one's roots.
hat Howe eventually recommends that Americans do with their newfound, hyphenated sense of ethnicity, is apply it to some of the more pressing issues in this country that transcend problems of race. These are economic…
Howe, Irving. "The Limits of Ethnicity." 1976. Print.
Culture Group- the Polish
Culture Group -- the Polish
The polish culture group is a category of people who speak the Slavic lingo of Poland and practice the cultural norms in line with their beliefs and customs. It is perceived that the culture essence of the polish is one that unconstrained emotional expressions (Wierzbicka, 2003, pg 121). The culture originated from a confluence with interweaving ties alongside Germans, Latinos and the Byzantines. The originality is also as a result of cultural traits of the proto-slavs. The geographical position and occupancy of the polish are found in the heart of Europe, the nation of Poland. Their nation is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Ukraine and Belarus, Germany, Czech epublic and Slovakia to the northern side, east, and west and southern respectively. The polish people experience a long-term climatic environment. It is rough and adverse and has taken long…
Albala, K. (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. New York: ABC-CLIO.
Dyczewski, L. (2002). Values in the Polish cultural tradition. Chicago: CRVP.
Jasinski, P. (1999). Environmental regulation in transforming economies. Great Britain: Ashgate Publishing.
Kronenberg, J., Bergier, T., et al. (2010). Challenges of Sustainable Development in Poland. Pomerania: Fundacja Sendzimira.
acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)
The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.
This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…
Author Unknown) (n.d) Chronic Diseases, Risk Factors, and Preventive Services, Alabama. Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/owh/reg/4/overview.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Health Disparities and Non-insulin Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved at http://www.medicalnewsservice.com . Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) HHS Awards more than 65 Million to eliminate health disparities. Retrieved at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/BurdenBook/DeathCause.asp?state=alAccessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Overview of Region lV. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/exemplary/racial.htm . Accessed on 15/10/2003
Race and Ethnic Relations
Dimensions of Ethnic Assimilation: Reaction Essay
In their article, "Dimensions of Ethnic Assimilation," Williams and Ortega (1990) attempt to empirically examine Gordon's typology of ethnic assimilation. They attempt to test the "validity of his typology" as well as investigate if "assimilation is, indeed, multidimensional" (698). They felt that in previous research and literature, the seven dimensions of assimilation where taken for granted correct (while, most often, only one was utilized in any one study).
In order to verify the veracity of the seven dimensions, they had to measure both ethnicity and assimilation. They measured ethnicity by asking their respondents to identify where (which country or part of the world) their ancestors came from (and asking which they made felt the closest to if more than one region was mentioned). Measuring assimilation along its various dimensions was more complex, but survey questions were the most common method…
The diverse nature of the world we live in provides both a source of inspiration and challenge. The challenging aspects of diversity are heightened within a counseling environment where the crossroads of identity and culture meet and intersect. To be successful in any counseling attempt the psychic power of empathy must be employed in order to reach out and communicate to the one seeking help.
The concept of the self becomes very important in developing new behavioral habits that can be funneled in a constructive manner that aligns with the greater societal needs and blends, in harmony, the internal ideals of the self. ace and ethnicity are important factors in understanding oneself and holds key information about how one can realize their true self within the presence and context of others.
The purpose of this essay is to explain the synthesis of both race and ethnicity into the…
Christopher, J.C., Wendt, D.C., Marecek, J., & Goodman, D.M. (2014). Critical Cultural Awareness: Contributions to a Globalizing Psychology.
Cohen, L. (2011). The Psychology of Prejudice and Racism. Psychology Today, 24 Jan 2011. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/handy-psychology - answers/201101/the-psychology-prejudice-and-racism
Hardin, E.E., Robitschek, C., Flores, L.Y., Navarro, R.L., & Ashton, M.W. (2014). The Cultural Lens Approach to Evaluating Cultural Validity of Psychological Theory.
Mabus, L. et al. (2011). A Look at the Ethical, Legal, and Clinical Issues Associated with Information Technology. Psychiatric Times, 28 June 2011. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/risk-assessment-0/look-ethical-legal-and-clinical - issues-associated-information-technology
causes of terrorism have attracted huge concern among policymakers and the public given the increase in terror attacks across the globe in the recent past. The modern society has been characterized by the increased emergence of terrorist groups and organizations in various places in the world. These organizations have continued to use sophisticated methods to accomplish their goals due to rapid technological advancements. Some of the major examples of terrorist groups include Baader-Meinhof, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and the alleged Iranian state-sponsored terrorism. Following my analysis of these groups, I have chosen as my theoretical framework, Margolin's argument that, 'much terrorist behavior is a response to the frustration of various political, economic, and personal needs or objectives' (Joseph Margolin, 1977, 273-4).
My discussion will involve analysis of three terrorist groups across three categories i.e. ideological, nationalist, and religious terrorism. I will use Baader-Meinhof gang, the Liberation Tigers of…
Brynjar, L. & Katja, S. (2000). Why Terrorism Occurs -- A Survey of Theories and Hypotheses
on the Causes of Terrorism. Retrieved September 21, 2014, from http://www.ffi.no/no/rapporter/00-02769.pdf
"Chapter 3: State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview." (2013, May 30). Office of the Coordinator
for Counterterrorism. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State website: http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209985.htm
hospital community group with high incidence of diabetes and low literacy presents to the teaching efforts of a hospital nurse.
Description of the selected adult learner, learning topic and related hospital circumstances
I am a registered clinical nurse in St. Vincent's hospital. We are a medium-sized hospital located in a highly diverse part of the town. We have a sizeable domestic and Spanish inpatient population with diabetes, including people with long-standing diabetes related complications and co-morbidities requiring inpatient expertise. Today, that population seems to be increasing. Almost 80% of all our adult patients lack literacy referring to the ability to read and write as well as knowledge about the topic of diabetes literacy. It is not only the printed word that challenges these patients with inadequate literacy; writing, speaking, listening numeracy, and conceptual knowledge is often impaired as well. About 2/3 of these illiterate patients are Latinos and the majority…
Davis, E. (2000). A quality improvement project in diabetes patient education during hospitalization. 1-6. Diabetes Spectrum Volume 13 Number 4, 2000,-Page 234.
Accessed 3 October 2011.
journal.diabetes.org/diabetesspectrum/00v13n4/page228.aspCached - Similar
You +1'd this publicly. Undo Heisler, M. & Bouknight, R.R. & Hayward, R.A. & Smith, D.M. & Kerr, E.R. (2002). The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision making and patient understanding in diabetes self-management. 242-252.
Furthermore, he taught his son that society is not always right in what they believe. With that, racism is wrong because everyone is a human being and deserves equal rights. Even though America has racism in today's modern society, there are more people like Scout's father who honestly believes in diversity (120 Banned Books: Censorship Histories of World Literature).
Don't attack something if it hasn't harmed you: This lesson is taught to Jem and Scout by Atticus when he teaches them about the mockingbird. He says that the mockingbird is innocent and only sings for you. It is therefore wrong to kill it. The examples of the mockingbird within the novel are Tom and Boo. Tom was attacked by the entire white society in Maycomb County. These attacks and accusations destroyed his innocent, respectable life. Arthur "Boo" adley was also an innocent victim to the taunts and of the people…
To Kill a Mockingbird. 1998. 13 March 2008. http://www.bellmore-merrick.k12.ny.us/mockingbird.html
Bloom, Harold. "To Kill a Mockingbird" (Bloom's Guides). 2004. Chelsea House Publishers, U.S.
Felty, Darren. Novels for students. 13 March 2008. http://www.answers.com/topic/to-kill-a-mockingbird-novel-7
Sova, Dawn. 120 Banned Books: Censorship Histories of World Literature. 2005. Checksmarks Books.
The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.
A Rose Grows From Concrete
One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:
Things that make hearts break.
And people who dream with their eyes open
Jones, SL (2012) Rereading the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class and Gender in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Dorothy West. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2002. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NeRtokbeXDEC&dq=social,+political+and+economic+oppression,+created+a+climate+in+which+Dorothy+West+felt+compelled+to+refrain+from+completing+or+actively+pursuing+a+publisher+for+The+Wedding.+West%E2%80%99s+nearly+half-a-century+space+between+publication+of+The+Living+Is+Easy+ (1948)+and+The+Wedding+(1995)+signifies+the+complexities+of+African+American+literature+and+the+debate+over+which+aesthetics%E2%80%94folk,+bourgeois,+and+proletarian%E2%80%94should+take+preeminence+at+a+given+time&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Edwards, Walter. "From poetry to rap: the lyrics of Tupac Shakur. " The Western Journal of Black Studies. 26.2 (Summer 2002): 61(10). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. College of Alameda. 17 Sept. 2008
Hale, JC (1985) The Jailing of Cecelia Hale. University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=eW6RGpubQ9UC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
Pat Mora (2012) Artist Page. Retrieved from: http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/mora_pat.php
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
society comes from different backgrounds and cultures, which requires unique needs. As people grow up, they are expose to cultures and ethnic backgrounds and there is not wrong with that. However, when students go off to college, they are all alone without family. If a black student is in a college that the majority is white, it might be best if the college set up housing for ethnic students. With this inn mind, they will feel comfortable with their surroundings and most likely will succeed more with academics. By colleges setting up housing for ethnic students, they will also help them become more familiar with their backgrounds and avoid of being culture shocked when they first get on campus. Some ethnic students need special housing due to religious beliefs. Therefore, for the sake of the student's well being, college should set up housing for those who have ethnic backgrounds.
Question for each of the following topics were developed: (a) what infants and children up to age 3 should eat, (b) how parents decide what to feed their children, (c) knowing when a child has been sufficiently fed, (d) parental control over a child's eating behaviors, (e) concern about overweight in children, (f) using food to influence behavior, (g) parent involvement in physical activity with the child, and (h) preferred methods for learning about child health issues (McGarvey et. al 2006). Furthermore, participants were invited to share experiences related to feeding their child that was outside of these general categories.
An analysis of the data provided three main commonalities to all four groups. A lack of awareness of the relationship between increased physical activity and health, the effects of the use of food to influence behavior, concern over a loss of parental control over feeding when a child starts child…
McGarvey, EL, Collie, KR, Fraser, G, Shufflebarger, C, Lloyd, B & Oliver, MN 2006, 'Using focus groups to inform preschool child hood obesity prevention programming', Ethnicity and Health, Vol. 11, No. 3 August, pp. 265-285.
Schetzina, KE, Dalton III, WT, Lowe, EF, Azzazy, N, von Werssowetz, KM, Givens, C, & Stern, HP 2009,'Developing a coordinated school health approach to child obesity prevention in rural Appalachia: results of focus groups with teachers, parents and students', Rural and Remote Health, 9: 1157, October, viewed 17 June 2011,
This was a wake-up call for many and prompted them to take into consideration the problems faced by ethnic consumers at home as well. But this happened quite late considering that even after World War II, most beauty products being sold abroad had pictures of leading Hollywood stars on the packages.
Max Factor was trying to cash in on the celebrity power of Hollywood stars by putting their pictures on product covers and using their faces in advertising. But it was not long before the mistake was realized as cross-cultural misunderstanding began affecting sales. One consultant quoted "a gentleman from India" who explained the problem aptly when he stated, "It would never do to glamourise... A product by utilising a lady in a shimmering white saree with a western style of hair dress in any of the Southern cities [of India]. A cutting of her crowning glory and the donning…
1] Avon Products, Inc. International Division, Merchandising Conference, "Proposal for New Product, Packaging and Development System," March 1968, box 69, Avon Products, Inc. Collection, Hagley Museum and Library, Delaware.
2] John Barnhill, "Some Environmental Aspects Affecting Advertising Abroad" (1960), 4, International Department, Samuel W. Meeks Papers, JWT.
Consumer spend on ethnic-specific products amounts to U.S.$1.5 billion" Accessed online Dec 11, 2006 at http://www.cosmeticsdesign-europe.com/news/ng.asp?id=52539-consumer-spend-on
Lynn Norment. Black Beauty Is In: From Beauty Queens to Fashion Magazines, Women of Color Reign Supreme. Ebony. Volume: 45. Issue: 11. September 1990. 25+.
Culture of Poverty Theory
The culture of poverty theory as posited by Lewis (1969) asserts the emergency of this particular culture when groups or populations that was economically and socially marginalized and disenfranchised from capitalist society generated behavior patterns to address their low social and economic status. According to Lewis' theory, the behaviors that were exhibited where characterized by helplessness, provincialism, low aspirations, disorganization, and criticism and belittlement of so called middle class White America. Moreover, Lewis ascertains that even if structural remediation was in place, because the coping mechanisms were already in place, the behavior and attitudes would be perpetrated. According to classical assimilation theory, immigrant assimilation was seen as an integral component of successful matriculation into a middle class American way of life as cited in Greenman and Xie (2006) (Warner and Srole, 1945). The adaption of immigrants to the host society was seen as critical to…
Chen et al. (1999). Smoking patterns of Asian-American youth in California and their relationship with acculturation. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24, 321-328.
Greenman, E., & Xie, Y. (2006). Is assimilation theory dead? The effect of assimilation on adolescent well being. Population Studies Center Research Report 06-605. Available At http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr06-605.pdf
Lewis, O. (1969). A death in the Sanchez family. New York, NY: Random House.
Warner, W., & Srole, L. (1945). The social systems of American ethnic groups. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
The faith allows for stoning of people, torture of women and the suicide bombings that the world has grown accustomed to suffering (Hoagland, 2001).
Islamic fundamentalist believe that their faith instructs them to seek out and destroy Americans. They also believe that if they are suicide bombers they will be rewarded in heaven ten fold. As America continues to fight against the human rights violations that Persian Gulf nations continue to support, the fundamentalists believe it is their calling and duty to act against American interests. They want American interests out of their area and they will do what it takes to get it done including acts of terrorism.
As the world watched in wonder the Soviet Union collapsed. It dismantled its government, it started over and it began to rebuild as a democracy after many years of being in a cold war with the United States.
For some the…
Farrar, L.L., Jr.(2003) Aggression vs. apathy: the limits of nationalism during the Balkan wars, 1912-1913. East European Quarterly
Hoagland, Jim (2001) Mysteries in the Persian Gulf. The Washington Post
Novotny, Patrick (1999) the Post-Cold War Era, the Persian Gulf War, and the Peace and Justice Movement in the 1990s. Social Justice nuclear terrorism (Accessed 5-17-07)
ethnic and universalizing religions and offers Christianity and Hinduism as examples. A brief comparison and contrast between Christianity and Hinduism is then offered along with a cultural landscape of each.
Though the number of religions worldwide is far too numerous to address, the nature of those religions can be categorized in one of two groups. They are either universalizing religions or ethnic religions. An example of a universalizing religion is Christianity while an example of an ethnic religion is Hinduism. Though they differ significantly, they also have commonalities. These commonalities are a direct result of the very definition of religion and its defining characteristics. Another commonality is that they have both made significant imprints upon the cultural landscape though the actual geographic locations differ significantly.
Religion is best defined by addressing the characteristics which comprise it. Essentially, it is a belief in a deity or in a greater…
Looking at history from a purely anthropological standpoint, no one is actually native to North America. esearch concludes that this is true whether the particular research bases its findings on Darwinism or Judeo/Christian/Muslim beliefs. Life began somewhere in the area of the world now known as the Middle East. However, some people are more native, as a result of having lived in North America the longest, than others. After the original colonists arrived across the land bridge many thousands of years ago, it is debated who showed up next, but it was probably some European Vikings out for a short fishing trip. Columbus was a late comer, and he realized that people had already colonized the land he "discovered." It was not until everyone else had arrived in America, that Africans were brought over to work the land in chattel slavery. Three groups Native Americans (American Indians used…
Abernathy, D. (2002). The dynamics of global dominance: European overseas empires, 1415-1980. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Chavez y Gilbert, D.A. (2007). Cowboys and Indians are family after all. Retrieved from http://www.nmhcpl.org/First_American.html
Parrillo, V.N. (2011). Strangers to these shores: Race and ethnic relations in the United States. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Ltd.
1% greater than the Texas average.
The cost of living in Canyon is 2.6% less than the national average.
The cost of living index is based on a national average of 100.If the region shows a cost of living index that is lower than 100, it means it is living below national standard, and the reverse shows it is living above national standards. Canyon's living standard is 97, which shows that it is living below average national standards. At the same time, however, it is significantly greater than cost of living in Texas in general. Its groceries, its goods, and its transportation are one or more notches higher than Texas in general. Its housing index is considerably higher. Its utilities index is however significantly lower than Texas and certainly than the Nation as a whole. Its health care index is also slightly lower than Texas in general.
Misc. The price…
Besides, they also lack funds for conducting audits and readership surveys which the advertisement agencies demand. However, this is changing. The ethnic media which have since long ignored and taken too lightly, a lot of converging factors are rendering media decision makers to acknowledge the importance of the ethnic press. First of all, the mainstream newspaper industry is in the middle of a persisting decline in revenue as well as readership.
Further, their problems have been worsened by the declining advertisement market, rendering advertisers increasingly choosy regarding where they put in their cash. This slowdown in the mainstream media had opened the opportunity to other forms of media, with the ethnic press prepared to rival for limited advertisement budgets. Simultaneously, the ethnic press is getting smarter; the papers are starting to organize and strongly looking forward for advertisement at the national level. Due to these endeavors, and stirred by latest…
News, Noticias, Nouvelles-non-English newspapers. American Demographics. 1 November, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4021/is_2001_Nov_1/ai_79501199Accessed on 7 June, 2005
Sreenivasan, Sreenath. As Mainstream Papers Cut Back, the Ethnic Press Expands. The New York Times. 22 July, 1996. Retrieved at http://sree.net/stories/ethnicpress.html. Accessed on 7 June, 2005
Interview and Analysis
Jerome X," (not the respondent's real name) is a twenty-six-year-old individual of Jamaican parentage who has lived most of his life in America. He was born in Birmingham, in the United Kingdom to a Jamaican mother and father. They moved to the United States when Jerome was five. Currently, Jerome works in Macy's at the Freehold Mall (also a fictional name) as a shoe salesman. However, Jerome is also pursuing an associate's degree at a local community college and intends to transfer to another college at the end of the year. Jerome is a highly articulate, intelligent, and witty individual, and he seemed both comfortable and eager to share his responses with me when we met at a cafe in the student center at the college he is currently attending.
Q: In your opinion, what is the greatest problem facing African-Americans in America today?